1 World Religions Religions of China & Japan Ross Arnold, Summer 2015
2 World Religion Lectures August 21 Introduction: A Universal Human Experience August 28 Hinduism September 4 Judaism September 18 Religions of China & Japan (Taoism, Confucianism, Shinto) September 25 Christianity October 2 Islam October 9 Animism, New Age, Atheism, Secularism
3 Today s World Religions by Date of Founding Pop. (000s) % of World Founded (c.) Where Hinduism 1,100, % BC Indus Valley Judaism 14, % 2000 BC Palestine Buddhism 488, % BC India Chinese Trad , % 500 BC China Shinto 4, % 500 BC Japan Jainism 4, % 500 BC India Christianity 2,200, % 30 AD Palestine Islam 1,600, % 622 AD Arabia Sikhism 28, % 1499 AD India Bah'aism 7, % 1863 AD Persia Other 2 690, % Non-relig. 3 1,100, % 1 Includes Confucianism, Taoism, Shamanism 2 Includes all other smaller religious affiliations identified 3 Includes secular, non-religious, agnostic and atheist
4 Families of Religions 1. Abrahamic monotheisms of Judaism, Christianity & Islam. 2. Dharmic religions that began in India, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism & Sikhism. 3. Taoic religions of the Far East, especially China and Japan, including Taoism, Confucianism and Shinto (along with versions of Buddhism). And sometimes also 4. Iranian religions that predate Islam, including Zoroastrianism, Madaeism and the Kurdish Yazdanism faiths (Yazidi, Alevi, etc.).
5 Today s World Religions by Date of Founding Pop. (000s) % of World Founded (c.) Where Hinduism 1,100, % BC Indus Valley Judaism 14, % 2000 BC Palestine Buddhism 488, % BC India Chinese Trad , % 500 BC China Shinto 4, % 500 BC Japan Jainism 4, % 500 BC India Christianity 2,200, % 30 AD Palestine Islam 1,600, % 622 AD Arabia Sikhism 28, % 1499 AD India Bah'aism 7, % 1863 AD Persia Other 2 690, % Non-relig. 3 1,100, % 1 Includes Confucianism, Taoism, Shamanism 2 Includes all other smaller religious affiliations identified 3 Includes secular, non-religious, agnostic and atheist
6 The Vinegar Tasters, representing Buddhists, Taoists and Confucianists. Confucius presents a young Buddha to Laozi
7 Far Eastern Religions (also East Asian Religions or Taoic Religions ) 1. Taoism, or Daoism 2. Confucianism 3. Shinto 4. Buddhism (primarily Mahayana & Zen) 5. Shamanic folk religions 6. New religious movements (Caodaism, Cheondoism, I-Kuan Tao, etc.) Far Eastern Religions may be polytheistic, monotheistic, henotheistic, pantheistic, panentheistic, nontheistic or agnostic.
8 Far Eastern Religions (also East Asian Religions or Taoic Religions )
9 Common Themes in Taoic Religions 1. Tao, or Dao literally The Way, Path, or Route; the flow of the universe; the force behind the natural order of things; the influence that keeps the universe in balance and ordered. 2. Qi, or Ch i, or Ki (Japanese) the active principle forming part of any living thing, breath, air, life force, energy flow 3. De, or Te moral character, integrity, virtue, morality, quality, merit, virtuous deeds
10 Taoism Founder: Laozi (or Lao-Tzu) Taoism is better understood as a way of life than as a religion, emphasizing the unity of the universe, of the material world, of the spiritual world, and of the past, present and future. Taoist theology focuses on doctrines of relativism, spontaneity, and emptiness.
11 Taoism Doctrines 1. Tao and Te the "flow of the universe, and the active expression of Tao resulting from an individual living and cultivating the Tao. 2. Wu Wei "nonaction", "effortless action" or "action without intent. Wei refers to deliberated action, while wu means "there is no..." 3. Naturalness (ziran) the central value in Taoism describing the "primordial state" of all things, and is usually associated with spontaneity and creativity. 4. Yin Yang how opposite or contrary forces are complementary and interdependent, giving rise to each other as they interrelate.
12 3. Taoism Terms & Texts 1. I Ching -- a divination system that had its origins around 1150 BC, requiring Taoists to reflect on an appropriate course in a given circumstance. 2. Tao Te Ching fundamental text for religious and philosophical Taoism, which strongly influenced Confucianism, Chinese Buddhism & other schools. 3. Zhuangzi ancient Chinese text from late 3rd cent. BC, containing stories & anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Taoist sage. 4. Daozang the Taoist Canon, containing almost 1500 texts of core Taoist teaching, collected c. 400 AD by Taoist monks of the period.
13 Confucianism (or Ruism ) Founder: Confucius Confucianism is a complex system of moral, social, political, and religious thought, and includes a complicated system governing duties and etiquette in relationships. Confucian ethics focus on familial duty, loyalty and humaneness.
14 Confucianism Texts & Terms The Five Classics (Wujing) I Ching, Classic of Poetry, Book of Documents, Book of Rites, Spring & Autumn Annals. Tian heaven or the divine (similar to the Tao), the goal being to unite self with Tian. The Five Constants humaneness, justice, proper ritual, knowledge, integrity. The Four Virtues loyalty, filial piety, reliability, righteousness.
15 Shinto (or kami-no-michi) Shinto, which literally means "the way of the gods," is an animistic folk religion from Japan, focused on ritual practices to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past. Shinto and Asian Buddhism are inextricably linked in Japan; many Japanese Shintoists also identify themselves as Buddhists.
16 Types of Shinto Shrine Shinto most common, involves worship and events at local public shrines. Imperial Household Shinto rites exclusive to the royal family at imperial shrines. Folk Shinto fragmented folk beliefs in deities and spirits. Sect Shinto private, local religious communities/shrines (vs. public shrines). Koshinto literally Old Shinto, seeks to restore Shinto to pre-buddhist times.
17 Shinto Theology Kami god, spirit, the spiritual essence that inhabits all things, animate or not. Kannagara meaning "way of the kami, refers to the natural order of things. Amenominakanushi "Heavenly Ancestral God of the Originating Heart of the Universe the first kami. Creation the Japanese islands came to be from two gods: Izanagi ("He-who-invites") and Izanami ("She-who-is-invited").
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