Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download ""

Transcription

1

2

3

4

5

6

7 BUDDHISM HISTORY Buddhism was founded by a young man named Siddhartha Gautama (ca B.C.E.), who later became known as the Buddha. Siddhartha lived in northern India (present-day Nepal) in the sixth century B.C.E. He was born into a wealthy family in a town called Lumbini Grove. He was raised in luxury. His father wanted him to become a great king. A story says that fortune tellers told Siddhartha's father that when the boy saw four people - a poor man, an old man, a corpse, and a beggar - he would leave his family and not become king. His father tried to protect him from these sights. Siddhartha saw the four men, however, as predicted. He was overcome by the amount of suffering in the world, of which these men were only an example. At the age of 29, he left his family and set out to seek an answer as to why there was so much suffering in the world. For six years he traveled, studying with various spiritual teachers, without finding his answers. Finally, while meditating under a bodhi (fig) tree in a place called Bodh Gaya (in present-day India), he became aware of the answers he was seeking, which he called the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. He began to travel again, this time teaching and preaching his newfound wisdom. He became known as the Buddha (The Enlightened One). In the third century B.C.E., an Indian emperor named Asoka adopted Buddhism as the state religion of India, causing Buddha's teachings to become popular throughout India. Buddhism spread to many other Asian countries, including China, Japan, Sri Lanka, Tibet, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Myanmar (Burma). As it spread, Buddhism took on different characteristics in different places. Buddhism began to spread to America, Europe, Australia, and parts of Africa during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, partly because of the immigration of Asians to other parts of the world, and partly because of the attraction of Buddhist ideas to people from other cultures. BEUEFS All Buddhist teachings trace their beginnings to the teachings of the Buddha, and particularly his Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path. The Four Noble Truths are: 1) There is suffering in the world. 2) Suffering is caused by human desires or greed. 3) Suffering can be stopped by stopping human desires. 4) This can be done by following the Eightfold Path. The Eighfold Path involves development of both thoughts and actions. A Buddhist practices achieving these steps in his or her life, often with the help of an experienced teacher. The Buddhist strives for: Religions of the World._,... Card 3

8 1) Right understanding - understanding the teachings of the Buddha, especially the Four Noble Truths. 2) Right thoughts - thinking about the Four Noble Truths and how to put them into practice by being kind to others. 3) Right speech - speaking kindly toward and about others. 4) Right action- acting in ways that are kind and helpful. 5) Right livelihood - choosing a job that is not harmful to others. 6) Right effort - concentrating on becoming a better person. 7) Right mindfulness - being aware of thoughts in order to think kindly towards others. 8) Right concentration - practicing meditation, which helps to enlighten the mind. A person completing the Eightfold Path is said to have reached freedom from all suffering, which Buddhists call nirvana. Buddhists believe that when a person dies, he or she returns in another form to continue to attempt to reach nirvana. If a person did good deeds in one life, they might return as a wealthy or important person in the next. If they did bad deeds, in their next life they might be poor or sickly. This law of cause and effect is known as karma. Buddhists believe that it takes many lifetimes, or reincarnations, to reach nirvana. This cycle of death and rebirth is called the dharma. CONCEPT OF GOD Buddha is not thought of as a god, but merely a person who is enlightened, or fully aware. Any person can become a buddha by becoming enlightened. The concept of a god or gods, as seen in many other religions, is not important in Buddhism. SACRED WRITINGS For many centuries, the teachings of the Buddha were passed on by word of mouth by the Sangha, the community of monks and nuns who followed the Buddha. In the first century, C.E., they were written down on palm leaves in the Indian language that the Buddha spoke, called Pafi. They are called the Pali Canon. The leaves were kept in three baskets, called the Tripitaka. The Sutta basket held the teachings of the Buddha. The Vinaya basket contained the rules of life that were to be followed. Additional information was contained in the Abhidhamma basket. These documents, especially the rules of the Vinaya, are followed most closely by the Theravada Buddhists. The Mahayana Buddhists have written down their own versions of Buddha's teachings and related writings by other people. Every Buddhist country seems to have a unique set of holy writings. Some of them, such as the Chinese Ta-ts'ang-ching {Great Scripture Store), include parts of the Tripitaka as well as commentaries, poetry, and other materials. SYMBOLS The most commonly used Buddhist symbol is the Buddha himself. Statues of the Buddha can be found in all sizes, ranging from small ones that are made to sit on a shelf at a small shrine in a home or a business, to larger-than life versions, such as the 42-foot high Great Buddha in Kamakura, Japan; the 70-foot high stone Buddha in Buddh Gaya, India; or the 229- foot-long reclining Buddha at the Kyauk Htat Gyi Pagoda in Rangoon, Burma. The position of the Buddha's body and hands represent different aspects of Buddhist teachings. For example, his hand touching the ground symbolizes his enlightenment. The reclining position shows the Buddha in a stage near to nirvana. The wheel of life, also called the wheel of the law, is another popular Buddhist symbol. It depicts the circular nature of life, with its outer edge representing links in the cycle of life and rebirth. Some wheels show three. animals representing the evils that cause suffering. A cock represents Just, a pig stands for either greed or stupidity, and a snake depicts hatred and wrong actions. Card Toucan Valley Publications, Inc.

9 BUDDHISM (Continued) Today, there are two main types of Buddhism. Theravada Buddhism is practiced mostly in Sri Lanka, Burma, and southeastern Asia, and is the most traditional form of Buddhism. The Sanskrit word Thera means elder. Theravada means School of the Elders. This group closely follows the rules and regulations established by Buddha, which were later written down by his followers. Theravada Buddhists believe that the individual is responsible for his or her own path towards nirvana. Many Theravada Buddhists become monks or nuns to have more time to seek personal enlightenment. They shave their heads and wear saffron (orangered) robes, as Buddha did, and live in poverty and simplicity, spending time in meditation. / Many boys, often as young as four or five years old, will be sent by their parents to a monastery to spend some time living the life of a monk. These boys spend several hours a day in meditation and many hours studying the Buddhist holy writings. Some boys spend only about a month in the monastery, while others may stay a few years, and still others remain until they are young adults and may even choose to live the rest of their lives as monks. Mahayana Buddhism emerged between the second century B.C.E. and the second century C.E. in India, and later spread to Tibet, China and Japan. Mahayana means Great Vehicle, because Mahayana Buddhists believe that this branch of Buddhism will carry many people to enlightenment, becoming Buddhas themselves. Mahayana Buddhists believe that there are people, called bodhisattvas, who are ready to Buddhist prayer wheel reach nirvana themselves but choose instead to delay their final rebirth so that they can help others along the path to enlightenment This sense of compassion and community is characteristic of Mahayana Buddhism. The form of Mahayana Buddhism practiced in Japan is called Pure Land Buddhism. These Japanese Buddhists believe that if they worship Amida Buddha (the Buddha of Boundless Light) they will be reborn into a paradise called Pure Land. Zen Buddhism, a type of Mahayana Buddhism which centers on meditation, developed in China as Ch'an. It was taken to Japan in the twelfth century C.E. by a man named Eisai, and also in the thirteenth century C.E. by a man named Oogen. The Buddhism taught by these two men thrived in Japan. Today, the majority of Zen Buddhists live in Japan. Zen Buddhists believe in a special kind of enlightenment, called satori. They try to reach satori by physical labor or by a special kind of meditation. In this kind of meditation, they sit cross-legged in what is called the lotus posftion and meditate on a kind of riddle called a koan. A well-known koan is: "What is the sound of one hand clapping?" These koans do not usually have clear answers, but cause a. person to think in a new way. Zen Buddhism has become a popular form of meditation for people in western countries such as the United States who do not necessarily consider themselves to be Buddhists. Some people practice meditation that is a mixture of Zen Buddhism and Christian prayer. Re~igions of the World. Card 4

10 Vajrayana Buddhism, or Tantric Buddhism, also a type of Mahayana Buddhism, developed in Tibet and became the main form of Buddhism practiced there. It is characterized by many rituals, which can only be practiced under the direction of a master, or lama. The Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of the Tibetan Buddhists and known throughout. the world as ' a spiritual teacher, is one of these masters. It is believed that when the Dalai Lama dies, his soul enters the body of a newborn boy, who becomes the next Dalai Lama. WORSHIP/SACRED SPACE Buddhists are expected to practice their beliefs in all aspects of their lives. The essential form of Buddhist devotion is meditation, which can take place anywhere. In countries which are largely Buddhist, temples and monasteries can be found everywhere providing special places for meditation and devotion. One special kind of shrine is called a stupa. The first stupas were built to house relics of Buddha, such as his bones and teeth. Others contain sacred writings or images. Buddhist temples and centers are also springing up in countries with smaller Buddhist populations, such as the United State.s. When visiting a temple or shrine, Buddhists might show their devotion by removing their shoes, sitting before a statue of the Buddha, reciting the three refuges (a short verse), then bowing three times and leaving an offering (a candle, incense, water, flowers, or food). A Buddhist may also meditate in front of a small home shrine that contains a statue of Buddha. Buddhist meditation is a way of clearing the mind, to free it from all evil thoughts and distractions. The Buddhist sits on the floor or a pillow and relaxes the body, sitting very still. Thoughts might be focused by concentrating on a single object, such as a candle flame. Often, a phrase is quietly chanted to help avoid distractions. HOLIDAYS/FESTIVALS Each Buddhist country has developed its own local festivals. Many of these celebrate events in the life of Buddha. Some are: New Year (new moon of February) - Bad deeds of the past year are symbolically swept away by cleaning the house or by erecting a sand stupa (temple) which is then washed away. Monks may perform rituals while people light firecrackers and shout. Vaishakha Festival (eighth day of the second lunar month) remembers Buddha's birth, enlightenment, and passing into nirvana at his death. It includes a procession, music, and lamps or candles. Hana Matsuri (April 8) - Japanese celebration of Buddha's birth. Images of the Buddha as a child are bathed in scented water or tea. Pirit - a Sri Lankan ceremony conducted at any time to ward off evil spirits or cure the sick. Passages from a special book are read for a period of seven days. MEMBERSHIP/WORLD DISTRIBUTION It is difficult to count the exact number of Buddhists, since many Asian people consider themselves to be Buddhist but may also practice Shinto, Taoism, or some other religion. Estimates say there are between three and four million Buddhists in the world. They can be found throughout Asia, especially in Sri Lanka and Japan, and also in the Americas, Europe, Australia, and parts of Africa. ORGANIZA TIONIHEADQUARTERS Buddhists do not have complex organizational structures or a main headquarters, as many other religions do. Each local Buddhist temple or center functions more or less independently. They do sometimes form associations with one another, such as this one: Buddhist Churches of America Octavia Street San Francisco, CA phone: (415) wv..rw. fogbank.comlbca/ Card Toucan Valley Publications, Inc.

11

12

13

14

15

16

17 Christian Denominations Over the centuries, Christianity has divided into numerous denominations. Each denomination has its own distinctive beliefs or practices, but they are generally considered a branch of mainstream Christianity if they agree on core doctrines like the divinity of Jesus Christ and the authority of the Bible. Relationships between denominations range from mutual respect and cooperation to denial that the other group is really "Christian." The three main branches of Christianity are Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy and Protestant. Some regard Anglicanism as a fourth branch that fits in none of these categories, while others categorize it as Protestant. Roman Catholicism represents the continuation of the historical organized church as it developed in Western Europe, and is headed by the Pope. Distinctive beliefs of Catholics include the doctrines of Transubstantiation and Purgatory, and distinctive practices include devotion to the saints and Mary and use of the rosary. Eastern Orthodoxy (which includes the Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches and several others) is the continuation of the historical organized church as it developed in Eastern Europe. It differs from Catholicism in its refusal of allegiance to the Pope, its emphasis on the use of icons in worship, and the date it celebrates Easter. Other cultural, political, and religious differences exist as well. Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism separated in 1054 AD, when the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Pope excommunicated each other. Protestantism arose in the 16th century during the Reformation, which took place mainly in Germany, Switzerland, and Britain. Protestants do not acknowledge the authority of the Pope, reject many traditions and beliefs of the Catholic Church, emphasize the importance of reading the Bible and hold to the doctrine of salvation by faith alone. Protestantism encompasses numerous denominational groups, including Lutherans, Baptists, Methodists, Episcopalians (or Anglicanism), Presbyterians, Pentecostals and Evangelicals. Most of the denominations that exist today developed in the 500 years since the Protestant Reformation and fall under the "Protestant" branch. This section provides information on some of the major denominations that exist today, along with a brief history of how there came to be so many. History of Christian Denominations For the first thousand years of Christianity, there were no "denominations" within the Christian church as there are today. Various offshoot groups certainly existed, but they were considered "heresies" and not part of the Christian church. Most were small and, until the 16th century, were never very influential. From the beginnings of Christianity through the Middle Ages, there was only one the catholic ("universal") church. Basically, if you did not belong to the Church, you were not considered a Christian. The first division within Christendom came in 1054 with the "Great Schism" between the Western Church and the Eastern Church. From that point forward, there were two large branches of Christianity, which came to be known as the Catholic Church (in the West) and the Orthodox Church (in the East). The next major division occurred in the 16th century with the Protestant Reformation. The Reformation was famously sparked when Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses in 1517, but "Protestantism" as a movement officially began in That year marked the publication of the Protestation, directed at the imperial government. The authors, German princes who wanted the freedom to choose the faith of their territory,

18 protested that "in matters which concern God's honor and salvation and the eternal life of our souls, everyone must stand and give account before God for himself." {1} With its emphasis on individual interpretation of scripture and a measure of religious freedom, the Reformation marked not only a break between Protestantism and Catholicism, but the beginning of denominationalism as we know it today. This historical perspective is perhaps the best way to make sense of the initially astounding variety of Christian denominations. Those who remained within the fold of Roman Catholicism argued that central regulation of doctrine is necessary to prevent confusion and division within the church and corruption of its beliefs. Those who broke from the church, on the other hand, insisted that it was precisely this policy of control that had already led to corruption of the true faith. They demanded that believers be allowed to read the Scriptures for themselves (it was previously available only in Latin) and act in accordance with their conscience. This issue of religious authority continues to be a fundamental difference in perspective between Catholic and Orthodox Christians on one hand, and Protestant Christians on the other. As the Reformation developed in Germany, various groups in other parts of Europe also began to break away from the Catholic Church. Reformed Christianity developed in Switzerland based on the teachings of Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin. When it spread to Scotland under John Knox, the Reformed faith became Presbyterianism. Switzerland was also the birthplace of the Anabaptists, spiritual ancestors of today's Amish, Mennonites, Quakers, and Baptists. Anglicanism was established in 1534 when England's King Henry VIII broke from the authority of the Pope, and became Episcopalianism in America. Methodism, based on the teachings of John Wesley, also has its roots in Anglicanism.

19

20

21

22

Four Noble Truths. The Buddha observed that no one can escape death and unhappiness in their life- suffering is inevitable

Four Noble Truths. The Buddha observed that no one can escape death and unhappiness in their life- suffering is inevitable Buddhism Four Noble Truths The Buddha observed that no one can escape death and unhappiness in their life- suffering is inevitable He studied the cause of unhappiness and it resulted in the Four Noble

More information

Buddhism. Ancient India and China Section 3. Preview

Buddhism. Ancient India and China Section 3. Preview Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Life of the Buddha The Teachings of Buddhism The Spread of Buddhism Map: Spread of Buddhism Buddhism Main Idea Buddhism Buddhism, which teaches people that they can

More information

Religions of South Asia

Religions of South Asia Religions of South Asia Buddhism in the Subcontinent The essence of Buddhism The middle way of wisdom and compassion. 2,500 year old tradition. The 3 jewels of Buddhism: Buddha, the teacher. Dharma, the

More information

The following presentation can be found at el231/resource/buddhism.ppt (accessed April 21, 2010).

The following presentation can be found at  el231/resource/buddhism.ppt (accessed April 21, 2010). The following presentation can be found at http://www.nvcc.edu/home/lshulman/r el231/resource/buddhism.ppt (accessed April 21, 2010). Buddhism The middle way of wisdom and compassion A 2500 year old tradition

More information

Welcome back Pre-AP! Monday, Sept. 12, 2016

Welcome back Pre-AP! Monday, Sept. 12, 2016 Welcome back Pre-AP! Monday, Sept. 12, 2016 Today you will need: *Your notebook or a sheet of paper to put into your notes binder *Something to write with Warm-Up: In your notes, make a quick list of ALL

More information

Buddhism CHAPTER 6 EROW PPL#6 PAGE 232 SECTION 1

Buddhism CHAPTER 6 EROW PPL#6 PAGE 232 SECTION 1 Buddhism CHAPTER 6 EROW PPL#6 PAGE 232 SECTION 1 A Human-Centered Religion HIPHUGHES 10 min. video on Buddhism https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eykdeneqfqq Buddhism from the word Budhi meaning To wake up!

More information

How does Buddhism differ from Hinduism?

How does Buddhism differ from Hinduism? Buddhism The middle way of wisdom and compassion A 2500 year old tradition that began in India and spread and diversified throughout the Far East A philosophy, religion, and spiritual practice followed

More information

Homepage Literacy Zone Maths Zone Science Zone Homework Help The Six Main Religions. Christianity Islam Judaism. Buddhism Hinduism Sikhism.

Homepage Literacy Zone Maths Zone Science Zone Homework Help The Six Main Religions. Christianity Islam Judaism. Buddhism Hinduism Sikhism. Buddhism Religion by Mandy Barrow Homepage Literacy Zone Maths Zone Science Zone Homework Help The Six Main Religions Christianity Islam Judaism Buddhism Hinduism Sikhism Buddhism Buddhist Festivals around

More information

Name per date. Warm Up: What is reality, what is the problem with discussing reality?

Name per date. Warm Up: What is reality, what is the problem with discussing reality? Name per date Buddhism Buddhism is a religion based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, known to his followers as the Buddha. There are more than 360 million Buddhists living all over the world, especially

More information

Facts About Buddhism!

Facts About Buddhism! By Emily Patrick 8J What is Buddhism? Buddhism is a religion that began in North Eastern India and is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. Buddhism is the main religion in Asian countries and

More information

Hinduism. Hinduism is a religion as well as a social system (the caste system).

Hinduism. Hinduism is a religion as well as a social system (the caste system). Hinduism Practiced by the various cultures of the Indian subcontinent since 1500 BCE. Began in India with the Aryan invaders. Believe in one supreme force called Brahma, the creator, who is in all things.

More information

Buddhism Notes. History

Buddhism Notes. History Copyright 2014, 2018 by Cory Baugher KnowingTheBible.net 1 Buddhism Notes Buddhism is based on the teachings of Buddha, widely practiced in Asia, based on a right behavior-oriented life (Dharma) that allows

More information

WORLD RELIGIONS. Buddhism. Hinduism. Daoism * Yin-Yang * Cosmogony. Sikhism. * Eight Fold Path. Confucianism Shintoism

WORLD RELIGIONS. Buddhism. Hinduism. Daoism * Yin-Yang * Cosmogony. Sikhism. * Eight Fold Path. Confucianism Shintoism Sikhism Buddhism * Eight Fold Path Daoism * Yin-Yang * Cosmogony WORLD RELIGIONS Confucianism Shintoism Hinduism RELIGION set of beliefs for a group of people Soul or spirit; a deity or higher being; life

More information

The main branches of Buddhism

The main branches of Buddhism The main branches of Buddhism Share Tweet Email Enlarge this image. Stele of the Buddha Maitreya, 687 C.E., China; Tang dynasty (618 906). Limestone. Courtesy of the Asian Art Museum, The Avery Brundage

More information

SIRS Discoverer : Document : Buddhism. Home Page Back Dictionary Thesaurus Help Tips Cite. Share. The Four Noble Truths and the

SIRS Discoverer : Document : Buddhism. Home Page Back Dictionary Thesaurus Help Tips Cite. Share. The Four Noble Truths and the Page 1 of 6 Home Page Back Dictionary Thesaurus Help Tips Cite Article may be transmitted to your email. Other transmissions are prohibited. Your email address: Include pictures? Share Compton's by Britannica

More information

Buddhism. World Religions 101: Understanding Theirs So You Can Share Yours by Jenny Hale

Buddhism. World Religions 101: Understanding Theirs So You Can Share Yours by Jenny Hale Buddhism Buddhism: A Snapshot Purpose: To break the cycle of reincarnation by finding release from suffering through giving up desire How to earn salvation: Break the cycle of rebirth. Salvation is nirvana,

More information

Buddhism 101. Distribution: predominant faith in Burma, Ceylon, Thailand and Indo-China. It also has followers in China, Korea, Mongolia and Japan.

Buddhism 101. Distribution: predominant faith in Burma, Ceylon, Thailand and Indo-China. It also has followers in China, Korea, Mongolia and Japan. Buddhism 101 Founded: 6 th century BCE Founder: Siddhartha Gautama, otherwise known as the Buddha Enlightened One Place of Origin: India Sacred Books: oldest and most important scriptures are the Tripitaka,

More information

Buddhism. Buddhism is the worlds 4 th largest religion, with 7.1% of the world s population following the teachings of the Buddha.

Buddhism. Buddhism is the worlds 4 th largest religion, with 7.1% of the world s population following the teachings of the Buddha. Buddhism Buddhism is the worlds 4 th largest religion, with 7.1% of the world s population following the teachings of the Buddha. Only an estimated 3% of India today is Buddhist. Buddhism spread east and

More information

Buddhism. enlightenment) Wisdom will emerge if your mind is clear and pure. SLMS/08

Buddhism. enlightenment) Wisdom will emerge if your mind is clear and pure. SLMS/08 Buddhism SLMS/08 By about 600 BCE, many people in India had become dissatisfied with Brahmin power and privilege. Many began to question the rigid caste system of Hinduism, and began looking for other

More information

Cultural Diffusion and the image of the Buddha

Cultural Diffusion and the image of the Buddha Cultural Diffusion and the image of the Buddha 10-22-14 Directions: Using the map below and the attached images, explore how the image of the Buddha changed as Buddhism spread from India to other parts

More information

Buddhism in Burma (Myanmar)

Buddhism in Burma (Myanmar) Lagan Village Maran Family 28.3.2015 Buddhism in Burma (Myanmar) 26.10.2018 Buddhism in Burma (Myanmar) Waiheke Island Baptist Church Buddhism in Burma (Myanmar) Buddhism in Burma (Myanmar) The History

More information

Click to read caption

Click to read caption 3. Hinduism and Buddhism Ancient India gave birth to two major world religions, Hinduism and Buddhism. Both had common roots in the Vedas, a collection of religious hymns, poems, and prayers composed in

More information

BC Religio ig ns n of S outh h A sia

BC Religio ig ns n of S outh h A sia Religions of South Asia 2500 250 BC Hinduism gave birth to Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism Christianity Jesus Christ, son of God the Bible Islam Muhammadlast prophet to talk to Allah t he Quran Do you think

More information

INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM

INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM Unit 3 SG 6 I. INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM A. What is Buddhism (from the word budhi, to awaken )? 1. 300 million adherents worldwide 2. Universalizing religion 3. Approximately 2,500

More information

Name: Document Packet Week 6 - Belief Systems: Polytheism Date:

Name: Document Packet Week 6 - Belief Systems: Polytheism Date: Name: Document Packet Week 6 - Belief Systems: Polytheism Date: In this packet you will have all the documents for the week. This document packet must be in class with you every day. We will work with

More information

AS I ENTER THINK ABOUT IT

AS I ENTER THINK ABOUT IT AS I ENTER THINK ABOUT IT How did all these religions diffuse? What type of diffusion did the major Universalizing and Ethnic religions experience? What were each of the Cultural Hearths? Agenda Overview

More information

Buddhism. Webster s New Collegiate Dictionary defines religion as the service and adoration of God or a god expressed in forms of worship.

Buddhism. Webster s New Collegiate Dictionary defines religion as the service and adoration of God or a god expressed in forms of worship. Buddhism Webster s New Collegiate Dictionary defines religion as the service and adoration of God or a god expressed in forms of worship. Most people make the relationship between religion and god. There

More information

World Religions. Section 3 - Hinduism and Buddhism. Welcome, Rob Reiter. My Account Feedback and Support Sign Out. Choose Another Program

World Religions. Section 3 - Hinduism and Buddhism. Welcome, Rob Reiter. My Account Feedback and Support Sign Out. Choose Another Program Welcome, Rob Reiter My Account Feedback and Support Sign Out Choose Another Program Home Select a Lesson Program Resources My Classes 3 - World Religions This is what your students see when they are signed

More information

Geography of Religion. Unit 3: Chapter 7 pages Day 10

Geography of Religion. Unit 3: Chapter 7 pages Day 10 Geography of Religion Unit 3: Chapter 7 pages Day 10 Religion A set of beliefs existence of a higher power, spirits or god an explanation of the origins and purpose of humans and their role on earth Which

More information

Decline of the Indus River Valley civilizations - -

Decline of the Indus River Valley civilizations - - Quick-Write: 8/30 Decline of the Indus River Valley civilizations - - Aryans - Aryans Aryans and Vedas Aryans and Vedas Aryans and Vedas Aryans and Social Order Aryans and Social Order - Caste System

More information

Five World Religions

Five World Religions Five World Religions Five Major World Religion s Hinduism Buddhism Judaism Christianity Islam 2500 250 BC Hinduism Brahman 2500 250 BC What do Hindus believe? 1. 2500 250 BC What are the Sacred Texts?

More information

Monday, November I can explain how the major beliefs of Brahmanism evolved into Hinduism.

Monday, November I can explain how the major beliefs of Brahmanism evolved into Hinduism. Monday, November 16 6.25 I can explain how the major beliefs of Brahmanism evolved into Hinduism. Religions of Ancient India Chapter 6.2 Origins of Hinduism One of the world s oldest 3 rd largest religion

More information

Introduction to Buddhism

Introduction to Buddhism Page 1 of 5 Introduction to Buddhism Get a quick understanding of Buddhism French Introduction Founder: Buddha Location: India Date: ~500 BCE Primary Scripture: Tipitaka (Tripitaka) Main Goal: Achieve

More information

Buddhism. By: Ella Hans, Lily Schutzenhofer, Yiyao Wang, and Dua Ansari

Buddhism. By: Ella Hans, Lily Schutzenhofer, Yiyao Wang, and Dua Ansari Buddhism By: Ella Hans, Lily Schutzenhofer, Yiyao Wang, and Dua Ansari Origins of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, was born in 563 B.C.E Siddhartha was a warrior son of a king and

More information

BUDDHISM Jews Metropolitan Tel Aviv, with 2.5 million Jews, is the world's largest Jewish city. It is followed by New York, with 1.

BUDDHISM Jews Metropolitan Tel Aviv, with 2.5 million Jews, is the world's largest Jewish city. It is followed by New York, with 1. Jews Metropolitan Tel Aviv, with 2.5 million Jews, is the world's largest Jewish city. It is followed by New York, with 1.9 million, Haifa 655,000, Los Angeles 621,000, Jerusalem 570,000, and southeast

More information

Buddhism. By Braden Fike, Daniel Gaull, Andrew Radulovich, and Jackson Wilkens

Buddhism. By Braden Fike, Daniel Gaull, Andrew Radulovich, and Jackson Wilkens Buddhism By Braden Fike, Daniel Gaull, Andrew Radulovich, and Jackson Wilkens In the Beginning The start of Buddhism and original beliefs & practices Key Beliefs and Original Practices Buddhists believe

More information

EL29 Mindfulness Meditation. Consciousness States: Medical

EL29 Mindfulness Meditation. Consciousness States: Medical EL29 Mindfulness Meditation Lecture 2.1: The historical Buddha and his teachings Consciousness States: Medical Awareness allows us to receive and process information communicated by the five senses and

More information

Buddhism, the way They Think, the way They Ask

Buddhism, the way They Think, the way They Ask Buddhism, the way They Think, the way They Ask 1. Which year was Buddha born? Buddha was born in 624 B.C.E 2. Which month was Buddha born? Full Moon day of May 3. Which day was Buddha born? Friday 4. What

More information

EL29 Mindfulness Meditation. What did the Buddha teach?

EL29 Mindfulness Meditation. What did the Buddha teach? EL29 Mindfulness Meditation Lecture 2.2: Theravada Buddhism What did the Buddha teach? The Four Noble Truths: Right now.! To live is to suffer From our last lecture, what are the four noble truths of Buddhism?!

More information

NOVEMBER 13, Oceania Map Quiz Universalizing Religion Notes HW: Read pgs Unit 3.5 Vocab Due Dec. 12 Test Corrections Until Friday

NOVEMBER 13, Oceania Map Quiz Universalizing Religion Notes HW: Read pgs Unit 3.5 Vocab Due Dec. 12 Test Corrections Until Friday NOVEMBER 13, 2017 Oceania Map Quiz Universalizing Religion Notes HW: Read pgs. 190-196 Unit 3.5 Vocab Due Dec. 12 Test Corrections Until Friday Religion Key Issues Where are religions distributed? Why

More information

EL41 Mindfulness Meditation. What did the Buddha teach?

EL41 Mindfulness Meditation. What did the Buddha teach? EL41 Mindfulness Meditation Lecture 2.2: Theravada Buddhism What did the Buddha teach? The Four Noble Truths: Right now.! To live is to suffer From our last lecture, what are the four noble truths of Buddhism?!

More information

Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, & the Philosophy of Confucianism

Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, & the Philosophy of Confucianism Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, & the Philosophy of Confucianism This is a group of people who share a common culture and have a similar language. These characteristics have been part of their community

More information

Evangelism: Defending the Faith

Evangelism: Defending the Faith Symbol of Buddhism Origin Remember the Buddhist and Shramana Period (ca. 600 B.C.E.-300 C.E.) discussed in the formation of Hinduism o We began to see some reactions against the priestly religion of the

More information

Buddha discovered Three Universal Truths and Four Noble Truths, which he then taught to the people for the next 45 years.

Buddha discovered Three Universal Truths and Four Noble Truths, which he then taught to the people for the next 45 years. How did Buddhism begin? About 2500 years ago, a prince named Siddhartha Gautama began to question his sheltered, luxurious life in the palace. He left the palace and saw four sights: a sick man, an old

More information

World Religions- Eastern Religions July 20, 2014

World Religions- Eastern Religions July 20, 2014 World Religions- Eastern Religions July 20, 2014 Start w/ Confucianism and look at it s rebirth into Buddhism What do you know about Confucianism? Confucius quotes: -And remember, no matter where you go,

More information

Hinduism and Buddhism

Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism Backstory Oldest continually practiced religion in the world Originated in Indus River Valley 4,500 years ago (modern-day India and Pakistan) Currently 3 rd largest religion

More information

Introduction. World Religions Unit

Introduction. World Religions Unit Introduction World Religions Unit Why Study Religions? Religion plays a key role in our world today Religion is a major component of the human experience Knowledge of people s religions helps us understand

More information

BUDDHISM PRE-TEST. 1. Siddharta Gautama was also known as the. 3. After his death, the Buddha believed that he would attain.

BUDDHISM PRE-TEST. 1. Siddharta Gautama was also known as the. 3. After his death, the Buddha believed that he would attain. 1 PRE-TEST Directions: Fill in the blanks with the correct word. 1. Siddharta Gautama was also known as the. 2. Buddhism teaches for all beings. 3. After his death, the Buddha believed that he would attain.

More information

Buddhists Who Follow The Theravada Tradition Study A Large Collection Of Ancient Scriptures Called The

Buddhists Who Follow The Theravada Tradition Study A Large Collection Of Ancient Scriptures Called The Buddhists Who Follow The Theravada Tradition Study A Large Collection Of Ancient Scriptures Called The What is the name for a Hindu spiritual teacher?. Question 27. Buddhists who follow the Theravada tradition

More information

APWH Chapters 4 & 9.notebook September 11, 2015

APWH Chapters 4 & 9.notebook September 11, 2015 Chapters 4 & 9 South Asia The first agricultural civilization in India was located in the Indus River valley. Its two main cities were Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. Its writing, however, has never been deciphered,

More information

Sangha as Heroes. Wendy Ridley

Sangha as Heroes. Wendy Ridley Sangha as Heroes Clear Vision Buddhism Conference 23 November 2007 Wendy Ridley Jamyang Buddhist Centre Leeds Learning Objectives Students will: understand the history of Buddhist Sangha know about the

More information

Enlightenment: Dharma: Siddhartha Gautama

Enlightenment: Dharma: Siddhartha Gautama Notebook: Buddhism 09/17/2013 Belief System? Philosophy? Religion? 4 th Largest Religion (350-550 million followers) Siddhartha Gautama Born a prince. Became disillusioned with palace life. Asked himself,

More information

The Story. But in the midst of all this beauty Gautama could not stop the questions from bubbling up. How did I get here?

The Story. But in the midst of all this beauty Gautama could not stop the questions from bubbling up. How did I get here? Buddhism The Story There once was a prince living in a palace who had the distinct sense that something was wrong. His name was Siddhartha Gautama. He probably lived sometime in the 6 th century B.C. The

More information

Buddha - Buddhism. This lesson has no prerequisites. It is appropriate for students in grades 3 and above.

Buddha - Buddhism. This lesson has no prerequisites. It is appropriate for students in grades 3 and above. Buddha - Buddhism Overview This lesson presents basic information about Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) and Buddhism. It also provides various activities that allow students to apply and extend the information

More information

The Influence of Neighboring Cultures on Japan. Chapter 20: pages

The Influence of Neighboring Cultures on Japan. Chapter 20: pages The Influence of Neighboring Cultures on Japan Chapter 20: pages 214-227 Objectives for this unit Work on note taking skills Do your best and forget the rest You must take notes q Focus on listening for

More information

TRAD101 Languages & Cultures of East Asia. Buddhism III Peng

TRAD101 Languages & Cultures of East Asia. Buddhism III Peng TRAD101 Languages & Cultures of East Asia Buddhism III Peng Buddhism Life of Buddha Schools of Buddhism: 1. Theravâda Buddhism (Teaching of the Elders, Hînayâna,, Lesser Vehicle) 2. Mahâyâna Buddhism (Great

More information

1. LEADER PREPARATION

1. LEADER PREPARATION apologetics: RESPONDING TO SPECIFIC WORLDVIEWS Lesson 7: Buddhism This includes: 1. Leader Preparation 2. Lesson Guide 1. LEADER PREPARATION LESSON OVERVIEW Buddha made some significant claims about his

More information

A brief overview. WORLD RELIGIONS / ETHICAL SYSTEMS

A brief overview. WORLD RELIGIONS / ETHICAL SYSTEMS A brief overview. WORLD RELIGIONS / ETHICAL SYSTEMS ESSENTIAL QUESTION How have belief systems impacted the development of cultures and historical events? WORLD RELIGIONS Purposes - Religion is a concept

More information

AIM: How does Buddhism influence the lives of its followers? DO NOW: How did The Buddha achieve enlightenment?

AIM: How does Buddhism influence the lives of its followers? DO NOW: How did The Buddha achieve enlightenment? AIM: How does Buddhism influence the lives of its followers? DO NOW: How did The Buddha achieve enlightenment? Moral Action The Eight-Fold Path Wisdom Right Understanding: Seeing the world as it is, not

More information

Name Date Block. What is Christianity? 1. Christianity is the world's largest religion. 2. Their higher power is

Name Date Block. What is Christianity? 1. Christianity is the world's largest religion. 2. Their higher power is Name Date Block What is Christianity? 1. Christianity is the world's largest religion. 2. Their higher power is 3. is the person central to their beliefs along with God. 4. Christians main symbol is the

More information

APHG CHAPTER 7: RELIGION

APHG CHAPTER 7: RELIGION APHG CHAPTER 7: RELIGION KQ #1: WHAT IS RELIGION, AND WHAT ROLE DOES IT PLAY IN CULTURE? (5 slides) KQ #1: WHAT IS RELIGION, AND WHAT ROLE DOES IT PLAY IN CULTURE? Religion & language are the foundations

More information

SS7G12 The student will analyze the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southern and Eastern Asia. a. Explain the differences between an

SS7G12 The student will analyze the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southern and Eastern Asia. a. Explain the differences between an SS7G12 The student will analyze the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southern and Eastern Asia. a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group. b. Compare and contrast

More information

M IGRAN T INFO RM AT I O N CENTRE (Easte rn Melbour ne )

M IGRAN T INFO RM AT I O N CENTRE (Easte rn Melbour ne ) M IGRAN T INFO RM AT I O N CENTRE (Easte rn Melbour ne ) Buddhist Profile PLEASE NOTE: This religious profile provides an overview of the range of beliefs and practices that may apply to individuals who

More information

COMPARATIVE RELIGIONS H O U R 4

COMPARATIVE RELIGIONS H O U R 4 COMPARATIVE RELIGIONS H O U R 4 WHAT DID THE BUDDHA DISCOVER? The 3 Marks of Existence: 1. Dukkha 2. Anicca 3. Anatta Dependent Origination The 4 Noble Truths: 1. Life is Dukkha 2. The Cause of Dukkha

More information

500 B.C.E. ~ began in India. Siddartha Guatama : Buddha or Enlightened One. Spread quickly with those not happy with Hinduism s caste system.

500 B.C.E. ~ began in India. Siddartha Guatama : Buddha or Enlightened One. Spread quickly with those not happy with Hinduism s caste system. 500 B.C.E. ~ began in India. Siddartha Guatama : Buddha or Enlightened One. Spread quickly with those not happy with Hinduism s caste system. Mahabodhi temple in India - Where Buddha attained nirvana under

More information

Protestant Reformation

Protestant Reformation Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation Objectives: Students will learn about the criticisms of the Roman Catholic Church, and how this led to a religious movement called the Protestant Reformation.

More information

1 st Buddhist Council led by the Buddha s cousin Ananda

1 st Buddhist Council led by the Buddha s cousin Ananda 1 st Buddhist Council led by the Buddha s cousin Ananda Sattapanni Cave Mahakashyapa exemplary Buddhist spoke for Siddhartha The Buddhist Creed I take refuge in the Buddha I take refuge in the Dharma I

More information

Why we re covering this

Why we re covering this India s Religions Why we re covering this As the world became more united under the imperialist movement, interactions between cultures caused an increasing number of internal and social clashes The primary

More information

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY. By Brett Lucas

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY. By Brett Lucas HUMAN GEOGRAPHY By Brett Lucas RELIGION Overview Distribution of Religion Christianity Islam Buddhism Hinduism Religious Conflict Distribution of Religions Religion & Culture Everyone has values and morals

More information

Religion Compare and Contrast Chart World History Mrs. Schenck

Religion Compare and Contrast Chart World History Mrs. Schenck Name: KEY Period: Date: Religion Compare and Contrast Chart World History Mrs. Schenck Religion Judaism Christianity Islam Followers are called MONOTHEISTIC Name for God Origin of the religion (country)

More information

Buddhism Encounter By Dr Philip Hughes*

Buddhism Encounter By Dr Philip Hughes* Buddhism Encounter By Dr Philip Hughes* The Origins of Buddhism About 2500 years ago important changes in religion began occurring in many parts of the world. Between 550 and 450 B.C. many great prophets

More information

Buddhism in India. Origin. Tenets of Buddhism 1/5

Buddhism in India. Origin. Tenets of Buddhism 1/5 Buddhism in India drishtiias.com/printpdf/buddhism-in-india Origin Buddhism started in India over 2,600 years ago as a way life that had a potential of transforming a person. It is one of the important

More information

RE Visit Activities. Buddha Trail

RE Visit Activities. Buddha Trail RE Visit Activities Buddha Trail Imagine you are on a Buddhist Trail in Asia and you are keeping a diary of your journey. You will see these symbols on your trail which tell you what you need to do to

More information

Evangelism: Defending the Faith

Evangelism: Defending the Faith BUDDHISM Part 2 Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) was shocked to see the different aspects of human suffering: Old age, illness and death and ultimately encountered a contented wandering ascetic who inspired

More information

Hinduism vs Buddhism. Jennifer Vang 12/9/14 Hour 6

Hinduism vs Buddhism. Jennifer Vang 12/9/14 Hour 6 Hinduism vs Buddhism Jennifer Vang 12/9/14 Hour 6 What is literal meaning for Buddhism? Buddhists means those who follow the teachings of the Buddha. What is the literal meaning for Hinduism? The followers

More information

What were the historical circumstances for the founding of Buddhism? Describe the historical circumstances for the founding of Buddhism.

What were the historical circumstances for the founding of Buddhism? Describe the historical circumstances for the founding of Buddhism. Objective: What were the historical circumstances for the founding of Buddhism? Describe the historical circumstances for the founding of Buddhism. Introduction Directions: Examine the images below and

More information

The spread of Buddhism In Central Asia

The spread of Buddhism In Central Asia P2 CHINA The source: 3 rd century BCE, Emperor Asoka sent missionaries to the northwest of India (present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan). The missions achieved great success. Soon later, the region was

More information

Buddhism RELIGIOUS STUDIES 206, SPRING 2013

Buddhism RELIGIOUS STUDIES 206, SPRING 2013 An Introduction to Buddhism RELIGIOUS STUDIES 206, SPRING 2013 Professor Todd T. Lewis SMITH 425 Office Hours: M/W 2-3 and by appointment Office Phone: 793-3436 E-mail: tlewis@holycross.edu Course Description:

More information

What you will learn in this unit...

What you will learn in this unit... Belief Systems What you will learn in this unit... What are the characteristics of major religions? How are they similar and different? How have major religions affected culture? How have belief systems

More information

Buddhism RELIGIOUS STUDIES 206, SPRING 2018

Buddhism RELIGIOUS STUDIES 206, SPRING 2018 An Introduction to Buddhism RELIGIOUS STUDIES 206, SPRING 2018 Professor Todd T. Lewis Office Hours: Tues/Thurs 1-2; Wednesdays 1:30-2:30 and by appointment SMITH 425 Office Phone: 793-3436 E-mail: tlewis@holycross.edu

More information

Salvation and Destiny - as understood in Buddhism and Christianity

Salvation and Destiny - as understood in Buddhism and Christianity Salvation and Destiny - as understood in Buddhism and Christianity Buddhism and Christianity, properly understood, are close at so many points However they have completely opposing worldviews Buddhism

More information

Buddhist Traditions. Chapter Overview

Buddhist Traditions. Chapter Overview 5 Buddhist Traditions Chapter Overview At the very heart of Buddhism lie the Three Jewels of Buddhism: the Buddha, the Dharma (teachings), and the Sangha (community). The key to understanding the foundation

More information

Chapter 7: Religion. The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 7: Religion. The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 7: Religion The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Where Are Religions Distributed? Universalizing religions Seek to appeal to all people Ethnic religions Appeal to a smaller

More information

Local R eligionsi. Australia. Africa. Japan. North America

Local R eligionsi. Australia. Africa. Japan. North America Local R eligionsi Although some religions have spread worldwide, many people still practice religions that originated and developed in their own area. Australia There are no deities in the traditional

More information

Parabola in the Classroom

Parabola in the Classroom Nomad Girl A Lesson for Students Buddhism is a belief system that originated in India. Some Buddhists believe in bodhisattvas and gods and goddesses while other Buddhists do not. Tara is the Buddhist goddess

More information

Do Now. 1. Try and define the term religion. 2. How is the cultural landscape marked by religion? Think of obvious and subtle ways.

Do Now. 1. Try and define the term religion. 2. How is the cultural landscape marked by religion? Think of obvious and subtle ways. Do Now 1. Try and define the term religion. 2. How is the cultural landscape marked by religion? Think of obvious and subtle ways. Do Now The cultural landscape is marked by religion- most obviously by

More information

Asia. Cultural Geography

Asia. Cultural Geography Asia Cultural Geography Religion v Some religions that are found in Asia are: A. Buddhism B. Hinduism C. Confucianism E. Shintoism F. Islam G. Christianity D. Taoism Hinduism v Hinduism is an ethnic religion

More information

Key Concept 2.1. Define DIASPORIC COMMUNITY.

Key Concept 2.1. Define DIASPORIC COMMUNITY. Key Concept 2.1 As states and empires increased in size and contacts between regions intensified, human communities transformed their religious and ideological beliefs and practices. I. Codifications and

More information

Geographers are less interested in the belief systems of religions than they are in the following four characteristics of religions:

Geographers are less interested in the belief systems of religions than they are in the following four characteristics of religions: Religion CRQ 1: The Geography of Religions (25 points)(key) Geographers are less interested in the belief systems of religions than they are in the following four characteristics of religions: 1. Point/Date

More information

EARLY WORLD RELIGIONS

EARLY WORLD RELIGIONS EARLY WORLD RELIGIONS Hinduism Buddhism Confucianism Legalism Daoism Judaism Christianity (Islam will be in the next unit) Religions of South Asia Religion in the Subcontinent Hinduism What is Hinduism?

More information

RELIGIONS AND PHILOSOPHIES ORGANIZER KEY POINTS REVIEW

RELIGIONS AND PHILOSOPHIES ORGANIZER KEY POINTS REVIEW RELIGIONS AND PHILOSOPHIES ORGANIZER KEY POINTS REVIEW HINDUISM Major religion practiced in India Oldest Religion in the world that we know of Started from the Aryan Vedic civilization around 1500 BCE

More information

Unit 2. World Religions and Belief Systems. Name:

Unit 2. World Religions and Belief Systems. Name: Unit 2 World Religions and Belief Systems Name: 1 Table of Contents Animism.9 Shintoism...10 Hinduism.15 Buddhism 20 Judaism..23 Christianity..27 Islam...29 Confucianism.35 2 What do you know about religions?

More information

Lesson 16 - Learning About World Religions: Buddhism Section 1 - Introduction

Lesson 16 - Learning About World Religions: Buddhism Section 1 - Introduction Lesson 16 - Learning About World Religions: Buddhism Section 1 - Introduction These young Buddhist monks stand in the large window of a Buddhist monastery in the nation of Myanmar, in Southeast Asia. Hinduism,

More information

Station 1: Geography

Station 1: Geography Station 1: Geography DIRECTIONS: 1. Make sure to have your PINK Religions packet and stations workbook 2. Read the passage about the geography of Buddhism 3. Shade in Buddhism (with a different color than

More information

Chapter 16 Learning About World Religions: Buddhism. What are the main beliefs and teachings of Buddhism?

Chapter 16 Learning About World Religions: Buddhism. What are the main beliefs and teachings of Buddhism? Chapter 16 Learning About World Religions: Buddhism What are the main beliefs and teachings of Buddhism? 16.1. Introduction Keith Levit Photography //Worldofstock.com These young Buddhist monks stand in

More information

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION 500 YEAR ANNIVERSARY OCTOBER 31, OCTOBER 31, 2017

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION 500 YEAR ANNIVERSARY OCTOBER 31, OCTOBER 31, 2017 THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION 500 YEAR ANNIVERSARY OCTOBER 31, 1517 - OCTOBER 31, 2017 The Reformation October 31, 1517 What had happened to the Church that Jesus founded so that it needed a reformation?

More information

WORSHIP AND THE EXAMPLE OF BUDDHISM

WORSHIP AND THE EXAMPLE OF BUDDHISM WORSHIP AND THE EXAMPLE OF BUDDHISM An Offputting Word The word worship can be offputting. Explicit material on worship can make young people switch off. It evokes enforced quiet, prayers they do not understand,

More information

Base your answers to questions 4 and 5 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of social studies.

Base your answers to questions 4 and 5 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of social studies. Frederick Douglass Academy Global Studies 1. Believers of Hinduism are expected to A) fulfill their dharma for a favorable reincarnation B) complete a pilgrimage to Mecca C) obey the Ten Commandments D)

More information

Chapter 4 & 5. Ancient India & Ancient China

Chapter 4 & 5. Ancient India & Ancient China Chapter 4 & 5 Ancient India & Ancient China Section 2 - The Beginnings of Hinduism Where did Hinduism come from? Mixed with many cultures Became very complex World s oldest living religion Developed over

More information

CHAPTER EIGHT THE SHORT CUT TO NIRVANA: PURE LAND BUDDHISM

CHAPTER EIGHT THE SHORT CUT TO NIRVANA: PURE LAND BUDDHISM CHAPTER EIGHT THE SHORT CUT TO NIRVANA: PURE LAND BUDDHISM Religious goals are ambitious, often seemingly beyond the reach of ordinary mortals. Particularly when humankind s spirituality seems at a low

More information