Chapter Introduction Section 1: Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia Section 2: Egyptian Civilization Section 3: New Centers of Civilization Section 4:

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2 Chapter Introduction Section 1: Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia Section 2: Egyptian Civilization Section 3: New Centers of Civilization Section 4: The Rise of New Empires Visual Summary

3 How does progress affect history? During the 1960s, Egypt built the Aswan High Dam to control flooding of the Nile River. The lake rising behind the dam threatened to destroy ancient Egyptian monuments. An international team saved several temples including Abu Simbel Ramses II s temple. Abu Simbel was carved into 20-ton blocks, moved 200 feet, and reassembled. In this chapter you will learn about Egyptian rulers and temples. Why would other countries help Egypt preserve its monuments? How can countries adapt to changing needs and still preserve their history?

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6 Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia Why were the first farming societies located along rivers?

7 Egyptian Civilization What factors contribute to a stable and lasting civilization?

8 New Centers of Civilization How did the monotheism of the Israelites differ from religious beliefs of previous cultures?

9 The Rise of New Empires What did lasting empires have in common?

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11 The BIG Idea Physical Geography Fertile soil between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers allowed an early civilization to flourish in Mesopotamia.

12 Content Vocabulary polytheistic city-state ziggurat cuneiform empire patriarchal theocracy Academic Vocabulary transport innovations

13 People and Places Tigris River Euphrates River Mesopotamia Fertile Crescent Sumerians Uruk Akkadians Sargon Babylon Hammurabi

14 Do you agree that geography plays an important role in the development of societies? A. Agree B. Disagree A. A B. B 0% 0% A B

15 Geography and Religion The physical environment of Mesopotamia supported the development of civilization and influenced people s religious beliefs.

16 Geography and Religion (cont.) The first civilization began in a valley known as Mesopotamia, which was between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Mesopotamia (today s Iraq) was located in the Fertile Crescent, an area of good farmland located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf. Ancient Mesopotamia

17 Geography and Religion (cont.) The Sumerians created the first civilization in Mesopotamia around 3000 B.C. Mesopotamians were polytheistic, and believed in nearly 3,000 gods and goddesses.

18 What enabled the Mesopotamians to switch from a nomadic lifestyle to permanent settlements? A. Polytheism B. Civilizations C. Large armies D. Farming A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D

19 City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia Religion played a powerful role in the economic, political, and social structure of Mesopotamian city-states.

20 City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) Sumerian cities, such as Eridu, Uruk, and Ur, gained political and economic control of Mesopotamia. The basic units of Sumerian society were independent city-states.

21 City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) Much of the wealth of the cities was dedicated to building temples dedicated to the god or goddess of the city. These temples were often built atop a massive stepped tower called a ziggurat. Priests and priestesses held a great deal of power, making the state a theocracy, a government by divine authority.

22 City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) Farming was the basis of the economy of the Sumerian city-states. Sumerian metalworkers used copper, gold, and silver to make tools and jewelry. Sumerians discovered how to make bronze by adding tin to copper. Bronze is a hard metal used for making tools and weapons.

23 City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) The invention of the wheel in 3000 B.C. made the transport of goods much easier. Sumerian society was divided into three major social groups: nobles, commoners, and slaves. Mesopotamia Trade Route

24 Which of the following most accurately describes a theocracy? A. A government by divine authority B. A society of farmers C. A society with different social classes D. A government where the king is the ruler A. A B. B C. C A 0% 0% 0% 0% B D. D C D

25 The Creativity of the Sumerians The Sumerians invented writing and several new technologies that made life easier.

26 The Creativity of the Sumerians (cont.) The Sumerians are credited with many technological innovations that affect our lives today. Around 3000 B.C., the Sumerians created a system of writing known as cuneiform ( wedge-shaped ). People used a stylus or other tool to make wedge-shaped impressions on clay tablets, which were then baked or dried in the sun.

27 The Creativity of the Sumerians (cont.) Writing was important because it allowed Mesopotamian peoples to keep records and to communicate ideas with others.

28 The Creativity of the Sumerians (cont.) Examples of Sumerian technology and innovation: Wagon wheel Potter s wheel Sundial Arch used in construction Bronze metalwork Advances in mathematics, geometry, and astronomy

29 Which of the following was not an example of Sumerian technology? A. Bronze weapons B. Wagon wheels C. Ceramic pottery D. Use of geometry to erect buildings A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D

30 Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia Strong leaders established empires and codified the laws of Mesopotamia.

31 Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) Around 2340 B.C., the Akkadians, a people north of the Sumerian city-states, took control of the Sumerian city-states and established the first empire in world history. The leader of the Akkadian Empire was Sargon.

32 Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) In 1792 B.C., the city-state of Babylon took control of Sumer and Akkad. The Babylonian ruler was Hammurabi. The Code of Hammurabi was a collection of written laws based on a system of strict justice. The Influence of Hammurabi

33 Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) The Code of Hammurabi covered: Criminal offenses Duties of public officials Consumer protection laws Marriage and family Mesopotamian society was patriarchal men dominated society.

34 Which of the following set up the first empire in world history? A. Babylon B. Hammurabi C. Cuneiform D. Akkadia A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D

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36 The BIG Idea Order and Security Continuity and stability were characteristics of Egyptian civilization for thousands of years.

37 Content Vocabulary dynasty pharaoh bureaucracy mummification hieroglyphics hieratic script vizier Academic Vocabulary major physical identifying

38 People and Places Nile River Lower Egypt Upper Egypt Menes Giza Hyksos Hatshepsut Akhenaten Tutankhamen Ramses II Cleopatra VII

39 Is religion an essential component for empires? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B 0% 0% A B

40 Geography and Religion The Nile River was fundamental to the development of Egyptian civilization.

41 Geography and Religion (cont.) The Nile River is the longest river in the world. It begins in central Africa and empties into the Mediterranean Sea to the north. The Nile River splits into two major branches: Lower Egypt is the delta area that flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Upper Egypt is the land to the south which is upstream from the Mediterranean Sea.

42 Geography and Religion (cont.) Egypt s important cities developed at the tip of the delta, where the Nile River divides. Regular flooding from the Nile River created an area of rich farm soil. Farmers in the Nile Valley grew a surplus of crops, making Egypt very prosperous. The Geography of Ancient Egypt

43 Geography and Religion (cont.) The Nile River was the fastest way to travel through the kingdom, making both transportation and communication easier. Natural barriers protected Egypt from invasion. The Geography of Ancient Egypt

44 Geography and Religion (cont.) The Egyptians were polytheistic. Sun Gods: source of life Re is one of the Sun God s names. River and Land Gods: Osiris brought civilization to Egypt and was a symbol of resurrection. By identifying with Osiris, Egyptians hoped to gain life after death.

45 Which of the following enabled farmers to grow crops in the Nile Valley? A. The use of slaves B. Annual flooding of the Nile River C. New farming equipment D. Egyptian gods A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D

46 Egyptian Kingdoms Egyptian history is divided into three major periods, called kingdoms.

47 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) Around 3100 B.C., King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt into a single kingdom and created the first royal dynasty. Scholars divide Egyptian history into three periods: the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom.

48 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) The Old Kingdom (2700 B.C B.C.) Egyptian monarchs called pharaohs ruled Egypt with absolute power. A government bureaucracy developed during this period. The vizier was in charge of the government administration. Pyramids were built to honor the dead.

49 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) Egyptians practiced mummification to preserve the physical body. It was believed that preserving the physical body would allow the person s spirit to return. Pyramids were tombs for the mummified bodies of pharaohs, as well as symbols of royal power. The largest pyramid was built for King Khufu at Giza.

50 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) The Middle Kingdom (2055 B.C B.C.) A golden age of stability and expansion into Africa and western Asia. Pharaohs built public works and provided for the public welfare of the people. The Middle Kingdom ended with an invasion of the Hyksos from western Asia around 1650 B.C.

51 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) The New Kingdom (1550 B.C B.C.) Hatshepsut was one of the first women to become pharaoh. Akhenaten closed the temples of all other gods except for Aten, god of the sun disk. The popular boy-pharaoh Tutankhamen restored the old gods.

52 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) Ramses II restored the old borders of the empire that had been lost during the religious revolution under Akhenaten. Cleopatra VII unsuccessfully fought for Egyptian independence in the first century B.C.

53 Which is true of the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom? A. They all featured women rulers. B. They featured long-term stability and strong leadership. A. A C. A pyramid was built for each period. B. B D. The kingdoms all had the same ruling family. A C. C D. D 0% 0% 0% 0% B C D

54 Life in Ancient Egypt Egyptian Society was organized into classes.

55 Life in Ancient Egypt (cont.) Egyptian society was highly structured and pyramid shaped. Pharaoh Upper class: priests, nobles, government officials Middle class: merchants, artisans, scribes, tax collectors Lower class: peasants, farmers

56 Which of the following professions would not have come from the middle class? A. Scribe B. Tax collector C. Farmer D. Merchant A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D

57 Egyptian Accomplishments Egyptians developed complex writing and made advances in the arts and sciences.

58 Egyptian Accomplishments (cont.) Hieroglyphics, or sacred writings, appeared around 3000 B.C. and were carved into stone. Hieratic script was a simplified version of writing used for business transactions and record keeping. It was written on papyrus.

59 Egyptian Accomplishments (cont.) Advances in Egyptian Art and Science Architecture: pyramids, monuments, and temples Mathematics and Geometry A 365-day calendar Human anatomy: embalming, treating wounds and disease

60 How did the Egyptians keep records of daily activities? A. Carvings in stone B. Writings on papyrus C. Beads kept in a jar D. Etches on wax tablets A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D

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62 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values The Israelites belief in one God resulted in a distinct society.

63 Content Vocabulary pastoral nomad monotheistic Academic Vocabulary created domesticated technology

64 People and Places Indo-Europeans Hittites Phoenicians Israelites King Solomon Jerusalem

65 Do you think residents of your community are suspicious of strangers? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B 0% 0% A B

66 The Role of Nomadic People Nomadic peoples, especially the Indo- Europeans, served an important function for civilized societies by spreading goods and new technology.

67 The Role of Nomadic People (cont.) In central Asia, pastoral nomads lived on the fringes of civilization. These people depended on hunting, gathering, herding, and sometimes farming for survival. These people domesticated animals for food and clothing.

68 The Role of Nomadic People (cont.) People in settled communities and nomads traded goods and technology. The nomadic peoples sometimes overran civilizations and created their own empires.

69 The Role of Nomadic People (cont.) The Indo-Europeans were one of the most important nomadic peoples. Originated in the steppe region north of the Black Sea Spoke Greek, Latin, Persian, Sanskrit, and the Germanic languages Moved to India, western Asia, and Europe

70 The Role of Nomadic People (cont.) Hittites (1600 B.C B.C.) created an empire in western Asia and were the first to use iron. The Hittite Empire, B.C.

71 Who were the first Indo-Europeans to use iron? A. Greeks B. Syrians C. Hittites D. Pastoral nomads A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D

72 The Phoenicians The Phoenicians created an international trade empire and invented an alphabet.

73 The Phoenicians (cont.) After the fall of the Egyptian and Hittite empires, many city-states and kingdoms emerged. The Phoenicians lived on the Mediterranean coast in Palestine. They built ships and became great international sea traders. They sailed to Britain, Spain, and the west coast of Africa. Phoenicia and its Colonies, 1000 B.C. 700 B.C.

74 The Phoenicians (cont.) The Phoenicians are best known for their alphabet. It was copied by the Greeks and the Romans. Hebrew, Phoenician, and Latin Alphabets

75 What was the most significant cultural invention of the Phoenicians? A. Their alphabet B. Maps from their exploration C. Glass D. Dome-shaped temples A A. A B. B C. 0% C 0% 0% 0% D. D B C D

76 The Israelites The Israelites had lasting influence through their religious beliefs rather than from military power.

77 The Israelites (cont.) The Israelites lived south of the Phoenicians and were a minor factor in politics. The Israelites were monotheistic and their religion, Judaism, influenced Christianity and Islam. Around 970 B.C., King Solomon established an empire in the land known today as Israel. The capital was Jerusalem.

78 The Israelites (cont.) After Solomon s death in 930 B.C., the Israelite empire was divided: The Kingdom of Israel was located in the north. The Assyrians conquered the ten northern tribes of the Kingdom of Israel in 721 B.C. The Kingdom of Judah was to the south. The Chaldeans defeated the Assyrians and the two tribes of the Kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C.

79 The Israelites (cont.) The religion of the Jews was unique among religions of Egypt and western Asia. Despite being conquered by other states, the Jewish people would not accept the gods of their conquerors.

80 Which aspect of Israelite culture had the greatest impact on Western civilization? A. The use of iron B. King Solomon s wisdom C. Trade routes D. A monotheistic religion A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D

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82 The BIG Idea Competition Among Countries The Assyrians and the Persians established vast empires in the ancient world.

83 Content Vocabulary satrapy satrap monarchy Academic Vocabulary restraint sought sustained

84 People and Places Assyrians Nebuchadnezzar Persians Cyrus Darius Royal Road Immortals Zoroaster

85 Do you agree that it is more important to be able to conquer an enemy than it is to rule an empire? A. Agree B. Disagree 0% A. A B. B 0% A B

86 The Assyrian Empire The Assyrians ruled with harsh tactics that brought about the fall of their empire.

87 The Assyrian Empire (cont.) The Assyrians were a Semitic-speaking people who established an empire in 700 B.C. Assyrians used iron weapons and a large, well-organized, and disciplined army to conquer others. A major factor in the army s success was its ability to use different military tactics.

88 Which of the following is not a reason for the success of the Assyrian conquest of other nations? A. Wealth from the captured trade routes B. The use of iron weapons C. A large, disciplined army D. The army could utilize different military tactics A A. A B. B 0% C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D B C D

89 The Persian Empire Strong Persian leaders conquered and ruled a vast empire for more than 200 years.

90 The Persian Empire (cont.) After the collapse of the Assyrian Empire, the Chaldean king Nebuchadnezzar II made Babylonia the leading power in western Asia.

91 The Persian Empire (cont.) Babylonia was conquered by the Persians, an Indo-European people from today s Iran. The nomadic Persians were unified under one ruling family with dynamic leaders. The Persian Empire, 500 B.C.

92 The Persian Empire (cont.) In 539 B.C., Cyrus captured Babylonia. He was known as Cyrus the Great because of his wisdom and restraint toward his conquered foes. Cyrus respected other civilizations and used Assyrian, Egyptian, and Babylonian designs for building his palaces.

93 The Persian Empire (cont.) Cambyses sought to extend the empire by successfully invading Egypt. Darius added territory in western India and Thrace, today s Greece. He divided the empire into provinces called satrapies. Each satrapy was ruled by a satrap who collected taxes, provided justice, and recruited soldiers.

94 The Persian Empire (cont.) The Royal Road stretched across the Persian kingdom and allowed for communication and travel. This communication and travel sustained the Persian Empire. The power of the Persian Empire came from its military. Its professional soldiers were known as the Immortals because when one was killed, he was immediately replaced.

95 The Persian Empire (cont.) Persian religion was known as Zoroastrianism. This monotheistic religion was started by the prophet Zoroaster, who wrote his teachings in the Zend Avesta. The Persian Empire was weakened by struggles over succession to the monarchy. The Empire finally fell to Alexander the Great and the Greeks in the 330s B.C.

96 What caused the Persian Empire to decline after the death of Darius? A. The Royal Road fell into disrepair. B. Succession of Darius was uncertain, causing internal struggles. C. The rise of Zoroastrianism divided people. D. They were defeated in battle by the Greeks. A. A B. B C. C A 0% 0% 0% 0% B D. D C D

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98 Ancient Environments The Egyptians received fertile soil from the floodwaters of the Nile for farming. The Phoenicians set up a trading empire and colonies on the Mediterranean. The Mesopotamians created irrigation and flood control systems.

99 Ancient Religions The Mesopotamians and the Egyptians, who both were polytheistic, believed their rulers derived their power from the gods. The Israelites were monotheistic and believed God communicated through prophets. The Persians followed Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion.

100 Ancient Innovations The Mesopotamians established a collection of laws, along with inventing the arch, dome, wheel, and a system of writing. The Phoenicians invented the alphabet. The Persians created the concept of a standing army.

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111 Chapter Transparencies Menu Chapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.

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119 polytheistic having many gods

120 city-state a state with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside

121 ziggurat a massive, stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city

122 theocracy government by divine authority

123 cuneiform wedge-shaped, a system of writing developed by the Sumerians using a reed stylus to create wedge-shaped impressions on a clay tablet

124 empire a large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, that controls many peoples or territories

125 patriarchal dominated by men

126 transport the moving of goods or people

127 innovation a new idea, method, or device

128 dynasty a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family

129 pharaoh the most common of the various titles for ancient Egyptian monarchs; the term originally meant great house or palace

130 bureaucracy an administrative organization that relies on nonelective officials and regular procedures

131 vizier a high government official in ancient Egypt or in Muslim countries

132 mummification a process of slowly drying a dead body to prevent it from decaying

133 hieroglyphic a picture or symbol used in a hieroglyphic system of writing

134 hieratic script simplified version of hieroglyphics used in ancient Egypt for business transactions, record keeping, and the general needs of daily life

135 major great; significant in size or importance

136 identifying believing that one is the same or very similar to another

137 physical relating to the body

138 pastoral nomad a person who domesticates animals for food and clothing and moves along regular migratory routes to provide a steady source of nourishment for those animals

139 monotheistic having one god

140 created made or brought something new into

141 domesticated adapted to life with and to the advantage of humans

142 technology the science or study of the practical or industrial arts; applied sciences

143 satrapy one of the 20 provinces into which Darius divided the Persian Empire

144 satrap protector of the Kingdom ; the governor of a province (satrapy) of the Persian Empire under Darius

145 monarchy government by a sovereign ruler such as a king or queen

146 restraint a controlling force

147 sought made an attempt; tried

148 sustained supported or held up

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