The Nile River flows North

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1 Ancient Egypt

2 The Nile River

3 The Nile River Egyptian civilization began along the Nile River the Nile is the longest river in the world (4,145 miles!) it begins in central Africa, and flows North, emptying into the Mediterranean Sea

4

5 The Nile River Therefore: the lower part of the Nile lies in the North (at the top)! the upper part of the Nile lies in the South (at the bottom)!

6 Upper and Lower Egypt Lower Egypt Upper Egypt

7 The Nile River in Northern Egypt, the Nile branches out to form a fanshaped area this area of land is called a delta, and is very fertile the Nile has several cataracts, or waterfalls

8 The Nile River the Nile flooded at the same time every year, leaving behind rich silt for growing crops because of this, the Nile was worshipped by the Egyptians shadoof - machine used to lift water from the Nile

9 Shadoof

10 Birth of a Nation originally, Egypt consisted of 2 kingdoms: 1. Upper Egypt (in the south) 2. Lower Egypt (in the north)

11 Birth of a Nation In 3,100 BC Menes (king of Upper Egypt) conquered Lower Egypt, and united the two kingdoms he wore the unification crown (red and white), and made Memphis the new capital

12 The Old Kingdom (2,700 BC to 2,200 BC)

13 The Old Kingdom Pharaohs Egyptian kings or leaders were called Pharaohs (meaning great house ) Pharaohs were viewed as allpowerful, supreme beings king, priest, and god, all in one

14 Duties of the Pharaohs make laws perform religious rituals select government officials establish trade with other kingdoms construction projects (roads, irrigation canals, granaries, etc.)

15 Social Structure Pharaoh Nobles (Priests & Govt. Officials) Scribes, Artisans, and Merchants Farmers, Servants, and Slaves

16 The Old Kingdom most Egyptians were farmers who lived along the banks of the Nile River

17 The Old Kingdom they lived in mud brick homes with roofs made of palm leaves farmers worked in the fields, built monuments, dug ditches, and repaired roads

18 The Old Kingdom Pyramid - large Egyptian tomb House of Eternity built only on west bank of the Nile (why?) used only to bury Pharaohs and their families personal possessions buried with Pharaohs (why?)

19 The Old Kingdom made out of granite and limestone blocks were not built by slaves! built primarily by farmers and laborers who were paid! the most famous pyramids were built at Giza (including the Great Pyramid)

20 Giza Pyramids

21 Religious Beliefs monotheism - belief in only one god polytheism - worship of more than one god What were the Egyptians?

22 The Old Kingdom Religious Beliefs the Egyptians believed in approximately 740 different gods and goddesses Ra - the sun god (the most important god) Osiris - god of agriculture and ruler of the dead

23 The Old Kingdom Horus - took the form of the current pharaoh Anubis - god of the dead (lead people into the afterlife)

24 The Old Kingdom Religious Beliefs the Egyptians believed in life after death located in the Underworld and was similar to life on earth weighing of the soul (heart) performed by Anubis Book of the Dead - magic spells that were needed to receive life after death

25 The Old Kingdom Mummification Egyptians believed you couldn t have life after death without your body (soul could not live without the body)

26 The Old Kingdom Mummification They also buried personal possessions with the dead, so they could use them in the afterlife

27 Mummification embalming - process used to keep dead bodies from decaying used a chemical called natron in the process to dry out the body mummy - wrapped body of a preserved dead person

28 Mummification 1. Organs removed & placed in Canopic Jars 2. Linen cloth and natron packed inside body 3. Body allowed to dry (at least 40 days) 4. Body is restuffed & wrapped 5. Funeral Mask 6. Put in coffin

29 The New Kingdom (1550 BC to 671 BC)

30 Hatshepsut I was a female pharaoh, and one of the first women rulers in history. Technically, I kind of stole the position of pharaoh from my step-son, Thutmose III. You see, he was supposed to take over after my husband died, but he was still a child, so I ruled on his behalf. During my reign as pharaoh, I increased trade with foreign lands and built many temples. I also dressed like a man so that people would respect my authority. Some people believe my stepson might have had me killed so he could reclaim his throne.

31 Thutmose III Some people regard me as the greatest Egyptian ruler of all time. I can t say I disagree. After all, according to my count anyways, I conquered over 350 cities during my reign. I also conquered the lands of Syria and Palestine. Oh, and by the way, I would have conquered even more if my stepmother hadn t stolen the throne from me as a young boy. Don t worry though, I got her back. Once I became pharaoh I had all of her temples destroyed, and had her name erased from all records. Ha ha, Queen Hatshep-Who?

32 Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) I created one of the world s first monotheistic religions. That s right, I decided that the people of Egypt were no longer going to worship countless gods, but instead would give praise to just one - Aton, the sun god. I closed all of the other temples for the other gods and goddesses. That s why I changed my name to Akhenaton - (it means spirit of Aton ). Most people in Egypt did not like my decision to change the religion. In fact, I think the only person who was on my side was my wife, Nefertiti. Some people believe I may have been killed to get back at me for changing the religion. Well, I sure hope all you monotheists out there today appreciate what I did.

33 Tutankhamen People refer to me as the Boy King because I was only nine years old when I became pharaoh. I took over after my brother, Akhenaton died. Even though I am one of the most recognizable pharaohs in history, I really never did anything that special. I died when I was 18, and the only reason I m so famous is because my tomb was discovered fully intact in the Valley of the Kings in One thing I did do though, was reversed my brother s religious change, and allowed my Egyptian people to worship their many gods and goddesses again. There is a lot of debate today about how I died - some think I was murdered. Some people think my tomb was cursed. Don t believe it? Too bad you can t ask the almost two dozen people who died weird deaths after breaking in to my tomb!

34 Ramses II You know what they say, save the best for last. Well, that s me. I ruled for 67 years, living to the ripe old age of 90. During my reign, I led our great country in several battles against our enemies to the north, the Hittites. I built monuments all over Egypt dedicated to myself, because well, look at me, I m awesome. Just ask my kids. I had almost 100 of them, and I think they would all agree. My wife Nefertari would too. Some people believe I was the pharaoh who clashed with Moses and refused to let his people go. Why would they want to leave though? I mean, who wouldn t want to have me for their leader?

35 The New Kingdom around 1550 BC, Ahmose, an Egyptian prince, forces the Hyksos out of Egypt this begins the period known as the New Kingdom

36 The New Kingdom during the New Kingdom, Egyptian pharaohs begin conquering lands to the east Thebes becomes the new capital (what was the old one?) Amon-Ra becomes the new chief god (combination of Amon and Ra)

37 The New Kingdom Hatshepsut (1479 BC) female who ruled as pharaoh - increased Egyptian trade with foreign lands Thutmose III (1457 BC) conquered Syria and Palestine

38 Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) (1370 BC) he makes Aton the only god that can be worshipped - nobody likes this decision Tutankhamen (King Tut) (1360 BC) becomes pharaoh at the age of 9

39 The New Kingdom Ramses II (1279 BC) one of the last great pharaohs built great temples pharaoh during the exodus of Moses and the Hebrews

40 The New Kingdom Temples used for a wide variety of activities besides religion children were taught to be scribes in the temples scribe - a person specifically hired to write, copy texts, and keep records

41 The New Kingdom hieroglyphics - Egyptian writing system based on pictures Rosetta Stone - found in 1799 in northern Egypt - had Egyptian and Greek writing led to translation of hieroglyphic language

42 Egyptian Achievements Written language (hieroglyphics) papyrus - paper made from papyrus reed (plant) ink - mixed charcoal and soot with water

43 Egyptian Achievements calendar - based on flooding of Nile River 3 seasons of 120 days, 5 special feast days for the gods (365 total!!!)

44 Egyptian Achievements first specialists in medicine dentists, eye doctors, animal doctors, surgeons first to use splints and bandages math skills - base 10 # system used fractions, whole numbers, and geometry

45 Fall of Ancient Egypt 671 BC - Egypt taken over by Assyrians 525 BC - Persians gain control of Egypt 332 BC - Greeks gain control of Egypt (Alexander the Great) 31 BC - Romans gain control of Egypt 1922 AD - Egypt becomes independent country

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