World History Unit 2 Lesson 1 Ancient Egypt

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1 Lesson 1 Ancient Egypt Egyptian Geography 1) Egypt is surrounded by deserts that gave it some degree of protection. 2) The Nile River was essential! It provided water for crops, silt to enrich the soil, and an easy means of transportation.

2 Lesson 1 Ancient Egypt Major Events of Egyptian History 1) Menes/Narmar was the first ruler to unite Upper & Lower Egypt. 2) OLD KINGDOM- Kings are called Pharaohs & pyramids are built. 3) Middle Kingdom- Public works are built; pharaohs lose power to nobles, country weakened.

3 Lesson 1 Ancient Egypt Major events continued 4) Foreigners called Hyksos take over Egypt with new weaponry, they are later kicked out. 5) New Kingdom is Egypt s s strongest period as an international power. 6) After 1090 BC Egypt is weakened and a succession of foreign powers control her until the 1900s!

4 Lesson 1 Ancient Egypt Important Egyptian Rulers 1. Hatshepsut- greatest women leader 2. Thutmoses III- greatest military leader. 3. Ramses II (the Great)- greatest builder & the first to sign a written treaty. 4. Cleopatra- not really Egyptian!

5 Lesson 1 Ancient Egypt Egyptian Religion 1) Egypt was polytheistic, and religion deeply shaped their lives! 2) Egyptians spent most of their lives preparing for the after life the way we prepare for retirement. 3) To have an afterlife required two things: preservation of the body & to be innocent. innocent.

6 Lesson 1 Ancient Egypt Important Egyptian Gods 1) Amon Re- the sun god and most important in this life. The sun s rising & setting represented life & death, so most burial sites were on the west bank of the Nile! 2) Osiris- God of the underworld, pharaoh became this upon death. 3) Isis- goddess of motherhood & Osiris wife.

7 Lesson 1 Ancient Egypt Egyptian Gods continued 4) Horus- the falcon god & Osiris son. The pharaoh was Horus in this life. 5) Set- Osiris jealous brother who killed him and fought Horus. 6) Anubis- the god of the mummy.

8 Lesson 1 Ancient Egypt Egyptian Burial 1) The body was mummified because the ka, or soul, had to rest in it at night during the afterlife. 2) Most Egyptians were buried in mastabas,, sometimes inside a sarcophagus to protect the body. 3) Food, tools, & possessions were included with a Book of the Dead. 4) Serdabs,, statutes of the deceased, were also included as backup.

9 Lesson 2 Sumer and Mesopotamian Empires Early Sumer 1) Sumer developed as separate city- states between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers. 2) Ziggurats, or step-pyramid pyramid temples were found in center of the cities. 3) Most cities were first led by priests and then later by generals.

10 Lesson 2 Sumer and Mesopotamian Empires Sumerian Contributions/Inventions 1. Cuneiform 1st written language? 2. The sail & the wheel. 3. Sundials, water clocks, 60 second minutes, 60 minute hours, 24 hour days, 12 month years. 4. Arches, columns, baked bricks. 5. Divided circle into 360 degrees.

11 Lesson 2 Sumer and Mesopotamian Empires Mesopotamian Empires 1. Akkadian- 1 st empire to unite this area. Led by Sargon, a warrior-king 2. Babylonian- Hammurabi created a unified law code. 3. Hittites- brought in iron making. 4. Assyrians- feared and hated by all because of their use of war as terror.

12 Lesson 2 Sumer and Mesopotamian Empires Mesopotamian Empires continued 5. Chaldeans/Babylonians- Nebuchadnezzar was their greatest leader. 6. Persians- largest of the empires, they were great conquerors and relatively tolerant rulers.

13 Lesson 2 Sumer and Mesopotamian Empires Zoroastrianism s s Beliefs 1) There is a cosmic battle between Ahura Mazda (god of good) and Ahriman (god of evil). 2) Every person must support one of the two sides. 3) Good will eventually win, and judgment will follow. 4) Those who support evil will be eternally punished. 5) Those who support good will be eternally rewarded.

14 Lesson 3 Other Middle Eastern Cultures Hebrew History I. The Patriarchs (Father leaders) A. Abraham- father of Jews & Arabs, said God promised him at great land, great people, and that his people would bless the world. B. Isaac C. Jacob D. Joseph- people moved to Egypt

15 Lesson 3 Other Middle Eastern Cultures II. Hebrew History Freedom & Conquest A. Moses- freed them from Egypt, gave them their law. B. Joshua- led into Promised Land C. Period of the Judges- bad times!

16 Lesson 3 Other Middle Eastern Cultures Hebrew History III. The Kingdom Period A. Saul- 1 st king, killed by Philistines. B. David- greatest king, made Jerusalem capital. C. Solomon- very wise, built Temple. D. Rehoboam- caused a split in the kingdom because of taxes.

17 Lesson 3 Other Middle Eastern Cultures Hebrew History IV. Destruction & Restoration A. Israel (the Northern kingdom) was destroyed by the Assyrians. B. Judah (the Southern kingdom) was later destroyed by the Babylonians. C. Cyrus of Persia lets the Jews rebuild Jerusalem.

18 Lesson 3 Other Middle Eastern Cultures Key Teachings of Historic Judaism 1) There is one god, Yahweh/Jehovah, who created & controls everything. 2) All people have sinned against God & deserve death, but God has promised to send a Messiah, or deliverer. 3) God chose the Jewish people as a special people from whom the Messiah would come to bless the world. 4) God ordained the sacrifice of specific animals as an atonement for our sins. Blood must be shed to satisfy God s s judgment. 5) There will be a final judgment with a heaven & hell. hell. 6) The Old Testament is God s s word revealed for all men.

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