1 BELL- RINGER GRAB A BOOK & FINISH GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS (DUE TODAY)
2 8/9 GROUP WORK 1. What similarities exist between these civilizations? 2. What impacts do these civilizations have on our own culture? ----THIS IS A NOTBOOK ENTRY----
3 Geography Religion Technology Laws and Codes Writing and education Cultural practices Significant leaders All River Valley Civilizations: (Egypt, Mesopotamia, India & China) by rivers, flood/drought problems, long-distance trade, transportation, agriculture Polytheistic, temple in center, place in government and seen as essential, gods: control nature irrigation, mathematic system, architecture laws in some format, tell us about beliefs and values of the society only elite class/$$$, writing in symbols social class system, cultural diffusion- process new idea/product spreads from one culture to another rulers, men, connection to god
4 8/10 BELL RINGER What do you know about Mesopotamia?
5 CIVILIZATION IN MESOPOTAMIA
6 TEST QUESTION #2 Describe the development of Mesopotamia. What were the characteristics (religious, cultural, economic, and political) of the world s first civilization?
7 GEOGRAPHY Known as the cradle of civilization considered the beginning of ancient times lies between Tigris and Euphrates rivers Greek for land between two rivers farmers built irrigation systems that transformed the landscape Settlements in Southern Mesopotamia turned into busy cities: area called Sumer became the worlds first urban civilization
8 1. WHAT ATTRACTED THEM HERE?/ ADVANTAGES? 2. WHAT WERE SOME DISADVANTAGES TO SETTLING HERE?
9 ADVANTAGES= SOIL & TRADE DISADVANTAGES = 1. FLOOD/DROUGHT UNPREDICTABILITY 2. NO NATURAL BARRIERS FOR PROTECTION: DEFENSELESS 3. NATURAL RESOURCES OF SUMER WERE LIMITED,
10 HOW DEALT WITH THESE PROBLEMS?
11 HOW DEALT WITH THESE PROBLEMS? 1. flood/drought unpredictability 2. no natural barriers for protection: defenseless 3. natural resources of sumer were limited, other necessary materials were scare
12 HOW DEALT WITH THESE PROBLEMS? HINT: ECONOMY = TRADE 1. irrigation systems 2. builds walls 3. trade with neighbors
13 BCE SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION Each city has a god(des), priest/king Proper worship assures prosperity Chief temple (ziggurat) = center of city People live in fear of gods
14 priests clothed and fed the god statues daily RELIGION Early religions worshiped many gods, a practice called = Polytheism human- like gods priest = originally the most powerful people of society warrior kings would take control Sumerians believed their gods lived in statues housed in temples including large pyramid like structures called Ziggurats
15 ZIGGURATS Mesopotamian temples largest building in the city home for gods place of worship and city hall
16 SUMERIANS established the first city-states- a state that has its own government and consists of a city and the area around it developed earliest form of writing called Cuneiform Scribes (record-keepers) carved symbols into wet clay tablets that were later dried Credited with writing the world s oldest story: the Epic of Gilgamesh
17 CUNEIFORM Latin wedge shaped Pictograms- words represented by symbols What purposes does writing serve? Why is Writing necessary and useful?
18 professional writers SCRIBES high social status rigorous education employee s: temples & palaces Recording: financial transactions legal documents literature
19 EMPIRES IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA Alternations of power in lower Mesopotamia BCE Akkadians, Babylonians, Sumerians contend for dominance Hammurabi of Babylon ( BCE) conquers all of Sumer and Akkad extends control north to Assyria
20 PROBLEMS Fertile valley of Mesopotamia had no natural barriers for protection = its wealth attracted many raiders and conquerors for centuries civilizations came and went amid much warfare one of most powerful civilizations to emerge in Mesopotamia = Babylon ( BCE)
21 BABYLON Hammurabi was an early king of Babylon created an empire by bringing much of Mesopotamia under his control Empire- a collection of states (countries) controlled by one government Hammurabi helped unite Babylonian empire by publishing a set of laws known as the Code of Hammurabi
22 WHY DO WE NEED LAWS? 8/10 CLOSE
23 8/11 BELL- RINGER HAMMURABI READING WRITE ANSWERS IN YOUR NOTEBOOK
24 HAMMURABI S LAW CODE BCE earliest written legal code for a government common rules to unite a disparate realm public rules; no secret or divine rules
25 CODE OF HAMMURABI 1772 BCE KEY: History s first known written laws 300 laws of the code carved on stone pillars for all to see meant that no one was above the law Goals: stable government & good rule so that the strong may not oppress the weak
26 COMPARE AND CONTRAST: CODE OF HAMMURABI VS DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
27 PREAMBLE The stated purposes of Hammurabi s Code were, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule and enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind to give the protection of right to the land, I did right and righteousness in..., and brought about the well-being of the oppressed.
28 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE PREAMBLE a more perfect union establish justice insure domestic tranquility provide for the common defense promote the general welfare secure the blessings of liberty
29 REPUTATION harsh punishments for perjury were intended to safeguard people s representation from false accusers family law Hammurabi s code gave fathers unlimited control over their families patriarchal society 195 if son strikes his father, his hand shall be hewn off. double standard: women were not equal under the law
30 PROPERTY & COMMERCE Hammurabi s Code protects property rights but also contains extensive economic regulation by the government liability you are responsible for what happens to your property for the quality of your work
31 AN EYE FOR AN EYE?
32 DEPENDS ON WHOSE EYE
33 SOCIAL HIERARCHY someone s social class would often determine the severity of the punishment kings nobles commoners slaves
35 If a physician kills a patient or cuts out a patient's eye when trying to remove a tumor, the physicians' hands will be cut off.
36 The wife and child of a man are his property. To pay his debts, he may sell him into slavery for up to three years.
37 If a man is robbed and the robber is not caught, the local government will compensate the victim.
38 If a man accuses another of murder and can t prove it the accuser will be put to death.
39 If a commoner strikes a nobleman, the commoner will be whipped in public.
40 If a commoner strikes another commoner, he shall pay a fine equal to about 30 ounces in silver coins.
41 If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss.
42 If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss If the woman die, his daughter shall be put to death.
43 TO SUM IT UP Hammurabi s Code is known for strict penalties most involving death and mutilation gender and class discrimination harsh punishment of perjury reputation was important
44 HAMMURABI S CODE: CIVILIZED OR UNCIVILIZED?
45 8/11 HAMMURABI LAW CODE CLOSE Read the Hammurabi Law Code handout and write down your answers to the following questions in your notebook: 1. Were the laws appropriate for the time period? 2. How were they fair and unfair? 3. Which people were favored by the laws and which were not? 4. Have societies problems changed or stayed the same?
46 WORLD-RENOWN Babylon later became known for its: hanging gardens one of the seven wonders of the ancient world & the decadent life-style of its people A Babylon now means a place of corruption and sin
47 THE RULE OF LAW law codes attempt to establish the RULE OF LAW by: Defining criminal acts punishing violators
48 8/14 BELL- RINGER WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW ABOUT EGYPT?
49 NILE RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATION
50 FOCUS ON DEVELOPMENT CHARACTERISTICS *****ACHIEVEMENTS**** TEST= FRIDAY
51 JOHN GREEN S CRASH COURSE
52 GEOGRAPHY North Africa Nile River/ Egyptian Desert Fertile soil Yearly floods Building resources Natural protection from invasion
53 POLITICS Ruled by dynasties (ruling families) King was called pharaoh, (monarchy) Controlled army & defended Egypt from invasion Owned all the land and made all the laws Eventually created empires by uniting sections of Egypt There were even some women pharaohs (Hatshepsut was the 1 st woman ruler in the world) yay women!!
54 ECONOMY The pharaoh controlled the economy Nearly everyone was involved in agriculture Some were merchants and craftsmen Trade was prominent throughout the kingdom and with other civilizations
55 ECONOMY Farming basis for economy Grew grains, vegetables, dates, flax Domesticated sheep, goats, cows, oxen, and donkeys Evidence shows they traded with other civilizations Merchants artisans
56 RELIGION Polytheistic Believed in a specific afterlife Mummified bodies Believed pharaoh was a god-king
57 Hieroglyphics- carved picture symbols Pyramids- monument for pharaohs eternal place of rest Old, Middle and New Kingdoms: 30 dynasties ruled Egypt
58 SOCIETY Pharaoh was at the center of Egyptian society Social classes Ruling family and nobility (including priests and scribes) Farmers, merchants, artisans, warriors Peasants & Slaves Women had some legal rights, but were still considered less than equal to men
59 INNOVATIONS Number system based on 10, as well as geometry Great astronomers Excellent irrigation systems Mummification Hieroglyphic writing
60 THE ARTS Built huge temples and pyramids Sphinx, obelisks Decorated tombs and temples with drawings and hieroglyphics that recorded history and depicted everyday life, as well as the pharaohs and their families
62 TIMELINE WORK TIME Use your reading Label your timeline correctly 3000 BCE- 0 AD Focus on Events and People Need 13 things on your timeline Don t just list things! EXPLAIN them for full points!!!
63 8/14 CLOSE Compare and contrast the Nile River Valley with Mesopotamia in Circle Graphic Organizer
64 8/15 BELL RINGER PRACTICE ROUND!!! Just like you would on the test, Describe to me the development, characteristics and achievements of the Nile River Valley. Use complete sentences. Show to the teacher when completed for full points.
66 8/15 PLANET EGYPT VIDEO GUIDE 1. List 5 facts about the Pharaoh Ramses III. 2. List 2 facts about the battle Ramses III participated in. 3. List 4 facts about Egyptian s belief in the afterlife. 4. List 5 facts about archeologist s findings regarding Egypt. ******USE OF COMPLETE SENTENCES IS REQUIRED******
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