Question: Would you risk taking part in a revolution against your government?

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2 Question: Would you risk taking part in a revolution against your government?

3 PATTERNS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF HISTORY IS THE RECOGNITION OF PATTERNS REVOLUTIONS FALL INTO THIS CATEGORY (except the American Revolution) Moderate Stage, Radical Stage, Reactionary Stage

4 Three Stages of the French Rev. Moderate Stage (Reason Rules) National Assembly, Tennis Court Oath, Storming of the Bastille, Great Fear, feudal obligations ended, Declaration of the Rights of Man, Bread March, Church lands seized and Catholic Church taken over by the government, Louis 16 tries to flee France, France declares war on Austria and Prussia, September Massacres

5 Radical Stage (Fanatics Take Over) Killing of the King, The Terror Reactionary Stage (Push Back against Excess to find Order and Stability) Stopping the Terror, trying to bring order back to France

6 The Old Regime 3 Estates Who First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Power/Influence Clergy of Roman Catholic Church Rich nobles Highest offices in government Bourgeoisie, urban poor, lower class, and farmers Views of Enlightenment Percentage of Population % of Income paid in taxes Hate the Enlightenment Disagreed about Enlightenment Ideas Embraced enlightenment ideas, but had no power to influence government. Resented Wealthy Less than 1% 2% 97% 2 % 0 % 50%

7 3 Groups within the 3 rd Estate 1. Bourgeoisie- Bankers, Factory owners, merchants, professionals. Well educated, believed in Liberty and Equality. (Paid High Tax) Resented nobles 2. Urban Poor Trades people, laborers, servants. 3. Peasants or farmers. 80% of 26M. ½ income to nobles, tithes, and taxes to king. Very eager for change tough life

8 Caricature de la période Le titre est : "A faut espérer q'eu jeu là finira ben tôt" (il faut espérer que ce jeu-là finira bientôt.)

9 Main Reasons French Rev began We return to our three friends: Economic Social Political

10 Economic Reasons in 1780 s 1. France was in MAJOR DEBT: 1. 50% of French $ spent on paying interest 2. Amer. Rev and Versailles = v. costly s = bad weather = grain shortage = FAMINE AND INFLATION 3. 3 rd Estate couldn t carry tax burden; 1. NEED $ FROM NOBLES AND CHURCH

11 Social Reasons Enlightenment Ideas (equality, liberty, and consent of governed) were accepted by 3 rd Estate in large numbers Also, some members of 1 st and 2 nd Estate accepted Enlightenment Ideas.

12 Political = Weak Leadership Louis XVI Marie Antoinette 1. Indecisive, wont take action 2. Waits until France practically has no money left. Decides to tax nobility 1. She s Austrian 2. Nickname Madame Defecit (Jewels, Gambling, Gifts) Spent 1.5M in gambling one year

13 Meeting of the Estates General Louis 16 needs to up taxes 2 nd Estate forces Louis to call a meeting of the Estates General (assembly of representatives from all 3 estates) to approve the tax May 1789 One vote per Estate; 3 rd always loses out

14 Change in Estates-General Some members of 1 st and 2 nd Estates influenced by the Enlightenment become sympathetic to 3 rd Estate and cross over into it B/C all estates are now in the 3 rd Estate, they call themselves The National Assembly Abbe Sieyes (a clergyman) states: What is the 3 rd Estate? Everything! to show its power (very famous quote you should know)

15 The Tennis Court Oath 3 days later, the new National Assembly found themselves locked out of their meeting room Found a nearby indoor tennis court and broke the doors in. Pledged to stay until they drafted a new constitution. Nobles and clergymen joined the new National Assembly

16 The Tennis Court Oath

17

18 The Response and Rumors! Louis response was to call in his mercenary Swiss Guard to surround Versailles. Rumors from Paris: 1. That the Swiss Guard would execute the National Assembly 2. That the Swiss Guard would massacre French citizens 3. Parisians need weapons!

19 Storming of the Bastille Prison Mobs of people descended on this prison to seize gunpowder. Overtook guards and warden and put their heads on pikes! This becomes France s 4 th of July

20 Bastille

21 Summer of 1789 GREAT FEAR begins as rumors spread NOBLES have hired thugs to attack peasants Peasants burn nobles mansions down to destroy feudal documents that keep them enslaved Night of Aug. 4 th : Nobles END ALL FEUDAL OBLIGATIONS & TAXES IN FRANCE!

22 National Assembly Reforms The Declaration of Rights of Man and of Citizens Aug 1789 Men are born free, remain free and equal with 4 major rights: 1.Liberty 2.Property 3.Equal Justice 4.Freedom of Speech MEANT FOR ALL THE WORLD, not just France!

23 Women s Bread March Oct October 1789, thousands of Parisian women riot in Paris over price and lack of bread, march to Versailles, and... Bring Louis 16 th and his family to Paris

24 National Assembly Reforms The N.A. takes over Church lands & then takes over the Catholic Church Priests must swear loyalty to Fr. Gov t. Most refuse and thrown into jail In 1791, Louis XVI reluctantly approves NEW CONSTITUTION = New legislative power is formed OLD Lawmaking Body NEW Lawmaking Body

25 FRENCH POLITICS Government of Legislative Assembly Left Radicals Centrist Moderates Right/Royalists Conservatives -Want Major Change Few Changes Hardly any change Non-Government Emigres: (Nobles) who had fled France and restore the Old Regime Sans-Culottes: (Paris Working class) these people supplied the muscle to the radicals like Danton and Marat

26 The Political Spectrum TODAY: 1790s: Sans-Culottes Girondins King, Royalists, Emigres Jacobins

27 The Guillotine When executioner cranked the blade to the top, a mechanism released the blade and severed the victims head from the body Doctors believed that a victim s head retained its hearing and eyesight for 15 minutes after beheading Before each execution, bound victims traveled from the prison to execution in ½ hour processions through the streets of Paris

28 Guillotine Chopping a Carrot

29 Radicals Take Control (The Jacobin Party) Jacobin Meeting House Leader is Jean Paul Marat/Editor of Newspaper Friend of the People Jean-Paul Marat Called for the death of those who supported the king Membership mostly middle class. Tried Louis for treason who was sentenced to death by the guillotine

30 Off with the Absolute Monarch s Head! End of the era of absolute monarchs in France

31 Robespierre and the Reign of Terror 12-Man Committee of Public Safety took over France Robspierre was its LEADER! was known as the Reign of Terror Robespierre ruled like a dictator Enemies of CPS guillotined (many were people who challenged his leadership) Any suspicion led to death Robespierre Leader of the Committee of Public Safety

32 Primary Source If the basis of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the basis of popular government in time of revolution is both virtue and terror; virtue without which terror is murderous, terror without virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing else than swift, severe, indomitable justice; it flows, then, from virtue. -Robespierre, On the Morals and Political Principles of Domestic Policy How did he justify the use of terror?

33 Robespierre and the Reign of Terror (cont.) Who are the enemies of the CPS? ALL were considered enemies: any charge leads to problems 40,000 people were executed (18,000-20,000 killed in Paris) About 85 percent were peasants or members of the urban poor or middle class (3 rd estate)

34 Different Social Classes Executed 8% 7% 28% 25% 31%

35 Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine

36 Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793

37 The Monster Guillotine The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!

38 The Arrest of Robespierre

39 The Revolution Consumes Its Own Children! Danton Awaits Execution, 1793 Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.

40 Reactionary Stage: July 1794 The Terror ends 5-Man Directory takes over to bring order and stability back to France Basically, moderates came back into power

41 RISE OF NAPOLEON Urged to save France by many influential people 5 years after Directory comes to power, Napoleon overthrows the government in a coup d etat. The Savior will turn out to be an Absolute Ruler

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