1 Contribution to Civilization Other Empires in the Ancient Near East Prof. Jayson Mutya Barlan, MPA
2 The destruction of the Hettite kingdom and the weakening Egypt around 1200 B.C.E. allowed small city-states to emerge.! The nation of Israel was minor factor in politics but their spiritual heritage -- the Judeo-Christian values -- is one of the basic pillars of Western Civilization.
3 Focus Questions How did the Israelites establish a united state, and what became of it?! In what ways the Jewish faith unique in the ancient Near East, and how did it evolve over time?
4 The Hebrews: "The Children of Israel" 01
5 Hebrews were a Semitic-speaking people! Origins and history were part of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)! They described themselves as nomads organized into clans and were descendants of the patriarch Abraham! They migrated from Mesopotamia to Canaan and were identified as the Children of Israel
6 According to tradition, a drought in Canaan caused many Hebrews to migrate to Egypt until they were enslaved by pharaohs who used them as laborers until Moses led his people out of Egypt (Exodus)! They emerged as a distinct group of people, organized intro tribes, or league of tribes, who established a united kingdom known as Israel.
7 The United Kingdom (Israel) Saul was the first king of the Israelites ( B.C.E.)! Initially achieved success in the struggle with the Philistines but after Saul's death, a period of anarchy ensued.! David (Saul's lieutenant) reunited the Israelites, defeated Philistines, and established control over Canaan ( B.C.E.)
8 David made Jerusalem the capital of a united kingdom! He centralized Israel's political organization and accelerated the integration of the Israelites into a settled community based on farming and urban life.! Solomon, David's son ( B.C.E.) strengthened royal power, expanded political and military establishments, and extended trading activities! Solomon was known for his building projects -- temple in Jerusalem, symbolic center of their religion! The temple now house the Ark of the Covenant, a holy chest containing sacred relics, and viewed as the throne of the invisible. God of Israel
9 The Divided Kingdom Tensions broke between the northern and southern tribes in Israel after Solomon's death! Two separate kingdoms were established -- the Kingdom of Israel (10 northern tribes) with its capital in Samaria and the Southern Kingdom of Judah (two tribes) with its capital in Jerusalem
10 The Northern Kingdom of Israel Under King Ahab ( B.C.E.)! The kingdom joined small Syrian states! Its power declined after the reign of King Ahab! By the end of 9th Century, was forced to pay tribute to Assyria and Israel was destroyed! Assyrians overran the kingdom, destroyed its capital, and deported Israelites to other parts of the Assyrian Empire
11 Southern Kingdom of Judah Was also forced to pay tribute to Assyria but survived as an independent state, Assyrian power declined! Chaldeans demolished Assyria under King Nebuchadnezzer II, conquered Judah and destroyed. Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E.! Upper-class people from Judah were deported to Babylonia
12 Persians came and destructed Chaldean kingdom and people of Judah were allowed to return to Jerusalem and rebuilt their city and temple! Judah remained under Persian control until the conquests of Alexander the. Great! People Judah came to be knows as Jews and Judaism (Yahweh, the Israelite God) became their religion
13 Spiritual Dimensions of Israel Israelites worshipped many gods and Yahweh wasthe chief god! Among the Babylonian exiles in the 6th century B.C.E., Yahweh was seen as the ONLY God.! When the exiles returned to Judah, monotheism came to be the major tenet of Judaism.
14 The Neighbors of the Israelites Philistines also lived in Canaan and established five towns on the coastal plain of the region! They were farmers! They came into conflict with the Israelites
15 The Phoenicians had resided in Canaan as well! They resided along the Mediterranean coast on a narrow band of land 120 miles long! They had major cities: Byblos, Tyre, and Sidon! They produced number of goods for foreign markets! They improved their ships and became great international sea traders
16 They charted new routes, not just in the Mediterranean but also in the Atlantic Ocean! They established a number of colonies: settlements in Southern Spain, Sicily, and Sardinia; Carthage in the. North African coast! They are best known as transmitters; simplified their writing by using 22 different signs to represent sounds of their speech. It was passed on to the Greeks, and from the Greek was derived the Roman alphabet that we still use today.
17 Phoenicians achieved much while independent but later fell subject to the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and Persians
18 The Assyrian Empire
19 Assyrians were Semitic-speaking people! For much of their history, they were vassals of foreign rulers: Sargon of Akkad, the Third Dynasty of Ur, and Hammurabi of Babylonia! From B.C.E., the Hurrian Kingdom of Mitanni dominated them until Hittite destroyed Mitanni! Tiglath-Pileser I ( B.C.E.), a brutal conqueror reasserted Assyrian power
20 Assyrians were unable to maintain its strength after Tiglath-Pileser's death! Shalmaneser ( B.C.E.) expanded the empire westward into Canaan and southward into Babylonia! Continuous warfare did not end until the reigns of Tiglath-Pileser III ( B.C.E.) and Sargon II ( B.C.E.)! They waged military campaigns every year and reestablished control over Mesopotamia and subdued Canaan.
21 Their conquered territories were incorporated into the Assyrian empire as provinces.! Tiglath-Piliser III and Sargon II both centralized the system of government and increased the power of the King! By 700 B.C.E. Assyrian Empire had reached the height of power and included Mesopotamia, sections of Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, and Egypt up to Thebes
22 Ashurbanipal ( B.C.E.) was one of the strongest rulers! During his reign, it was apparent that the empire was greatly overextended.! People resented the Assyrian rule especially Babylonians when rulers sacked the city of Babylon in 689 B.C.E.; people rebelled and the empire began to disintegrate.! The capital city of Nineveh fell to a coalition of Chaldeans and Medes and the Neo-Babylonian Empire took over.
23 Organization of the Empire Ruled by kings (power was absolute)! Local officials are directly responsible to the king! Kings have control over the resources! Developed an efficient system of communication! Developed effective military leaders and fighters
24 Assyrian Society and Culture Ethnic differences was not important to them! Population was racially and linguistically mixed! Religion was a cohesive force; it was "the land of Ashur" (chief god)! Agriculture was the principal basis of life (land of farming villages)! Trade was second to agriculture
25 Metals such as gold, silver, copper, and bronze were used as a medium of exchange as well as agricultural products! They participated in international trade (imported timber, wine, and precious metals and exported textiles)! Culture was hybrid (assimilated Mesopotamian civilization)! Arts and sculptures
26 The Neo-Babylonian Empire Chaldean king Nabipolassar ( B.C.E.) established the new Babylonian monarchy! His son Nebuchadnezzar II defeated the Assyrian Empire ( B.C.E)! He defeated Egypt, controlled Syria and Canaan, destroyed Jerusalem and regained Babylonia! Babylonia became the leading power in the Ancient Near East
27 Babylonia was renowned for prosperity based on agricultural lands, lucrative trade routes, and industries such as textiles and metals! Babylon was surrounded by towering walls, 8 miles in length; adorned with temples and palaces, and hanging gardens (Seven Wonders of the Ancient World)
28 The Persian Empire Persians were Indo-European speaking people! Persians lived to the souteast of the Medes! Nomadic and were organized in clans! Led by petty kings assisted by group of warriors and nobles with both free and unfree people
29 Cyrus the Great Cyrus was the leader of the Persians (559 B.C.E.)! Established control over Media (Medes)! He defeated Lydian kingdom in western Asia Minor! He conquered Greek city-states; subdued the eastern part of the Iranian plateau and western India! He captured Babylon in 539 B.C.E.
30 Titles of Cyrus King of All! Great King! Mighty King! King of Babylon! King of the Land of Sumer and Akkad! King of the Four Rims
31 Cyrus consolidated his empire from B.C.E.! In 530 B.C.E. he marched from Sogdia into the territory of the Massagetae where he was killed on battle! After his death, his son Cambyses II assumed power as the Great King! He invaded Egypt, the only kingdom not yet under Persian control aided by the Phoenician fleet! In 525 B.C.E., he took title of pharaoh
32 Cambyses died in 522 and was succeeded by Darius and emerged as Great King! Darius codified Egyptian law! He built a canal to link the Red Sea and the Mediterranean! Extended the Persian province to the Indus river! He moved to Europe and invaded the Greek mainland
33 Governing the Empire Under Darius, Persians had created the largest empire in the world! The empire was divided into 20 satrapies (provinces)! Each satrapies was ruled by a satrap (governor)! Created a sensible system for calculating the tribute! Created an efficient system of communication! Developed well-maintained roads
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