2 Chapter Introduction Section 1: Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia Section 2: Egyptian Civilization Section 3: New Centers of Civilization Section 4: The Rise of New Empires Visual Summary
3 How does progress affect history? During the 1960s, Egypt built the Aswan High Dam to control flooding of the Nile River. The lake rising behind the dam threatened to destroy ancient Egyptian monuments. An international team saved several temples including Abu Simbel Ramses II s temple. Abu Simbel was carved into 20-ton blocks, moved 200 feet, and reassembled. In this chapter you will learn about Egyptian rulers and temples. Why would other countries help Egypt preserve its monuments? How can countries adapt to changing needs and still preserve their history?
6 Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia Why were the first farming societies located along rivers?
7 Egyptian Civilization What factors contribute to a stable and lasting civilization?
8 New Centers of Civilization How did the monotheism of the Israelites differ from religious beliefs of previous cultures?
9 The Rise of New Empires What did lasting empires have in common?
11 The BIG Idea Physical Geography Fertile soil between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers allowed an early civilization to flourish in Mesopotamia.
13 People and Places Tigris River Euphrates River Mesopotamia Fertile Crescent Sumerians Uruk Akkadians Sargon Babylon Hammurabi
14 Do you agree that geography plays an important role in the development of societies? A. Agree B. Disagree A. A B. B 0% 0% A B
15 Geography and Religion The physical environment of Mesopotamia supported the development of civilization and influenced people s religious beliefs.
16 Geography and Religion (cont.) The first civilization began in a valley known as Mesopotamia, which was between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Mesopotamia (today s Iraq) was located in the Fertile Crescent, an area of good farmland located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf. Ancient Mesopotamia
17 Geography and Religion (cont.) The Sumerians created the first civilization in Mesopotamia around 3000 B.C. Mesopotamians were polytheistic, and believed in nearly 3,000 gods and goddesses.
18 What enabled the Mesopotamians to switch from a nomadic lifestyle to permanent settlements? A. Polytheism B. Civilizations C. Large armies D. Farming A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D
19 City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia Religion played a powerful role in the economic, political, and social structure of Mesopotamian city-states.
20 City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) Sumerian cities, such as Eridu, Uruk, and Ur, gained political and economic control of Mesopotamia. The basic units of Sumerian society were independent city-states.
21 City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) Much of the wealth of the cities was dedicated to building temples dedicated to the god or goddess of the city. These temples were often built atop a massive stepped tower called a ziggurat. Priests and priestesses held a great deal of power, making the state a theocracy, a government by divine authority.
22 City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) Farming was the basis of the economy of the Sumerian city-states. Sumerian metalworkers used copper, gold, and silver to make tools and jewelry. Sumerians discovered how to make bronze by adding tin to copper. Bronze is a hard metal used for making tools and weapons.
23 City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) The invention of the wheel in 3000 B.C. made the transport of goods much easier. Sumerian society was divided into three major social groups: nobles, commoners, and slaves. Mesopotamia Trade Route
24 Which of the following most accurately describes a theocracy? A. A government by divine authority B. A society of farmers C. A society with different social classes D. A government where the king is the ruler A. A B. B C. C A 0% 0% 0% 0% B D. D C D
25 The Creativity of the Sumerians The Sumerians invented writing and several new technologies that made life easier.
26 The Creativity of the Sumerians (cont.) The Sumerians are credited with many technological innovations that affect our lives today. Around 3000 B.C., the Sumerians created a system of writing known as cuneiform ( wedge-shaped ). People used a stylus or other tool to make wedge-shaped impressions on clay tablets, which were then baked or dried in the sun.
27 The Creativity of the Sumerians (cont.) Writing was important because it allowed Mesopotamian peoples to keep records and to communicate ideas with others.
28 The Creativity of the Sumerians (cont.) Examples of Sumerian technology and innovation: Wagon wheel Potter s wheel Sundial Arch used in construction Bronze metalwork Advances in mathematics, geometry, and astronomy
29 Which of the following was not an example of Sumerian technology? A. Bronze weapons B. Wagon wheels C. Ceramic pottery D. Use of geometry to erect buildings A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D
30 Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia Strong leaders established empires and codified the laws of Mesopotamia.
31 Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) Around 2340 B.C., the Akkadians, a people north of the Sumerian city-states, took control of the Sumerian city-states and established the first empire in world history. The leader of the Akkadian Empire was Sargon.
32 Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) In 1792 B.C., the city-state of Babylon took control of Sumer and Akkad. The Babylonian ruler was Hammurabi. The Code of Hammurabi was a collection of written laws based on a system of strict justice. The Influence of Hammurabi
33 Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.) The Code of Hammurabi covered: Criminal offenses Duties of public officials Consumer protection laws Marriage and family Mesopotamian society was patriarchal men dominated society.
34 Which of the following set up the first empire in world history? A. Babylon B. Hammurabi C. Cuneiform D. Akkadia A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D
36 The BIG Idea Order and Security Continuity and stability were characteristics of Egyptian civilization for thousands of years.
38 People and Places Nile River Lower Egypt Upper Egypt Menes Giza Hyksos Hatshepsut Akhenaten Tutankhamen Ramses II Cleopatra VII
39 Is religion an essential component for empires? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B 0% 0% A B
40 Geography and Religion The Nile River was fundamental to the development of Egyptian civilization.
41 Geography and Religion (cont.) The Nile River is the longest river in the world. It begins in central Africa and empties into the Mediterranean Sea to the north. The Nile River splits into two major branches: Lower Egypt is the delta area that flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Upper Egypt is the land to the south which is upstream from the Mediterranean Sea.
42 Geography and Religion (cont.) Egypt s important cities developed at the tip of the delta, where the Nile River divides. Regular flooding from the Nile River created an area of rich farm soil. Farmers in the Nile Valley grew a surplus of crops, making Egypt very prosperous. The Geography of Ancient Egypt
43 Geography and Religion (cont.) The Nile River was the fastest way to travel through the kingdom, making both transportation and communication easier. Natural barriers protected Egypt from invasion. The Geography of Ancient Egypt
44 Geography and Religion (cont.) The Egyptians were polytheistic. Sun Gods: source of life Re is one of the Sun God s names. River and Land Gods: Osiris brought civilization to Egypt and was a symbol of resurrection. By identifying with Osiris, Egyptians hoped to gain life after death.
45 Which of the following enabled farmers to grow crops in the Nile Valley? A. The use of slaves B. Annual flooding of the Nile River C. New farming equipment D. Egyptian gods A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D
46 Egyptian Kingdoms Egyptian history is divided into three major periods, called kingdoms.
47 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) Around 3100 B.C., King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt into a single kingdom and created the first royal dynasty. Scholars divide Egyptian history into three periods: the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom.
48 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) The Old Kingdom (2700 B.C B.C.) Egyptian monarchs called pharaohs ruled Egypt with absolute power. A government bureaucracy developed during this period. The vizier was in charge of the government administration. Pyramids were built to honor the dead.
49 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) Egyptians practiced mummification to preserve the physical body. It was believed that preserving the physical body would allow the person s spirit to return. Pyramids were tombs for the mummified bodies of pharaohs, as well as symbols of royal power. The largest pyramid was built for King Khufu at Giza.
50 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) The Middle Kingdom (2055 B.C B.C.) A golden age of stability and expansion into Africa and western Asia. Pharaohs built public works and provided for the public welfare of the people. The Middle Kingdom ended with an invasion of the Hyksos from western Asia around 1650 B.C.
51 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) The New Kingdom (1550 B.C B.C.) Hatshepsut was one of the first women to become pharaoh. Akhenaten closed the temples of all other gods except for Aten, god of the sun disk. The popular boy-pharaoh Tutankhamen restored the old gods.
52 Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.) Ramses II restored the old borders of the empire that had been lost during the religious revolution under Akhenaten. Cleopatra VII unsuccessfully fought for Egyptian independence in the first century B.C.
53 Which is true of the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom? A. They all featured women rulers. B. They featured long-term stability and strong leadership. A. A C. A pyramid was built for each period. B. B D. The kingdoms all had the same ruling family. A C. C D. D 0% 0% 0% 0% B C D
54 Life in Ancient Egypt Egyptian Society was organized into classes.
55 Life in Ancient Egypt (cont.) Egyptian society was highly structured and pyramid shaped. Pharaoh Upper class: priests, nobles, government officials Middle class: merchants, artisans, scribes, tax collectors Lower class: peasants, farmers
56 Which of the following professions would not have come from the middle class? A. Scribe B. Tax collector C. Farmer D. Merchant A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D
57 Egyptian Accomplishments Egyptians developed complex writing and made advances in the arts and sciences.
58 Egyptian Accomplishments (cont.) Hieroglyphics, or sacred writings, appeared around 3000 B.C. and were carved into stone. Hieratic script was a simplified version of writing used for business transactions and record keeping. It was written on papyrus.
59 Egyptian Accomplishments (cont.) Advances in Egyptian Art and Science Architecture: pyramids, monuments, and temples Mathematics and Geometry A 365-day calendar Human anatomy: embalming, treating wounds and disease
60 How did the Egyptians keep records of daily activities? A. Carvings in stone B. Writings on papyrus C. Beads kept in a jar D. Etches on wax tablets A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D
62 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values The Israelites belief in one God resulted in a distinct society.
64 People and Places Indo-Europeans Hittites Phoenicians Israelites King Solomon Jerusalem
65 Do you think residents of your community are suspicious of strangers? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B 0% 0% A B
66 The Role of Nomadic People Nomadic peoples, especially the Indo- Europeans, served an important function for civilized societies by spreading goods and new technology.
67 The Role of Nomadic People (cont.) In central Asia, pastoral nomads lived on the fringes of civilization. These people depended on hunting, gathering, herding, and sometimes farming for survival. These people domesticated animals for food and clothing.
68 The Role of Nomadic People (cont.) People in settled communities and nomads traded goods and technology. The nomadic peoples sometimes overran civilizations and created their own empires.
69 The Role of Nomadic People (cont.) The Indo-Europeans were one of the most important nomadic peoples. Originated in the steppe region north of the Black Sea Spoke Greek, Latin, Persian, Sanskrit, and the Germanic languages Moved to India, western Asia, and Europe
70 The Role of Nomadic People (cont.) Hittites (1600 B.C B.C.) created an empire in western Asia and were the first to use iron. The Hittite Empire, B.C.
71 Who were the first Indo-Europeans to use iron? A. Greeks B. Syrians C. Hittites D. Pastoral nomads A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D
72 The Phoenicians The Phoenicians created an international trade empire and invented an alphabet.
73 The Phoenicians (cont.) After the fall of the Egyptian and Hittite empires, many city-states and kingdoms emerged. The Phoenicians lived on the Mediterranean coast in Palestine. They built ships and became great international sea traders. They sailed to Britain, Spain, and the west coast of Africa. Phoenicia and its Colonies, 1000 B.C. 700 B.C.
74 The Phoenicians (cont.) The Phoenicians are best known for their alphabet. It was copied by the Greeks and the Romans. Hebrew, Phoenician, and Latin Alphabets
75 What was the most significant cultural invention of the Phoenicians? A. Their alphabet B. Maps from their exploration C. Glass D. Dome-shaped temples A A. A B. B C. 0% C 0% 0% 0% D. D B C D
76 The Israelites The Israelites had lasting influence through their religious beliefs rather than from military power.
77 The Israelites (cont.) The Israelites lived south of the Phoenicians and were a minor factor in politics. The Israelites were monotheistic and their religion, Judaism, influenced Christianity and Islam. Around 970 B.C., King Solomon established an empire in the land known today as Israel. The capital was Jerusalem.
78 The Israelites (cont.) After Solomon s death in 930 B.C., the Israelite empire was divided: The Kingdom of Israel was located in the north. The Assyrians conquered the ten northern tribes of the Kingdom of Israel in 721 B.C. The Kingdom of Judah was to the south. The Chaldeans defeated the Assyrians and the two tribes of the Kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C.
79 The Israelites (cont.) The religion of the Jews was unique among religions of Egypt and western Asia. Despite being conquered by other states, the Jewish people would not accept the gods of their conquerors.
80 Which aspect of Israelite culture had the greatest impact on Western civilization? A. The use of iron B. King Solomon s wisdom C. Trade routes D. A monotheistic religion A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D
82 The BIG Idea Competition Among Countries The Assyrians and the Persians established vast empires in the ancient world.
84 People and Places Assyrians Nebuchadnezzar Persians Cyrus Darius Royal Road Immortals Zoroaster
85 Do you agree that it is more important to be able to conquer an enemy than it is to rule an empire? A. Agree B. Disagree 0% A. A B. B 0% A B
86 The Assyrian Empire The Assyrians ruled with harsh tactics that brought about the fall of their empire.
87 The Assyrian Empire (cont.) The Assyrians were a Semitic-speaking people who established an empire in 700 B.C. Assyrians used iron weapons and a large, well-organized, and disciplined army to conquer others. A major factor in the army s success was its ability to use different military tactics.
88 Which of the following is not a reason for the success of the Assyrian conquest of other nations? A. Wealth from the captured trade routes B. The use of iron weapons C. A large, disciplined army D. The army could utilize different military tactics A A. A B. B 0% C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D B C D
89 The Persian Empire Strong Persian leaders conquered and ruled a vast empire for more than 200 years.
90 The Persian Empire (cont.) After the collapse of the Assyrian Empire, the Chaldean king Nebuchadnezzar II made Babylonia the leading power in western Asia.
91 The Persian Empire (cont.) Babylonia was conquered by the Persians, an Indo-European people from today s Iran. The nomadic Persians were unified under one ruling family with dynamic leaders. The Persian Empire, 500 B.C.
92 The Persian Empire (cont.) In 539 B.C., Cyrus captured Babylonia. He was known as Cyrus the Great because of his wisdom and restraint toward his conquered foes. Cyrus respected other civilizations and used Assyrian, Egyptian, and Babylonian designs for building his palaces.
93 The Persian Empire (cont.) Cambyses sought to extend the empire by successfully invading Egypt. Darius added territory in western India and Thrace, today s Greece. He divided the empire into provinces called satrapies. Each satrapy was ruled by a satrap who collected taxes, provided justice, and recruited soldiers.
94 The Persian Empire (cont.) The Royal Road stretched across the Persian kingdom and allowed for communication and travel. This communication and travel sustained the Persian Empire. The power of the Persian Empire came from its military. Its professional soldiers were known as the Immortals because when one was killed, he was immediately replaced.
95 The Persian Empire (cont.) Persian religion was known as Zoroastrianism. This monotheistic religion was started by the prophet Zoroaster, who wrote his teachings in the Zend Avesta. The Persian Empire was weakened by struggles over succession to the monarchy. The Empire finally fell to Alexander the Great and the Greeks in the 330s B.C.
96 What caused the Persian Empire to decline after the death of Darius? A. The Royal Road fell into disrepair. B. Succession of Darius was uncertain, causing internal struggles. C. The rise of Zoroastrianism divided people. D. They were defeated in battle by the Greeks. A. A B. B C. C A 0% 0% 0% 0% B D. D C D
98 Ancient Environments The Egyptians received fertile soil from the floodwaters of the Nile for farming. The Phoenicians set up a trading empire and colonies on the Mediterranean. The Mesopotamians created irrigation and flood control systems.
99 Ancient Religions The Mesopotamians and the Egyptians, who both were polytheistic, believed their rulers derived their power from the gods. The Israelites were monotheistic and believed God communicated through prophets. The Persians followed Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion.
100 Ancient Innovations The Mesopotamians established a collection of laws, along with inventing the arch, dome, wheel, and a system of writing. The Phoenicians invented the alphabet. The Persians created the concept of a standing army.
111 Chapter Transparencies Menu Chapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.
119 polytheistic having many gods
120 city-state a state with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
121 ziggurat a massive, stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city
122 theocracy government by divine authority
123 cuneiform wedge-shaped, a system of writing developed by the Sumerians using a reed stylus to create wedge-shaped impressions on a clay tablet
124 empire a large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, that controls many peoples or territories
125 patriarchal dominated by men
126 transport the moving of goods or people
127 innovation a new idea, method, or device
128 dynasty a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family
129 pharaoh the most common of the various titles for ancient Egyptian monarchs; the term originally meant great house or palace
130 bureaucracy an administrative organization that relies on nonelective officials and regular procedures
131 vizier a high government official in ancient Egypt or in Muslim countries
132 mummification a process of slowly drying a dead body to prevent it from decaying
133 hieroglyphic a picture or symbol used in a hieroglyphic system of writing
134 hieratic script simplified version of hieroglyphics used in ancient Egypt for business transactions, record keeping, and the general needs of daily life
135 major great; significant in size or importance
136 identifying believing that one is the same or very similar to another
137 physical relating to the body
138 pastoral nomad a person who domesticates animals for food and clothing and moves along regular migratory routes to provide a steady source of nourishment for those animals
139 monotheistic having one god
140 created made or brought something new into
141 domesticated adapted to life with and to the advantage of humans
142 technology the science or study of the practical or industrial arts; applied sciences
143 satrapy one of the 20 provinces into which Darius divided the Persian Empire
144 satrap protector of the Kingdom ; the governor of a province (satrapy) of the Persian Empire under Darius
145 monarchy government by a sovereign ruler such as a king or queen
146 restraint a controlling force
147 sought made an attempt; tried
148 sustained supported or held up
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WS/FCS Unit Planning Organizer Subject(s) Social Studies Conceptual Lenses Grade/Course 6 th Grade Innovation Unit of Study Middle East and Ancient Egypt Quality of Life Unit Title Laws, Floods and Pharaohs
Section 1: Mesopotamia Chapter 2 Outline - Mesopotamia: land between the - by : Sumerian culture established I. Sumerian Civilization - temple was the center of,,, and - ruler, usually a A. Cuneiform 1.
Chapter Three Kingdoms and Empires in the Middle East 1 Biblical References? Historic References? Trading Empires of the Ancient Middle East Aramaeans Damascus, Syria Rich Overland Trade Aramaic Language
Objective: SW explain how Mesopotamian civilizations developed. Do First: Vocabulary Civilization advanced society with complex social, cultural, and political systems In the Neolithic Revolution, people
Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia 6.1 Introduction (p.51) The city-states of Sumer were like independent countries they often fought over land and water rights; they never united into one group; they
Place all answers on answer key. Part I Match (10) 2012 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Sumerian pyramid shaped temple Epic poem Name meaning land between the rivers First empire builder Sumerian system
Rise of the Persian Empire Topic 2: The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.E. - 500 B.C.E.) Lesson 2: Empires in Mesopotamia Rise of the Persian Empire 539 B.C.E., Babylon fell to the Persian armies
Chapter 2Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia Learning Objective: I can explain the achievements & rise of the empires of Mesopotamia. Sumer For 1,500 years, Sumer is a land of independent city-states.
Interactive Social Studies Notebook Ancient Mesopotamia thank you for downloading! Thank you for downloading StudentSavvy s Interactive Social Studies Notebook Ancient Mesopotamia! If you have any questions
Session 4 - Lecture 1 I. Introduction The Patriarchs and the Middle Bronze Age Genesis 12-50 traces the movements of the Patriarchs, the ancestors of the Israelites. These movements carried the Patriarchs
1. What material was used for writing in Mesopotamia? A) Animal bones B) Papyrus C) Soft clay D) Parchment 2. How did papyrus compare with clay tablets as a writing material? A) It was less prone to disintegration.
LOG ONTO EMAIL TEXTBOOK CLASS WEB PAGE Opener - According to the text what 3 things should you know by the end of Chapter 1? (Hint see the Chapter Opener page) Origins, development, and achievements of
Test Bank for World History 7th Edition by Duiker and Spielvogel Link download full: http://testbankair.com/download/test-bank-for-worldhistory-7th-edition-by-duiker-and-spielvogel/ Chapter 1 Early Humans
Name Date Assessment: Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia Mastering the Content Select the letter next to the best answer. 1. What was a problem caused by Sumerian city-states independence from one another?
HIST-WHI MVHS Z Saunders Early Man and River Civ Test Exam not valid for Paper Pencil Test Sessions [Exam ID:29612S 1 Which number on this map represents the region where archaeologists believe the first
People and Ideas on the Move, 2000 B.C. 250 B.C. Migrations by Indo-Europeans led to major changes in trade and language as well as to the foundations of three religions: Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism.
Ancient History Review How much do you remember from 6th grade? Early Humans Early humans were hunter-gatherers. They relied on animals and plants for food. They moved constantly in search of their food.
World History (Survey) Chapter 1: People and Ideas on the Move, 3500 B.C. 259 B.C. Section 1: Indo-European Migrations While some peoples built civilizations in the great river valleys, others lived on
Chapter 2 section 2 notes S U M E R A N D A K K A D Sumer and Akkad Both city state regions in Mesopotamia Sumer was in the south Akkad was in the north Both had similar beliefs, traditions and customs
New Centers of Civilization C H A P T E R 3 S E C T I O N 3 The Role of Nomadic Peoples In the area of a civilization flourished around 4,000 years ago. On the edges of this civilization were, who occasionally
History of Ancient Israel I. Beginnings A. Abraham lays the foundation for a new religion (which will become JUDAISM ) 1. lived in the Mesopotamian city of UR with his wife SARAH 2. the Mesopotamians believed
1 City-States in Mesopotamia MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES INTERACTION WITH ENVIRONMENT The earliest civilization in Asia arose in Mesopotamia and organized into city-states. The development
Western Asia and Egypt Key Events 3500 500 B.C. As you read, look for the key events in the history of Southwest Asia and Egypt. The Sumerians in Mesopotamia were among the first groups to build a civilization,
Chapter 4, Lesson 1 Mesopotamian Empires TERMS AND NAMES Terms Definition Importance empire emperor Fertile Crescent Hammurabi code of law MAIN IDEAS 1. Who controlled Mesopotamia? Sargon, King of Akkadian
Culture and Society in Ancient Mesopotamia By Ancient History Encyclopedia, adapted by Newsela staff on 07.25.17 Word Count 1,180 Level 1060L "The Walls of Babylon and the Temple of Bel (Or Babel)", by
CHAPTER 2 Main Idea Activities 2.4 (pp. 35 40) The First Civilizations VOCABULARY Some terms to understand: related languages (35): languages that share an original source (come from the same place) to
Name CHAPTER 3 Section 1 (pages 61 65) The Indo-Europeans BEFORE YOU READ In the last chapter, you read about peoples who built civilizations in the great river valleys. In this section, you will learn
Chapter 2 The Fertile Crescent Chapter 2-Guiding Questions: How did physical geography affect the growth of ancient civilizations? What legacies have been left by cultures of the past? Section 2 Babylonia