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1 DIRECTIONS: 1. Color the title 2. Color the three backgrounds 3. Use your textbook to discover the pictures; Color once you can identify them

2

3 DIRECTIONS: Use the maps located on pages to complete 1-7 below. 1. Create a compass rose in the lower right-hand corner on the map above that includes the 4 cardinal directions. 2. Label the following 5 city-states on the map above: Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Ur, and Nineveh (look for the 5 s above) 3. Outline/trace the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers with PURPLE on the map above 4. Color in the remaining waterways (such as the Persian Gulf, Mediterranean Sea ) BLUE on the map above. 5. Outline and then color in the Fertile Crescent with GREEN on the map above. 6. Outline/trace the borders of Israel and Judah with RED. 7. Color in the remaining land with YELLOW on the map above. 8. What does Mesopotamia mean?

4 The Fertile Crescent (Use with p of textbook)

5

6 Cuneiform (Lesson 2) Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of writing. It started out as pictures, called pictographs. By around the year 3000 B.C., these pictographs had become simplified, so that they would be easier and faster to write. Also by this time, the Sumerians had started to come up with cuneiform letters to represent sounds, just like our alphabet. Their writing became a mix of cuneiform pictographs, cuneiform letters, and even some cuneiform syllables. To make cuneiform even easier to write, the Sumerians stopped writing up and down, and started writing from left to right and top to bottom, as we do today. Cuneiform was written onto clay tablets, or sometimes carved into stones. Clay was useful because it could be reshaped and reused later in the day, or it could be dried by a fire like pottery and kept permanently. To make the marks on the clay, reeds with a pointy (but not sharp) edge were used to press into the clay. They did not drag through the clay like we drag a pencil or pen across a piece of paper. Instead the wedge-shaped reed stylus was pressed into the clay from above. In fact, the name cuneiform comes from the Latin word cuneus, which means wedge. The Sumerians did not call their system of writing cuneiform. That name came later. Write your first name in cuneiform. Write it in English under each symbol. Then write a sentence in cuneiform that a Sumerian would write. It can be about almost anything but it should apply to Sumerian life. (Advice: You will need to spell out words like a, an, and the in letter form. The more Sumerian word symbols you use, the easier it will be. See the example below.) Lightly shade in the entire stele using your pencil. Example: Name Sentence More info on back

7 Cuneiform Letters Cuneiform Symbols/Words

8 Mesopotamia (Use with p of textbook)

9

10 Leaders of the Fertile Crescent Directions: On page 34 of your folder you are going to create a trading card for one of the leaders discussed in Chapter 2. Please select from one of the following Gilgamesh, Sargon, Hammurabi, Ashurbanipal, Nebuchadnezzar II, King David, or Solomon. Use the steps below to complete activity. Draw your leader on the front of your trading card. Color your picture. **You can find pictures on pages 4-5 and of your textbook. Write the leader s name on the front of your card, below your picture. On the back be sure to include the following: Name of leader towards the top of your card Ruled (Leader of) Dates of leadership B.C. - B.C. 2 MAJOR Highlights/Accomplishments from their career

11 Leaders of the Fertile Crescent Brief Biographies Gilgamesh [dates of leadership between 2750 and 2500 B.C.]: A legendary Sumerian king, the hero of Sumerian and Babylonian epics. He is the hero of the Gilgamesh epic, a work of some 3,000 lines, written on 12 tablets c.2000 B.C. and discovered among the ruins at Nineveh. The epic was lost when the the library of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal was destroyed in 612 B.C. Gilgamesh became obsessed by a fear of death and wanted to obtain immortality. Sargon [dates of leadership 2334 to 2279 B.C.]: Mesopotamian ruler; founder of Akkadian empire. He completed Shalmaneser's siege of Samaria in 721 B.C., thus destroying the northern Israelite kingdom forever. In 720 he defeated a coalition of enemies at Raphia. He captured Carchemish, subdued Babylonia, and advanced eastward to Kurdistan. He founded the last great Assyrian dynasty. Hammurabi [dates of leadership B.C]: King of Babylonia. He founded an empire that was eventually destroyed by raids from Asia Minor. Hammurabi may have begun building the tower of Babel, which can now be identified with the temple-tower in Babylon called Etemenanki. His code of laws is one of the greatest of ancient codes. The code, which addresses such issues as business and family relations, labor, private property, and personal injuries, is generally humanitarian. One severe feature, however, is the retributive nature of the punishment, which follows an eye for an eye literally. Much of the code is drawn from earlier Sumerian and Semitic laws, which seem to provide the basis for its harshly punitive nature. Ashurbanipal [dates of leadership B.C.]: The last of the great kings of Assyria, he drove Taharka out of Egypt and firmly established Necho in power there. His reign ended the greatness of the empire (although two of his sons ruled briefly after his death), and Assyria succumbed to the Medes and the Persians only a few years later. His great expenditures in wars to preserve the state contributed somewhat to its collapse. Nebuchadnezzar II [dates of leadership B.C.]: Nebuchadnezzar was the most important king of the Second Babylonian empire. According to the Bible, he conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and sent the Jews into exile. He is credited with the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world, and the destruction of the First Temple. King David [dates of leadership B.C.]: Under David's rule Israel's regions unite and win battles with surrounding enemies. Jerusalem comes to be known as the "City of David" and the center of government and worship. The Star of David, a Jewish symbol in recent centuries, appears on the flag of the modern state of Israel. Solomon [dates of leadership B.C.]: King of the ancient Hebrews; son and successor of David. According to the Bible. Solomon's reign was marked by foreign alliances (notably with Egypt and Phoenicia) and the greatest extension of Israel's territory in biblical times. He built numerous cities, constructed copper smelting furnaces in the Negev, and had the first temple built at Jerusalem.

12 Hebrews, Phoenicians, & Lydians (Use with p of textbook)

13

14 The Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia Babylonia and Assyria Hebrews, Phoenicians, and Lydians DIRECTIONS: Please preview Chapter 2: Early Civilizations on pages of your textbook. After you discover what each of the pictures above represent, color your cover page above. Then cut this page out. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

15 Chapter 2 Key Concepts LESSON 1: The Fertile Crescent Civilization is a large complex society. The Fertile Crescent is the location of the first civilizations and is located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Although the climate was hot and dry with frequent floods, Mesopotamians were able to adapt to and modify their environment. Mesopotamian farmers grew wheat and barley which still grows there today. LESSON 2: Mesopotamia The Mesopotamian civilizations of Sumer and Akkad flourished from about 3500 B.C. to 2000 B.C. Gilgamesh has become a mythical figure whose epic story of common human experiences has lasted for years Mystery surrounds the life of the Mesopotamian king, Sargon, who held power for about 56 years. Ziggurats were believed by Mesopotamians to link the heavens to the earth Sumerians created a wedged-shape writing known as cuneiform. LESSON 3: Babylonia and Assyria New empires in the Fertile Crescent advanced by adapting earlier Mesopotamian culture. Hammurabi was a brilliant brutal warrior whose crowning achievement as a ruler was his code of laws. Ashurbanipal was a very educated king who controlled nearly all of the Fertile Crescent during his reign. Dedicated to a Babylonian goddess, the Ishtar Gate, built about 580 B.C., was the main entryway into Babylonia. LESSON 4: Hebrews, Phoenicians, and Lydians Judaism became one of the first religions in the world to worship only one god (monotheism). The Torah is a sacred text that provides guidance and laws for the Hebrew people. The Phoenicians linked the world through trade and developed an alphabet. The invention of coins by the Lydians made it easier to pay for goods and services. DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly on the back side of your Chapter 2 cover page. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

16 The Fertile Crescent Black Sea Caspian Sea DIRECTIONS: Use the maps located on pages to complete 1-7 below. 1. Create a compass rose for your map above that includes the 4 cardinal directions. 2. Label the following 5 city-states on the map above: Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Ur, and Nineveh 3. Outline the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers with BLUE on the map above 4. Color in the remaining waterways (such as the Persian Gulf, Mediterranean Sea ) BLUE on the map above. 5. Outline and then color in the Fertile Crescent with GREEN on the map above. 6. Outline the borders of Israel and Judah with RED. 7. Color in the remaining land with YELLOW on the map above. 8. What does Mesopotamia mean? DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly next to your Chapter 2 Key Concepts page 29. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

17 The Fertile Crescent (p ) DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly on the back side of your Fertile Crescent page 30. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

18 Cuneiform Directions: Write your first name in cuneiform and the initial of your last name in cuneiform. Write it in English under each symbol. Then write a sentence in cuneiform that a Sumerian would write. It can be about almost anything but it should apply to Sumerian life. (Advice: You will need to spell out words like a, an, and the in letter form. The more Sumerian word symbols you use, the easier it will be. See the example.) Lightly shade in the entire stele using your pencil. DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly next to your Fertile Crescent page 31. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

19 Mesopotamia (p ) DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly on the back side of your Cuneiform page 32. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

20 Leaders of the Fertile Crescent Directions: Create a trading card for one of the leaders discussed in Chapter 2. Please select from one of the following Gilgamesh, Sargon, Hammurabi, Ashurbanipal, Nebuchadnezzar II, King David, or Solomon. Use the steps below to complete activity. You can find pictures on pages 4-5 and of your textbook. 1. Draw your leader on the front of your trading card. Color your picture. 2. Write the leader s name on the front below your picture. 3. On the back be sure to include the following: a. Name of leader towards the top of your card b. Ruled (Leader of) c. Dates of leadership B.C. - B.C. d. 2 Highlights/Accomplishments from their career DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly next to your Mesopotamia page 33. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

21 Hebrews, Phoenicians, & Lydians (p ) DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly on the back side of your Leaders of the Fertile Crescent page 34. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

22 Chapter 2 Reflection 1. What information did I learn that was new to me? Explain and be specific. 2. Was completing the folder activities easy or difficult for me? Explain and be specific. 3. Rate your effort at meeting the notebook expectations (circle one): Excellent Enormous Effort Good Acceptable Effort Needs Improvement Some Effort Unacceptable Little to No Effort I worked on this task until it was completed. I pushed myself to continue working on the task even when difficulties arose or a solution was not immediate. I view difficulties that arose as opportunities to increase understanding I worked on this task until it was completed. I pushed myself to continue working on the task even when difficulties arose or a solution was not immediate. I put some effort but I stopped working on the task when difficulties arose. I put very little effort into the task or did not attempt it. 4. What is your goal for our next chapter which focuses on ancient Egypt? How are you going to achieve that goal? Explain and be specific. Teacher will complete the following: Chapter 2 Folder Activities Grade % Chapter 2 Test Grade % DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly next to your Hebrews page 35. Once you have completed these steps, please answer questions 1-4 on the Reflection page. The teacher will fill in your grades once you have taken the time to reflect.

23 DIRECTIONS: Please preview Chapter 2: Early Civilizations on pages of your textbook. After you discover what each of the pictures above represent, color your cover page above. Then cut this page out. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

24 Chapter 2 Key Concepts LESSON 1: The Fertile Crescent Civilization is a large complex society. The Fertile Crescent is the location of the first civilizations and is located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Although the climate was hot and dry with frequent floods, Mesopotamians were able to adapt to and modify their environment. Mesopotamian farmers grew wheat and barley which still grows there today. LESSON 2: Mesopotamia The Mesopotamian civilizations of Sumer and Akkad flourished from about 3500 B.C. to 2000 B.C. Gilgamesh has become a mythical figure whose epic story of common human experiences has lasted for years Mystery surrounds the life of the Mesopotamian king, Sargon, who held power for about 56 years. Ziggurats were believed by Mesopotamians to link the heavens to the earth Sumerians created a wedged-shape writing known as cuneiform. LESSON 3: Babylonia and Assyria New empires in the Fertile Crescent advanced by adapting earlier Mesopotamian culture. Hammurabi was a brilliant brutal warrior whose crowning achievement as a ruler was his code of laws. Ashurbanipal was a very educated king who controlled nearly all of the Fertile Crescent during his reign. Dedicated to a Babylonian goddess, the Ishtar Gate, built about 580 B.C., was the main entryway into Babylonia. LESSON 4: Hebrews, Phoenicians, and Lydians Judaism became one of the first religions in the world to worship only one god (monotheism). The Torah is a sacred text that provides guidance and laws for the Hebrew people. The Phoenicians linked the world through trade and developed an alphabet. The invention of coins by the Lydians made it easier to pay for goods and services. DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly on the back side of your Chapter 2 cover page. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

25 The Fertile Crescent Black Sea Caspian Sea DIRECTIONS: Use the maps located on pages to complete 1-7 below. 1. Create a compass rose for your map above that includes the 4 cardinal directions. 2. Label the following 5 city-states on the map above: Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Ur, and Nineveh 3. Outline the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers with BLUE on the map above 4. Color in the remaining waterways (such as the Persian Gulf, Mediterranean Sea ) BLUE on the map above. 5. Outline and then color in the Fertile Crescent with GREEN on the map above. 6. Outline the borders of Israel and Judah with RED. 7. Color in the remaining land with YELLOW on the map above. 8. What does Mesopotamia mean? between the rivers. Mesopotamia means the land DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly on the back side of your Chapter 2 cover page. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

26 The Fertile Crescent (p ) Farmers developed irrigation systems to solve the problem of low rainfall. (p. 36) Improved farming techniques led to surpluses of food crops. (p. 37) The population of southern Mesopotamia grew. (p. 38) Some villages grew into city-states with their own government. (p.38) The people of Mesopotamia traded with faraway places. (p. 39) Mesopotamian culture spread to other parts of the world. (p. 39) DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly next to your The Fertile Crescent page 1. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

27 Cuneiform Directions: Write your first name in cuneiform and the initial of your last name in cuneiform. Write it in English under each symbol. Then write a sentence in cuneiform that a Sumerian would write. It can be about almost anything but it should apply to Sumerian life. (Advice: You will need to spell out words like a, an, and the in letter form. The more Sumerian word symbols you use, the easier it will be. See the example.) Lightly shade in the entire stele using your pencil. J o h n L. Water a n d sun h e l p barley g r o w DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly on the back side of your Fertile Crescent page 2. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

28 Mesopotamia (p ) Region in the south of Mesopotamia Region in the north of Mesopotamia Uruk was part of this city-state. Part of the world s first empire People invented a writing system known as cuneiform. People adopted a writing system known as cuneiform. Ziggurats were built there. People spoke a language related to Hebrew. DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly next to your Cuneiform page 3. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

29 Leaders of the Fertile Crescent Directions: Create a trading card for one of the leaders discussed in Chapter 2. Please select from one of the following Gilgamesh, Sargon, Hammurabi, Ashurbanipal, Nebuchadnezzar II, King David, or Solomon. Use the steps below to complete activity. You can find pictures on pages 4-5 and of your textbook. 1. Draw your leader on the front of your trading card. Color your picture. 2. Write the leader s name on the front below your picture. 3. On the back be sure to include the following: a. Name of leader towards the top of your card b. Ruled (Leader of) c. Dates of leadership B.C. - B.C. d. 2 Highlights/Accomplishments from their career DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly on the back side of your Mesopotamia page 4. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

30 Hebrews, Phoenicians, & Lydians (p ) God. Abraham promises to worship only one An alphabet is developed in Phoenicia. The Hebrews fight the Canaanites. King David founds Israel and unites the Hebrews. The kingdom of Israel falls to the Assyrians. The Lydians invent the first coins in the region. DIRECTIONS: Please cut this page out. Then glue this page directly next to your Leaders of the Fertile Crescent page 5. Once you have completed these steps, please wait for further directions from your teacher.

Above: Tigris River Above: Irrigation system from the Euphrates River

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