The Republic. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 Main Idea

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1 Main Idea The Republic An extreme government changed French society and tried through harsh means to eliminate its critics within France. Content Statement 8/Learning Goal: Describe how Enlightenment ideas influenced the American Revolution, French Revolution and Latin American wars for independence.

2 The French Revolution Ch and 6-2 Vocabulary Napoleon Section 2 Maximilien Robespierre: Leading figure of the French Revolution; he was known for his intense dedication to the revolution. He became increasingly radical and led the National Convention during its most bloodthirsty time. Guillotine: a device used during the French Revolution for beheading people. Counterrevolution: a revolution established against a government established by a revolution Reign of Terror: a period during the French Revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens.

3 Page 208

4 A Radical Government/The National Convention The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 In 1792, the radical representatives were in charge of the National Convention. The constitutional monarchy came to a violent end, and France became a republic. 1.Mountain/Montagnards/ Jacobins Middle class and poor Most radical 2.Girondins Moderates Support Constitutional Monarchy 3.The Plain (swing voters) 1 st supported Girondins but switch to Mountain. Personal rivalries 1)Factions 2) How were Jacobins and Girondins different?

5

6 Reign of Terror

7 The French Revolution Radical and Napoleon Leaders Section 2 3)Leaders (eventually all killed during Revolution) Jean-Paul Marat advocate of violence Georges-Jacques Danton Compromiser Came to oppose excess of revolution Robespierre Dedicated radical Led National Convention during most blood thirsty time No group had program or plan of action

8 The French Revolution 4)Executions and Napoleon Section 2 National Convention puts King on Trial Montagnards were eager to try and execute the king Wanted to prevent a return of monarchy King was condemned quickly Crash course video: sentenced to death by one vote. 1/21/1793- King put to death by guillotine When the deed was done a young guard held up the dripping head for all to see

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10 The French Revolution 5)View of and Death Napoleon of the King Section 2 Europeans reacted with horror Lost European support Revolution savagery condemned Every heart burns with indignation in this kingdom, against the ferocious savages of Paris... A Republic founded on the blood of an innocent victim must have but a short duration London Times, January 25, 1793 America s response?

11 Metric system, new calendar with 3/10 week months were introduced 6)National The French Convention Revolution takes and Control Napoleon Section 2 Committee of Public Safety set up to manage military defense Drafted all able-bodied men between 18 and 45 for service Established the Revolutionary Tribunal to protect the Revolution by rooting out people who threatened it 7)Transforming Society Leaders tried to end connections to old ways of life, including religion Clergy members lost positions; churches closed in Paris Robespierre created cult of Supreme Being to replace Catholicism

12 8.Course of Revolution Many French criticized the Revolution as well as the countries of Great Britain, Holland, Spain, Austria and Prussia Revolutionary leaders feared counterrevolution Took drastic actions to keep power accusations, trials, and executions. This period was known as the Reign of Terror (300,000 arrested; 17,000 executed over 10 months). 9.An Outbreak of Civil War The Reign of Terror Peasants only wanted an end to feudal dues. Peasants in Vendee begin civil war. Catholics and monarchy supporters who opposed the Revolution start a civil war The government put down the counterrevolution to regain control. 10.Mountain leads Accusations and Trials Robespierre used the Revolutionary Tribunal to rid the country of dissenters 9/10 Who went on trial before Revolutionary Tribunal were found guilty and executed Started trials with the Girondins Anyone who had ever criticized the Revolution was in danger.

13 The French Revolution 10.Death and by Napoleon Guillotine Section 2 Most common sentence - death by guillotine Condemned paraded through Paris in open carts to awaiting stages Mobs watched at scaffold; executions took less than one minute 10.The Terror s Victims No one was spared Peasants /laborers largest victims Danton sent to guillotine by Robespierre for suggesting relaxing rule of terror. Robespierre eventually arrested and later executed too. 17,000 executed in 10 months Oh Liberty, what crimes are committed in your name! Reign of Terror ends after death of Robespierre 11.After the Terror France started over with new constitution in 1795 The Directory established (1795) Voting limited to property owners High prices, bankruptcy, and citizens unrest continued Power vacuum developed-no one in control

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15 Four Phases (Periods) of the French Revolution National Assembly ( ) Legislative Assembly ( ) Convention ( ) Directory ( )

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17 Reign of Terror

18 The French Short Revolution Response and Napoleon on 6-1/6-2 Quiz Section 2 How did Enlightenment ideas play a role in the French Revolution? Use specific information and explain in detail. At least two paragraphs.

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