Ahnentafel of Baudouin d'avesnes

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1 Ahnentafel of Baudouin d'avesnes --- 1st Generation Baudouin1 d'avesnes. AKA: Baudouin, Seigneur de Beaumont (Citing: Père Anselme, Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la Maison Royale de France, des Pairs, Grands Officiers de la Couronne et de la Maison du Roy: et des anciens Barons du Royaume, Collection H&G, (édition originale et suppplément de Potier de Courcy en 12 volumes), n.d., Born: before 1279 at France, son of Jean d'avesnes and Agnès de Valence, Baudouin is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when he died. Died: in nd Generation Jean2 d'avesnes. AKA: Jean, Seigneur de Beaumont (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Contenant lesa Généalogies, l'histoire et la Chronologie des Familles Nobles de France in Volumes, 1 to 15 (Seconde Édition; Rue St-Jacques, Paris: Antoine Boudet, LibraireImprimeur du Roi, ( )), Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Page 541.). Born: between 1257 and 1263 at France, son of Baudouin d'avesnes and Félicité de Coucy, Jean is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when he died. Married before 1277: Agnès de Valence,, daughter of Guillaume de Valence and Joan de Munchenay (Jean was Agnès' third husband) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Page 541.). Died: on 18 Feb Agnès2 de Valence (Paul Theroff, posts on the Genealogy Bulletin Board of the Prodigy Interactive Personal Service, was a member as of 5 April 1994, at which time he held the identification MPSE79A, until July, His main source was Europaseische Stammtafeln, "Lusignan", Posted on 11 February 1994 at 09:15 Hours.). Married Name: Fitzgerald. Married Name: Baliol. Married Name: d'avesnes. Born: between 1249 and 1251, daughter of Guillaume de Valence and Joan de Munchenay, Agnès is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when her second husband died. Married before 1269: Maurice FitzGerald (Maurice was Agnès' first husband). Married before 1270: Sir Hugh Baliol,, son of John Balliol and Devorguilla of Galloway (Hugh was Agnès' second husband). Married before 1277: Jean d'avesnes,, son of Baudouin d'avesnes and Félicité de Coucy (Jean was Agnès' third husband) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Page 541.). Died: in rd Generation ---

2 4. Baudouin3 d'avesnes. AKA: Baudouin, Seigneur de Beaumont-le-Roger (P.D. Abbott, Provinces, Pays and Seigneuries of France in ISBN: (Author at 266 Myrtleford, 3737, Australia: Priries Printers Pty. Ltd, Canberra A.C.T., Australia, November, 1981), Page 227.). Born: in Sep 1219 at Luxembourg, son of Bouchard d'avesnes and Marguerite (II), Comtesse de Flandre. Married in 1246 at France: Félicité de Coucy,, daughter of Thomas II de Coucy and Mahaut de Rethel (Félicité was Baudouin second wife) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 540, 541.). AKA: Baudouin, Seigneur de Beaumont (Ibid.). Died: on 10 Apr 1295 at age Félicité3 de Coucy (Ibid., Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Page 541.) (Ibid.). Married Name: d'avesnes. Born: before 1231, daughter of Thomas II de Coucy and Mahaut de Rethel, Félicité is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age when she married Baudouin. Married in 1246 at France: Baudouin d'avesnes,, son of Bouchard d'avesnes and Marguerite (II), Comtesse de Flandre (Félicité was Baudouin second wife) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 540, 541.). Died: in Coat of Arms worn by Guillaume de Valence Guillaume de Valence (Paul Theroff, posts, "Lusignan", Posted on 11 February 1994 at 09:15 Hours.). AKA: William, Lord of Pembroke. AKA: Guillaume "Le Jeune" (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 361.). AKA: Guillaume, Seigneur de Montignac (Ibid.). Born: in 1225 at France, son of Hughes X, Comte de Lusignan and Isabelle, Comtesse d'angoulême. Married on 13 Aug 1247: Joan de Munchenay,, daughter of Warin de Munchenay and Joane Marshal. Died: between 1294 and 1296 at England (T.W., Martin, F.X. & Byrne, F.J. Moody, A New History of Ireland, IX: Maps, Genealogies, Lists (Walton Street, Oxford OX26DP: Oxford University Press, 1984), page 174.). 7. Joan3 de Munchenay. Married Name: de Valence. Born: before 1233, daughter of Warin de Munchenay and Joane Marshal. Married on 13 Aug 1247: Guillaume de Valence,, son of Hughes X, Comte de Lusignan and Isabelle, Comtesse d'angoulême. Died: in 1307 (Ibid.) th Generation ---

3 8. Bouchard4 d'avesnes (Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners in ISBN: (1001 North Calvert Street, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., 1992), Page 32, Line ) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 539.). AKA: Bouchard, Archdeacon of Laon. AKA: Bouchard d'avesnes, Canon of Saint-Pierre-de Lille. AKA: Bouchard, Seigneur d'étroën. AKA: Bouchard, Bailli de Hainaut (Abbott, Page 560.). Born: circa 1180, son of Jacques, Seigneur d'avesnes and Améline=Adèle, Dame de Guise. Note - between 1205 and 1239: Bouchard held a Doctor Juris Degree. At first a Cleric, he returned to the lay world in He was knighted in Married before 23 Jul 1212: Marguerite (II), Comtesse de Flandre,, daughter of Baudouin VI, Count de Hainaut and Marie de Champagne (Having left the ecclesiastical life to which he had been destined, Bouchard secretely married Marguerite. She was Bouchard's first wife. The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "Buchardi Avenennsis" as brother of "Galteri comitis Blesensis", specifying that he married "Margareta" [Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 308]. After his marriage, which was arranged by Philippe II King of France, he demanded a share of his late father-in-law's inheritance. After his sister-in-law Jeanne Ctss of Flanders complained to Pope Innocent III, the marriage was annulled by the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 on the basis that Bouchard had previously taken holy orders. The couple remained together until Bouchard was captured by his sister-in-law in He was released two years later on condition that he separated from his wife. Pope Gregory IX declared the marriage invalid 31 Mar 1237 and the children illegitimate. Pope Gregory IX declared the marriage invalid 31 Mar 1237 and the children illegitimate. He and his brother were legitimated by the Pope (Pope Innocent IV) in 1251, on the request of his mother) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages ) (Information posted on the Internet, Divorced Marguerite (II), Comtesse de Flandre: in Died: in 1244 at Étraeungt, Nord, Artois, France, Bouchard is buried at the Abbey of Clairefontaine. 9. Marguerite (II), Comtesse4 de Flandre (André Roux: Scrolls from his personal genealogical research. The Number refers to the family branch numbers on his many scrolls, 104, 118.) (Elizabeth M. Hallam, Capetian France: in ISBN: (Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex, UK: Longman Group, Ltd., 1980), Page 219.) (Stuart, Page 32, Line ) (Abbott, Page 292.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Page 540.) (Ibid., Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 2.) (Ibid.) (Ibid.). Married Name: d'avesnes. Married Name: de Dampierre. Married Name: de Dampierre-sur-l'Aube. Born: on 2 Jun 1202 at Constantinople, Turkey, daughter of Baudouin VI, Count de Hainaut and Marie de Champagne. Married before 23 Jul 1212: Bouchard d'avesnes,, son of Jacques, Seigneur d'avesnes and Améline=Adèle, Dame de Guise (Having left the ecclesiastical life to which he had been destined, Bouchard secretely married Marguerite. She was Bouchard's first wife. The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "Buchardi Avenennsis" as brother of "Galteri comitis Blesensis", specifying that he married "Margareta" [Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana, Continuatio Leidensis et Divionensis (Cod. Divion. et Cisterc. addunt), MGH SS IX, p. 308]. After his marriage, which was arranged by Philippe II King of France, he demanded a share of his late father-in-law's inheritance. After his sister-in-law Jeanne Ctss of Flanders complained to Pope Innocent III, the marriage was annulled by the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 on the basis that Bouchard had previously taken holy orders. The couple remained together until Bouchard was captured by his sister-in-law in He was released two years later on condition that he separated from his wife. Pope Gregory IX declared the marriage invalid 31 Mar 1237 and the children illegitimate. Pope Gregory IX declared the marriage invalid 31 Mar 1237 and the children illegitimate. He and his brother were legitimated by the Pope (Pope Innocent IV) in 1251, on the request of his mother) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages ) (Internet, Divorced Bouchard d'avesnes: in Married on 18 Aug 1223 at France: Guillaume II, Seigneur de Dampierre-sur-l'Aube,, son of Guy II de Dampierre and Mahaut=Marguerite, Comtesse de Bourbon (When Marguerite's husband, William died in a tournament, her brother-in-law Guy was next in line for the County of Flanders. John of Avesnes convinced his brother-in-law William of Holland to seize Margaret's lands in Flanders and to invest John with them. Margaret raised an army in self-defense, but Hainault rose against her, and in 1253 she and her Dampierre sons were defeated at the Battle of Walcheren. Upon Margaret's request for help, Charles, Count of Anjou rapidly occupied much of Hainault. By the Dit of Péronne, King Louis IX arbitrated and gave much of Hainault to John, although he had to do homage to Charles of Anjou for it. He also lost Crèvecoeur, Arleux and other lands, and Margaret had to pay Charles a subtantial indemnity). AKA: Marguerite, Countess de Hainaut Marguerite succeeded her sister as the Comtesse de Hainaut (Abbott, Page 559.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois,

4 Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Page 540.). Note - on 29 Dec 1278: Marguerite abdicated 29 Dec 1278 in favour of her son Guy de Dampierre. Died: on 10 Feb 1280 at Acre, Palestine, at age 77 Her children by her first marriage claimed their inheritance, but Louis IX King of France ruled in 1246 that Hainaut should be given to the Avesnes children and Flanders to the Dampierre children. This coat of arms is associated with Thomas II, Seigneur de Coucy. 10. Thomas II4 de Coucy (Paul Theroff, posts, 03 May 1995 at 14:25 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 183, 184.) (Ibid., Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page184.). AKA: Thomas II, Seigneur de Landousies Landousies = Landouzy (Ibid.). AKA: Thomas, Seigneur de Vervins (Ibid., Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Page 541.) (Ibid., Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page184.). AKA: Thomas II, Seigneur de Fontaines (Ibid.). AKA: Thomas "Le Grand" (Ibid.). Born: before 1176, son of Raoul I, Sire de Coucy and Alix de Dreux, Thomas is presumed to have been at least 14 years of age when he married Mahaut. Note - on 27 Jul 1214: On 27 July 1214 (a Sunday),Thomas II found himself fighting at Bouvines. In the year of our Lord 1214, on the sixth calend of August, something worthy of remembrance occurred at the bridge of Bouvines, in the confines of the Tournaisis. In this place, on one side, Philip, the noble King of the Franks, had gathered a part of his kingdom. On the other side Otto who, having persisted in the obstinacy of his wickedness, had been deprived of the imperial dignity through the decree of the Holy Church, and his accomplices in wickedness, Ferrand, Count of Flanders, and Renaud, Count of Boulogne, many other barons, and also those receiving a stipend from John, the King of England, had assembled in order, as the events were to show, to fight against the French. Driven by insatiable hatred, the Flemings, in order to recognize each other more easily, had, while preparing themselves to attack the French, sewn a small sign of the cross on the back and front of their coats of arms. But it was much less for the glory and honor of Christ's cross than for the growth of their wickedness, the misfortune and harm of their friends, the misery and damage of their bodies. This was clearly shown by the outcome of the battle. Indeed, they did not remind themselves of the sacred precept of the Church which states: "The one who communicates with an excommunicate is excommunicated." Persisting in their alliance with Otto who, by the judgment and authority of the Pope, had been bound into anathema and had been separated from the faithful of the Holy Mother Church, they were mocking this sentence with impudence and dishonesty. Inflamed by cruelty, they were planning while boasting with each other to reduce to nothing, if they could, the scepter and the crown of royal dignity: However, divine mercy and compassion which everywhere saves and protects its own, disposed of the matter differently. Philip, the very wise king of the Gauls, troubled by the imminent danger he saw his army facing, decided in a prudent and discreet council to withdraw himself and his people from the enemy's aggression if lie could. He gradually retreated. However, seeing that his adversaries were pursuing him terribly, like enraged dogs, and also bearing in mind that he could not retreat without too much dishonor, he put his hope in the Lord; he arranged his army into military echelons as is customary for those who are about to fight. But first, with a contrite heart, he addressed a prayer to the Lord. Then having called upon the noblemen of his army, he started to exhort them humbly, modestly, and with tears in his eyes: they should resist the adversaries with virility as their ancestors had been accustomed to doing, and so as not to suffer a loss that neither they nor their heirs could repair. These things, said with so much humility and earnestness, strongly warmed the hearts of his audience to act well and fight with virility. As soon as the order of the royal power was heard in the army, tile knights and the auxiliaries, armed and arranged into ordered echelons, prepared ill all haste for the battle. The horses' bridles were tightened by the auxiliaries. The armor shone in the splendor of the sun and it seemed that the light of day was doubled. The banners unfolded in the winds and offered themselves to the currents; they presented a delightful spectacle to the eyes. What then? The armies, thus ordered for battle on each side, entered into combat, full of ardor and desire to fight. But very quickly the dust rose toward the sky in such quantities that it became hard to see and to recognize each other. The first French echelon attacked the Flemings with virility, breaking their echelons by nobly cutting across them, and penetrated their army through all impetuous and tenacious movement. The Flemings, seeing this and defeated in the space of all hour, turned their flacks and quickly took to flight. At this perilous moment, dependants abandoned to distress their lords, their fathers, their sons, and their nephews. However, Ferrand, Count of Flanders, and Renaud, Count of Boulogne, remained in the battle and resisted the onslaught of the French with virile fighting. In the end, they were wounded and taken by the French along with innumerable nobles whose names we will not give; they were jailed in a number of castles in Gaul. As for Otto who, by the authority of the Pope, we refrain from calling Emperor, deprived of everyone's help, thrown three times to the ground from his horse, or rather his horses as some claim, almost alone except for a single count, he hurried to take flight. Thus, surreptitiously fleeing from the King of France's

5 hand, he escaped, vanquished in battle. In this manner, the providence of divine mercy ended this battle which had been fought, as we have said, near the bridge of Bouvines, for the praise and the glory of His Majesty, and for the honor of the Holy Church. May its honor, its virtue, and its power remain through the infinity of centuries to come. Married between 1215 and 1224: Mahaut de Rethel,, daughter of Hughes II, Count de Rethel and Félicité de Broyes (Thomas and Mahaut were married before December 1224). Note - in May 1216: In May 1216, Louis, son of the king of France, crossed over the channel and was accompanied by Thomas II, de Coucy. The invasion army gathered 1,200 knights and many more men-at-arms according to the Anonymous of Bethune who attended the expedition. Louis had received an ambassy from the excommunicated English barons who offered him the crown. For them, king John had lost his rights because he betrayed Richard in 1194, killed his nephew Arthur of Brittany, submited the kingdom to the Papacy against their consent and finally Louis could pretend to the throne in right of his wife Blanche of Castile. All these arguments did not convince the Pope who excommunicated Louis.. Louis recieved the homage of the king of Scotland and half a dozen English earls and also that of some Irish princes and eleven bishops out of twenty. In Septembre 1217, it was decided that Louis would receive 10,000 silver marks (15,000 according to G. le Breton) from loyalists to leave England. The Pope lifted his excommunacation but Louis had to give 10 percent of his annual incomes for two years for the crusades. English barons who had rebelled were pardoned and recovered their lands. Louis took the cross against Cathars in 1219 (see Marmande 1219). Note - in Aug 1217 at Sandwich, England: August 1217, the French fleet (including Thomas II de Coucy) set sail from Calais toward the mouth of the Thames. The fleet, composed of 10 large ships and about 70 smaller cargo ships, was appointed by Queen Blanche de Castille to support her son Louis. Ships were heavely laden with troops, horses, war machines and other supplies to such extent that some ships had their decks almost awash. Henry's supporters had prepared a combat fleet to intercept the French convey. The Cinque Ports had been put to contribution. The fleet was composed of 16 large ships, lightly laden, stooding high out of the water and about 20 smaller boats and war galleys armed with iron prows. The French were near Thanet when they saw, approching slowly, the English fleet which was taken for fishing vessels. The French admiral's ship rushed toward the English which fainted to avoid them. Robert de Courtenay ordered to keep attacking what he still thought to be an easy prey. This order would prove to be fatal. The French realised their mistake too late. The English fleet manoeuvered so well that they gained the wind and soon 3 large ships followed by a 4th attacked the Fench flag ship. The English, higher, threw down upon French deck, all sorts of missiles including lime which blinded the crew. Then, the boarding quickely put an end to the fight. The rest of the French fleet, in complete disarray, was attacked and started to retreat to Calais. Died: in 1253 Thomas II is buried at Foigny (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page184.). 11. Mahaut4 de Rethel (Paul Theroff, posts, 21 September 1994 at 23:36 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page184.) (Ibid.). Married Name: de Coucy. AKA: Mahaut, Dame de Trie-le-Badoul. Born: between 1194 and 1214, daughter of Hughes II, Count de Rethel and Félicité de Broyes, Mahaut is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Thomas. Married between 1215 and 1224: Thomas II de Coucy,, son of Raoul I, Sire de Coucy and Alix de Dreux (Thomas and Mahaut were married before December 1224). Died: between 1259 and Coat of Arm associated with Hughes X, Seigneur de Lusignan Hughes X, Comte de Lusignan (André Roux: Scrolls, 84, 87.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 22 April 1994 at 01:39 hours.). AKA: Hughes X, Vicomte de Bridiers (Abbott, Page 425.). Also Known As: Hughes "Le Brun." AKA: Hughes, Comte d'angoulême (Abbott, Page 458.). Born: in 1183 at Poitou, France, son of Hughes IX, Seigneur de Lusignan and Mathilde d'angoulême. Married in 1217: Isabelle, Comtesse d'angoulême,, daughter of Aymar I/II, Count d'angoulême and Alix de Courtenay (Hughes X was Isabelle's second husband. After Jean Sans Terre's death in 1216, Queen Isabelle returned to the peace and quiet of the city of Angoulême in France which had been her home before she married Jean. The purpose of her trip was to visit her daughter Joan, then 7 years of age. Hughes, who now bore the title of Count de La Marche, had accepted Joan as his future bride, in return for assistance to Jean in one of his campaigns in France. Joan was being educated in one of Hughes' castles. Count Hughes was away on a crusade

6 when Queen Isabelle arrived at his castle. He returned before the end of her visit and realized that he was still in love with her. Queen Isabelle was, at 34 years of age, very beautiful and seductive. A troubadour compared her to a ripe peach hanging on a sun-kissed wall, or an earth-bound spirit of beauty. Isabelle, being willing, married Hughes without the consent of the King's Council in England. The Council promptly confiscated Isabelle's lands and cancelled her pension. The presence of Princess Joan in France gave Hughes and Isabelle a weapon and they announced that they would not give up Princess Joan until the Council returned the lands. The boy-king, Henry III, had the Pope excommunicate the newlyweds. When the Council realized that the marriage had freed Princess Joan of her engagement to Hughes, they started negotiations to give her to King Alexander II of Scotland. Isabelle thus received her lands and pension back, including back pay). Note - between 23 Aug 1217 and 8 Sep 1221: Hughes X participated in the Fifth Crusade. The Fifth Crusade (23 August September 1221) was an attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt. Pope Honorius III organized crusading armies led by Leopold VI of Austria and Andrew II of Hungary, and a foray against Jerusalem ultimately left the city in Muslim hands. Later in 1218 a German army led by Oliver of Cologne and a mixed army of Dutch, Flemish and Frisian soldiers led by William I, Count of Holland arrived. In order to attack Damietta in Egypt, they allied with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in Anatolia, who attacked the Ayyubids in Syria in an attempt to free the Crusaders from fighting on two fronts. After occupying the port of Damietta, the Crusaders marched south towards Cairo in July of 1221, but were turned back after their dwindling supplies led to a forced retreat. A nighttime attack by Sultan Al-Kamil resulted in a great number of crusader losses and eventually in the surrender of the army. Al-Kamil agreed to an eight-year peace agreement with Europe. In spring 1213, Pope Innocent III issued the papal bull Quia maior, calling all of Christendom to join a new crusade. The kings and emperors of Europe, however, were preoccupied with fighting among themselves. At the same time, Pope Innocent III did not want their help, because a previous crusade led by kings had failed in the past. He ordered processions, prayers, and preaching to help organize the crusade, as these would involve the general population, the lower nobles, and knights. The message of the crusade was preached in France by Robert of Courçon; however, unlike other Crusades, not many French knights joined, as they were already fighting the Albigensian Crusade against the heretical Cathar sect in southern France. In 1215, Innocent III called the Fourth Lateran Council, where, along with the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, Raoul of Merencourt, he discussed the recovery of the Holy Land, among other church business. Innocent wanted this crusade to be under the full control of the papacy, as the First Crusade was supposed to have been, in order to avoid the mistakes of the Fourth Crusade, which had been taken over by the Venetians. Innocent planned for the crusaders to meet at Brindisi in 1216, and prohibited trade with the Muslims to ensure that the crusaders would have ships and weapons. Every crusader would receive an indulgence, including those who simply helped pay the expenses of a crusader but did not go on crusade themselves. Oliver of Cologne had preached the crusade in Germany, and Emperor Frederick II attempted to join in Frederick was the last monarch Innocent wanted to join, as he had challenged the Papacy (and would do so in the years to come). Innocent, however, died in He was succeeded by Pope Honorius III, who barred Frederick from participating, but organized crusading armies led by king Andrew II of Hungary and duke Leopold VI of Austria. Andrew had the largest royal army in the history of the crusades (20,000 knights and 12,000 castle-garrisons). Andrew of Hungary and his troops embarked on 23 August 1217 in Spalato. They landed on 9 October on Cyprus from where they sailed to Acre and joined John of Brienne, ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Hugh I of Cyprus, and Prince Bohemund IV of Antioch to fight against the Ayyubids in Syria. In Jerusalem, the walls and fortifications were demolished to prevent the Christians from being able to defend the city if they should reach it and take it. Muslims fled the city, afraid that there would be a repeat of the bloodbath of the First Crusade in Andrew's well-mounted army defeated sultan AlAdil I at Bethsaida on the Jordan River on 10 November. Muslim forces retreated in their fortresses and towns. The catapults and trebuchets didn't arrive in time, so he had fruitless assaults on the fortresses of the Lebanon and on Mount Tabor. Afterwards, Andrew spent his time collecting alleged relics. Andrew and his army departed to Hungary in February 1218, and Bohemund and Hugh also returned home. Later in 1218, Oliver of Cologne arrived with a new German army and the count of Holland William I arrived with a mixed army consisting of Dutch, Flemish and Frisian soldiers. With Leopold and John they discussed attacking Damietta in Egypt. To accomplish this they allied with Keykavus I, the Seljuk Sultan of Rum in Anatolia, who attacked the Ayyubids in Syria in an attempt to free the Crusaders from fighting on two fronts. On 24 May 1218, the crusaders left Acre. On 27 May 1218, Under the leadership of Jean de Brienne, the crusaders began their siege of Damietta, and despite resistance from the unprepared sultan Al-Adil, the tower outside the city was taken on 25 August. They could not gain Damietta itself, and in the ensuing months diseases killed many of the crusaders, including Robert of Courçon. Al-Adil also died and was succeeded by Al-Kamil. Meanwhile, Honorius III sent Pelagius of Albano to lead the crusade in Al-Kamil tried to negotiate peace with the crusaders. He offered to trade Damietta for Jerusalem, but Pelagius would not accept these offers. After hearing this Count William I of Holland left the crusade and sailed home. In August or September 1219, Francis of Assisi arrived in the crusader camp and crossed over to preach to Al-Kamil. By November, the crusaders had worn out the sultan's forces, and were finally able to occupy the port. Immediately the papal and secular powers fought for control of the town, with Jean of Brienne claiming it for himself in 1220, and the noble and pious crusaders only too happy to loot it for several days finding enough loot to inspire them to attack Cairo next, their only obstacle to a powerless Egypt and an open road to Jerusalem. Pelagius would not accept this and Jean returned to Acre later that year. Pelagius hoped Frederick II would arrive with a fresh army, but Frederick never arrived. But in May 1221 he sent much of his army, including Louis of Bavaria as his representative. Jean de Brienne also returned. Louis argued for an immediate offensive, and those present assumed he spoke for the Emperor, so it was agreed. Pelagius didn't have the Emperor, but he had an army and he at last had agreement. The Crusaders formed their army in their old camp on 29 June. King John arrived on 7 July still urging caution, but he was ignored. Everyone now was enthusiastic for a new enterprise. They were running low on funds, the prophetic book had predicted the fall of the Sultan, and the newcomers wanted battle. The army began preparations on 4 July and set out on 17 July. It was one of the largest Crusader armies, with an estimated five thousand knights and forty thousand foot soldiers, plus arches and a large number of unarmed pilgrims. The Egyptians had advanced to meet the Christians, but retreated from their forward position at Sharimshah when they saw the size of the army. Pelagius moved out in pursuit. The Egyptians took up a position behind the river Bahr assaghir, which runs from Lake Manzalah to the Nile. The Christians marched in right after them and set up camp. With much of the Muslim strength in the field, it was here that the battle for Egypt would be decided. The Christians were in a death trap. When they marched up into the angle formed by the Nile and the Bahr as-saghir, the army had crossed a dry canal. No one thought to consider it a danger. Worse, Pelagius had neglected to bring adequate supplies, thinking to capture the enemy supplies quickly. A Christian fleet of about six hundred ships was in the Nile--enough to keep the army re-supplied at to support its advance. Once it was clear that Mansourah could not be taken quickly, fortifications were built on the other two sides of the triangle. There were plenty of locals to tell the Crusaders how easily the Muslims could trap them, but Pelagius would not listen. King John again urged acceptance of al-kamil's terms, but rejecting his advice had become almost automatic by this time. A couple of weeks passed in this manner. It was August, and the Nile was rising a little every day. Soon, the waters were high enough and water flowed into the canal. Within a few days, the levels were high enough to send ships down it, cutting the Christians off from retreat and from being re-supplied from Damietta. The fleet was trapped, the army was trapped, and there was food enough for only twenty days. Many in the army urged immediate retreat, before their situation grew worse. At last awakening to the peril, Pelagius agreed. On the night of 26 August, without ever having fought a battle, the great army began its retreat. The first thing many of the common soldiers did was to get drunk. They evidently could not bear to leave behind them all of their wine, and since they

7 could not bring it with them, they drank it. Consequently, many of them were in various stages of intoxication when the order came to move out. Falling under the heading of "seemed like a good idea at the time", the Teutonic Knights set fire to the supplies in order to deny them to the enemy. Having been alerted by the flames to the fact that the Christians were retreating, al-kamil ordered the banks of the canal cut. Water flooded the very ground into which the Christians were retreating and the soldiers quickly found themselves wading through mud or falling into gullies now filled with water. Under these conditions, the Egyptians attacked. The military orders, and the knights under King John put up a valiant defense and saved what they could of the army. Many of the infantry perished, however, it being unusually difficult to fight at night in the mud when you're drunk. The remnant of the army withdrew to the camp, which now had no supplies thanks to the prompt action of the Teutonic Knights earlier in the evening. The fleet tried to escape, too. The Nile was running in flood now, so some ships managed to make it through the Egyptian blockade, including one which bore Cardinal Pelagius. From the safety of Damietta he now concluded that all was lost. He opened negotiations with al-kamil two days later, on 28 August By the 30th, the terms were settled. The Sultan no longer needed to offer the return of Jerusalem, for he had the Crusader army, including King John, at his mercy. On the other hand, the Christians still held Damietta, which they had recently fortified, and another Christian fleet was on its way. Al-Kamil therefore asked only that the Christians leave Egypt. Damietta would be returned to the Muslims, and the Christians would observe a truce of eight years with Egypt. Both sides would return their prisoners, and al-kamil would return the True Cross which he did not even have but didn t bother telling the crusaders that. There was some inital fervent resistance to handing back Damietta. But with many of the leaders trapped at Sharimshah, there was little point in holding out. After a few days, the garrison agreed. The Sultan generously fed the army and entertained King John and the others. On 8 September, the Crusaders boarded their ships and al-kamil took possession of Damietta. The failure of the Crusade caused an outpouring of anti-papal sentiment from the Occitan poet Guilhem Figueira. The more orthodox Gormonda de Monpeslier responded to Figueira's D'un sirventes far with a song of her own, Greu m'es a durar. Instead of blaming the Pelagius or the Papacy, she laid the blame on the "foolishness" of the wicked.

8 AKA: Hughes X, Count de La Marche (Abbott, Page 423.). Note - between 18 Sep 1248 and 5 Jun 1249: Hughes X participated and died in the Seventh Crusade. The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 18 September 1248 to 24 April Approximately 50,000 gold bezants (a sum equal to the entire annual revenue of France) was paid in ransom for King Louis who, along with thousands of his troops, were captured and defeated by the Egyptian army led by the Ayyubid Sultan Turanshah supported by the Bahariyya Mamluks led by Faris ad-din Aktai, Baibars al-bunduqdari, Qutuz, Aybak and Qalawun. France was perhaps the strongest state in Europe at the time, as the Albigensian Crusade had brought Provence into Parisian control. Poitou was ruled by Louis IX's brother Alphonse of Poitiers, who joined him on his crusade in Another brother, Charles I of Anjou, also joined Louis. For the next three years Louis collected an ecclesiastical tenth (mostly from church tithes), and in 1248 he and his approximately 15,000-strong army that included 3,000 knights, and 5,000 crossbowmen sailed on 36 ships from the ports of Aigues-Mortes, which had been specifically built to prepare for the crusade, and Marseille. Louis IX's financial preparations for this expedition were comparatively well organized, and he was able to raise approximately 1,500,000 livres tournois. However, many nobles who joined Louis on the expedition had to borrow money from the royal treasury, and the crusade turned out to be very expensive. The Seventh shares with the Sixth Crusade the attribute of being under the control of a particular monarch. Taken together, they show plainly that the papacy had lost control of the crusading movement and, equally, that the movement was no longer able to stir interest throughout Europe. The crusades were close to becoming the instrument of national policy. The King and Queen sailed to Cyprus, arriving at Limassol on 18 September 1248, where they were received by King Henry of Cyprus. They were joined there by the Grand Master of the Hospital, the Grand Master of the Temple, and many of the Palestinian barons. Louis called a council and there it was agreed to aim for Egypt. Both in the Latin West and in Outremer it was understood that Jerusalem could never be secure so long as Egypt was hostile. the Latin Empire set up after the Fourth Crusade asked for his help against the Byzantine Empire of Nicaea, and the Principality of Antioch and the Knights Templar wanted his help in Syria, where the Muslims had recently captured Sidon. Once the objective was decided, Louis wanted to set out at once, but the locals persuaded him that an attack on the Nile delta in winter would be too risky. There were few harbors along the delta; landing required calm seas and the winter storms made these unpredictable. Despite his eagerness, Louis agreed to wait until spring. Egypt would, Louis thought, provide a base from which to attack Jerusalem, and its wealth and supply of grain would keep the crusaders fed and equipped. During the winter, the king was distracted by various diplomatic maneuvers, including sending an expedition to the Mongols to seek an alliance there. Constantinople begged him to help in its struggle with the Emperor of Nicaea. Antioch asked for help. The Templars were engaged in some complex

9 negotiations with Aleppo. Louis steadfastly refused to be distracted from his crusading goal and refused all these entanglements, except he did send six hundred archers to Bohémond at Antioch. In the spring, additional troops arrived from the Morea. Louis had arranged for supplies at Cyprus, but he had planned only for a stay of weeks, not months, and he now had far fewer stores than he had hoped. More time (and supplies) was wasted in trying to find ships, for Venice now refused to help at all, and Genoa was distracted by a war. When a fleet did assemble, it was promptly scattered in a storm. When Louis sailed in May 1249, he had with him only about a quarter of his army. The rest of the army was making its way toward Egypt as best it could, but Louis would not wait. He arrived off the coast of Egypt on 4 June The Egyptians knew Louis was coming and had dispatched a strong force to oppose him. His advisors all told Louis to wait until the rest of the army should come up, but he refused. On the morning of the 5th, the King landed, leading his troops personally. A fierce battle developed on the beach. John of Ibelin, Count of Jaffa, along with the King himself, distinguished themselves with their courage. The Egyptian commander, Fakhr ad-din, withdrew under cover of darkness back to Damietta. While there was great elation at their victory, the Christians knew that the really hard fighting still lay ahead. During the night, Fakhr ad-din found that the city lacked the resolve to fight. He made the tactical decision to abandon the city and to retreat up river. Most of the Muslim population, already in a panic over the prospect of a terrible siege, left with the Egyptian troops. In the morning, some Christians from the city came to the French camp to tell them that the city was undefended. Louis marched triumphantly into Damietta on 6 June The last time Damietta had fallen to the Christians, the Sultan had offered Jerusalem in exchange. Hopes among the Crusaders ran very high. Having won Damietta, the Crusaders now stopped. The Nile would begin to flood in another month, and everyone remembered the fate of the Fifth Crusade. Moreover, the greater part of the army had not yet arrived. Louis decided to wait out the flood season before considering a further advance up the Nile. The knights sat back and enjoyed the spoils of war. Louis was in his element here, dispensing justice and arrangement the affairs of government. But as the army grew and waiting, it consumed supplies at an alarming rate, and discipline grew slack. Once again the Sultan, who was old and dying of tuberculosis, offered Jerusalem for Damietta. Once again, the Crusaders refused, believing that they had the Egyptians on the run and would be able to win even more. Louis ignored the agreement made during the Fifth Crusade that Damietta should be given to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, now a rump state in Acre, but he did set up an archbishopric there (under the authority of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem) and used the city as a base to direct military operations against the Muslims of Syria. In Cairo, the political temperature rose rapidly. The Sultan, Ayub, was dying and everyone knew it. He had relied on his slave warriors, known as the Mamluks, for the defense of Damietta and they were now disgraced. They were advocating a palace revolution to restore their position, but Fakhr ad-din would not lead them. Ayub did what he could. Al-Kamil had constructed a small town on the site of his victory over the Fifth Crusade, naming it almansourah: the Victorious. Ayub had himself brought in a litter to Mansourah and turned the place into an armed camp. He sent Bedouin raiders out to harry any Christians who dared to venture beyond Damietta and the army camp set up outside it. September came and went, then October. The floodwaters receded and the way to Cairo opened. Louis received reinforcements from France, commanded by his brother Alfonso of Poitou. After some discussion, it was agreed to advance up the Nile toward Cairo, and the army set out on 20 November The King left his Queen behind in Damietta, along with the Patriarch of Jerusalem and a strong garrison. Louis IX sent a letter to as-salih Ayyub that said : As you know that I am the ruler of the Christian nation I do know you are the ruler of the Muhammadan nation. The people of Andalusia give me money and gifts while we drive them like cattle. We kill their men and we make their women widows. We take the boys and the girls as prisoners and we make houses empty. I have told you enough and I have advised you to the end, so now if you make the strongest oath to me and if you go to christian priests and monks and if you carry kindles before my eyes as a sign of obeying the cross, all these will not persuade me from reaching you and killing you at your dearest spot on earth. If the land will be mine then it is a gift to me. If the land will be yours and you defeat me then you will have the upper hand. I have told you and I have warned you about my soldiers who obey me. They can fill open fields and mountains, their number like pebbles. They will be sent to you with swords of destruction. In November 1249, Louis marched towards Cairo, and almost at the same time, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, as-salih Ayyub, died. Sultan Ayub died on 23 November 1249 at Mansourah. With the Mamluks and other troops already restless, the Sultana managed to hide the fact of her husbands death long enough to recall her son, Turan-shah, from Syria and to make sure that she and Fakhr ad-din were securely in power. She managed all this even as Louis and his army were advancing up the Nile toward her. Fakhr ad-din kept most of his forces at Mansourah, securely protected by the joining of the Bahr as-saghir with the Nile--exactly the same position occupied by al-kamil about thirty years previously. He sent cavalry forces out to oppose the Christians, and some heavy fighting developed at Fariskur on 7 December, but Louis led his troops well and they were little delayed by these attacks. The Crusaders arrived on the banks of the Bahr as-saghir on 21 December 1249, and the two armies dug in. The rivers protected the Christians as much as they did the Muslims. Fakhr ad-din tried several times to find a way to attack the French, but each attempt was thwarted. For their part, the Christians were engaged in trying to build a dyke to bridge the river, but the Egyptians managed to thwart that in their turn. January 1250 passed in these activities. Then, at the beginning of February, the Crusaders got a break. A Coptic Christian offered to show them a ford across the river. They set out on 8 February The vanguard was led by the King's brother, Robert of Artois, accompanied by the Templars and the English. Louis gave strict orders that no one should attack until he himself gave the order. The crossing was difficult and took a long time. Once over, Artois decided to attack right away, fearing that the Egyptians might discover him there before the French could get across. The Templars reminded him of the King's orders, but he made the decision to attack anyway. Duke Robert was almost immediately successful. The Egyptians were just going about their morning business, unaware that the Christians had crossed the river, so the French were able to burst into the camp almost unopposed. The Egyptians were not formed up, many weren't even armored. Many fled immediately for Mansourah; those who stood and fought, including the Egyptian commander Fakhr ad-din, were slaughtered. The Egyptian camp was now in Crusader hands, a very great triumph, but Robert of Artois wanted more. He wanted to pursue the fleeing Egyptians and to capture Mansourah; if that city fell, Cairo could not stand. With Cairo, so fell all of Egypt, and the future of the Holy Land would be assured. It was a crucial moment. But the Crusader forces were badly dispersed in and around the Egyptian camp, and in any case the superiority of the Latin cavalry would be lost in the narrow streets of a city. Both the Grand Master of the Temple, William of Sonnac, and the commander of the English contingent, the Earl of Salisbury, advised Robert to wait for the main Crusader force under King Louis. The Duke dismissed the others as cowards and urged his French forces forward. The Templars and the English reluctantly followed, knowing that Artois would be killed if he went on alone. King Louis and the bulk of the French army were still crossing the Bahr as-saghir, unaware of what was happening. In Mansourah, the fleeing Mamluks were re-grouped under a new leader, Rukn ad-din Baibars. He stationed his men around the city and allowed the Crusaders to charge into the city without opposition. Once they were all deep within the town, Baibars ordered the counter-attack. Even the people of the town took part, casting down stones and pulling riders from their horses. The Crusaders could not defend themselves; many, indeed, found themselves in alleys so narrow they could not even turn their horses around. Disaster fell on them. Two hundred and ninety Templar knights rode into Mansourah; five escaped. Robert of Artois was killed, overwhelmed when he tried to take refuge in a house. The Lord of Coucy and the Count of Brienne were killed. The Grand Master William lost one eye, but managed to get away. The Earl of Salisbury and almost all of the English knights were killed. Many who escaped the city drowned while trying to swim the river back to safety. Duke Peter of Brittany, severely wounded, managed to make it to the river

10 crossing and it was he who told the King of the disaster. Louis knew what was coming. He quickly formed his army up to meet an attack, but his crossbowmen were still on the other side of the river. The king ordered a pontoon bridge to be built as quickly as possible so they could cross, knowing that their arrows would be needed. In the meantime, the Mamluks attacked. That afternoon saw hard fighting on both sides. More than once the Egyptian army was on the verge of success, but personal courage on the Christian side kept the French intact. Toward sundown, the bridge was at last completed and the bowmen hurried over. That was enough for the Egyptians, and they retired to the safety of Mansourah. Louis learned of his brother's death only after the fighting was done. He wept over his loss, but he could not hope for vengeance, for that same brother had been responsible for the loss of too many knights. The king ordered a retreat back to the Crusader camp. Louis was defeated as well, but he did not withdraw to Damietta for months, preferring to besiege Mansourah, which ended in starvation and death for the crusaders rather than the Muslims. In showing utter agony, a Templar knight lamented : Rage and sorrow are seated in my heart...so firmly that I scarce dare to stay alive. It seems that God wishes to support the Turks to our loss...ah, lord God...alas, the realm of the East has lost so much that it will never be able to rise up again. They will make a Mosque of Holy Mary's convent, and since the theft pleases her Son, who should weep at this, we are forced to comply as well...anyone who wishes to fight the Turks is mad, for Jesus Christ does not fight them any more. They have conquered, they will conquer. For every day they drive us down, knowing that God, who was awake, sleeps now, and Muhammad waxes powerful. The Egyptians soon tried to capitalize on their victory, attacking three days after the Battle of Mansourah. Hard fighting lasted all day, but in the end the Christians were able to withstand the attack and the Egyptians again withdrew. There followed a stalemate that lasted for several weeks, but always to the detriment of the Christians. After the death of the Sultan, the Sultana immediately summoned Turanshah to Cairo. He arrived on 28 February 1250 and soon tightened the noose around the Christians by implementing a successful blockade of the Nile. All though March, few supply ships managed to slip the blockade; at the end of the month, a whole fleet of thirty-two ships were seized. Famine and disease stalked the Christian camp, and King Louis realized that he must retreat or risk losing everything. He first tried to offer Turanshah an exchange: Damietta for Jerusalem; but the Sultan would have none of it. The Latin army set out under cover of darkness early on 5 April They managed to get across the Bahr as-saghir via a pontoon bridge before the Egyptians noticed the movement, but the Christians neglected to destroy the bridge behind them and the Egyptians set out in pursuit. The King remained in the rear guard, leading the defense against the Egyptian attacks. That night, however, he fell ill and by morning could barely ride. The next day, the army tried to move on, but typhoid and dysentery were everywhere. By mid-day, the King could go no further and his bodyguard placed him in a house at Sharimshah. The Egyptians closed in. Although the King never ordered a surrender, and Philip of Montfort was negotiating with the Sultan, there was a confusion of orders and the army simply surrendered. It scarcely mattered; the army could not have fought. A little later, the Christian ships that had been sent down the Nile carrying the sick and wounded were likewise captured. The entire Crusader army, including the King of France and many of the barons of Outremer, was now captive. The only point of resistance was Damietta, still under the command of Queen Margaret of France. With her were only a handful of knights, a large contingent of Italians, and the Patriarch of Jerusalem. Her situation was complicated by the fact that she was nine months pregnant. The Egyptians had captured such a large army, they lacked enough men even to guard it. Every day, for the next seven days in succession, three hundred of the weakest were taken aside and decapitated. By these measures the number of Christian captives was reduced to a manageable size. King Louis was take to Mansourah, both for better security and for better medical care, for his was very sick. Even so, he was kept in chains, even while he was being nursed back to health. The King's health was very important to the Sultan, for he was the biggest bargaining chip. That there was a bargain to be made at all was due largely to Queen Margaret. Three days after hearing of the surrender of the army and the capture of her husband, Margaret gave birth to a son whom she named John Tristan (John Sorrow). That same day she heard that the Italians were planning to abandon Damietta as the city was threatened with a shortage of food. Summoning their leaders to her bedside, she persuaded them to stay by offering to buy sufficient food out of her own purse. Margaret and her son were soon sent to the safety of Acre, and negotiations with the Sultan were taken over by the Patriarch Robert, but the Queen's courage at a crucial moment had saved the city, giving the Patriarch something with which to bargain. Meanwhile, extraordinary events were transpiring at Fariskur, where the Sultan and the main Egyptian army were encamped. On 2 May 1250, Turanshah gave a great banquet. At the end of the feast, a faction of Mamluk soldiers rushed in and tried to kill him. These soldiers had been offended by Turanshah's treatment of them and, led by Baibars, decided to exact vengeance. The Sultan was wounded but managed to escape to a tower next to the Nile River. The Mamluks pursued him and set the tower on fire. Turanshah leaped into the river. His pursuers stood on the banks and shot at him with arrows, even as he begged for his life, offering to abdicate. Unable to kill him from the shore, Baibars himself waded out into the water and hacked the Sultan to death. A puppet Sultan was chosen, but he lasted only a few years. In reality, from that bloody night forward, Baibars Bundukdari was the ruler of Egypt. The Mamluks would rule here for almost three hundred years as the slave-sultans. The Patriarch of Jerusalem arrived in the immediate aftermath of these events. Despite some blood-curdling threats, the Mamluks chose to confirm the bargain made by Turanshah, mainly because of the enormous ransom of half a million pounds tournois. On May 6, Damietta was surrendered to the Egyptians, and King Louis was brought there and released the same day. He was required to pay half the ransom (now reduced to 400,000 pounds) immediately. With the reluctant help of the Templars, he managed to do this and to set sail the same day for Acre. A great many wounded soldiers had been left behind at Damietta; as soon as the Crusaders were gone, the Mamluks slaughtered all these. Louis arrived at Acre on 12 May Most of his army was dead and much of the rest of it was still captive. He was still obliged to raise the other half of the ransom money to free them, but his own financial reserves had been drained nearly dry. His mother wrote from France that he was sorely needed at home, but he decided to stay. His brothers and many others went home in July, leaving behind as much money as they could spare and about 1,400 men. Louis was now effectively the ruler of Outremer. Conrad of Germany was technically its monarch, but he obviously had no intention of coming to the East, and a commander was desperately needed. Some legal shuffling was done to give an appearance of legitimacy, but Louis' role was more pragmatic than legal. Fortunately, the Mamluk revolution that had led to a new split between Cairo and Damascus, for the Syrians resented the Mamluks and their murder of Turanshah. An-Nasr Yusuf of Aleppo, a great-grandson of Saladin, occupied Damascus and opened negotiations with Louis. He could not accept an open alliance with so many prisoners still in Egypt, but at least the King did not need to face an immediate Muslim offensive against the Crusader states. That winter, the Ayubites of Damascus invaded Egypt but were repulsed. In 1251, because of this rivalry between the Ayubites and the Mamluks, Louis was able to negotiate the return of all the Christian prisoners (about three thousand) in exchange for three hundred Muslim prisoners and no further money; in return, Louis promised to aid Cairo against Damascus. The King had learned a great deal about politics in Outremer. Louis spent 1252 repairing fortifications in various towns, working from Jaffa. Although there was some maneuvering of armies, the Mamluks chose not to leave the safety of Egypt and neither Louis nor an-nasr Yusuf would risk an open battle. In 1253, Yusuf appealed to the Caliph at Baghdad to arbitrate between himself and Aibek, the puppet Sultan of Cairo. The Caliph was concerned to unite the Muslims against the invading Mongols and so took an uncharacteristically active hand. He negotiated a settlement acceptable to both Damascus and

11 Cairo, and the alliance with the Christians was immediately forgotten. Louis' presence in Outremer had saved the Crusader states from the disaster at Mansourah. He did this not only by dealing effectively with the Ayubites at Damascus and the Mamluks at Cairo, but also by keeping good order among the barons of Outremer and by gaining their respect. Louis conducted himself with bravery in the battles in Egypt and with great dignity while in captivity. Once he arrived at Acre, he showed himself to be fair-minded, generous and impartial in his dealings with the barons. He arbitrated a dispute at Antioch and then some delicate issues of succession over the crown of Jerusalem itself. He could easily have made himself a partisan in this latter, and even have laid claim to the throne himself. Instead, he continued to administer the affairs of the kingdom in the name of its child-kings and respected the decisions of the High Court of Cyprus regarding the succession. Despite feeling that he was still needed in Outremer, Louis returned to France in His mother had died in November She had been the strong hand at the helm during his abscence, and trouble broke out soon after her death. By late 1253, with trouble in Flanders and with King Henry of England threatening, Louis knew he had to leave. He set out on 24 April 1254 and arrived in France in July. The immediate parallels with the Fifth Crusade are obvious: the capture of Damietta, a brave advance upriver followed by catastrophe. But the effects of the Seventh Crusade were perhaps even more profound. Louis was universally respected. There had been no internal rivalries within the Crusader camp. If God did not grant victory here, then perhaps victory belonged only to the early Crusaders, who had long since passed into legendary status. It would be long before there was again any enthusiasm for crusading; another generation, really. The loss of money and life was disastrous for the Crusader states themselves and especially for the Military Orders; they never fully recovered. Outremer was now faced with an aggressive military state in Egypt and only the ominous advance of the Mongols prolonged its life. Once the Mongols had been dealt with, the Crusader states fell quickly. Louis himself was deeply distressed over his failure. He lost a brother on the Crusade and many good friends besides. It is evident that he was haunted by this because at the end of his life, he undertook another crusade. In 1270, against the advice of counselors and family, Louis again fielded an army and headed east. His ultimate goal was again deflected by a brother: this time, by Charles of Anjou, now King of Sicily, who persuaded Louis to attack Tunis first. He did so, gained a victory, but died of a fever in August. As a final irony, he was preceeded in death at Tunis by his son, John Tristan, the boy born at Damietta amid disaster. The history of the Seventh Crusade was written by Jean de Joinville, who was also a participant, Matthew Paris and many Muslim historians. Died: on 5 Jun Isabelle, Comtesse4 d'angoulême (Paul Augé, Nouveau Larousse Universel (13 à 21 Rue Montparnasse et Boulevard Raspail 114: Librairie Larousse, 1948), Tome I, Page 755.) (André Roux: Scrolls, 84, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 16 July 1994 at 16:00 Hours.) (Source is from a note posted on the Genealogy Electronic Bulletin Board of the Prodigy Interactive Personal Service a computer online service, by Marian Sampson [Prodigy ID# RTNL57A], posted in Subject "Fitzalan", 25 March 1997 at 04:36 Hours, citing "Voorouders in der Middeleeuwen" by Leo Lindemans.) (Abbott, Page 458.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). Married Name: de Lusignan. AKA: Isabelle, Queen of England. AKA: Isabeau, Dame de Jarnac The Seigneurie de Jarnac was given to Isabeau by her son King Henry III.. It then passed to their cadet son, Geoffroy (Abbott, Page 462.). Born: either 1186 or 1188 at France, daughter of Aymar I/II, Count d'angoulême and Alix de Courtenay. Married on 24 Aug 1200: John, King of England,, son of Henry II, King of England and Éléonore, Duchess d'aquitaine. Married in 1217: Hughes X, Comte de Lusignan,, son of Hughes IX, Seigneur de Lusignan and Mathilde d'angoulême (Hughes X was Isabelle's second husband. After Jean Sans Terre's death in 1216, Queen Isabelle returned to the peace and quiet of the city of Angoulême in France which had been her home before she married Jean. The purpose of her trip was to visit her daughter Joan, then 7 years of age. Hughes, who now bore the title of Count de La Marche, had accepted Joan as his future bride, in return for assistance to Jean in one of his campaigns in France. Joan was being educated in one of Hughes' castles. Count Hughes was away on a crusade when Queen Isabelle arrived at his castle. He returned before the end of her visit and realized that he was still in love with her. Queen Isabelle was, at 34 years of age, very beautiful and seductive. A troubadour compared her to a ripe peach hanging on a sun-kissed wall, or an earth-bound spirit of beauty. Isabelle, being willing, married Hughes without the consent of the King's Council in England. The Council promptly confiscated Isabelle's lands and cancelled her pension. The presence of Princess Joan in France gave Hughes and Isabelle a weapon and they announced that they would not give up Princess Joan until the Council returned the lands. The boy-king, Henry III, had the Pope excommunicate the newlyweds. When the Council realized that the marriage had freed Princess Joan of her engagement to Hughes, they started negotiations to give her to King Alexander II of Scotland. Isabelle thus received her lands and pension back, including back pay). Died: on 31 May 1246 at France Isabelle is buried at the Benedictine Abbey of Fontevrault, Maine & Loire, France, founded by Robert d'arbrissel in It is the resting place of many of the Plantagenêt family members of the 12th. Century. 14. Warin4 de Munchenay. AKA: Warin de Munchensy. Born: before Married before 1230: Joane Marshal,, daughter of William, Third Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare. Died: in 1255 (Moody, New History of Ireland, page 174.). 15. Joane4 Marshal. AKA: Joan Marshal. Married Name: de Munchenay. Born: circa 1202 at Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales, daughter of William, Third Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.). Married before 1230: Warin de Munchenay. Married Name: de Munchensy. Died: circa 1234 (Ibid.).

12 --- 5th Generation --- This coat of arms is associated with Jacques, Seigneur d'avesnes. 16. Jacques, Seigneur5 d'avesnes (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Stuart, Page 32, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 22 April 1994 at 01:39 hours.) (Abbott, Page 560.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 539.). AKA: Jacques, Constable de Flandre. AKA: Jacques, Seigneur de Guise. AKA: Jacques, Seigneur de Landrecies ( (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 539.). AKA: Jacques, Seigneur de Condé-sur-l'Escaut (Abbott, Page 561.). AKA: Jacques, Seigneur de Leuse (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 539.). AKA: Jacques, Seigneur de Condé (Ibid.). AKA: Jacques, Seigneur de Trélon (Ibid.). Born: in 1150, son of Nicolas, Seigneur d'avesnes and Mahaut, Dame de La Roche ( Married in 1155 at France: Améline=Adèle, Dame de Guise,, daughter of Bouchard=Bernard, Seigneur de Guise and Alix=Adélaïde N? (Améline was the heiress of the Seigneuries of Guise and Lesquilles) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 539.). Died: on 7 Sep 1191 at Arsouf, Palestine, Holy Land, Jacques fell at the Battle of Arsouf and died of his wounds, during the Third Crusade. At this battle, about ten miles from Joffa, the Crusaders, under Richard the Lion-Hearted, confronted Saladin's Turkish forces. The undisciplined knights charged prematurely and instead of assuring a great victory, they allowed the enemy forces to escape into the woods.

13 17. Améline=Adèle, Dame5 de Guise (Stuart, Page 21, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 22 April 1994 at 01:39 hours.). Married Name: d'avesnes. AKA: Adèle=Améline, Dame de Lesquilles ( 7 December 2008.). Born: before 1140 at Guise, Aisne, France, daughter of Bouchard=Bernard, Seigneur de Guise and Alix=Adélaïde N?, Améline is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age when she married Jacques. Married in 1155 at France: Jacques, Seigneur d'avesnes,, son of Nicolas, Seigneur d'avesnes and Mahaut, Dame de La Roche (Améline was the heiress of the Seigneuries of Guise and Lesquilles) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 539.). Died: after 1180 Améline and Jacques were still living together in 1180 (Ibid.).

14 This Coat of arms is associated with Baudouin IX, Comte de Flandre. 18. Baudouin VI, Count5 de Hainaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 121.) (Abbott, Page 559.). AKA: Baudouin IX, Count de Flandre (Abbott, Page 292.). AKA: Baudouin, Emperor of the East (Stuart, Page 54.). Born: in Jul 1171 at Valenciennes, Hainaut, France, son of Baudouin V, Count de Hainaut and Marguerite d'alsace. Married on 6 Jan 1186: Marie de Champagne,, daughter of Henri I, Comte de Champagne and Marie, Princesse de France. AKA: Baudouin, Empereur de Constantinople In August 1198, Innocent III called for a new crusade. A year later, Thibaut III de Champagne told his noble friends, invited at his castle of Ecry for the occasion, he would lead them to Egypt if they joined him in the crusade. But Thibaut died in May 1201 and soon after, at Soissons, Boniface, Marquis of Montferrat, was invested with the command of the crusade. Unable to pay the Venetian fleet for the journey, or because Venice kept alive acquaintance with Egypt, the crusade was diverted, against the Pope's own will, to Zara and Constantinople which were captured. Baldwin IX, count of Flander, was crowned Emperor in 1204 and died a year later. Some knights preferred to go to Syria and did not take part of the siege of Constantinople. Baudouin became Emperor in 1204 after the Latin crusaders defeated the Byzantines. Married in 1199: Joanna, Princess of England,, daughter of Henry II, King of England and Éléonore, Duchess d'aquitaine. Note - in 1204 at Constantinople, Turkey: Baudouin VI/IX was a leader of the 4th. Crusade. He became Emperor of Constantinople (Emperor of the East) in the year Died: on 11 Jun 1205 at Bulgaria at age 33 Baudouin VI/IX died in a Bulgarian prison. 19. Marie5 de Champagne (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 121.) (Stuart, Page 101, Line ). Married Name: de Hainaut. AKA: Marie, Empress of Constantinople (Stuart, Page 101.). Born: in 1174, daughter of Henri I, Comte de Champagne and Marie, Princesse de France. Married on 6 Jan 1186: Baudouin VI, Count de Hainaut,, son of Baudouin V, Count de Hainaut and Marguerite d'alsace. Died: on 9 Aug 1204.

15 This coat of arms is associated with Raoul I, Seigneur de Coucy.

16 20. Raoul I, Sire5 de Coucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 165.) (Stuart, Page 23, Line ) (Augé.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 182.). AKA: Raoul, Seigneur de La Fère (Ibid.). AKA: Raoul, Seigneur de Landouzy (Ibid.). AKA: Raoul, Seigneur de Crécy (Ibid.). AKA: Raoul, Seigneur de Fontaines (Ibid.). AKA: Raoul, Seigneur de Pinon (Ibid.). AKA: Raoul I, Seigneur de Saint-Gobin (Ibid.). AKA: Raoul, Seigneur de Marle (Ibid.). AKA: Ralph I de Coucy. AKA: Raoul I, Seigneur de Vervins (Ibid.). Born: circa 1134 at Boves, Somme, Picardie, France, son of Enguérrand II, Sire de Coucy and Agnès de Beaugency. Married in 1154: Agnès de Hainaut,, daughter of Baudouin IV, Comte de Hainaut and Alice=Ermesende de Namur (Agnès was Raoul I's first wife). Married in 1174 at France: Alix de Dreux,, daughter of Robert I, Comte de Dreux and Agnès de Baudement (Alix was Raoul I's second wife). Note - between 1188 and 1191: Raoul I participated in the Third Crusade ( ). Raoul was killed in action at the Battle of Acre in Guy de Lusignan, crowned King by the self-crowned Queen Sybille (his wife and sister of Baudouin IV, King of Jerusalem who in turn died in 1185), was released from prison by Saladin in He attempted to take command of the Christian forces at Tyre, but Conrad of Montferrat held power there after his successful defence of the city from Muslim attacks. Guy turned his attention to the wealthy port of Acre. He amassed an army to besiege the city and received aid from Philip's newly-arrived French army. However, it was still not enough to counter Saladin's force, which besieged the besiegers. In summer 1190, in one of the numerous outbreaks of disease in the camp, Queen Sibylla and her young daughters died. Guy, although only king by right of marriage, endeavoured to retain his crown, although the rightful heir was Sibylla's half-sister Isabella. After a hastily arranged divorce from Humphrey IV of Toron, Isabella was married to Conrad of Montferrat, who claimed the kingship in her name. During the winter of , there were further outbreaks of dysentery and fever, which claimed the lives of Frederick of Swabia, Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem, and Theobald V of Blois. When the sailing season began again in spring 1191, Leopold V of Austria arrived and took command of what remained of the imperial forces. Philip of France arrived with his troops from Sicily in May. Richard arrived at Acre on June 8, 1191 and immediately began supervising the construction of siege weapons to assault the city. The city was captured on July 12. Richard, Philip, and Leopold quarrelled over the spoils of their victory. Richard cast down the German standard from the city, slighting Leopold. Also, in the struggle for the kingship of Jerusalem, Richard supported Guy, while Philip and Leopold supported Conrad, who was related to them both. It was decided that Guy would continue to rule, but that Conrad would receive the crown upon his death. Frustrated with Richard (and in Philip's case, in poor health), Philip and Leopold took their armies and left the Holy Land in August. Philip left 10,000 French crusaders in the Holy Land and 5,000 silver marks to pay them. When it became apparent that Saladin was not willing to pay the terms of the treaty at Acre, on 21 August 1191, Richard had 2700 Muslim prisoners executed outside of Acre in full view of Saladin's camp. In response, Saladin likewise executed the Christian prisoners which he had captured. Raoul I had been one of those unfortunate prisoners.

17 Note - in 1191: The Coucy family was a highly venerable family of the Picardie Region of France. The sires of Coucy were among the most formidable adversaries of King Louis VI. Raoul died in the siege of Saint-Jean-d'Acre (1191) - located at the foot of Mount Carmel - during the Third Crusade. Third Crusade (27 March October 1192). After the failure of the Second Crusade, Nur ad-din had control of Damascus and a unified Syria. Eager to expand his power, Nur ad-din set his sights on the Fatimid dynasty of Egypt. In 1163, Nur ad-din's most trusted general, Shirkuh set out on a military expedition to the Nile. Accompanying the general was his young nephew, Saladin. With Shirkuh's troops camped outside of Cairo, Egypt's sultan, Shawar called on King Amalric I of Jerusalem for assistance. In response, Amalric sent an army into Egypt and attacked Shirkuh's troops at Bilbeis in In an attempt to divert Crusader attention from Egypt, Nur ad-din attacked Antioch, resulting in a massacre of Christian soldiers and the capture of several Crusader leaders, including Bohemond III, Prince of Antioch. Nur ad-din sent the scalps of the Christian defenders to Egypt for Shirkuh to proudly display at Bilbeis for Amalric's soldiers to see. This action prompted both Amalric and Shirkuh to lead their armies out of Egypt. In 1167, Nur ad-din once again sent Shirkuh to conquer the Fatimids in Egypt. Shawar also opted to once again call upon Amalric for the defence of his territory. The combined Egyptian-Christian forces pursued Shirkuh until he retreated to Alexandria. Amalric then breached his alliance with Shawar by turning his forces on Egypt and besieging the city of Bilbeis. Shawar pleaded with his former enemy, Nur ad-din to save him from Amalric's treachery. Lacking the resources to maintain a prolonged siege of Cairo against the combined forces of Nur ad-din and Shawar, Amalric retreated. This new alliance gave Nur ad-din rule over virtually all of Syria and Egypt. Shawar was executed for his alliances with the Christian forces, and Shirkuh

18 succeeded him as vizier of Egypt. In 1169, Shirkuh died unexpectedly after only weeks of rule. Shirkuh's successor was his nephew, Salah ad-din Yusuf, commonly known as Saladin. Nur ad-din died in 1174, leaving the new empire to his 11-year old son, As-Salih. It was decided that the only man competent enough to uphold the jihad against the Crusaders was Saladin, who became sultan of both Egypt and Syria, and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. Amalric also died in 1174, leaving Jerusalem to his 13-year old son, Baldwin IV. Although Baldwin suffered from leprosy, he was an effective and active military commander, defeating Saladin at the battle of Montgisard in 1177, with support from Raynald of Châtillon, who had been released from prison in Later, he forged an agreement with Saladin to allow free trade between Muslim and Christian territories. Raynald also raided caravans throughout the region. He expanded his piracy to the Red Sea by sending galleys not only to raid ships, but to assault the city of Mecca itself. These acts enraged the Muslim world, giving Raynald a reputation as the most hated man in the Middle East. Baldwin IV died in 1185 and the kingdom was left to his nephew Baldwin V, whom he had crowned as co-king in Raymond III of Tripoli again served as regent. The following year, Baldwin V died before his ninth birthday, and his mother Princess Sybilla, sister of Baldwin IV, crowned herself queen and her husband, Guy of Lusignan, king. It was at this time that Raynald, once again, raided a rich caravan and had its travelers thrown in prison. Saladin demanded that the prisoners and their cargo be released. The newly crowned King Guy appealed to Raynald to give in to Saladin's demands, but Raynald refused to follow the king's orders. It was this final act of outrage by Raynald which gave Saladin the opportunity he needed to take the offensive against the kingdom. He laid siege to the city of Tiberias in Raymond advised patience, but King Guy, acting on advice from Raynald, marched his army to the Horns of Hattin outside of Tiberias. The Crusader army, thirsty and demoralized, was destroyed in the ensuing battle. King Guy and Raynald were brought to Saladin's tent, where Guy was offered a goblet of water. Guy took a drink but was forbidden to pass the goblet to Raynald, because the Muslim rule of hospitality states that one who receives food or drink is under the protection of the host, and that anyone in need of water should be given an adequate amount. Saladin would not be forced to protect the treacherous Raynald by allowing him to drink. Raynald, who had not had a drop of water in days, grabbed the goblet out of Guy's hands. Upon seeing Raynald's disrespect for Muslim custom, Saladin beheaded Raynald for past betrayals. Saladin honored tradition with King Guy; Guy was sent to Damascus and eventually ransomed to his people, one of the few captive crusaders to avoid execution. By the end of the year, Saladin had taken Acre and Jerusalem. Pope Urban III is said to have collapsed and died upon hearing the news. However, at the time of his death, the news of the fall of Jerusalem could not yet have reached him, although he knew of the battle of Hattin and the fall of Acre. The new pope, Gregory VIII proclaimed that the capture of Jerusalem was punishment for the sins of Christians across Europe. The cry went up for a new crusade to the Holy Land. Henry II of England and Philip II of France ended their war with each other, and both imposed a "Saladin tithe" on their citizens to finance the venture. In Britain, Baldwin of Exeter, the archbishop of Canterbury, made a tour through Wales, convincing 3,000 men-at-arms to take up the cross, recorded in the Itinerary of Giraldus Cambrensis. The elderly Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa responded to the call immediately. He took up the Cross at Mainz Cathedral on 27 March 1188 and was the first to set out for the Holy Land in May of 1189 with an army of about 100,000 men, including 20,000 knights. However, some historians believe that this is an exaggeration and that the true figure might be closer to 15,000 men, including 3,000 knights. The Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelus made a secret alliance with Saladin to impede Frederick's progress in exchange for his empire's safety. On 18 May 1190, the German army captured Iconium, the capital of the Sultanate of Rüm. However, on 10 June 1190, Frederick was thrown from his horse in the crossing of the Saleph River and drowned. After this, much of his army returned to Germany. His son Frederick of Swabia led the remaining 5,000 men to Antioch. There, the emperor's body was boiled to remove the flesh, which was interred in the Church of St. Peter; his bones were put in a bag to continue the crusade. In Antioch, however, the German army was further reduced by fever. Young Frederick had to ask the assistance of his kinsman Conrad of Montferrat to lead him safely to Acre, by way of Tyre, where his father's bones were buried. Henry II of England died on 6 July 1189 following a defeat by his son Richard I (Lionheart) and Philip II. Richard inherited the crown and immediately began raising funds for the crusade. In July 1190, Richard and Philip set out jointly from Marseille, France for Sicily. Philip II had hired a Genoese fleet to transport his army which consisted of 650 knights, 1,300 horses, and 1,300 squires to the Holy Land. William II of Sicily had died the previous year, and was replaced by Tancred, who placed Joan of England William's wife and Richard's sister in prison. Richard captured the capital city of Messina on 4 October 1190 and Joan was released. Richard and Philip fell out over the issue of Richard's marriage, as Richard had decided to marry Berengaria of Navarre, breaking off his long-standing betrothal to Philip's half-sister Alys. Philip left Sicily directly for the Middle East on 30 March 1191, and arrived in Tyre in mid-may. He joined the siege of Acre on 20 May. Richard did not set off from Sicily until 10 April. Shortly after setting sail from Sicily, Richard's armada of 100 ships (carrying 8,000 men) was struck by a violent storm. Several ships ran aground, including one holding Joan, his new fiancée Berengaria, and a large amount of treasure that had been amassed for the crusade. It was soon discovered that Isaac Dukas Comnenus of Cyprus had seized the treasure. The young women were unharmed. Richard entered Limassol on 6 May, and met with Isaac, who agreed to return Richard's belongings and send 500 of his soldiers to the Holy Land. Once back at his fortress of Famagusta, Isaac broke his oath of hospitality and began issuing orders for Richard to leave the island. Isaac's arrogance prompted Richard to conquer the island within days. In July 1188, Saladin gives in freedom Guy de Lusignan, king of Jerusalem captured the previous year with the Bataille of Hattin, after him to have made solemnly swear not to take the weapons against the Moslems any more. In August 1189, Guy de Lusignan, broke his word the seat in front of the port of Acre. It has modest forces, but each day of the ships charged combatants arrive from Occident in reinforcement (September)., which tries to take them out of clipper. He had attempted to take command of the Christian forces at Tyre, but Conrad of Montferrat held power there after his successful defense of the city from Muslim attacks. Guy turned his attention to the wealthy port of Acre. The city is doubly encircled: around the ramparts, the Francs form an arc. Guy amassed an army to besiege the city and received aid from Philip's newly-arrived French army. However, it was still not enough to counter Saladin's force, which besieged the besiegers. In summer 1190, in one of the numerous outbreaks of disease in the camp, Queen Sibylla and her young daughters died. Guy, although only king by right of marriage, endeavored to retain his crown, although the rightful heir was Sibylla's half-sister Isabella. After a hastily arranged divorce from Humphrey IV of Toron, Isabella was married to Conrad of Montferrat, who claimed the kingship in her name. During the winter of , there were further outbreaks of dysentery and fever, which claimed the lives of Frederick of Swabia, Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem, and Thibauld V of Blois. When the sailing season began again in spring 1191, Leopold V of Austria arrived and took command of what remained of the imperial forces. Philippe of France arrived with his troops from Sicily in May. Richard arrived at Acre on 8 June 1191 and immediately began supervising the construction of siege weapons to assault the city. The city was captured on 12 July. Richard, Philippe, and Leopold quarreled over the spoils of their victory. Richard cast down the German standard from the city, slighting Leopold. Also, in the struggle for the kingship of Jerusalem, Richard supported Guy, while Philip and Leopold supported Conrad, who was related to them both. It was

19 decided that Guy would continue to rule, but that Conrad would receive the crown upon his death. Frustrated with Richard (and in Philip's case, in poor health), Philip and Leopold took their armies and left the Holy Land in August. Philip left 10,000 French crusaders in the Holy Land and 5,000 silver marks to pay them. When it became apparent that Saladin was not willing to pay the terms of the treaty at Acre, Richard had 2700 Muslim prisoners executed on 20 August outside of Acre in full view of Saladin's camp. In response, Saladin likewise executed the Christian prisoners which he had captured. After the capture of Acre, Richard decided to march to the city of Jaffa, where he could launch an attack on Jerusalem but on 7 September 1191, at Arsuf, 30 miles (50 km) north of Jaffa, Saladin attacked Richard's army. Saladin attempted to lure Richard's forces out to be easily picked off, but Richard maintained his formation until the Hospitallers rushed in to take Saladin's right flank, while the Templars took the left. Richard then won the battle. Following his victory, Richard took Jaffa and established his new headquarters there. He offered to begin negotiations with Saladin, who sent his brother, Al-Adil to meet with Richard. Negotiations (which had included an attempt to marry Richard's sister Joan to Al-Adil) failed, and Richard marched to Ascalon. Richard called on Conrad to join him on campaign, but he refused, citing Richard's alliance with King Guy. He too had been negotiating with Saladin, as a defence against any attempt by Richard to wrest Tyre from him for Guy. However, in April, Richard was forced to accept Conrad as king of Jerusalem after an election by the nobles of the kingdom. Guy had received no votes at all, but Richard sold him Cyprus as compensation. Before he could be crowned, Conrad was stabbed to death by two Hashshashin in the streets of Tyre. Eight days later, Richard's nephew Henry II of Champagne married Queen Isabella, who was pregnant with Conrad's child. It was strongly suspected that the king's killers had acted on instructions from Richard. In July 1192, Saladin's army suddenly attacked and captured Jaffa with thousands of men, but Saladin had lost control of his army because of their anger for the massacre at Acre. It was believed that Saladin even told the Crusaders to shield themselves in the Citadel until he had regained control of his army. Later, Richard had arrived in ships, but did not land because he did not know the situation, until a priest swam to the ship and told him what happened. The city was then re-captured by Richard and a much smaller force of 55 men on 31 July. A final battle was fought on 5 August in which Richard once again emerged triumphant. On September 2, 1192, Richard and Saladin finalized a treaty by which Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, but which also allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims to visit the city. Richard departed the Holy Land on 9 October. Richard was arrested and imprisoned in December 1192 by Duke Leopold, who suspected him of murdering his cousin Conrad of Montferrat, and had been offended by Richard casting down his standard from the walls of Acre. He was later transferred to the custody of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, and it took a ransom of one hundred fifty thousand marks to obtain his release. Richard returned to England in 1194 and died of a crossbow bolt wound in 1199 at the age of 41. In 1193, Saladin died of yellow fever, leaving behind only one piece of gold and forty-seven pieces of silver; he had given the rest away to charity. Henry of Champagne was killed in an accidental fall in Queen Isabella then married for a fourth time, to Amalric of Lusignan, who had succeeded his brother Guy, positioned as King of Cyprus. After their deaths in 1205, her eldest daughter Maria of Montferrat (born after her father's murder) succeeded to the throne of Jerusalem. The failure of the Third Crusade would lead to the call for a Fourth Crusade six years after the third ended in Accounts of events surrounding the Third Crusade were written by the anonymous authors of the Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, the Old French Continuation of William of Tyre (parts of which are attributed to Ernoul), and by Ambroise, Roger of Howden, Ralph of Diceto, and Giraldus Cambrensis. Died: on 15 Oct 1191 at Saint-Jean-d'Acre, Palestine, Holy Land, Raoul I is buried at Foisny, France. Acre is the best natural harbor on the coast of Palestine. As such it is of vital concern to anyone wishing to control trade and travel into and out of Palestine. European forces during the First Crusade initially captured it in 1104 and the city eventually became of more importance to the Latin kingdom the crusaders established than Jerusalem itself. It remained under European control throughout the crusading period, except for the years from 1187 to In 1187 the crusaders suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Saladin at the Horns of Hattin. After this battle, almost all major crusader-held cities rapidly fell to Saladin's army, including Acre and Jerusalem. Saladin visited Acre several times over the next two years, strengthening the walls and fortifications and stationing his best troops there. The only major Christian city to withstand the Muslim onslaught was Tyre, which provided a refuge for crusaders fleeing the Arab army. It was from here, in August 1189, that Guy de Lusignan led a small force to recapture Acre. Although they could easily have been destroyed, they were virtually ignored by the Muslim forces that were currently occupied with their siege of Beaufort. It was not until they had become entrenched in front of the city that Saladin took notice and moved his headquarters to the Plain of Acre. The Christian forces controlled access to the harbor and continued to fortify their position on the landward side of the city with ditches and timber palisades, eventually besieging the city. The crusaders themselves were threatened by the Islamic force encamped to the east of the city. However, due to a continuing stream of reinforcements from Tyre and Europe, they were strong enough to defend themselves against attacks from the city and the encampment. They were not strong enough, however, to both capture the city and drive off Saladin. In Europe, the defeat of the Christian army at Hattin and the loss of Jerusalem had rekindled the crusading spirit and preparations were made for what would become known as the Third Crusade. Armies under three of the mightiest European kings, Richard I (the Lionhearted) of England, Philip II of France, and Frederick I (Barbarossa) of Germany, set out in The news of this impending threat, especially that of Frederick I, almost paralyzed Saladin and much of the Arab world. His treasury was empty and the cost of paying troops during the winter was high. In addition, there was a general fear in the Arab world that the vengeance of the new invaders would lead to a general bloodbath and the loss of Jerusalem, Syria, and Egypt. These three armies would easily have turned the tide at Acre and been a serious threat to Muslim control of Palestine if they had arrived with their original strength. However, many did not complete the journey (including Frederick, who drowned). Those who made the trek did not arrive until 1191, leaving Guy de Lusignan and his army to hold out as best they could. Fortunately for the Christian army, Saladin was unable to reinforce his army in the meantime. Although the crusaders controlled access to the harbor, occasionally some Muslim ships were able to break through and provide much needed supplies and reinforcements. By the middle of September 1189, the siege was taking its toll on the city's inhabitants. At this time Saladin's army broke through to the city and opened the road to Tyre, allowing reinforcements and provisions into the city. Saladin himself came to Acre to inspect the defensive arrangements. The crusaders counterattacked in October 1189, forcing the retirement of the Muslim right wing and provoking an attack by a portion of their main force. The crusaders attacked the center, but did not press home the attack and were themselves surrounded. Saladin's army inflicted heavy losses on the Christian army, but he failed to follow up his gains. Both sides retired to their initial positions and settled down for the winter. During this time Saladin visited Acre and strengthened its fortifications. Fighting resumed in the spring of The crusaders attacked the city while trying to keep

20 Saladin's field army at bay. They bombarded the city and mined the walls. In April 1190 they reached the walls of the city, but an attack from the east forced them to withdraw. An Egyptian fleet entered the harbor and supplied the city. Fighting settled into a series of skirmishes through the following summer and autumn. Although the crusaders were periodically strengthened by fresh units, there were never enough to allow them to drive off Saladin's army and capture the city. Both sides again settled into winter camps with little or no fighting taking place. The spring of 1191 would see the tide turn in favor of the Christian army. The French fleet arrived in April 1191, but King Philip did not want to mount any new assaults until Richard arrived. Richard's forces began arriving in June, with Richard in the first group. Philip wanted to mount an attack quickly on the city, but Richard was sick and wanted to postpone any attacks until the rest of his forces arrived along with their equipment for building siege engines. Philip carried out the assault anyway, but the inhabitants of Acre signaled Saladin, who brought his forces up and attacked the Christian rear. The defenders under Guy de Lusignan held off the Muslim attack, but the Christian army was unable to breach the city walls and hold off Saladin's army simultaneously. The assault on the city failed, Philip was forced to retreat, and the defenders of Acre destroyed the Christian siege equipment with Greek fire. Richard's health improved to the point where he could begin directing assaults on the city. He focused his efforts on one tower, which his men mined and battered until it collapsed. He then offered a bounty to any man who would remove stones from the wall, doing so while the city's defenders bombarded them from the walls. Richard's continued attack on the city walls made it evident to the inhabitants that despite their best efforts and Saladin's attempts at relieving the pressure their days were numbered. Saladin reassured the garrison that reinforcements were coming, but when they failed to arrive as promised, he allowed the defenders make peace on the best terms they could. Initially they offered to give up the city free and clear, the Holy Cross, 200 of their Christian captives, and fifty of their own men. These terms were unacceptable to the two European kings. The terms finally agreed on required the Muslims to totally abandon the city, taking nothing with them but clothing, pay a ransom of 200,000 Saracen talents, free 2,000 noble Christian and 500 lesser captives, and return the Holy Cross by the end of the month. The most noble and important of the inhabitants were to be left behind until all the other terms had been fulfilled. On 12 July the Muslim inhabitants of the city left. The Christian army entered and divided its spoils and captives between the two kings. Saladin moved his army to a mountain farther away. Unfortunately, the Muslim leaders in Acre had made promises in the name of Saladin without his knowledge or his ability to comply. Saladin either could not, or would not, return the Holy Cross or release the captives as had been promised. And no one, not even Saladin, had the ransom money. Richard gave Saladin the benefit of the doubt and let the time limit come and go without action. However, Richard could not continue with the Crusade and take care of 2,700 prisoners. On 21 August the hostages were led out of Acre and executed in full view of the Muslim army who, despite a pitched battle, could not stop the slaughter. Christians of the time viewed this as retribution for past injustices. Muslims considered the slain as martyrs for the faith and Saladin continued to treat Richard with respect and admiration. Richard continued to crusade in Palestine and tried to recapture Jerusalem, but without success. Intrigues at home drew his attention away from the Holy Land and he could no longer afford to continue the quest. On 2 September, 1192, Richard signed a treaty with Saladin that left Jerusalem in Muslim hands, but allowed Christian pilgrims to visit it. All the cities of the Palestinian coast, except Ascalon, would remain in Christian hands. Acre remained the capital of the inappropriately named Kingdom of Jerusalem. It was the main port of entry for crusaders, pilgrims, and merchants until it fell to the Muslims and the crusading era ended in 1291.

21 21. Alix5 de Dreux (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 182.) (Ibid.). Married Name: de Coucy. Born: in 1156 at Orléanais, France, daughter of Robert I, Comte de Dreux and Agnès de Baudement. Married in 1174 at France: Raoul I, Sire de Coucy,, son of Enguérrand II, Sire de Coucy and Agnès de Beaugency (Alix was Raoul I's second wife). Died: after Hughes II, Count5 de Rethel (Paul Theroff, posts, 21 September 1994 at 23:36 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.) (Ibid.). Born: before 1181, son of Manassès III, Count de Rethel and Mathilde, Wildgraefin von Kyrburg, Hughes II is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when he married Félicité. Married circa 1191: Félicité de Broyes,, daughter of Simon de Broyes and Agnès de Joigny. Died: in Félicité5 de Broyes. Married Name: de Rethel (Ibid.). AKA: Félicité, Comtesse de Beaufort (Ibid., Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page184.). Born: before 1181 at France, daughter of Simon de Broyes and Agnès de Joigny, Félicité is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Hughes II. Married circa 1191: Hughes II, Count de Rethel,, son of Manassès III, Count de Rethel and Mathilde, Wildgraefin von Kyrburg. Died: in 1244.

22 Coat of Arm associated with Hughes IX, Seigneur de Lusignan. 24. Hughes IX, Seigneur 5 de Lusignan (André Roux: Scrolls, 84, 87.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 16 July 1994 at 16:00 Hours.). Also Known As: Hughes "Le Brun." AKA: Hughes IX, Seigneur de Couhé. AKA: Hughes IX, Seigneur de Château-Larcher. PaterAlter before 1163 Hughes IX, Seigneur de Lusignan/Hughes VIII, Lord de Lusignan (an unknown value). MaterAlter: before 1163 Bourgogne de Rancon/Hughes IX, Seigneur de Lusignan. Born: in 1163, son of Hughes de Lusignan and Orengarde N?, Hughes IX's parentage is in dispute with older sources indicating he was the son of Hughes VIII by Bourgogne de Rancon. Married before 1180 at France: Agathe de Preuilly (Agathe was Hughes IX's first wife and according to some sources the mother of Hughes X). Married before 1182: Mathilde d'angoulême,, daughter of Wulgrin III, Count d'angoulême and Élizabeth d'amboise. Note between 27 Mar 1188 and 9 Oct 1192: Hughes IX participated in the Third Crusade. Third Crusade (27 March October 1192). After the failure of the Second Crusade, Nur ad-din had control of Damascus and a unified Syria. Eager to expand his power, Nur ad-din set his sights on the Fatimid dynasty of Egypt. In 1163, Nur ad-din's most trusted general, Shirkuh set out on a military expedition to the Nile. Accompanying the general was his young nephew, Saladin. With Shirkuh's troops camped outside of Cairo, Egypt's sultan, Shawar called on King Amalric I of Jerusalem for assistance. In response, Amalric sent an army into Egypt and attacked Shirkuh's troops at Bilbeis in In an attempt to divert Crusader attention from Egypt, Nur ad-din attacked Antioch, resulting in a massacre of Christian soldiers and the capture of several Crusader leaders, including Bohemond III, Prince of Antioch. Nur ad-din sent the scalps of the Christian defenders to Egypt for Shirkuh to proudly display at Bilbeis for Amalric's soldiers to see. This action prompted both Amalric and Shirkuh to lead their armies out of Egypt. In 1167, Nur ad-din once again sent Shirkuh to conquer the Fatimids in Egypt. Shawar also opted to once again call upon Amalric for the defence of his territory. The combined Egyptian-Christian forces pursued Shirkuh until he retreated to Alexandria. Amalric then breached his alliance with Shawar by turning his forces on Egypt and besieging the city of Bilbeis. Shawar pleaded with his former enemy, Nur ad-din to save him from Amalric's treachery. Lacking the resources to maintain a prolonged siege of Cairo against the combined forces of Nur ad-din and Shawar, Amalric retreated. This new alliance gave Nur ad-din rule over virtually all of Syria and Egypt. Shawar was executed for his alliances with the Christian forces, and Shirkuh succeeded him as vizier of Egypt. In 1169, Shirkuh died unexpectedly after only weeks of rule. Shirkuh's successor was his nephew, Salah ad-din Yusuf, commonly known as Saladin. Nur ad-din died in 1174, leaving the new empire to his 11-year old son, As-Salih. It was decided that the only man competent enough to uphold the jihad against the Crusaders was Saladin, who became sultan of both Egypt and Syria, and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. Amalric also died in 1174, leaving Jerusalem to his 13-year old son, Baldwin IV. Although Baldwin suffered from leprosy, he was an effective and active military commander, defeating Saladin at the battle of Montgisard in 1177, with support from Raynald of Châtillon, who had been released from prison in Later, he forged an agreement with Saladin to allow free trade between Muslim and Christian territories. Raynald also raided caravans throughout the region. He expanded his piracy to the Red Sea by sending galleys not only to raid ships, but to assault the city of Mecca itself. These acts enraged the Muslim world, giving Raynald a reputation as the most hated man in the Middle East. Baldwin IV died in 1185 and the kingdom was left to his nephew Baldwin V, whom he had crowned as co-king in Raymond III of Tripoli again served as regent. The following year, Baldwin V died before his ninth birthday, and his mother Princess Sybilla, sister of Baldwin IV, crowned herself queen and her husband, Guy of Lusignan, king. It was at this time that Raynald, once again, raided a rich caravan and had its travelers thrown in prison. Saladin demanded that the prisoners and their cargo be released. The newly crowned King Guy appealed to Raynald to give in to Saladin's demands, but Raynald refused to follow the king's orders. It was this final act of outrage by Raynald which gave Saladin the opportunity he needed to take the offensive against the kingdom. He laid siege to the city of Tiberias in Raymond advised patience, but King Guy, acting on advice from Raynald, marched his army to the Horns of Hattin outside of Tiberias. The Crusader army, thirsty and demoralized, was destroyed in the ensuing battle. King Guy and Raynald were brought to Saladin's tent, where Guy was offered a goblet of water. Guy took a drink but was forbidden to pass the goblet to Raynald, because the Muslim rule of hospitality states that one who

23 receives food or drink is under the protection of the host, and that anyone in need of water should be given an adequate amount. Saladin would not be forced to protect the treacherous Raynald by allowing him to drink. Raynald, who had not had a drop of water in days, grabbed the goblet out of Guy's hands. Upon seeing Raynald's disrespect for Muslim custom, Saladin beheaded Raynald for past betrayals. Saladin honored tradition with King Guy; Guy was sent to Damascus and eventually ransomed to his people, one of the few captive crusaders to avoid execution. By the end of the year, Saladin had taken Acre and Jerusalem. Pope Urban III is said to have collapsed and died upon hearing the news. However, at the time of his death, the news of the fall of Jerusalem could not yet have reached him, although he knew of the battle of Hattin and the fall of Acre. The new pope, Gregory VIII proclaimed that the capture of Jerusalem was punishment for the sins of Christians across Europe. The cry went up for a new crusade to the Holy Land. Henry II of England and Philip II of France ended their war with each other, and both imposed a "Saladin tithe" on their citizens to finance the venture. In Britain, Baldwin of Exeter, the archbishop of Canterbury, made a tour through Wales, convincing 3,000 men-at-arms to take up the cross, recorded in the Itinerary of Giraldus Cambrensis. The elderly Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa responded to the call immediately. He took up the Cross at Mainz Cathedral on 27 March 1188 and was the first to set out for the Holy Land in May of 1189 with an army of about 100,000 men, including 20,000 knights. However, some historians believe that this is an exaggeration and that the true figure might be closer to 15,000 men, including 3,000 knights. The Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelus made a secret alliance with Saladin to impede Frederick's progress in exchange for his empire's safety. On 18 May 1190, the German army captured Iconium, the capital of the Sultanate of Rüm. However, on 10 June 1190, Frederick was thrown from his horse in the crossing of the Saleph River and drowned. After this, much of his army returned to Germany. His son Frederick of Swabia led the remaining 5,000 men to Antioch. There, the emperor's body was boiled to remove the flesh, which was interred in the Church of St. Peter; his bones were put in a bag to continue the crusade. In Antioch, however, the German army was further reduced by fever. Young Frederick had to ask the assistance of his kinsman Conrad of Montferrat to lead him safely to Acre, by way of Tyre, where his father's bones were buried. Henry II of England died on 6 July 1189 following a defeat by his son Richard I (Lionheart) and Philip II. Richard inherited the crown and immediately began raising funds for the crusade. In July 1190, Richard and Philip set out jointly from Marseille, France for Sicily. Philip II had hired a Genoese fleet to transport his army which consisted of 650 knights, 1,300 horses, and 1,300 squires to the Holy Land. William II of Sicily had died the previous year, and was replaced by Tancred, who placed Joan of England William's wife and Richard's sister in prison. Richard captured the capital city of Messina on 4 October 1190 and Joan was released. Richard and Philip fell out over the issue of Richard's marriage, as Richard had decided to marry Berengaria of Navarre, breaking off his long-standing betrothal to Philip's half-sister Alys. Philip left Sicily directly for the Middle East on 30 March 1191, and arrived in Tyre in mid-may. He joined the siege of Acre on 20 May. Richard did not set off from Sicily until 10 April. Shortly after setting sail from Sicily, Richard's armada of 100 ships (carrying 8,000 men) was struck by a violent storm. Several ships ran aground, including one holding Joan, his new fiancée Berengaria, and a large amount of treasure that had been amassed for the crusade. It was soon discovered that Isaac Dukas Comnenus of Cyprus had seized the treasure. The young women were unharmed. Richard entered Limassol on 6 May, and met with Isaac, who agreed to return Richard's belongings and send 500 of his soldiers to the Holy Land. Once back at his fortress of Famagusta, Isaac broke his oath of hospitality and began issuing orders for Richard to leave the island. Isaac's arrogance prompted Richard to conquer the island within days. In July 1188, Saladin gives in freedom Guy de Lusignan, king of Jerusalem captured the previous year with the Bataille of Hattin, after him to have made solemnly swear not to take the weapons against the Moslems any more. In August 1189, Guy de Lusignan, broke his word the seat in front of the port of Acre. It has modest forces, but each day of the ships charged combatants arrive from Occident in reinforcement (September)., which tries to take them out of clipper. He had attempted to take command of the Christian forces at Tyre, but Conrad of Montferrat held power there after his successful defense of the city from Muslim attacks. Guy turned his attention to the wealthy port of Acre. The city is doubly encircled: around the ramparts, the Francs form an arc. Guy amassed an army to besiege the city and received aid from Philip's newly-arrived French army. However, it was still not enough to counter Saladin's force, which besieged the besiegers. In summer 1190, in one of the numerous outbreaks of disease in the camp, Queen Sibylla and her young daughters died. Guy, although only king by right of marriage, endeavored to retain his crown, although the rightful heir was Sibylla's half-sister Isabella. After a hastily arranged divorce from Humphrey IV of Toron, Isabella was married to Conrad of Montferrat, who claimed the kingship in her name. During the winter of , there were further outbreaks of dysentery and fever, which claimed the lives of Frederick of Swabia, Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem, and Thibauld V of Blois. When the sailing season began again in spring 1191, Leopold V of Austria arrived and took command of what remained of the imperial forces. Philippe of France arrived with his troops from Sicily in May. Richard arrived at Acre on 8 June 1191 and immediately began supervising the construction of siege weapons to assault the city. The city was captured on 12 July. Richard, Philippe, and Leopold quarreled over the spoils of their victory. Richard cast down the German standard from the city, slighting Leopold. Also, in the struggle for the kingship of Jerusalem, Richard supported Guy, while Philip and Leopold supported Conrad, who was related to them both. It was decided that Guy would continue to rule, but that Conrad would receive the crown upon his death. Frustrated with Richard (and in Philip's case, in poor health), Philip and Leopold took their armies and left the Holy Land in August. Philip left 10,000 French crusaders in the Holy Land and 5,000 silver marks to pay them. When it became apparent that Saladin was not willing to pay the terms of the treaty at Acre, Richard had 2700 Muslim prisoners executed on 20 August outside of Acre in full view of Saladin's camp. In response, Saladin likewise executed the Christian prisoners which he had captured. After the capture of Acre, Richard decided to march to the city of Jaffa, where he could launch an attack on Jerusalem but on 7 September 1191, at Arsuf, 30 miles (50 km) north of Jaffa, Saladin attacked Richard's army. Saladin attempted to lure Richard's forces out to be easily picked off, but Richard maintained his formation until the Hospitallers rushed in to take Saladin's right flank, while the Templars took the left. Richard then won the battle. Following his victory, Richard took Jaffa and established his new headquarters there. He offered to begin negotiations with Saladin, who sent his brother, Al-Adil to meet with Richard. Negotiations (which had included an attempt to marry Richard's sister Joan to Al-Adil) failed, and Richard marched to Ascalon. Richard called on Conrad to join him on campaign, but he refused, citing Richard's alliance with King Guy. He too had been negotiating with Saladin, as a defence against any attempt by Richard to wrest Tyre from him for Guy. However, in April, Richard was forced to accept Conrad as king of Jerusalem after an election by the nobles of the kingdom. Guy had received no votes at all, but Richard sold him Cyprus as compensation. Before he could be crowned, Conrad was stabbed to death by two Hashshashin in the streets of Tyre. Eight days later, Richard's nephew Henry II of Champagne married Queen Isabella, who was pregnant with Conrad's child. It was strongly suspected that the king's killers had acted on instructions from Richard.

24 In July 1192, Saladin's army suddenly attacked and captured Jaffa with thousands of men, but Saladin had lost control of his army because of their anger for the massacre at Acre. It was believed that Saladin even told the Crusaders to shield themselves in the Citadel until he had regained control of his army. Later, Richard had arrived in ships, but did not land because he did not know the situation, until a priest swam to the ship and told him what happened. The city was then re-captured by Richard and a much smaller force of 55 men on 31 July. A final battle was fought on 5 August in which Richard once again emerged triumphant. On September 2, 1192, Richard and Saladin finalized a treaty by which Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, but which also allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims to visit the city. Richard departed the Holy Land on 9 October. Richard was arrested and imprisoned in December 1192 by Duke Leopold, who suspected him of murdering his cousin Conrad of Montferrat, and had been offended by Richard casting down his standard from the walls of Acre. He was later transferred to the custody of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, and it took a ransom of one hundred fifty thousand marks to obtain his release. Richard returned to England in 1194 and died of a crossbow bolt wound in 1199 at the age of 41. In 1193, Saladin died of yellow fever, leaving behind only one piece of gold and forty-seven pieces of silver; he had given the rest away to charity. Henry of Champagne was killed in an accidental fall in Queen Isabella then married for a fourth time, to Amalric of Lusignan, who had succeeded his brother Guy, positioned as King of Cyprus. After their deaths in 1205, her eldest daughter Maria of Montferrat (born after her father's murder) succeeded to the throne of Jerusalem. The failure of the Third Crusade would lead to the call for a Fourth Crusade six years after the third ended in Accounts of events surrounding the Third Crusade were written by the anonymous authors of the Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, the Old French Continuation of William of Tyre (parts of which are attributed to Ernoul), and by Ambroise, Roger of Howden, Ralph of Diceto, and Giraldus Cambrensis.

25 AKA: Hughes IX, Count de La Marche Hughes IX abdicated the County in 1208 (Abbott, Page 423.). AKA: Hughes IX, Vicomte de Bridiers Hughes IX seized the Viscounty around 1212 (Abbott, Page 425.). Note - between 23 Aug 1217 and 5 Nov 1219 at Egypt: Hughes IX participated and died in the Fifth Crusade. The Fifth Crusade (23 August September 1221) was an attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt. Pope Honorius III organized crusading armies led by Leopold VI of Austria and Andrew II of Hungary, and a foray against Jerusalem ultimately left the city in Muslim hands. Later in 1218 a German army led by Oliver of Cologne and a mixed army of Dutch, Flemish and Frisian soldiers led by William I, Count of Holland arrived. In order to attack Damietta in Egypt, they allied with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in Anatolia, who attacked the Ayyubids in Syria in an attempt to free the Crusaders from fighting on two fronts. After occupying the port of Damietta, the Crusaders marched south towards Cairo in July of 1221, but were turned back after their dwindling supplies led to a forced retreat. A nighttime attack by Sultan Al-Kamil resulted in a great number of crusader losses and eventually in the surrender of the army. Al-Kamil agreed to an eight-year peace agreement with Europe. In spring 1213, Pope Innocent III issued the papal bull Quia maior, calling all of Christendom to join a new crusade. The kings and emperors of Europe, however, were preoccupied with fighting among themselves. At the same time, Pope Innocent III did not want their help, because a previous crusade led by kings had failed in the past. He ordered processions, prayers, and preaching to help organize the crusade, as these would involve the general population, the lower nobles, and knights. The message of the crusade was preached in France by Robert of Courçon; however, unlike other Crusades, not many French knights joined, as they were already fighting the Albigensian Crusade against the heretical Cathar sect in southern France. In 1215, Innocent III called the Fourth Lateran

26 Council, where, along with the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, Raoul of Merencourt, he discussed the recovery of the Holy Land, among other church business. Innocent wanted this crusade to be under the full control of the papacy, as the First Crusade was supposed to have been, in order to avoid the mistakes of the Fourth Crusade, which had been taken over by the Venetians. Innocent planned for the crusaders to meet at Brindisi in 1216, and prohibited trade with the Muslims to ensure that the crusaders would have ships and weapons. Every crusader would receive an indulgence, including those who simply helped pay the expenses of a crusader but did not go on crusade themselves. Oliver of Cologne had preached the crusade in Germany, and Emperor Frederick II attempted to join in Frederick was the last monarch Innocent wanted to join, as he had challenged the Papacy (and would do so in the years to come). Innocent, however, died in He was succeeded by Pope Honorius III, who barred Frederick from participating, but organized crusading armies led by king Andrew II of Hungary and duke Leopold VI of Austria. Andrew had the largest royal army in the history of the crusades (20,000 knights and 12,000 castle-garrisons). Andrew of Hungary and his troops embarked on 23 August 1217 in Spalato. They landed on 9 October on Cyprus from where they sailed to Acre and joined John of Brienne, ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Hugh I of Cyprus, and Prince Bohemund IV of Antioch to fight against the Ayyubids in Syria. In Jerusalem, the walls and fortifications were demolished to prevent the Christians from being able to defend the city if they should reach it and take it. Muslims fled the city, afraid that there would be a repeat of the bloodbath of the First Crusade in Andrew's well-mounted army defeated sultan AlAdil I at Bethsaida on the Jordan River on 10 November. Muslim forces retreated in their fortresses and towns. The catapults and trebuchets didn't arrive in time, so he had fruitless assaults on the fortresses of the Lebanon and on Mount Tabor. Afterwards, Andrew spent his time collecting alleged relics. Andrew and his army departed to Hungary in February 1218, and Bohemund and Hugh also returned home. Later in 1218, Oliver of Cologne arrived with a new German army and the count of Holland William I arrived with a mixed army consisting of Dutch, Flemish and Frisian soldiers. With Leopold and John they discussed attacking Damietta in Egypt. To accomplish this they allied with Keykavus I, the Seljuk Sultan of Rum in Anatolia, who attacked the Ayyubids in Syria in an attempt to free the Crusaders from fighting on two fronts. On 24 May 1218, the crusaders left Acre. On 27 May 1218, Under the leadership of Jean de Brienne, the crusaders began their siege of Damietta, and despite resistance from the unprepared sultan Al-Adil, the tower outside the city was taken on 25 August. They could not gain Damietta itself, and in the ensuing months diseases killed many of the crusaders, including Robert of Courçon. Al-Adil also died and was succeeded by Al-Kamil. Meanwhile, Honorius III sent Pelagius of Albano to lead the crusade in Al-Kamil tried to negotiate peace with the crusaders. He offered to trade Damietta for Jerusalem, but Pelagius would not accept these offers. After hearing this Count William I of Holland left the crusade and sailed home. In August or September 1219, Francis of Assisi arrived in the crusader camp and crossed over to preach to Al-Kamil. By November, the crusaders had worn out the sultan's forces, and were finally able to occupy the port. Immediately the papal and secular powers fought for control of the town, with Jean of Brienne claiming it for himself in 1220, and the noble and pious crusaders only too happy to loot it for several days finding enough loot to inspire them to attack Cairo next, their only obstacle to a powerless Egypt and an open road to Jerusalem. Pelagius would not accept this and Jean returned to Acre later that year. Pelagius hoped Frederick II would arrive with a fresh army, but Frederick never arrived. But in May 1221 he sent much of his army, including Louis of Bavaria as his representative. Jean de Brienne also returned. Louis argued for an immediate offensive, and those present assumed he spoke for the Emperor, so it was agreed. Pelagius didn't have the Emperor, but he had an army and he at last had agreement. The Crusaders formed their army in their old camp on 29 June. King John arrived on 7 July still urging caution, but he was ignored. Everyone now was enthusiastic for a new enterprise. They were running low on funds, the prophetic book had predicted the fall of the Sultan, and the newcomers wanted battle. The army began preparations on 4 July and set out on 17 July. It was one of the largest Crusader armies, with an estimated five thousand knights and forty thousand foot soldiers, plus arches and a large number of unarmed pilgrims. The Egyptians had advanced to meet the Christians, but retreated from their forward position at Sharimshah when they saw the size of the army. Pelagius moved out in pursuit. The Egyptians took up a position behind the river Bahr assaghir, which runs from Lake Manzalah to the Nile. The Christians marched in right after them and set up camp. With much of the Muslim strength in the field, it was here that the battle for Egypt would be decided. The Christians were in a death trap. When they marched up into the angle formed by the Nile and the Bahr as-saghir, the army had crossed a dry canal. No one thought to consider it a danger. Worse, Pelagius had neglected to bring adequate supplies, thinking to capture the enemy supplies quickly. A Christian fleet of about six hundred ships was in the Nile--enough to keep the army re-supplied at to support its advance. Once it was clear that Mansourah could not be taken quickly, fortifications were built on the other two sides of the triangle. There were plenty of locals to tell the Crusaders how easily the Muslims could trap them, but Pelagius would not listen. King John again urged acceptance of al-kamil's terms, but rejecting his advice had become almost automatic by this time. A couple of weeks passed in this manner. It was August, and the Nile was rising a little every day. Soon, the waters were high enough and water flowed into the canal. Within a few days, the levels were high enough to send ships down it, cutting the Christians off from retreat and from being re-supplied from Damietta. The fleet was trapped, the army was trapped, and there was food enough for only twenty days. Many in the army urged immediate retreat, before their situation grew worse. At last awakening to the peril, Pelagius agreed. On the night of 26 August, without ever having fought a battle, the great army began its retreat. The first thing many of the common soldiers did was to get drunk. They evidently could not bear to leave behind them all of their wine, and since they could not bring it with them, they drank it. Consequently, many of them were in various stages of intoxication when the order came to move out. Falling under the heading of "seemed like a good idea at the time", the Teutonic Knights set fire to the supplies in order to deny them to the enemy. Having been alerted by the flames to the fact that the Christians were retreating, al-kamil ordered the banks of the canal cut. Water flooded the very ground into which the Christians were retreating and the soldiers quickly found themselves wading through mud or falling into gullies now filled with water. Under these conditions, the Egyptians attacked. The military orders, and the knights under King John put up a valiant defense and saved what they could of the army. Many of the infantry perished, however, it being unusually difficult to fight at night in the mud when you're drunk. The remnant of the army withdrew to the camp, which now had no supplies thanks to the prompt action of the Teutonic Knights earlier in the evening. The fleet tried to escape, too. The Nile was running in flood now, so some ships managed to make it through the Egyptian blockade, including one which bore Cardinal Pelagius. From the safety of Damietta he now concluded that all was lost. He opened negotiations with al-kamil two days later, on 28 August By the 30th, the terms were settled. The Sultan no longer needed to offer the return of Jerusalem, for he had the Crusader army, including King John, at his mercy. On the other hand, the Christians still held Damietta, which they had recently fortified, and another Christian fleet was on its way. Al-Kamil therefore asked only that the Christians leave Egypt. Damietta would be returned to the Muslims, and the Christians would observe a truce of eight years with Egypt. Both sides would return their prisoners, and al-kamil would return the True Cross which he did not even have but didn t bother telling the crusaders that. There was some inital fervent resistance to handing back Damietta. But with many of the leaders trapped at Sharimshah, there was little point in holding out. After a few days, the garrison agreed. The Sultan generously fed the army and entertained King John and the others. On 8 September, the Crusaders boarded their ships and al-kamil took possession of Damietta. The failure of the Crusade caused an outpouring of anti-papal sentiment from the Occitan poet Guilhem Figueira. The more orthodox Gormonda de Monpeslier responded to Figueira's D'un sirventes far with a song of her own, Greu m'es a durar. Instead of blaming the Pelagius or the Papacy, she laid the blame on the "foolishness" of the wicked.

27 Died: on 5 Nov 1219 at Damietta, Egypt. 25. Mathilde5 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 84, 87.). Married Name: de Lusignan. Born: in 1158, daughter of Wulgrin III, Count d'angoulême and Élizabeth d'amboise. Married before 1182: Hughes IX, Seigneur de Lusignan,, son of Hughes de Lusignan and Orengarde N? Died: after 29 Aug 1233 Mathilde was alive in the year 1233.

28 Coat of Arm associated with Aymar II, Comte d'angoulême. 26. Aymar I/II, Count5 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 87, 120.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 16 July 1994 at 16:00 Hours.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Marian Sampson [Prodigy ID# RTNL57A], posted in Subject "Fitzalan", 25 March 1997 at 04:36 Hours, citing "Voorouders in der Middeleeuwen" by Leo Lindemans.) (Abbott, Page 458.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 245.). AKA: Aymar de Valence. AKA: Adhémar, Count d'angoulême. AKA: Adhémar, Comte de La Marche. Born: in 1160 at France, son of Guillaume IV, Count d'angoulême and Marguerite de Turenne. Married in 1186 at France: Alix de Courtenay,, daughter of Pierre I, Prince de France and Élizabeth de Joinville (Aymar I was Alix's second husband) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 245.). Died: on 16 Jun 1202 at Limoges, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France, Some sources indicate he died in Alix5 de Courtenay (André Roux: Scrolls, 87, 120.) (Stuart, Page 106, Line ) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 245.). Married Name: de Joigny. Married Name: d'angoulême. Born: in 1160 at Orléanais, France, daughter of Pierre I, Prince de France and Élizabeth de Joinville. Married circa 1178 at France: Guillaume I, Count de Joigny,, son of Renaud V, Count de Joigny and Adèle de Nevers (Guillaume I was Alix's first husband) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 245.). Divorced Guillaume I, Count de Joigny: in 1180 at France. Married in 1186 at France: Aymar I/II, Count d'angoulême,, son of Guillaume IV, Count d'angoulême and Marguerite de Turenne (Aymar I was Alix's second husband) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 245.). Died: on 14 Sep 1218.

29 This coat of arms is associated with William, Third Earl of Pembroke known as Guillaume "Le Maréchal". 30. William, Third Earl of5 Pembroke (John O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees in ISBN: (1001 North Calvert Street, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1989), Page 482, #115.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.) (Ibid.). AKA: Sir William Marshal. AKA: Guillaume "Le Maréchal." AKA: William, Lord of Striguil Striguil in Wales. Born: between 1145 and 1146 at Pembroke, Wales, son of William, Second Earl Arundel and Maud de Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët (Ibid.). AKA: William, Third Lord of Leinster Leinster, Ireland (Moody, New History of Ireland, page 174.). Married in Aug 1189 at London, England: Isabel de Clare,, daughter of Richard de Clare and Eva of Leinster (Isabel and William had 5 sons and 5 daughters, but all the sons, namely, William, Richard, Gilbert, Walter and Anselm [who became in succession lords of Pembroke and lords and princes of Leinster] died without issue. The five daughters all intermarried into the noble families of England, and the different counties of Leinster were divided amongst them and their posterity) (von Redlich, Marcellus Donald R., Pedigrees and Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants in ISBN: (1001 North Calvert Street, Baltimore, MD 21202: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1996), Page 223.). Note - in 1215: William was a Sureties Baron. June 1215, the most powerful men of the kingdom gathered at Runnymede. An important event of English medieval history was about to take place. King John who was accompanied by his counselors signed the Magna Carta Libertatum - the great charter of liberty. The barons who had to ensure its observance were known as "sureties barons". They were excommunicated by the Pope Innocent III in December 1215 or January Note - in 1217 at Lincoln, England: William fought against King Louis of France to relieve Lincoln which was under siege. May 1217, Louis left Winchester in the hands of Hervé de Donzy, count of Nevers, with a garrison and divided the rest of his army into two corps. With the first one, he laid siege to Dover castle whilst, the other one, under the command of the count of Perche and after a quick delivering of castle of Montsorel, went to Lincoln where the castle was already besieged by Louis' partisans. A few days later, William Marshal led an army to relieve Lincoln. Many standards had been left with the baggage-guard in such way that their appearance misled the besiegers into taking it for a reserve corps. The besiegers thinking being outnumbered preferred to remain within the city's wall instead of attempting a pitch battle. They were defeated in a streetfight. Died: on 14 May 1219 at Caversham, England (Ibid.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.). 31. Isabel5 de Clare (Paul Theroff, posts, 20 December 1994 at 13:47 Hours.) (O'Hart, Page 482, #115.). AKA: Isabelle, Dame de Longueville (Abbott, Page 235.). Born: between 1172 and 1176 at Leinster, Ireland, daughter of Richard de Clare and Eva of Leinster, Isabel was the heiress of Leinster. Married Name: Isabel, Countess of Pembroke. Married in Aug 1189 at London, England: William, Third Earl of Pembroke,, son of William, Second Earl Arundel and Maud de Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët (Isabel and William had 5 sons and 5 daughters, but all the sons, namely, William, Richard, Gilbert, Walter and Anselm [who became in succession lords of Pembroke and lords and princes of Leinster] died without issue. The five daughters all intermarried into the noble families of England, and the different counties of Leinster were divided amongst them and their posterity) (von Redlich, Page 223.). Died: in th Generation Nicolas, Seigneur6 d'avesnes (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Stuart, Page 32, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 22 April 1994 at 01:39 hours.) (Abbott, Page 560.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 539.). Also Known As: Nicolas "Le Beau" (Nicolas, second son of Gautier and Ydxe de Mortaigne was nicknamed "Le Beau") (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 539.). AKA: Nicolas, Seigneur de Leuze ( AKA: Nicolas, Seigneur de Landrecies (Ibid.). AKA:

30 Nicolas, Seigneur de Leuse (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 539.). AKA: Nicolas, Seigneur de Condé-sur-l'Escaut (Abbott, Page 561.). Born: in 1129 at Carthage, Tunisia, son of Gautier I d'oisy-de-tournais and Yde=Ada de Mortagne-sur-l'Éscaut, Nicolas held many seigneuries by virtue of the disinheritance of his older brother Thierri (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 539.). Married in 1149: Mahaut, Dame de La Roche,, daughter of Henri I, Count de Namur and Mathilde de Limbourg (Ibid.). Died: either 1169 or 1171 Sources disagree as to the year of the decease. 33. Mahaut, Dame6 de La Roche (Stuart, Page 32, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 22 April 1994 at 01:39 hours.). Married Name: Mathilde d'avesnes. Born: circa 1120 at France, daughter of Henri I, Count de Namur and Mathilde de Limbourg. Married before 1140: Thierry, Seigneur de Walcourt (The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis records that "filius eius Nicolaus Plukellus" married "Machtildem filiam Henrici comitis de Rupe in Ardenna", whose first husband was "domini de Walecourt") (Internet, Married Name: de Walcourt. Married in 1149: Nicolas, Seigneur d'avesnes,, son of Gautier I d'oisy-de-tournais and Yde=Ada de Mortagne-sur-l'Éscaut (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 539.). 34. Bouchard=Bernard, Seigneur6 de Guise (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 21, Line ). Born: before 1123, son of Guy, Seigneur de Guise and Adélaïde de Montmorency, Bouchard is presumed to have been at least 17 years of age by the time his daughter Améline, was born. He became Seigneur in 1148 (Abbott, Page 119.). Married before 1139: Alix=Adélaïde N? Died: after 1185 Bouchard was alive in the year Alix=Adélaïde6 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Stuart, Page 21, Line ). Married Name: de Guise. Born: before 1125 Alix is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Adèle was born. Married before 1139: Bouchard=Bernard, Seigneur de Guise,, son of Guy, Seigneur de Guise and Adélaïde de Montmorency. 36. Baudouin V, Count6 de Hainaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 169.) (Abbott, Page 559.). AKA: Baudouin VIII, Count de Flandre (Abbott, Page 292.). AKA: Baudouin, Margrave de Namur. Born: circa 1150, son of Baudouin IV, Comte de Hainaut and Alice=Ermesende de Namur. Married on 12 Apr 1169: Marguerite d'alsace,, daughter of Thierry I, Count de Flandre and Sibylle d'anjou (By virtue of this marriage Flandre was rejoined to the House of Hainaut and Baudouin V, Comte de Hainaut became also Baudouin VIII, Comte de Flandre [in 1191]). Died: on 17 Dec 1195 at Mons-lès-Liège, Liège, Belgium, Baudouin V/VIII is burried at the Abbey of Saint Waldthud in Mons. 37. Marguerite6 d'alsace (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 169.) (Stuart, Page 97, Line ). Married Name: de Hainaut. AKA: Marguerite, Comtesse de Flandre (Abbott, Page 292.). AKA: Marguerite de Lorraine. Married Name: de Vermandois. Born: in 1145 at Alsace, France, daughter of Thierry I, Count de Flandre and Sibylle d'anjou. Married circa 1160: Raoul II, Count de Vermandois,, son of Raoul I, Count de Vermandois and Alise=Pétronelle de Poitou (Raoul II was Marguerite's first husband). Note - in 1168: Marguerite was the heiress of Flanders. Married on 12 Apr 1169: Baudouin V, Count de Hainaut,, son of Baudouin IV, Comte de Hainaut and Alice=Ermesende de Namur (By virtue of this marriage Flandre was rejoined to the House of Hainaut and Baudouin V, Comte de Hainaut became also Baudouin VIII, Comte de Flandre [in 1191]). Died: on 15 Nov 1194 Marguerite is burried in Bruges (Brugge), capital of occidental Flanders, Belgium. 38. Henri I, Comte6 de Champagne (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 121.) (Stuart, Page 59, Line ). AKA: Henry I, Count de Brie. AKA: Henri "Le Libéral." Born: in 1127 at France, son of Thibaud IV, Palatin de Champagne and Mahaud, Marquise de Carinthie. Note - between 1152 and 1187: Upon the death of his father in 1152, Henry the Liberal took Champagne, and remained suzerain of Blois and Chartres (deeded to Thibaud Le Bon - III) and Sancerre (deeded to Étienne=Stephen) by joining an expedition against Henry Plantagenêt. He steered a course between the French King Louis VII and the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, he supported Louis against Henry II, King of England. He organized and regulated commerce. Married in 1164: Marie, Princesse de France,, daughter of Louis VII, King de France and Éléonore, Duchess d'aquitaine. Died: on 17 Mar 1187 at Troyes, Aube, Champagne, France, Troyes was the capital city of ancient Champagne. Some sources indicate Henri I died in Marie, Princesse6 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 121.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ). Married Name: de Champagne. Born: in 1145 at France, daughter of Louis VII, King de France and Éléonore, Duchess d'aquitaine. Married in 1164: Henri I, Comte de Champagne,, son of Thibaud IV, Palatin de Champagne and Mahaud, Marquise de Carinthie. Died: on 11 Mar 1198.

31 Coat of Arm associated with Enguérrand II, Seigneur de Coucy. 40. Enguérrand II, Sire6 de Coucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 165, 196.) (Stuart, Page 23, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 03 May 1995 at 14:25 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 182.). AKA: Enguérrand, Sire de La Fère (Ibid.). AKA: Enguérrand II, Seigneur de Vervins (Ibid.). AKA: Enguérrand II, Seigneur de Pinon (Ibid.). AKA: Enguérrand II, Seigneur de Crécy (Ibid.). AKA: Enguérrand, Sire de Marle (Ibid.). AKA: Enguérrand II, Seigneur de Landouzy (Ibid.). AKA: Enguérrand II, Seigneur de Fontaines (Ibid.). Born: circa 1113 at Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique, Picardie, France, son of Thomas I, Sire de Coucy and Mélisende de Crécy. Married in 1132 at France: Agnès de Beaugency,, daughter of Raoul I, Seigneur de Beaugency and Mahaud=Mathilde, Countess de Vermandois. Note - between 13 Mar 1147 and 1148:, many south Germans volunteered to crusade in the Holy Land. The north German Saxons were reluctant. They told St Bernard of their desire to campaign against the Slavs at a Reichstag meeting in Frankfurt on 13 March Approving of the Saxons' plan, Eugenius issued a papal bull known as the Divina dispensatione on 13 April. This bull stated that there was to be no difference between the spiritual rewards of the different crusaders. Those who volunteered to crusade against the Slavs were primarily Danes, Saxons, and Poles, although there were also some Bohemians. The Papal legate, Anselm of Havelberg, was placed in overall command. The campaign itself was led by Saxon families such as the Ascanians, Wettin, and Schauenburgers. Upset by German participation in the crusade, the Obotrites preemptively invaded Wagria in June 1147, leading to the march of the crusaders in late summer After expelling the Obodrites from Christian territory, the crusaders targeted the Obodrite fort at Dobin and the Liutizian fort at Demmin. The forces attacking Dobin included those of the Danes Canute V and Sweyn III, Adalbert II, Archbishop of Bremen, and Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony. When some crusaders advocated ravaging the countryside, others objected by asking, "Is not the land we are devastating our land, and the people we are fighting our people?" The Saxon army under Henry the Lion withdrew after the pagan chief, Niklot, agreed to have Dobin's garrison undergo baptism. After an unsuccessful siege of Demmin, a contingent of crusaders was diverted by the margraves to attack Pomerania instead. They reached the already Christian city Stettin, whereupon the crusaders dispersed after meeting with Bishop Albert of Pomerania and Prince Ratibor I of Pomerania. According to Bernard of Clairvaux, the goal of the crusade was to battle the pagan Slavs "until such a time as, by God's help, they shall either be converted or deleted". However, the crusade failed to achieve the conversion of most of the Wends. The Saxons achieved largely token conversions at Dobin, as the Slavs resorted to their pagan beliefs once the Christian armies dispersed. Albert of Pomerania explained, "If they had come to strengthen the Christian faith... they should do so be preaching, not by arms". By the end of the crusade, the countryside of Mecklenburg and Pomerania was plundered and depopulated with much bloodshed, especially by the troops of Henry the Lion. This was to help bring about more Christian victories in the future decades. The Slavic inhabitants also lost much of their methods of production, limiting their resistance in the future. In the spring of 1147, the Pope authorized the expansion of the crusade into the Iberian peninsula, in the context of the Reconquista. He also authorized Alfonso VII of León to equate his campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade. The first groups to depart on the Second Crusade were Anglo-Norman and Flemish sailors and troops who left Dartmouth on May 19, 1147 for the Holy Land. Bad weather forced the ships to stop on the Portuguese coast, at the northern city of Porto on 16 June Their goal was to conquer a number of position on the west coast of Iberia, among them the city of Lisbon. There they were convinced to meet with King Afonso I of Portugal. The crusaders agreed to help the King attack Lisbon, with a solemn agreement that offered to them the pillage of the city's goods and the ransom money for expected prisoners. Affonso I of Portugal was already in the field there when the Anglo-Norman troops landed on the beaches in June An account of the expedition survives, written by Osbernus. The city of Lisbon at the time of our arrival consisted of sixty thousand families paying taxes-this figure includes the suburbs round about, except the free ones, which pay taxes to no one. A circular wall there surrounds the top of the hill and, at the left and right, the city walls descend to the banks of the Tagus River. The suburbs, down below the city wall, are cut into the banks of the river in such a way that each of them has a superbly fortified citadel. The place is girded with pitfalls. The city was populous beyond belief, for, as we learned from its alcayde, or governor, after the capture of the city, it had one hundred fifty-four thousand men, not counting women and children, but including the citizens of Scantarem who had been expelled during this year from their stronghold and who were living in Lisbon as guests and immigrants. This number also included the leading citizens of Cintra, Almada, and Palmela, and many merchants from all parts of Spain and Africa. Although there were many citizens, the city had only fifteen thousand lances and shields with which to arm its men. They therefore came out in shifts, exchanging their weapons with one another, as their prince decreed. The city's buildings were jammed so closely together that it was scarcely possible, save in the merchants' quarters, to find a street more than eight feet

32 wide. The reason for such a dense population was that there was no established religion there. Each man was a law unto himself. As a result the basest element from every part of the world had gathered there, like the bilge water of a ship, a breeding ground for every kind of lust and impurity. On the vigil of St. Peter the Apostle [30 June 1147] we arrived there at the dinner hour. After the meal some of our men landed from the ships on the shore next to the city. The Moors opposed their landing, but they were unable to withstand our forces and were driven back, not without losses, to the gate of the suburb. Saher of Archelle, however, angered at the enemy's scheme, called our men back from the attack and thanked God that, unlike those who had previously attempted this task, we had had a different experience at the outset. He convoked those who were there and ordered that the tents be pitched atop the hills which overlooked the town, barely a stick's throw away. He held that it would be a shame to give ground after the first brush with the enemy, lest we seem to be yielding to them. All those present favored his stand. When the first watch of the night came, however, only two tents - those of Hervey of Glanville and Saher of Archelle - had been pitched, for all the others had gone back to the ships. Although there were but a few of us - a mere thirty-nine -we kept watch, not without fear, through the night and so celebrated the solemn vigil of St. Peter with our hauberks on. In the morning everyone pitched his tent as quickly as he could, as if they had not known before about our situation. As bad previously been arranged, the bishops who were with us went to the King to make him come out to meet us. They returned with him in a short time, since he had been in the vicinity for more than eight days awaiting our arrival. He had heard of our coming from those of our men who had separated from our expedition and had come in five ships after a five-day sail from Dartmouth. This group had arrived eight days earlier than we did. When the King arrived, therefore, almost all of us, rich and poor, went out to meet him as usually happens in such a mob. When the King inquired who were the chief men among us, or whose advice carried most weight with us, or if we had entrusted the charge of replying for the whole army to anyone, he was told in short order that we had so-and-so as our chief men, that their advice and actions carried the most weight, but that they had not yet decided to whom they would entrust the office of spokesman... Representatives were elected from among our leaders, together with those of the men from Cologne and Flanders, so that they could act on our behalf with the King and reach a definite agreement between us and him. Later, the representatives together with the King, the Archbishop and the bishops, the clergy, and the laity caused the protocol of the confirmation of the agreements to be published before everyone in these words: Twenty sure hostages, bishops and laymen, were given on oath and warranty, on behalf of the King for the observance of this agreement. The King swore, moreover, that he would observe the treaty and agreement aforesaid. He further agreed that he would not desert us unless he were stricken with a mortal sickness or unless his lands were occupied by the enemy.... We also bound ourselves likewise to uphold the agreement, took an oath, and gave twenty hostages... When morning came the constables and leaders of our side went again to the King's court at about the ninth hour of the day in order to turn over the hostages and to attend to the many things necessary for the siege. Those of our boys who were carrying slings, meanwhile, provoked the enemy into advancing onto the field with the result that, being the more provoked by the slinging of stones from a distance, the enemy ventured a major attack. As our men, little by little, armed themselves, the enemy shut themselves within the suburb. They threw stones from the roofs of the houses which were enclosed by parapets, and thus they made it difficult for our men to enter. Our men, who were looking for an opening whereby they might get in, if there were such a thing, drove them back into the middle of the suburb. There they put up a strong resistance to us. Our men, little by little, increased in numbers and made a fiercer attack. Many, meanwhile, were struck by arrows and the missiles of the balistas and fell, for the volley of stones made it impossible to approach closer. Thus a great part of the day was spent. Finally, at sunset, our men got through some twisting passages which were scarcely passable even for unarmed men and, after a major encounter, occupied part of a hill... The Moors, meanwhile, made frequent sorties against our men by day because they held three gates against us. With two of these gates on the side of the city and one on the sea, they bad an easy way to get in and out. On the other hand, it was difficult for our men to organize themselves. The sorties caused casualties on both sides, but theirs were always greater than ours. While we kept watch, meanwhile, under their walls through the days and nights, they heaped derision and many insults upon us. They considered us worthy of a thousand deaths, especially since they thought that we spurned our own things as vile and lusted after others' goods as precious. Nor did they recall doing us any injury, save that if they had anything of the best quality in their possession we might consider them unworthy of having it and judge it worthy of our possession. They taunted us with the many children who were going to be born at home while we were gone and said that our wives would not be anxious about our deaths, since home was well supplied with little bastards. They promised that any of us who survived would go home miserable and poverty-stricken and they mocked us and gnashed their teeth at us. They also continuously attacked Blessed Mary, the mother of God, with insults and with vile and abusive words, which infuriated us. They said that we venerated the son of a poor woman with a worship equal to that due to God, for we held that he was a God and the Son of God, when it is apparent that there is only one God who began all things that have begun and that he has no one coeval with him and no partaker in his divinity... They attacked us with these and similar calumnies. They showed to us, moreover, with much derision the symbol of the cross. They spat upon it and wiped the feces from their posteriors with it. At last they urinated on it, as on some despicable thing, and threw our cross at us... [Finally, after the siege had lasted for nearly seventeen weeks, on 23 October 1147 we] decided, when all had returned to the camp, to enter the town at sword's point. The men of Cologne and the Flemings, meanwhile, were indignant because the King seemed to be favoring the hostages. They rushed armed out of their camp to sieze the hostages violently from the King's camp and to take vengeance on them. All around there was tumult and clashing of arms. We were midway between the King's camp and theirs, still talking and waiting, and we reported to the King what was being prepared, The Flemings' leaders, Christian and the Count of Aerschot, although they were barely armed, put a stop to the tumult among their men as soon as they learned of it. When the tumult had been quieted they went to pacify the King, assuring him that they were not involved in this action. After he had taken surety from them and had finally quieted the Flemings down, the King ordered them to put down their arms, asserting roundly that he would put off the siege until the next day. It was decided, therefore, on the following day that all the followers of each of our leaders would swear fealty to the King on behalf of themselves and their people, to be kept so long as they remained in his land. When these matters had been agreed upon by both sides, the arrangements which the Moors had proposed on the previous day for the delivery of the city, were accepted. It was decided among us that one hundred and forty of our armed men and one hundred and sixty of the Flemish and the Cologne contingents should enter the city before everyone else and peacefully take over the fortifications of the upper fortress so that the enemy might bring all of their money and possessions there and give a guarantee by swearing before our men. When all these things had been collected, the city was then to be searched by our men. If any further possessions were found, the man in whose house they were discovered was to pay for it with his head. When everyone had thus been despoiled, they were to be let go in peace outside of the city. When the gates had been opened and those who were chosen were allowed to enter, the men of Cologne and the Flemings thought up a sly method of deceiving us: they requested our men to allow them to enter first for the sake of their honor. When they had received permission and got a chance to enter first, they slipped in more than two hundred of their men, in addition to those who had been selected. These were also in addition to others who had already slipped through the ruined places in the walls which lay open to them, while none of our men, except those selected, had presumed to enter. The Archbishop and the other bishops went in front of us with the Lord's cross and then our leaders entered together with the King and those who had been selected. How everyone rejoiced! What special glory for all! What great joy and what a great abundance there was of pious tears when, to the praise and honor of God and of the most Holy Virgin Mary the saving cross was placed atop the highest tower to be seen by all as a symbol of the city's subjection, while the Archbishop and bishops, together with the clergy and everyone, intoned with wonderful rejoicing the Te Deum, Laudamus and the Asperges me, together with devout prayers. The King, meanwhile, went around the strong walls of the fortress on foot. The men of Cologne and the Flemings, when they saw in the city so many spurs to their greed, did not observe their oaths or their religious guarantees. They ran hither and yon. They plundered. They broke down doors. They rummaged through the interior of every house. They drove the citizens away and harassed thern improperly

33 and unjustly. They destroyed clothes and utensils. They treated virgins shamefully. They acted as if right and wrong were the same. They secretly took away everything which should have been common property. They even cut the throat of the elderly Bishop of the city, slaying him against all right and justice.... The Normans and the English, however, for whom faith and religion were of the greatest importance, contemplating what such actions might lead to, remained quietly in their assigned position, preferring to stay their hands from looting rather than to violate the obligations of their faith and their oathbound association. This affair covered the Count of Aerschot, Christian, and their leaders with very great shame, for while their men had patently disregarded their oath, ours, by staying out of it, made the greed of the others plain. Finally they came to themselves and besought our men with earnest prayers that we should occupy the remaining sections of the city together with them so that, after the loot had been divided, all the injuries and thefts might be discussed peacefully and they would be prepared to make amends for the evils they had presumed to commit. The enemy, when they had been despoiled in the city, left the town through three gates continuously from Saturday morning until the following Wednesday., There was such a multitude of people that it seemed as if all of Spain were mingled in the crowd. Thereafter a miracle worthy of great admiration was reported: for fifteen days before the capture of the city, the enemy's food supplies bad become inedible because of an intolerable stench. Afterward we tasted them and found them pleasing and acceptable, both to us and to the enemy. When the city was despoiled, there was found in the cellars some eight thousand seams" of wheat and barley and some twelve thousand pints9 of oil.... There was discovered in their temple, which rises on seven ranks of columns with arches atop them, nearly two hundred corpses as well as more than eight hundred other people who were sick and remained there in all their squalor and filth. The Siege of Lisbon lasted from 1 July to 25 October 1147 when, after four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender, primarily due to hunger within the city. Most of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, but some of them set sail and continued to the Holy Land. Some of them, who had departed earlier, helped capture Santarém earlier in the same year. Later they also helped to conquer Sintra, Almada, Palmela and Setúbal, and were allowed to stay in the conquered lands, where they had offspring. Elsewhere on the Iberian Peninsula at almost at the same time, Alfonso VII of León, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, and others led a mixed army of Catalan and French crusaders against the rich port city of Almería. With support from a Genoese-Pisan navy, the city was occupied in October Ramon Berenger then invaded the lands of the Almoravid taifa kingdom of Valencia and Murcia. In December 1148, he captured Tortosa after a five-month siege again with the help of French and Genoese crusaders. The next year, Fraga, Lleida and Mequinenza in the confluence of the Segre and Ebro rivers fell to his army. Joscelin tried to take back Edessa following Zengi's murder, but Nur ad-din defeated him in November On 16 February 1147 the French crusaders met at Étampes to discuss their route. The Germans had already decided to travel overland through Hungary, as the sea route was politically impractical because Roger II, King of Sicily, was an enemy of Conrad. Many of the French nobles distrusted the land route, which would take them through the Byzantine Empire, the reputation of which still suffered from the accounts of the First Crusaders. Nevertheless it was decided to follow Conrad, and to set out on 15 June. Roger II was offended and refused to participate any longer. In France, Abbot Suger and Count William II of Nevers were elected as regents while the king would be on crusade. In Germany, further preaching was done by Adam of Ebrach, and Otto of Freising also took the cross. On 13 March, 1147, at Frankfurt, Conrad s son Frederick was elected king, under the regency of Henry, Archbishop of Mainz. Five years later Conrad III designated his nephew, Friedrich Barbarossa, as his successor. The Germans planned to set out at Easter, but did not leave until May. The German crusaders, accompanied by the papal legate and cardinal Theodwin, intended to meet the French in Constantinople. Ottokar III of Styria joined Conrad at Vienna, and Conrad's enemy Geza II of Hungary allowed them to pass through unharmed. When the German army of 20,000 men arrived in Byzantine territory, Manuel feared they were going to attack him, and Byzantine troops were posted to ensure that there was no trouble. There was a brief skirmish with some of the more unruly Germans near Philippopolis and in Adrianople, where the Byzantine general Prosouch fought with Conrad s nephew, the future emperor Frederick. To make things worse, some of the German soldiers were killed in a flood at the beginning of September. On 10 September, however, they arrived at Constantinople, where relations with Manuel were poor and the Germans were convinced to cross into Asia Minor as quickly as possible. Manuel wanted Conrad to leave some of his troops behind, to assist in defending against attacks from Roger II, who had taken the opportunity to plunder the cities of Greece, but Conrad did not agree, despite being a fellow enemy of Roger. In Asia Minor, Conrad decided not to wait for the French, and marched towards Iconium, capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rüm. Conrad split his army into two divisions. The king led one of these, which was almost totally destroyed by the Seljuks on 25 October 1147 at the second battle of Dorylaeum. In battle, the Turks used their typical tactic of pretending to retreat, and then returning to attack the small force of German cavalry which had separated from the main army to chase them. Conrad began a slow retreat back to Constantinople, and his army was harassed daily by the Turks, who attacked stragglers and defeated the rearguard. Even Conrad was wounded in a skirmish with them. The other division, led by the King's half-brother, Bishop Otto of Freising, had marched south to the Mediterranean coast and was similarly defeated early in The French crusaders had departed from Metz in June 1147, led by Louis, Thierry of Alsace, Renaut I of Bar, Amadeus III of Savoy and his half-brother William V of Montferrat, William VII of Auvergne, and others, along with armies from Lorraine, Brittany, Burgundy, and Aquitaine. A force from Provence, led by Alphonse of Toulouse, chose to wait until August, and to cross by sea. At Worms, Louis joined with crusaders from Normandy and England. They followed Conrad s route fairly peacefully, although Louis came into conflict with Geza of Hungary when Geza discovered Louis had allowed an attempted Hungarian usurper to join his army. Relations within Byzantine territory were also poor, and the Lorrainers, who had marched ahead of the rest of the French, also came into conflict with the slower Germans whom they met on the way. Since the original negotiations between Louis and Manuel, Manuel had broken off his military campaign against the Sultanate of Rüm, signing a truce with his enemy Sultan Mesud I. This was done so that Manuel would be free to concentrate on defending his empire from the Crusaders, who had gained a reputation for theft and treachery since the First Crusade and were widely suspected of harboring sinister designs on Constantinople. Nevertheless, Manuel's relations with the French army were somewhat better than with the Germans, and Louis was entertained lavishly in Constantinople. Some of the French were outraged by Manuel's truce with the Seljuks and called for an alliance with Roger II and an attack on Constantinople, but they were restrained by Louis. When the armies from Savoy, Auvergne, and Montferrat joined Louis in Constantinople, having taken the land route through Italy and crossing from Brindisi to Durazzo, the entire army was shipped across the Bosporus to Asia Minor. The Greeks were encouraged by rumours that the Germans had captured Iconium, but Manuel refused to give Louis any Byzantine troops. Byzantium had just been invaded by Roger II of Sicily, and all of Manuel's army was needed in the Balkans. Both the Germans and French therefore entered Asia without any Byzantine assistance, unlike the armies of the First Crusade. In the tradition set by his grandfather Alexios I, Manuel also had the French swear to return to the Empire any territory they captured. The French met the remnants of Conrad's army at Nicaea, and Conrad joined Louis' force. They followed Otto of Freising's route, moving closer to the Mediterranean coast, and they arrived at Ephesus in December, where they learned that the Turks were preparing to attack them. Manuel also sent ambassadors complaining about the pillaging and plundering that Louis had done along the way, and there was no guarantee that the Byzantines would assist them against the Turks. Meanwhile Conrad fell sick and returned to Constantinople, where Manuel attended to him personally, and Louis, paying no attention to the warnings of a Turkish attack, marched out from Ephesus with the French and German survivors. The Turks were indeed waiting to attack, but in a small battle outside Ephesus, the French were victorious. They reached Laodicea early in January 1148, around the same time Otto of Freising s army had been destroyed in the same area. Resuming the march, the vanguard under Amadeus of Savoy became separated from the rest of the army, and Louis troops were routed by the Turks. Louis himself, according to Odo of Deuil, climbed a

34 rock and was ignored by the Turks, who did not recognize him. The Turks did not bother to attack further and the French marched on to Adalia, continually harassed from afar by the Turks, who had also burned the land to prevent the French from replenishing their food, both for themselves and their horses. Louis no longer wanted to continue by land, and it was decided to gather a fleet at Adalia and sail for Antioch. After being delayed for a month by storms, most of the promised ships did not arrive at all. Louis and his associates claimed the ships for themselves, while the rest of the army had to resume the long march to Antioch. The army was almost entirely destroyed, either by the Turks/Saracens or by sickness. Louis eventually arrived in Antioch on 19 March 1148 after being delayed by storms, Amadeus of Savoy had died on Cyprus along the way. Louis was welcomed by Eleanor s uncle Raymond of Poitiers. Raymond expected him to help defend against the Turks and to accompany him on an expedition against Aleppo, but Louis refused, preferring instead to finish his pilgrimage to Jerusalem rather than focus on the military aspect of the crusade. Eleanor enjoyed her stay, but her uncle wanted her to remain behind and divorce Louis if the king refused to help him. Louis quickly left Antioch for Tripoli. Meanwhile, Otto of Freising and the remnant of his troops arrived in Jerusalem early in April, and Conrad soon after. Fulk, Patriarch of Jerusalem, was sent to invite Louis to join them. The fleet that had stopped at Lisbon arrived around this time, as well as the Provençals who had left Europe under the command of Alfonso Jordan, Count of Toulouse. Alphonso himself did not make it to Jerusalem as he died at Caesarea. He was supposedly poisoned either by Eleanor of Aquitaine or Raymond II of Tripoli, the nephew who feared his political aspirations in the county. The original focus of the crusade was Edessa, but the preferred target of King Baldwin III and the Knights Templar was Damascus. The nobility of Jerusalem welcomed the arrival of troops from Europe, and it was announced that a council should meet to decide on the best target for the crusaders. This took place on 24 June 1148, when the High Court of Jerusalem met with the recently-arrived crusaders from Europe at Palmarea, near Acre, a major city of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. This was the most spectacular meeting of the Court in its existence. Notably, no one from Antioch, Tripoli, or the former County of Edessa attended. Both Louis and Conrad were persuaded to attack Damascus. Some of the barons native to Jerusalem pointed out that it would be unwise to attack Damascus, as the Burid dynasty, though Muslim, were their allies against the Zengid dynasty. Conrad, Louis, and Baldwin insisted, Damascus was a holy city for Christianity. Like Jerusalem and Antioch, it would be a noteworthy prize in the eyes of European Christians. In July their armies assembled at Tiberias and marched to Damascus, around the Sea of Galilee by way of Banyas. There were perhaps 50,000 troops in total. The crusaders decided to attack Damascus from the west, where orchards would provide them with a constant food supply. They arrived at Daraiya on 23 July The following day, the Muslims were prepared for the attack and constantly attacked the army advancing through the orchards outside Damascus. The defenders had sought help from Saif ad-din Ghazi I of Aleppo and Nur ad-din of Mosul, who personally led an attack on the crusader camp. The crusaders were pushed back from the walls into the orchards, where they were prone to ambushes and guerrilla attacks. According to William of Tyre, on 27 July 1148 the crusaders decided to move to the plain on the eastern side of the city, which was less heavily fortified but had much less food and water. It was recorded by some that Unur had bribed the leaders to move to a less defensible position, and that Unur had promised to break off his alliance with Nur ad-din if the crusaders went home. Meanwhile Nur ad-din and Saif ad-din had by now arrived. With Nur ad-din in the field it was impossible to return to their better position. The local crusader lords refused to carry on with the siege, and the three kings had no choice but to abandon the city. First Conrad, then the rest of the army, decided to retreat back to Jerusalem on 28 July 1148, though for their entire retreat they were followed by Turkish archers who constantly harassed them. Each of the Christian forces felt betrayed by the other. A new plan was made to attack Ascalon and Conrad took his troops there, but no further help arrived, due to the lack of trust that had resulted from the failed siege. This mutual distrust would linger for a generation due to the defeat, to the ruin of the Christian kingdoms in the Holy Land. After quitting Ascalon, Conrad returned to Constantinople to further his alliance with Manuel. Louis remained behind in Jerusalem until Back in Europe, Bernard of Clairvaux was humiliated by the defeat. Bernard considered it his duty to send an apology to the Pope and it is inserted in the second part of his Book of Consideration. There he explains how the sins of the crusaders were the cause of their misfortune and failures. When his attempt to call a new crusade failed, he tried to disassociate himself from the fiasco of the Second Crusade altogether. He would die in The Wendish Crusade achieved mixed results. While the Saxons affirmed their possession of Wagria and Polabia, pagans retained control of the Obodrite land east of Lübeck. The Saxons also received tribute from Chief Niklot, enabled the colonization of the Bishopric of Havelberg, and freed some Danish prisoners. However, the disparate Christian leaders regarded their counterparts with suspicion and accused each other of sabotaging the campaign. In Iberia, the campaigns in Spain, along with the siege of Lisbon, were some of the few Christian victories of the Second Crusade. They are seen as pivotal battles of the wider Reconquista, which would be completed in In the East the situation was much darker for the Christians. In the Holy Land, the Second Crusade had disastrous long-term consequences for Jerusalem. Damascus no longer trusted the crusader kingdom, and the city was handed over to Nur ad-din in Baldwin III finally seized Ascalon in 1153, which brought Egypt into the sphere of conflict. Jerusalem was able to make further advances into Egypt, briefly occupying Cairo in the 1160s. One of the few leaders of Western Europe who refused to be daunted by the failure of the Crusade was St. Bernard of Clairvaux, against whom was vented so much of the bitterness over the failure of the Crusade. Shortly after the outcome of the Crusade became known in the West, St. Bernard wrote a defiant apologia, defending the role he had played in preaching and organizing the recent expedition. Despite St. Bernard's courageous resignation, the results of the Crusade were indeed ominous. The Second Crusade had embittered large numbers of Western Europeans against the whole notion of Crusading, and thereby both the Papacy and the West as a whole suffered a setback. The Second Crusade, in fact, was destined to be the last Crusade in which the armies were accompanied by large groups of pilgrims and other noncombatants. Henceforth, the Crusades were to become more strictly military expeditions, whose objectives were limited, military ones. Even more important, perhaps, was the deterioration of relationships between Byzantium and the Crusaders and between the princes of the West and the rulers of the Latin states in the East. Most important of all, in the final analysis, was the effect of the Second Crusade upon the Moslems. The failure of the Crusade to achieve any victories whatever in the East emboldened Moslem military leaders, destroyed the myth of Western prowess in arms, and was to be responsible, at least in part, for causing the Moslem states of the East to draw closer together, to unite for further attacks upon the Latin states. The First Crusade had succeeded in achieving its objectives and it bad been possible to found Latin states in the East largely because the Moslems had been divided against one another and had thus been almost completely unable to cooperate effectively to stave off their Western foes. The end of the Second Crusade saw the Moslems preparing to unite, for the first time, against the Latin intruders in their midst, while the Latins, for their part, were divided sharply against one another. The portents for the future of the Latin East were dark in 1148, but no one then could have foreseen the manner in which these portents were to be fulfilled. I remember, most Holy Father Eugene, My promises [to complete the treatise De Consideratione] made to you long ago, and at long last I shall acquit myself. The delay, were I aware that it proceeded from carelessness or contempt, should cause me shame. It is not thus, however. As you know, we have fallen upon grave times, which seemed about to bring to an end not only my studies but my very life, for the Lord, provoked by our sins, gave the appearance of having judged the world prematurely, [1Cor: 4:5] with justice, indeed, but forgetful of his mercy." He spared neither his people nor his name. Do not the heathen say: "Where is their God?" Nor do I wonder, for the sons of the Church, those who bear the label, "Christian," have been laid low in the desert and have either been slain by the sword or consumed by famine... We said "Peace, and there is no peace"; we promised good things, "and behold, trouble.",' It might seem, in fact, that we acted rashly in this affair [i.e. The Second Crusade] or had "used lightness.[2 Cor 1:17] But, "I did not run my course like a man in doubt of his goal," [1 Cor 9:26] for I acted on your orders, or rather on God's orders given through you.... The judgments of the Lord are true indeed. Who does not know that? This judgment, however,

35 "is a great deep," [Ps. 32:7] so much so, that it seems to me not unwarranted to call him blessed who is not scandalized thereat. " How, then, does human rashness dare reprove what it can scarcely understand? Let us put down some judgments from on high, which are "from everlasting, " for there may, perhaps, be consolation in them.... I speak of a matter which is unknown to no one, but of which no one now seems to be aware. Such is the human heart, indeed, that what we know when we need it not, is lost to us when it is required. When Moses was going to lead the people out of the land of Egypt, he promised them a better land. Otherwise, would that people, who knew only earthly things, ever have followed him? He led them away-but he did not lead them into the land which he had promised them. The sad and unexpected outcome, however, cannot be laid to the rashness of the leader, for he did everything at the Lord's command, with "the Lord aiding them and attesting his word by the miracles that went with them." [Mark 16:20] But, you may say, they were a stiff-necked race '20 forever contending against the Lord and Moses his servant. Very well, they were rebellious and unbelieving; but what about these other people? [i.e. The Crusaders] Ask them. Why should it be my task to speak of what they have done? One thing I shall say: How could they make progress when they were always looking backward as they walked? Was there a time in the whole journey when they were not in their hearts returning to Egypt? But if the Jews were vanquished and "perished because their iniquity," is it any wonder that those who did likewise suffered a similar fate? Would anyone say that the fate of the former was contrary to God's promise? Neither, therefore, was the fate of the latter... These few things have been said by way of apology, so that your conscience may have something from me, whereby you can hold yourself and me excused, if not in the eyes of those who judge causes from their results, then at least in your own eyes. The perfect and final apology for any man is the testimony of his own conscience. As for myself, I take it to be a small matter to be judged by those "who call evil good, and good evil, whose darkness is light, whose light darkness." [Is. 5:20] If one or the other must be done, I would rather that men murmur against us than against God. It would be well for me if he deigns to use me for his shield.... I shall not refuse to be made ignominious, so long as God's glory is not attacked..

36 Died: in 1148 at Syria Enguérrand II died on the Second Crusade near Damascus, Syria and is buried in Nazareth, Palestine, Holy Land. 41. Agnès6 de Beaugency (André Roux: Scrolls, 165, 196.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 4-29.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 182.) (Ibid.). Married Name: de Coucy. Born: circa 1108 at France, daughter of Raoul I, Seigneur de Beaugency and Mahaud=Mathilde, Countess de Vermandois. Married in 1132 at France: Enguérrand II, Sire de Coucy,, son of Thomas I, Sire de Coucy and Mélisende de Crécy. Died: after Robert I, Comte6 de Dreux (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 94.) (Hallam.) (Stuart, Page 91, Line ). Also Known As: Robert "Le Grand" (Abbott, Page 101.). AKA: Robert, Prince de France. AKA: Robert, Count de Braine Braine, about 17 km from Soissons is on the Vesle River and was a site at which the Merovingien Kings kept a villa. AKA: Robert, Comte du Perche. Note -: Robert I was the first of the Capetien Counts of Dreux, a line which lasted until In the 10th Century, Brie belonged to the House of Vermandois. It was ceded to Blois in the 11th. Century. In the 12th. Century, it was in the hands of the Crown. Louis VI gave it to his son Robert, after whom the capital took its name: Brie Comté Robert. Born: in 1123 at France, son of Louis VI, King de France and Alix=Adélaïde de Maurienne. Married between 1139 and 1141: Agnès de Garlande,, daughter of Anseau de Garlande and Lituise de Montlhéry (Agnès was Robert's first wife and he was her second husband). Married in 1144: Harvise d'évreux,, daughter of Walter, Count of Salisbury and Sibylle de Chatsworth (Harvise was Robert's second wife and she was the widow of Rotrou II when she married him). Married in 1152: Agnès de Baudement,, daughter of Guy, Seigneur de Braine and Alix=Adélaïde N? (Agnès, the widow of Milon II/III, was Robert's third wife and he was her second husband). Died: on 11 Oct 1188 Robert is buried at the monastery in Saint Ived, Braine, France. 43. Agnès6 de Baudement (André Roux: Scrolls, 94, 163.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 208.). AKA: Agnès, Dame de Nesle. AKA: Agnès, Dame de Longueville. AKA: Agnès, Dame de Quincy. Married Name: de Bar-surSeine. Married Name: de Dreux. AKA: Agnès, Countess de Braine-sur-la-Vesle. AKA: Agnès, Dame de Pontarcis. AKA: Agnès, Dame de Braine (Ibid., Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Pages 120, 277.). Born: circa 1130 at France, daughter of Guy, Seigneur de Braine and Alix=Adélaïde N? Married in 1145: Milon II/III, Count de Bar-sur-Seine,, son of Gui I=Gautier, Count de Bar-sur-Seine and Pétronille=Perrenelle de Chacenay (Milon II was Agnès' first husband. Agnès and Milon were married in 1145 according to a chart of the Abbey de Saint-Yved de Braine. Two other charts indicate they were alive together in 1150 and in 1151) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 120.). Married in 1152: Robert I, Comte de Dreux,, son of Louis VI, King de France and Alix=Adélaïde de Maurienne (Agnès, the widow of Milon II/III, was Robert's third wife and he was her second husband). Died: between 1202 and Manassès III, Count6 de Rethel (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:24 Hours.). Born: before 1156, son of Itier de Vitry and Béatrix de Namur, Manasses III was born before Henri. Married before Feb 1176: Mathilde, Wildgraefin von Kyrburg,, daughter of Conrad I, Wildgraf von Kyrburg and N? de Bar. Died: in 1200 (Abbott, Page 83.). 45. Mathilde, Wildgraefin6 von Kyrburg. Married Name: de Rethel. Born: circa 1168, daughter of Conrad I, Wildgraf von Kyrburg and N? de Bar. Married before Feb 1176: Manassès III, Count de Rethel,, son of Itier de Vitry and Béatrix de Namur. 46. Simon6 de Broyes (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.) (Ibid.). AKA: Simon, Seigneur de Beaufort. AKA: Simon de Broyes (Ibid.). AKA: Simon, Seigneur de Beaufort (Ibid.). Born: before 1130, son of Simon I, Seigneur de Broyes and Félicité de Brienne. AKA: Simon, Seigneur de Trie-le-Bardoul (Ibid.). Died: after 1153 (Ibid.). Born: before 1163, son of Simon I, Seigneur de Broyes and Félicité de Brienne, Simon is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Félicité was born. Married before 1172: Agnès de Joigny,, daughter of Renaud V, Count de Joigny and Adèle de Nevers. 47. Agnès6 de Joigny (Paul Theroff, posts, 20 May 1995 at 21:44 Hours.). Married Name: de Broyes. AKA: Agnès de Raméru (M. de La Chenaye-desBois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). Born: before 1157 at France, daughter of Renaud V, Count de

37 Joigny and Adèle de Nevers, Agnès is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age when she married Simon. Married before 1172: Simon de Broyes,, son of Simon I, Seigneur de Broyes and Félicité de Brienne. Died: circa 1188 at France. 48. Hughes6 de Lusignan (Abbott, Page 423.). Born: before 1144 at France, son of Hughes VIII, Lord de Lusignan and Bourgogne de Rancon, Hughes is presumed to have been at least 25 years of age when he died. Married before 1162 at France: Orengarde N? Died: on 11 Apr Orengarde6 N? Married Name: de Lusignan. Born: before 1149 at France Orengarde is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when her husband Hughes died. Married before 1162 at France: Hughes de Lusignan,, son of Hughes VIII, Lord de Lusignan and Bourgogne de Rancon. 50. Wulgrin III, Count6 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). Born: between 1138 and 1143, son of Guillaume IV, Count d'angoulême and Marguerite de Turenne, Wulgrin III is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Mathilde was born. Married before 1157: Élizabeth d'amboise,, daughter of Hughes II, Seigneur d'amboise and N? N? (While André Roux shows Wulgrin as marrying Élizabeth d'amboise and having daughter Mathilde, Lord Mountbatten [via Robert Carver] indicates Woughrin (sic) married Emma de Limoges and they had daughter Mathilde) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). Died: in 1181 (Abbott, Page 458.). 51. Élizabeth6 d'amboise (Paul Theroff, posts, "Lusignan" posted on 15 February 1994 at 14:08 Hours.). Born: before 1143, daughter of Hughes II, Seigneur d'amboise and N? N?, Élizabeth is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter, Mathilde, was born. Married before 1157: Wulgrin III, Count d'angoulême,, son of Guillaume IV, Count d'angoulême and Marguerite de Turenne (While André Roux shows Wulgrin as marrying Élizabeth d'amboise and having daughter Mathilde, Lord Mountbatten [via Robert Carver] indicates Woughrin (sic) married Emma de Limoges and they had daughter Mathilde) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). 52. Guillaume IV, Count6 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 87, 125.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Marian Sampson [Prodigy ID# RTNL57A], posted in Subject "Fitzalan", 25 March 1997 at 04:36 Hours, citing "Voorouders in der Middeleeuwen" by Leo Lindemans.) (Abbott, Page 458.). Also Known As: Guillaume "Taillefer." AKA: Guillaume VI, Count d'aquitaine (Stuart, Page 114.). Born: before 1122, son of Wulgrin II/III, Count d'angoulême and Ponce de La Marche, Guillaume IV is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Wulgrin III, was born. Married in 1138 at Italy: Emma de Limoges,, daughter of Adhémar=Aymar IV, Viscount de Limoges and Graule, Dame d'angoulême (Emma was Guillaume IV/VI's first wife). Note - in 1140: Guillaume IV was Count in Married in 1150 at France: Marguerite de Turenne,, daughter of Raymond I, Vicomte de Turenne and Mathilde du Perche (Guillaume IV was Marguerite's third husband). Died: on 7 Aug 1179 at Mesina, Sicily, Italy, Guillaume IV/VI died during the Second Crusade. 53. Marguerite6 de Turenne (André Roux: Scrolls, 87, 125, 137.) (Stuart, Page 114, Line ). Married Name: d'angoulême. Married Name: de Limoges. Married Name: de Ventadour. Born: in 1117 at Turenne, Guyenne, France, daughter of Raymond I, Vicomte de Turenne and Mathilde du Perche ( 7 December 2008.). Married circa 1128 at France: Ebles III, Vicomte de Ventadour,, son of Ebles II, Vicomte de Ventadour and Alix de Montluçon (Marguerite was Ebles III's first wife). Married circa 1134: Aymar=Adhémar V/IV, Vicomte de Limoges,, son of Archambaud IV, Viscount de Comborn and Brunissende=Humberge de Limoges (Aymar IV was Marguerite's first husband). Married in 1150 at France: Guillaume IV, Count d'angoulême,, son of Wulgrin II/III, Count d'angoulême and Ponce de La Marche (Guillaume IV was Marguerite's third husband). Died: after 1160 at France. 54. Pierre I, Prince6 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 120.) (Stuart, Page 57, Line ) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 246.). AKA: Pierre, Count de Montargis. AKA: Pierre, Sire de Courtenay. AKA: Pierre, Seigneur de Tanlay. Born: circa 1126 at France, son of Louis VI, King de France and Alix=Adélaïde de Maurienne. Married in 1150: Élizabeth de Joinville,, daughter of Renaud, Seigneur de Château Renard and Hedwige du Donjon (With Élisabeth's marriage to Pierre, the fief of Courtenay became separated from that of Château Renard upon his death) (Abbott, Page 100.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 245.). Died: on 10 Apr 1183 at Holy Land. 55. Élizabeth6 de Joinville (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 120.) (Stuart, Page 106, Line ). AKA: Élizabeth de Nevers. Married Name: de France. AKA: Élizabeth, Dame de Champignelles (en Puisaye) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 245.). AKA: Élisabeth, Dame de Château Renard (Abbott, Page 97.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 245.). AKA: Élizabeth, Dame de Montargis (Ibid.). AKA: Élizabeth, Dame de Chantecoq (Ibid.). AKA: Élizabeth, Dame de Tanlai (Ibid.). AKA: Élizabeth, Dame de Charni (Ibid.). Born: in 1127 at Courtenay, Orléanais, France, daughter of Renaud, Seigneur de Château Renard and Hedwige du Donjon. Married in 1150: Pierre I, Prince de France,, son of Louis VI, King de France and Alix=Adélaïde de Maurienne (With Élisabeth's marriage to Pierre, the fief of Courtenay became separated from that of Château Renard upon his death) (Abbott, Page 100.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 245.). Note - in 1190: Élizabeth was the heiress of Courtenay. AKA: Élizabeth, Dame de Courtenay Élizabeth became the Dame and inheritor of Courtenay. She was the elder daughter of Renaud, Seigneur de Courtenay of the senior branch which remained in France (Ibid.). Died: after 1205 Élizabeth was alive in the year William, Second Earl6 Arundel (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Kathryn Tolliver [Prodigy ID# MUVZ44A], posted under Subject "Plantagenet/Fitzalan" 8 May 1996 at 22:08 Hours, Citing a pedigree she purchased at Arundel Castle.) (von Redlich, Page xxvi.). Born: before 1130, son of Guillaume d'aubigny and Adélaïde de Louvain, William is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son, William, was born.

38 Married before 1143: Maud de Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët,, daughter of James de Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët and Aveline (--?--). Died: on 24 Dec 1193 (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.). 61. Maud6 de Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Kathryn Tolliver [Prodigy ID# MUVZ44A], posted under Subject "Plantagenet/Fitzalan" 8 May 1996 at 22:08 Hours, Citing a pedigree she purchased at Arundel Castle.). Married Name: Arundel. Born: before 1126 at Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët, Manche, Normandie, France, daughter of James de Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët and Aveline (--?--), Maud is presumed to have been at least 17 years of age by the time her son, William, was born. Married before 1143: William, Second Earl Arundel,, son of Guillaume d'aubigny and Adélaïde de Louvain. Died: on 24 Dec 1193 at Norfolkk, England (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.). 62. Richard6 de Clare (Paul Theroff, posts, 20 December 1994 at 13:47 Hours.) (O'Hart, Page 482, #114.). Also Known As: Richard "Strongbow." AKA: Richard de Beaufort (Abbott, Page 235.). Born: circa 1130 at Tonbridge, Kent, England, son of Gilbert de Clare and Isabelle de Beaumont (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.). AKA: Richard, Second Earl of Pembroke (Moody, New History of Ireland, page 174.). AKA: Richard, Lord of Leinster (Ibid.). Married on 26 Aug 1171 at Waterford, Ireland: Eva of Leinster,, daughter of Dermod, King of Leinster and Mór, Princess Muirceartach (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.). Died: circa 5 Apr 1176 at Dublin, Ireland, Brooks' sources indicate that Richard died on 20 April 1176 (Ibid.). 63. Eva of6 Leinster (Paul Theroff, posts, 20 December 1994 at 13:47 Hours.) (O'Hart, Page 482, #114.). Married Name: de Clare. AKA: Eva Aoife, Countess Mac Murrough. AKA: Aife of Leinster (Moody, New History of Ireland, page 174.). Born: circa 1141 at Lancaster, England, daughter of Dermod, King of Leinster and Mór, Princess Muirceartach (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.). Married on 26 Aug 1171 at Waterford, Ireland: Richard de Clare,, son of Gilbert de Clare and Isabelle de Beaumont (Ibid.). Died: in 1186 (Ibid.) th Generation Gautier I7 d'oisy-de-tournais (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 538.). AKA: Wautier I d'oisy. Also Known As: Gautier "Le Beau" (Ibid.). Born: in 1110 at France, son of Fastré II d'oisy and Richilde N?, Gautier I dropped the name d'oissy and took up the name d'avesnes. Married before 1115 at Tournai, Hainaut, Belgium: Yde=Ada de Mortagne-sur-l'Éscaut,, daughter of Évrard I, Duke de Mortagne-sur-l'Éscaut and Francka N? AKA: Walter I, Seigneur de Leuse. AKA: Wautier, Seigneur de Condé The Liber de Restauratione Sancti Martini Tornacensis names "Galterum germani sui [=Gosceguinus] Fastradi filium", specifying that his paternal uncle appointed him as his successor, and that he succeeded in "castrum Avesniense totamque pene regionem illam que dicitur Bracbantus." AKA: Gautier I, Seigneur d'avesnes The Liber de Restauratione Sancti Martini Tornacensis names "Galterum germani sui [=Gosceguinus] Fastradi filium", specifying that his paternal uncle appointed him as his successor, and that he succeeded in "castrum Avesniense totamque pene regionem illam que dicitur Bracbantus" (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Stuart, Page 32, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 22 April 1994 at 01:39 hours.) (Abbott, Page 560.) (M. de La Chenayedes-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 538.). Died: in 1147 at France. 65. Yde=Ada7 de Mortagne-sur-l'Éscaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Stuart, Page 32, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 22 April 1994 at 01:39 hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 538.). Married Name: d'avesnes. AKA: Yde de Mortaigne (Ibid.). Born: before 1090, daughter of Évrard I, Duke de Mortagne-sur-l'Éscaut and Francka N?, Yde is presumed to have been at least

39 15 years of age by the time her son Thierry was born. Married before 1115 at Tournai, Hainaut, Belgium: Gautier I d'oisy-de-tournais,, son of Fastré II d'oisy and Richilde N? 66. Henri I, Count7 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Stuart, Page 32, Line ). AKA: Henri, Count de La Roche. AKA: Henri I, Comte de Laroche. Born: circa 1075, son of Albert III, Count de Namur and Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Married circa 1102: Mathilde de Limbourg,, daughter of Henri I, Count de Limbourg and Adèle von Botenstein. Died: circa Mathilde7 de Limbourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Stuart, Page 268, Line ). Married Name: de Namur. Born: circa 1086, daughter of Henri I, Count de Limbourg and Adèle von Botenstein. Married circa 1102: Henri I, Count de Namur,, son of Albert III, Count de Namur and Ide=Relinde de Saxe. 68. Guy, Seigneur7 de Guise (Stuart, Page 21, Line ). Born: before 1108, son of Godfrey, Signeur de Guise and Ada N?, Guy=Gui is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Bernard was born. Married before 1122: Adélaïde de Montmorency,, daughter of Bouchard IV, Lord de Montmorency and Agnès de Beaumont-sur-Oise. Died: after Adélaïde7 de Montmorency (Ibid.). Married Name: de Guise. Also Known As: "Machanie" ( 7 December 2008.). Born: before 1108, daughter of Bouchard IV, Lord de Montmorency and Agnès de Beaumont-sur-Oise, Adélaïde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Bernard was born. Married before 1122: Guy, Seigneur de Guise,, son of Godfrey, Signeur de Guise and Ada N? 72. Baudouin IV, Comte7 de Hainaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 197.) (Abbott, Pages 292, 559.). Also Known As: Baudouin "Le Bâtisseur." Born: circa 1110, son of Baudouin III, Count de Hainaut and Yolande de Gueldre. Married in 1130: Alice=Ermesende de Namur,, daughter of Godefroy, Comte de Namur and Ermesende de Luxembourg. Died: on 7 Nov 1171 Baudouin IV is burried at the Abbey de Saint-Waldthud at Mons. 73. Alice=Ermesende7 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 197.). Married Name: de Hainaut. Born: circa 1115, daughter of Godefroy, Comte de Namur and Ermesende de Luxembourg. Married in 1130: Baudouin IV, Comte de Hainaut,, son of Baudouin III, Count de Hainaut and Yolande de Gueldre. Died: on 25 Jul Thierry I, Count7 de Flandre (André Roux: Scrolls, 169.) (Stuart, Page 97, Line ). AKA: Thierry, Count de Flandre Thierry became Comte de Flandre in 1128 (Abbott, Page 292.). AKA: Thierry III, Comte d'alsace. AKA: Thierry de Lorraine. Born: in 1099 at Alsace, France, son of Thierry, Duke d'alsace and Gertrude de Flandre. Note - in 1128: Thierry became the Count of Flanders in 1128 in right of his mother. Married before 1129: Swanhilde N? (Swanhilde was Thierry II's first wife). Married between 1130 and 1134 at France: Sibylle d'anjou,, daughter of Fouques V, King de Jérusalem and Éremburge, Countess du Maine (Sibylle was Thierry II's second wife). PaterAlter between 1134 and 1135 Thierry I, Count de Flandre/Gertrude d'alsace (an unknown value). Died: on 17 Jan Sibylle7 d'anjou (André Roux: Scrolls, 147, 169.) (Stuart, Page 112, Line ). Married Name: de Flandre. Married Name: Clito. Born: in 1112, daughter of Fouques V, King de Jérusalem and Éremburge, Countess du Maine. Married in 1123: William Clito,, son of Robert III, Duke de Normandie and Sybille di Conversano (William was Sibylle's first husband). Annulled she and William Clito: in 1124 at France (an unknown value). Married between 1130 and 1134 at France: Thierry I, Count de Flandre,, son of Thierry, Duke d'alsace and Gertrude de Flandre (Sibylle was Thierry II's second wife). MaterAlter: between 1134 and 1135 Gertrude d'alsace/sibylle d'anjou. Died: in 1165 at Bethlehem, Palestine, Holy Land.

40 76. Thibaud IV, Palatin7 de Champagne (André Roux: Scrolls, 121.) (Stuart, Page 59, Line 81-29; Page 98, Line ) (Augé.). Also Known As: Thibaud "Le Grand." AKA: Thibaud II, Count de Blois. AKA: Thibaud IV, Count de Brie. Note -: Thibaud (Theobald) II, Count de Blois was second only to the King in terms of political power. He encouraged trade and diverted merchants from the episcopal cities of Reims and Orléans, and Troyes, Provins, Meaux, Lagny, and Bar-sur-Aube all gained custom (increasing his wealth) at the expense of Reims and also Paris. He held about two-thirds of the castles in Champagne together with the land rights to Troyes, the Perthois and Épernay regions, Meaux, Coulommiers and Bar-sur-Aube. Born: in 1093 at Blois, Loir-et-Cher, Orléanais, France, son of Étienne dit Henri, Count de Champagne and Alix=Adèle de Normandie. Married in 1123: Mahaud, Marquise de Carinthie,, daughter of Engilbert III, Duke de Carinthie and Uta, Lady von Passau. Died: on 8 Oct 1152 at Ligny, Namur, Belgium. 77. Mahaud, Marquise7 de Carinthie (André Roux: Scrolls, 121.) (Stuart, Page 167, Line ). AKA: Mathilda von Sponheim. Born: before 1108 at Carinthia, Austria, daughter of Engilbert III, Duke de Carinthie and Uta, Lady von Passau, Mahaud is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Thibault was born. Married in 1123: Thibaud IV, Palatin de Champagne,, son of Étienne dit Henri, Count de Champagne and Alix=Adèle de Normandie. Died: on 13 Dec 1161 at Abbey de Fontevrault, Fontevrault, Maine-et-Loire, Anjou, France. Louis VII, King of France. Raymond of Poitiers welcoming Louis VII in Antioch. 78. Louis VII, King7 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Hallam, Page 120.) (Stuart, Page 51, Line 70-29; Page 99, Line ) (André Castelot, Alain Decaux, Marcel Jullian et J. Levron, Histoire de La France et des Français au Jour le Jour (Librairie Académique Perrin, 1976), Tome 1, Pages 527, 545, ). Also Known As: Louis "Le Jeune." Born: in 1120 at France, son of Louis VI, King de France and Alix=Adélaïde de Maurienne. Note - between 1131 and 1180: Stephen of Paris wrote of Louis VII "He was so pious, so just, so catholic and benign, that if you were to see his simplicity of behavior and dress, you would think, unless you already knew him, that he was not a King but a man of religion. He was a lover of justice and a defender of the weak." Second son of King Louis VI, Louis VII was educated at the cathedral school in Paris and became heir to the throne on the death on 13 October 1131 of his elder brother. His succession was blessed on 25 October 1131 and he succeeded his father on 1 August 1137 as King of France, shortly after marrying Éléonore of Aquitaine. Raoul of Vermandois and Suger, Abbott of Saint-Denis were his two prime counselors. On 8 August 1137, The Bishop of Poitiers crowns Louis VII, Duke d'aquitaine with Aliénor by his side. On 25 December 1137, Louis VII is crowned King of France. In 1138, Louis VII reconciles the long standing differences between the capetian rulers and Thibaud IV, Comte de Champagne. In 1144, Edessa had fallen to the Atabeg Turks under Zengi and his son Nur-ed-Din, who were moving down from the North, and Mélisende, Queen Regent of Jerusalem wrote Pope Eugenius III for assistance. Eugenius asked Louis VII for help and he in turn responded enthusiastically. On 25 December 1145 in Bourges, Louis VII announces that he will participate in a crusade to help the Christians in Syria. He called together an assembly at Vézelay for Easter, 1146, and there Bernard of Clairvaux, encouraged by Eugenius, also a Cistercian monk, preached the second crusade with success, and

41 Emperor Conrad III was persuaded to join. The Crusade gets under way from Metz on Pentecost Sunday of On 4 October, Louis VII and Aliénor arrive in Constantinople, where they are received sumptuously by the Emperor Manuel Komnenos. The turks are hostile, and the French were defeated at Pisidie near Laodicea on 6 January 1148, and the Germans were defeated at Dorylaeum. Conrad III retreated back home followed by numerous other cowards. Louis and Aliénor with only weak and nominal help from the Emperor in Constantinople, landed in the Holy Land and are received by Raymond [who by a series of unusual events, occupies the Throne of the Principality of Antioch], an Uncle of Aliénor on 19 March His plan is to attack the Kingdom of Alep, to take Edessa and to attack at Nour-El-Din, the son and successor of Zenghi. Louis stayed in Palestine until Easter Sunday, Louis VII insults the Emperor of Constantinople by engaging a Sicilian fleet for his return trip to France. Sicily and Byzantium are at war, and during the voyage, following an attack by the Byzantium naval fleet near Cape Malée, Louis VII barely escapes being made prisoner of the Emperor. On 15 October 1149, Louis' marriage to Aliénor is reaffirmed in writing by Pope Eugene III. Louis VII had his marriage to Éléonore annulled on 21 March 1152, in part, because after 15 years of marriage Aliénore had failed to provide a male heir to the Dynasty [that, of course, was always the woman's fault]. He barely held his own against King Henry II of England. He consolidated the domain and continued to widen the royal popularity and royal influence in France, but this was done in the shadow of the Angevin. To the lands already inherited by his father Geoffroy Le Bel of Anjou, and his mother the Empress Matilda, Henry II added Aquitaine by marrying Louis' ex-wife, Éléonore of Aquitaine in In 1154, Henry became King of England and the greatest single landholder in France. In 1164, Archbishop Thomas Becket fled to France from the wrath of Henry II staying first at Pontigny, then at Sens, where Louis VII had also given refuge to Pope Alexander III following the Papal schism of Then in 1170, Becket was murdered and throughout all Christendom, Henry II was blamed and Louis came to be looked upon with great general approval. Louis VII now began to foment great discord between Henry II and his family. In 1179, the King whose health was now deteriorating, held a great assembly of lay and ecclesiastical magnates in Paris, and his son Philippe was elected, anointed and crowned as his successor. The next year, Louis died. Married on 25 Jul 1137 at Bordeaux, Gironde, Guyenne, France: Éléonore, Duchess d'aquitaine,, daughter of Guillaume X, Duke d'aquitaine and Éléonore de Châtellerault (Messengers of the Duke of Aquitaine reached King Louis VI in Béthisy with news of their Duke's death on the way to Saint-Jean-deCompostelle. With his dying breath, the Duke asked the King to look after his daughter, the 15-year old Aliénor. King Louis VI immediately arranged for Aliénor's marriage to his 17-year old son, Louis VII). Note - between 1147 and 1149: The Second Crusade ( ) was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year. Edessa was the first of the Crusader states to have been founded during the First Crusade ( ), and was the first to fall. The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other important European nobles. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe and were somewhat hindered by Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus; after crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks. Louis and Conrad and the remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and, in 1148, participated in an ill-advised attack on Damascus. The crusade in the east was a failure for the crusaders and a great victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately lead to the fall of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century. The only success came outside of the Mediterranean, where Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, Scottish, and some German crusaders, on the way by ship to the Holy Land, fortuitously stopped and helped the Portuguese in the capture of Lisbon in Meanwhile, in Eastern Europe, the first of the Northern Crusades began with the intent of forcibly converting pagan tribes to Christianity, and these crusades would go on for centuries. After the First Crusade and the minor Crusade of 1101 there were three crusader states established in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa. A fourth, the County of Tripoli, was established in Edessa was the most northerly of these, and also the weakest and least populated; as such, it was subject to frequent attacks from the surrounding Muslim states ruled by the Ortoqids, Danishmends, and Seljuk Turks. Count Baldwin II and future count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in Baldwin and Joscelin were both captured a second time in 1122, and although Edessa recovered somewhat after the Battle of Azaz in 1125, Joscelin was killed in battle in His successor Joscelin II was forced into an alliance with the Byzantine Empire, but in 1143 both the Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus and the King of Jerusalem Fulk of Anjou died. Joscelin had also quarreled with the Count of Tripoli and the Prince of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies. Meanwhile, the Seljuk Zengi, Atabeg of Mosul, had added Aleppo to his rule in Aleppo was the key to power in Syria, contested between the rulers of Mosul and Damascus. Both Zengi and King Baldwin II turned their attention towards Damascus; Baldwin was defeated outside the city in Damascus, ruled by the Burid Dynasty, later allied with King Fulk when Zengi besieged the city in 1139 and 1140; the alliance was negotiated by the chronicler Usamah ibn Munqidh. In late 1144, Joscelin II allied with the Ortoqids and marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support the Ortoqid Kara Aslan against Aleppo. Zengi, already seeking to take advantage of Fulk's death in 1143, hurried north to besiege Edessa, which fell to him after a month on 24 December Manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly and others were sent from Jerusalem to assist, but arrived too late. Joscelin II continued to rule the remnants of the county from Turbessel, but little by little the rest of the territory was captured or sold to the Byzantines. Zengi himself was praised throughout Islam as "defender of the faith" and al-malik al-mansur, "the victorious king". He did not pursue an attack on the remaining territory of Edessa, or the Principality of Antioch, as was feared. Events in Mosul compelled him to return home, and he once again set his sights on Damascus. However, he was assassinated by a slave in 1146 and was succeeded in Aleppo by his son Nur ad-din. The news of the fall of Edessa was brought back to Europe first by pilgrims early in 1145, and then by embassies from Antioch, Jerusalem, and Armenia. Bishop Hugh of Jabala reported the news to Pope Eugene III, who issued the bull Quantum praedecessores on 1 December of that year, calling for a second crusade. Hugh also told the Pope of an eastern Christian king, who, it was hoped, would bring relief to the crusader states: this is the first documented mention of Prester John. Eugene did not control Rome and lived instead at Viterbo, but nevertheless the crusade was meant to be more organized and centrally controlled than the First Crusade: certain preachers would be approved by the pope, the armies would be led by the strongest kings of Europe, and a route would be planned beforehand. The initial response to the new crusade bull was poor, and it in fact had to be reissued when it was clear that Louis VII would be taking part in the expedition. Louis VII of France had also been considering a new expedition independently of the Pope, which he announced to his Christmas court at Bourges in It is debatable whether Louis was planning a crusade of his own or in fact a pilgrimage, as he wanted to fulfil a vow made by his brother Philip to go to the Holy Land, as he had been prevented by death. It is probable that Louis had made this decision independently of hearing about Quantum Praedecessores. In any case, Abbot Suger and other nobles were not in favour of Louis' plans, as he would potentially be gone from the kingdom for several years. Louis consulted Bernard of Clairvaux, who referred him back to Eugene. Now Louis would have definitely heard about the papal bull, and Eugene enthusiastically supported Louis' crusade. The bull was reissued on 1 March 1146, and Eugene authorized Bernard to preach the news throughout France. The Pope commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade and granted the same indulgences for it which Pope Urban II had accorded to the First Crusade. A parliament was convoked at Vezelay in Burgundy in 1146, and Bernard preached before the assembly on March 31st. Louis VII of France, his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and the princes and lords present prostrated themselves at the feet of Bernard to receive the pilgrims' cross. Bernard then passed into Germany, and the reported miracles which multiplied almost at his every step undoubtedly contributed to the success of his mission. At Speyer,Conrad III of Germany and his nephew Frederick Barbarossa, received the cross from the hand of Bernard. Pope Eugenius came in person to France to encourage the enterprise. For all his overmastering zeal, Bernard was by nature neither a bigot nor a persecutor. As in the First Crusade, the preaching inadvertently led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical French monk named Rudolf was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland,

42 Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and Speyer, with Rudolf claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land. Bernard, the Archbishop of Cologne and the Archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks, and so Bernard traveled from Flanders to Germany to deal with the problem and quiet the mobs. Bernard then found Rudolf in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery. When the Second Crusade was called, many south Germans volunteered to crusade in the Holy Land. The north German Saxons were reluctant. They told St Bernard of their desire to campaign against the Slavs at a Reichstag meeting in Frankfurt on 13 March Approving of the Saxons' plan, Eugenius issued a papal bull known as the Divina dispensatione on 13 April. This bull stated that there was to be no difference between the spiritual rewards of the different crusaders. Those who volunteered to crusade against the Slavs were primarily Danes, Saxons, and Poles, although there were also some Bohemians. The Papal legate, Anselm of Havelberg, was placed in overall command. The campaign itself was led by Saxon families such as the Ascanians, Wettin, and Schauenburgers. Upset by German participation in the crusade, the Obotrites preemptively invaded Wagria in June 1147, leading to the march of the crusaders in late summer After expelling the Obodrites from Christian territory, the crusaders targeted the Obodrite fort at Dobin and the Liutizian fort at Demmin. The forces attacking Dobin included those of the Danes Canute V and Sweyn III, Adalbert II, Archbishop of Bremen, and Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony. When some crusaders advocated ravaging the countryside, others objected by asking, "Is not the land we are devastating our land, and the people we are fighting our people?" The Saxon army under Henry the Lion withdrew after the pagan chief, Niklot, agreed to have Dobin's garrison undergo baptism. After an unsuccessful siege of Demmin, a contingent of crusaders was diverted by the margraves to attack Pomerania instead. They reached the already Christian city Stettin, whereupon the crusaders dispersed after meeting with Bishop Albert of Pomerania and Prince Ratibor I of Pomerania. According to Bernard of Clairvaux, the goal of the crusade was to battle the pagan Slavs "until such a time as, by God's help, they shall either be converted or deleted". However, the crusade failed to achieve the conversion of most of the Wends. The Saxons achieved largely token conversions at Dobin, as the Slavs resorted to their pagan beliefs once the Christian armies dispersed. Albert of Pomerania explained, "If they had come to strengthen the Christian faith... they should do so be preaching, not by arms". By the end of the crusade, the countryside of Mecklenburg and Pomerania was plundered and depopulated with much bloodshed, especially by the troops of Henry the Lion. This was to help bring about more Christian victories in the future decades. The Slavic inhabitants also lost much of their methods of production, limiting their resistance in the future. In the spring of 1147, the Pope authorized the expansion of the crusade into the Iberian peninsula, in the context of the Reconquista. He also authorized Alfonso VII of León to equate his campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade. In May 1147, the first contingents of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England for the Holy Land. Bad weather forced the ships to stop on the Portuguese coast, at the northern city of Porto on 16 June There they were convinced to meet with King Afonso I of Portugal. The crusaders agreed to help the King attack Lisbon, with a solemn agreement that offered to them the pillage of the city's goods and the ransom money for expected prisoners. The Siege of Lisbon lasted from 1 July to 25 October 1147 when, after four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender, primarily due to hunger within the city. Most of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, but some of them set sail and continued to the Holy Land. Some of them, who had departed earlier, helped capture Santarém earlier in the same year. Later they also helped to conquer Sintra, Almada, Palmela and Setúbal, and were allowed to stay in the conquered lands, where they had offspring. Elsewhere on the Iberian Peninsula at almost at the same time, Alfonso VII of León, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, and others led a mixed army of Catalan and French crusaders against the rich port city of Almería. With support from a Genoese-Pisan navy, the city was occupied in October Ramon Berenger then invaded the lands of the Almoravid taifa kingdom of Valencia and Murcia. In December 1148, he captured Tortosa after a five-month siege again with the help of French and Genoese crusaders. The next year, Fraga, Lleida and Mequinenza in the confluence of the Segre and Ebro rivers fell to his army. Joscelin tried to take back Edessa following Zengi's murder, but Nur ad-din defeated him in November On 16 February 1147 the French crusaders met at Étampes to discuss their route. The Germans had already decided to travel overland through Hungary, as the sea route was politically impractical because Roger II, King of Sicily, was an enemy of Conrad. Many of the French nobles distrusted the land route, which would take them through the Byzantine Empire, the reputation of which still suffered from the accounts of the First Crusaders. Nevertheless it was decided to follow Conrad, and to set out on 15 June. Roger II was offended and refused to participate any longer. In France, Abbot Suger and Count William II of Nevers were elected as regents while the king would be on crusade. In Germany, further preaching was done by Adam of Ebrach, and Otto of Freising also took the cross. On 13 March, 1147, at Frankfurt, Conrad s son Frederick was elected king, under the regency of Henry, Archbishop of Mainz. Five years later Conrad III designated his nephew, Friedrich Barbarossa, as his successor. The Germans planned to set out at Easter, but did not leave until May. The German crusaders, accompanied by the papal legate and cardinal Theodwin, intended to meet the French in Constantinople. Ottokar III of Styria joined Conrad at Vienna, and Conrad's enemy Geza II of Hungary allowed them to pass through unharmed. When the German army of 20,000 men arrived in Byzantine territory, Manuel feared they were going to attack him, and Byzantine troops were posted to ensure that there was no trouble. There was a brief skirmish with some of the more unruly Germans near Philippopolis and in Adrianople, where the Byzantine general Prosouch fought with Conrad s nephew, the future emperor Frederick. To make things worse, some of the German soldiers were killed in a flood at the beginning of September. On 10 September, however, they arrived at Constantinople, where relations with Manuel were poor and the Germans were convinced to cross into Asia Minor as quickly as possible. Manuel wanted Conrad to leave some of his troops behind, to assist in defending against attacks from Roger II, who had taken the opportunity to plunder the cities of Greece, but Conrad did not agree, despite being a fellow enemy of Roger.[19] In Asia Minor, Conrad decided not to wait for the French, and marched towards Iconium, capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rüm. Conrad split his army into two divisions. The king led one of these, which was almost totally destroyed by the Seljuks on 25 October 1147 at the second battle of Dorylaeum. In battle, the Turks used their typical tactic of pretending to retreat, and then returning to attack the small force of German cavalry which had separated from the main army to chase them. Conrad began a slow retreat back to Constantinople, and his army was harassed daily by the Turks, who attacked stragglers and defeated the rearguard. Even Conrad was wounded in a skirmish with them. The other division, led by the King's half-brother, Bishop Otto of Freising, had marched south to the Mediterranean coast and was similarly defeated early in The French crusaders had departed from Metz in June 1147, led by Louis, Thierry of Alsace, Renaut I of Bar, Amadeus III of Savoy and his half-brother William V of Montferrat, William VII of Auvergne, and others, along with armies from Lorraine, Brittany, Burgundy, and Aquitaine. A force from Provence, led by Alphonse of Toulouse, chose to wait until August, and to cross by sea. At Worms, Louis joined with crusaders from Normandy and England. They followed Conrad s route fairly peacefully, although Louis came into conflict with Geza of Hungary when Geza discovered Louis had allowed an attempted Hungarian usurper to join his army. Relations within Byzantine territory were also poor, and the Lorrainers, who had marched ahead of the rest of the French, also came into conflict with the slower Germans whom they met on the way. Since the original negotiations between Louis and Manuel, Manuel had broken off his military campaign against the Sultanate of Rüm, signing a truce with his enemy Sultan Mesud I. This was done so that Manuel would be free to concentrate on defending his empire from the Crusaders, who had gained a reputation for theft and treachery since the First Crusade and were widely suspected of harboring sinister designs on Constantinople. Nevertheless, Manuel's relations with the French army were somewhat better than with the Germans, and Louis was entertained lavishly in Constantinople. Some of the French were outraged by Manuel's truce with the Seljuks and called for an alliance with Roger II and an attack on Constantinople, but they were restrained by Louis. When the armies from Savoy, Auvergne, and Montferrat joined Louis in Constantinople, having taken the land route through Italy and crossing from Brindisi to Durazzo, the entire army was shipped across the Bosporus to Asia Minor. The Greeks were

43 encouraged by rumours that the Germans had captured Iconium, but Manuel refused to give Louis any Byzantine troops. Byzantium had just been invaded by Roger II of Sicily, and all of Manuel's army was needed in the Balkans. Both the Germans and French therefore entered Asia without any Byzantine assistance, unlike the armies of the First Crusade. In the tradition set by his grandfather Alexios I, Manuel also had the French swear to return to the Empire any territory they captured. The French met the remnants of Conrad's army at Nicaea, and Conrad joined Louis' force. They followed Otto of Freising's route, moving closer to the Mediterranean coast, and they arrived at Ephesus in December, where they learned that the Turks were preparing to attack them. Manuel also sent ambassadors complaining about the pillaging and plundering that Louis had done along the way, and there was no guarantee that the Byzantines would assist them against the Turks. Meanwhile Conrad fell sick and returned to Constantinople, where Manuel attended to him personally, and Louis, paying no attention to the warnings of a Turkish attack, marched out from Ephesus with the French and German survivors. The Turks were indeed waiting to attack, but in a small battle outside Ephesus, the French were victorious. They reached Laodicea early in January 1148, around the same time Otto of Freising s army had been destroyed in the same area. Resuming the march, the vanguard under Amadeus of Savoy became separated from the rest of the army, and Louis troops were routed by the Turks. Louis himself, according to Odo of Deuil, climbed a rock and was ignored by the Turks, who did not recognize him. The Turks did not bother to attack further and the French marched on to Adalia, continually harassed from afar by the Turks, who had also burned the land to prevent the French from replenishing their food, both for themselves and their horses. Louis no longer wanted to continue by land, and it was decided to gather a fleet at Adalia and sail for Antioch. After being delayed for a month by storms, most of the promised ships did not arrive at all. Louis and his associates claimed the ships for themselves, while the rest of the army had to resume the long march to Antioch. The army was almost entirely destroyed, either by the Turks/Saracens or by sickness. Louis eventually arrived in Antioch on March 19 after being delayed by storms, Amadeus of Savoy had died on Cyprus along the way. Louis was welcomed by Eleanor s uncle Raymond of Poitiers. Raymond expected him to help defend against the Turks and to accompany him on an expedition against Aleppo, but Louis refused, preferring instead to finish his pilgrimage to Jerusalem rather than focus on the military aspect of the crusade. Eleanor enjoyed her stay, but her uncle wanted her to remain behind and divorce Louis if the king refused to help him. Louis quickly left Antioch for Tripoli. Meanwhile, Otto of Freising and the remnant of his troops arrived in Jerusalem early in April, and Conrad soon after. Fulk, Patriarch of Jerusalem, was sent to invite Louis to join them. The fleet that had stopped at Lisbon arrived around this time, as well as the Provençals who had left Europe under the command of Alfonso Jordan, Count of Toulouse. Alphonso himself did not make it to Jerusalem as he died at Caesarea. He was supposedly poisoned either by Eleanor of Aquitaine or Raymond II of Tripoli, the nephew who feared his political aspirations in the county. The original focus of the crusade was Edessa, but the preferred target of King Baldwin III and the Knights Templar was Damascus. The nobility of Jerusalem welcomed the arrival of troops from Europe, and it was announced that a council should meet to decide on the best target for the crusaders. This took place on 24 June 1148, when the High Court of Jerusalem met with the recently-arrived crusaders from Europe at Palmarea, near Acre, a major city of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. This was the most spectacular meeting of the Court in its existence. Notably, no one from Antioch, Tripoli, or the former County of Edessa attended. Both Louis and Conrad were persuaded to attack Damascus. Some of the barons native to Jerusalem pointed out that it would be unwise to attack Damascus, as the Burid dynasty, though Muslim, were their allies against the Zengid dynasty. Conrad, Louis, and Baldwin insisted, Damascus was a holy city for Christianity. Like Jerusalem and Antioch, it would be a noteworthy prize in the eyes of European Christians. In July their armies assembled at Tiberias and marched to Damascus, around the Sea of Galilee by way of Banyas. There were perhaps 50,000 troops in total. The crusaders decided to attack Damascus from the west, where orchards would provide them with a constant food supply. They arrived at Daraiya on 23 July The following day, the Muslims were prepared for the attack and constantly attacked the army advancing through the orchards outside Damascus. The defenders had sought help from Saif ad-din Ghazi I of Aleppo and Nur ad-din of Mosul, who personally led an attack on the crusader camp. The crusaders were pushed back from the walls into the orchards, where they were prone to ambushes and guerrilla attacks. According to William of Tyre, on 27 July the crusaders decided to move to the plain on the eastern side of the city, which was less heavily fortified but had much less food and water. It was recorded by some that Unur had bribed the leaders to move to a less defensible position, and that Unur had promised to break off his alliance with Nur ad-din if the crusaders went home. Meanwhile Nur ad-din and Saif ad-din had by now arrived. With Nur ad-din in the field it was impossible to return to their better position. The local crusader lords refused to carry on with the siege, and the three kings had no choice but to abandon the city. First Conrad, then the rest of the army, decided to retreat back to Jerusalem on 28 July 1148, though for their entire retreat they were followed by Turkish archers who constantly harassed them. Each of the Christian forces felt betrayed by the other. A new plan was made to attack Ascalon and Conrad took his troops there, but no further help arrived, due to the lack of trust that had resulted from the failed siege. This mutual distrust would linger for a generation due to the defeat, to the ruin of the Christian kingdoms in the Holy Land. After quitting Ascalon, Conrad returned to Constantinople to further his alliance with Manuel. Louis remained behind in Jerusalem until Back in Europe, Bernard of Clairvaux was humiliated by the defeat. Bernard considered it his duty to send an apology to the Pope and it is inserted in the second part of his Book of Consideration. There he explains how the sins of the crusaders were the cause of their misfortune and failures. When his attempt to call a new crusade failed, he tried to disassociate himself from the fiasco of the Second Crusade altogether. He would die in The Wendish Crusade achieved mixed results. While the Saxons affirmed their possession of Wagria and Polabia, pagans retained control of the Obodrite land east of Lübeck. The Saxons also received tribute from Chief Niklot, enabled the colonization of the Bishopric of Havelberg, and freed some Danish prisoners. However, the disparate Christian leaders regarded their counterparts with suspicion and accused each other of sabotaging the campaign. In Iberia, the campaigns in Spain, along with the siege of Lisbon, were some of the few Christian victories of the Second Crusade. They are seen as pivotal battles of the wider Reconquista, which would be completed in In the East the situation was much darker for the Christians. In the Holy Land, the Second Crusade had disastrous long-term consequences for Jerusalem. Damascus no longer trusted the crusader kingdom, and the city was handed over to Nur ad-din in Baldwin III finally seized Ascalon in 1153, which brought Egypt into the sphere of conflict. Jerusalem was able to make further advances into Egypt, briefly occupying Cairo in the 1160s. Annulled he and Éléonore, Duchess d'aquitaine: on 21 Mar 1152 A Council of the Archbishops and Bishops of France met in Beaugency on the shores of the Loire, presided by Hughes, Archbishop of Sens. The spouses are in accord and their parents testify that their are cousins, whose consanguinity is prohibited by Canon Law, and that the proper dispensations had not been obtained before the celebration of The Council dissolves the marriage. Upon the anullment of her marriage to King Louis VII in 1152, Éléonore married in 1152 Henry, Cound d'anjou, Duke of Normandy who became King Henry II of England. Thus, the addition of Aquitaine made Henry much more powerful than Louis, and allowed him to be frequently hostile to Louis. When she married Henry, her dowry brought him the Guyenne and Poitou. By fighting Philippe Auguste, King of France, she successfully defended the rights of her son, Richard the Lion Hearted. Married in 1153: Constance, Princess de Castile,, daughter of Alfonso VII, King de Castile and Bérengère de Barcelone (Constance was Louis VII's second wife). Married on 13 Nov 1160 at France: Adèle de Champagne,, daughter of Thibaud IV, Palatin de Champagne and Mahaud, Marquise de Carinthie (Some sources place the marriage date as 18 October Louis VII's marriage to Adèle, the sister of Thibaut de Champagne and of Thibaut de Blois [to whom Louis VII had destined the marriage of his two daughters by Aliénor] produced an interesting familial relationship. Louis, by this marriage, would be the brother-in-law of his own daughters. This marriage precipitated the wedding of Marguerite [Louis VII's daughter who was only 2 years of age] to Prince Henry [son of Henry II, King of England] by Henry II who feared the marriage would yield a male heir to the French Throne). Died: on 8 Sep 1180 at Abbaye de Saint-Port, Barbeaux, Auvergne, France, When his son Philippe caught a chill while out hunting, Louis VII

44 made a pilgrimage to Canterbury, England to Becket's shrine fearing his only heir would die. Shortly thereafter, he himself fell into poor health and retired to his monastery at Barbeaux where he died and was buried ten days later at the Abbey's church, Notre-Dame-de-Barbeaux. Buried: on 18 Sep Éléonore, Duchess7 d'aquitaine (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 66, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 303.). AKA: Éléonore, Comtesse de Poitou (Abbott, Page 403.). Married Name: Éléonore, Queen de France. Married Name: Eleanore, Queen of England. Born: in 1122 at Bordeaux, Gironde, Guyenne, France, daughter of Guillaume X, Duke d'aquitaine and Éléonore de Châtellerault. Note - between 1137 and 1204 at France: Éléonore was the heiress of Aquitaine. Her land holdings would greatly enhance the power of King Henry II of England. In 1173, things began to sour for her as she became outraged and disappointed with her tyranical spouse. She would begin to bring her sons up against their father, motivating them to claim their inheritances early. Her efforts toward that end were in very subtle ways and intrigue supported by Louis VII, King de France, her first husband. Married on 25 Jul 1137 at Bordeaux, Gironde, Guyenne, France: Louis VII, King de France,, son of Louis VI, King de France and Alix=Adélaïde de Maurienne (Messengers of the Duke of Aquitaine reached King Louis VI in Béthisy with news of their Duke's death on the way to Saint-Jean-de-Compostelle. With his dying breath, the Duke asked the King to look after his daughter, the 15-year old Aliénor. King Louis VI immediately arranged for Aliénor's marriage to his 17-year old son, Louis VII). Annulled she and Louis VII, King de France: on 21 Mar 1152 A Council of the Archbishops and Bishops of France met in Beaugency on the shores of the Loire, presided by Hughes, Archbishop of Sens. The spouses are in accord and their parents testify that their are cousins, whose consanguinity is prohibited by Canon Law, and that the proper dispensations had not been obtained before the celebration of The Council dissolves the marriage. Upon the anullment of her marriage to King Louis VII in 1152, Éléonore married in 1152 Henry, Cound d'anjou, Duke of Normandy who became King Henry II of England. Thus, the addition of Aquitaine made Henry much more powerful than Louis, and allowed him to be frequently hostile to Louis. When she married Henry, her dowry brought him the Guyenne and Poitou. By fighting Philippe Auguste, King of France, she successfully defended the rights of her son, Richard the Lion Hearted. Married on 18 May 1152 at Cathédral de Saint-Pierre, Bordeaux, Gironde, Guyenne, France: Henry II, King of England,, son of Geoffroy V, Count d'anjou and Mathilde=Mahaut, Princess of England. Died: on 31 Mar 1204 at Château de Mirebelle, Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou, France (Walter D., Jr. Perro, The Ancient, Royal, and Colonial America Ancestry of Walter D. Perro, Jr., Draft A. (n.p.: Self, 8-Feb-1995 at 16:17 Hours.), Page 2., Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales."). Coat of Arm associated with Thomas I, Seigneur de Coucy Thomas I, Sire de Coucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 165.) (Stuart, Page 23, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 22 April 1994 at 01:39 hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 181.). AKA: Thomas I, Sire de Merle. AKA: Thomas I, Sire de Marle (Ibid.). AKA: Thomas I, Comte d'amiens (Ibid.). AKA: Thomas, Seigneur or Baron de Boves (Abbott, Page 114.) (M. de La Chenaye-desBois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 181.). Born: circa 1073 at Coucy, Ile-de-France, France, son of Enguérrand I, Seigneur de Coucy and Adèle=Ade, de Roucy. Note - in 1096: Thomas I was a crusader on the First Crusade in 1096 who distinguished himself in the Siege of Nicée and Jérusalem. The Crusades began formally on Tuesday 27 November 1095 (following the Council of Clermont which met from 18 to 28 November), in a field just outside the walls of the French city of Clermont-Ferrand. On that day Pope Urban II preached a sermon to crowds of laypeople and clergy attending a church council at Clermont. In his sermon, the pope outlined a plan for a Crusade and called on his listeners to join its ranks. The response was positive and overwhelming. Pope Urban then commissioned the bishops at the council to return to their homes and to enlist others in the Crusade. He also outlined a basic strategy in which individual groups of Crusaders would begin the journey in August Each group would be self-financing and responsible to its own leader. The groups would make their separate ways to the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, where they would meet. From there, they would launch a counterattack against the Seljuk conquerors of Anatolia together with the Byzantine emperor and his army. Once that region was under Christian control, the Crusaders would campaign against the Muslims in Syria and Palestine, with Jerusalem as their ultimate goal.

45 The noble race of Franks must come to the aid their fellow Christians in the East. The infidel Turks are advancing into the heart of Eastern Christendom; Christians are being oppressed and attacked; "Holy Christians are being slaughtered..." churches and holy places are being defiled. Jerusalem is groaning under the Saracen yoke. The Holy Sepulcher is in Moslem hands and has been turned into a mosque. Pilgrims are harassed and even prevented from access to the Holy Land. The West must march to the defense of the East. All should go, rich and poor alike. The Franks must stop their internal wars and squabbles. Let them go instead against the infidel and fight a righteous war. God himself will lead you, for you will be doing His work. There will be absolution and remission of sins for all who die in the service of Christ. Here, you are poor and miserable sinners; there, you will be rich and happy. Let none hesitate; you must march next summer. God wills it! The day after Urban's speech, the Council formally granted all the privileges and protections Urban had promised. The red cross was taken as the official sign of the pilgrims, and Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy was chosen as papal legate and the spiritual leader of the expedition. Peter The Hermit began preaching in Berry in December He moved eastward into Lorraine, arriving in Cologne a little before Easter, on 12 April Other preachers were active, too, and a number of these converged on the city in April and May. Peter wanted to wait, to allow time for the Frankish nobility and others to gather as well, but some of his lieutenants grew impatient and left ahead of him. The first group under Walter Sans-Avoir marched up the Rhine River, then up the Neckar River. From its headwaters is only a short trek overland to the Danube River. It appears that Walter's army had sufficient finances to pay their way. They passed through Germany and then through Hungary without incident. They crossed into Byzantine territory at Belgrade at the end of May. With no disruptions and delays, then, it took just over a month to go from Cologe to Belgrade. the Crusaders acquired a Byzantine military escort. The Crusaders proceeded to Constantinople in good order, and Alexius Comnenus greeted them cordially. Peter s Group left Cologne on 20 April 1096, with about 20,000 followers. vthese Crusaders, too, passed through Germany and Hungary without incident, leading us to conclude that they were paying their own way to the satisfaction of local merchants. At Semlin, however, trouble broke out. This was the town that had punished the sixteen knights from Walter's army. The sixteen suits of armor were still nailed to the town walls, which did not please the new Crusaders. Peter tried to move his army quickly on, but an argument broke out in the rear, allegedly over payment for a pair of shoes--an important item for Crusaders!--and the quarrel escalated quickly into a full battle. Peter's army stormed the citadel and sacked the city, killing several thousand inhabitants and local Byzantine troops. Semlin was across the Danube from Belgrade. The military commander quickly sent his few hundred Petchneg troops to prevent the Crusaders from crossing the river. He then ran for Nish, whereupon the citizens of Belgrade abandoned the city. The loyal Petchnegs died defending the crossing, but they were hopelessly outnumbered. Belgrade, too, was sacked. The Crusaders went on to Nish, arriving there on 3 July The provincial governor had fortified the town and refused to spare an escort. The Crusaders were invited to move along. Peter decided it would be wiser to keep going, and to find help closer to Constantinople. They broke camp the next morning and started to move out in good order, but again a fight broke out in the rear. The main army rode back to help, whereupon the Byzantine forces sallied out from the city. This time, though, the Crusaders were routed. After losing his treasury (which was in the rear van) and as many as a quarter of his men, Peter broke off the engagement and fled south. They managed to go the rest of the way without incident, and they arrived at Constantinople on 1 August Word of the problems preceded the army. Alexius received Peter graciously enough, but he firmly kept the army outside the city walls. He did grant them a market, though the Franks complained bitterly over the prices, and were not at all above thievery to get what they wanted. Tensions were rising quickly and Alexius decided to get these troublesome Franks across the Bosporus as soon as he could. Beginning on 6 August, the Crusaders began arriving in Asia Minor, marching to Civetot (Kibotos) which was to become the Crusader camp. Peter's idea was that they should wait for the main Crusading forces (which they knew had set out) to arrive before attempting to move into Turkish territory. He could not, however prevent raiding, and some of these raids penetrated well within lands held by the Turks. The Franks were the first to raid, and they were very successful. They drove all the way to the gates of Nicaea, plundering the villages (many of which were Christian, but the Crusaders were indifferent to this). Nicaea was the capital city of Kilij Arslan, the Turkish sultan in Asia Minor. He was a typical Danishmend prince, however; he might park his treasury and his family in a city, but his real capital was with his army, and at this time the army was off in central Anatolia dealing with a rebellion. The city guard sallied out and drove away the Crusaders, but the Franks returned to Civetot laden with booty and regaling everyone with tales of their great "victory." Naturally, the others in camp wanted a piece of the action. The Germans set out soon after. They came to an abandoned castle called Xerigordon, which seemed like a good spot to serve as base camp for extensive raiding, so they moved in. Local Turkish forces quickly invested the castle. It's doubtful that the Germans expected this, for the castle's water supply was at the base of the hill, now in Turkish hands. After eight days of terrible suffering, the Germans surrendered. They were given the choice: convert or die. Those that stayed true to their faith were executed, while the rest were sent as captives to distant cities, never to be heard from again. Those at Civetot wanted to avenge Xerigordon, but the news was that Kilij Arslan was returning with his army, so Peter the Hermit returned to Constantinople to beg the Emperor to send regular troops to help defend the Crusaders. The Emperor was reluctant and negotiations dragged on for days. In the meantime, the hot-heads in the Christian camp slowly prevailed and it was agreed that the army would march on Nicaea before the Turkish army could arrive to reinforce it. On 21 October 1096, the Crusaders left Civetot and marched into a carefully prepared ambush. Kilij Arslan had already arrived, but he did not intend to hole up in a city, he intended to attack his enemies. The road to Nicaea passed through a wooded valley a few miles from Civetot. As the lead contingent, which of course was comprised of the knights, moved through the valley, the Turks attacked. They killed the horses and then drove the knights back upon the rest of the army still filing in. The rout was complete. Only a handful survived. The Turks killed everyone they encountered except for young girls and boys that would sell on the slave market. Of twenty thousand who marched that morning, barely three thousand managed to escape to a halfcompleted fort near the coast. A Greek managed to get to a boat and brought news to Constantinople, whereupon the Emperor sent ships over to rescue the survivors. Kilij Arslan had won a great victory for Islam. The Turks had been hearing stories of a great army of the Franj (their name for all Latin Europeans) marching against Allah. He had met this fearful army and had annihilated it. To his mind, the Franj were not so fearful after all, but were hardly more than peasants. He was both right and wrong, of course. The army he had beaten was in fact not much of an army, but he had not faced the real army yet. His victory near Civetot would cause the Turk to underestimate the next wave of Crusaders when the arrived, with serious consequences. The disaster also had consequences for the Christians. It showed plainly that mere piety and fervor would not be enough to liberate the Holy Sepulcher. There would be no crusade of the common people to the Holy Land, but an organized invasion by armies. And Peter the Hermit would not be its leader. That role would fall to the princes who were beginning to arrive at Constantinople even as the Turks were crushing the People's Crusade. Probably the most famous of all the leaders of the First Crusade was Godfrey, Count of Boullion (Brussels) and Margrave ofgodfrey Antwerp. Godfrey was a fairly important lord in northern France with a proud heritage, for he was a direct descendant of Charlemagne. Despite all this, Godfrey did not prosper and had to mortgage much of his holdings in order to finance his expedition. We don't really know why he went. Later chroniclers give him a reputation as a pious man, but there is no contemporary evidence for this. Among those accompanying Godfrey was his younger Castle Boullion, Godfrey's home - Click to see a larger image brother, Baldwin of Boulogne. Godfrey had an older brother, Eustace who also went on crusade, but it's not clear whether or not he traveled with Godfrey. Various other northern lords were in Godfrey's forces, but being the duke he was chosen as leader. The army left around the middle of August 1096, taking the Rhine-Danube route. When he arrived at the Hungarian border, King Coloman delayed him for three weeks, evidently concerned by the arrival of yet another army from the West, Godfrey having arrived in the wake of Gottschalk and Volkmar and Count Emicho. The Crusaders were angered by Coloman's suspicions and the King and Count had a series of personal discussions. Godfrey

46 volunteered his brother to act as hostage for the Crusaders' good behavior. Baldwin was not very happy about this, but grudgingly agreed. The army moved through Hungary under a strong guard, but there were no incidents, and Baldwin was returned at the Byzantine border. Belgrade was still deserted, so the army marched to Nish, where they were accorded a plentiful market. From there they went to Sofia and Philippopolis. Some tension arose when Godfrey learned that Hugh of Champagne had been taken prisoner by the Emperor, but it was straightened out soon after the army arrived at Constantinople, just before Christmas of Although a lord in southern Italy, Bohemond Of Tarentum was every bit as much a Frank as Godfrey and the others, for Bohemond was one of those Normans who had a generation earlier conquered all of Sicily and southern Italy. He was the eldest son of Robert Guiscard and had accompanied his father when he had invaded Byzantine territory in the 1080s. Bohemond was besieging the town of Amalfi when he heard of the crusade and was immediately moved to take the cross. So many men followed him that the siege had to be raised. As with Godfrey, a number of his kinsmen accompanied Bohemond, most notably his cousin Tancred of Lecce, his brother William, and another cousin Richard of the Principate. They crossed the Adriatic in December and were still in Albania at Christmas time. A little after this, they skirmished briefly with Byzantine troops. Bohemond eventually went on to Constantinople ahead of the rest of his army, leaving it under the command of Tancred, arriving in the city on 10 April The Greeks were convinced that the Normans were their enemies; naturally so, in view of Guiscard's invasions. Bohemond wanted to make a good impression on the Emperor, but he in turn was suspicious of the Greeks. They never managed to get along. Anna Comnena, whose history of her father's reign is so invaluable, never wavered from her belief that Bohemond wanted nothing less than to conquer the Byzantine Empire and that for him all this crusading business was nothing more than a convenient cover. Certainly the most prestigious of all the barons to go on the First Crusade was Count Raymond IV de St. Gilles of Toulouse. Already an old man at the time, around fifty-five, he was an experienced warrior against the infidel, having fought in Spain against the Muslims there. He took his wife and youngest son with him, and later reports say that he sold most of his possessions and took a vow never to return. Toulouse was a wealthy county, and Raymond's was the largest of all the crusader forces. The fact that Bishop Adhemar accompanied Raymond, and that the crusade was first preached in southern France, must have helped recruiting. Raymond's army also had the largest contingent of non-combatants, so his expenses were very high. Historians have had to guess at Raymond's route, for the chronicles don't pick up Raymond until he entered Dalmatia; most likely, he went overland through southern France and northern Italy. They had a hard passage through Serbia because of lack of supplies. Once they entered Byzantine territory there were again quarrels and skirmishes; during one of these, Bishop Adhemar was seriously injured; during another, Count Raymond himself was nearly lost in an ambush. They reached Thessalonica at the beginning of April. At Roussa, the Greeks evidently so angered the Franks that they stormed the city and looted it. Since the Normans had passed through only two weeks earlier, it is possible that the town was simply drained of supplies and that the Franks did not believe it. As Bohemond had done, Count Raymond went on to Constantinople ahead of his army, arriving there on 21 April While he and Alexius were talking on friendly terms, word came that the Provençals had been routed by Byzantine troops. Raymond was furious and had to be restrained by his fellow lords. His army arrived at last on 27 April. A number of other crusader armies set out in The very first one to leave was led by Count Hugh of Vermandois, brother to the King of France. When he set out, he sent an arrogant letter to Emperor Alexius announcing his departure and demanding a fitting reception. Hugh marched down through Italy, receiving the standard of St. Peter at Lucca from the Pope himself. He proceeded to Bari, where he crossed the Adriatic in September. Much of his army was scattered by a storm. Hugh survived and was picked up by Alexius' nephew, John Comnenus, who sent fed and clothed the survivors and sent them on to Constantinople under guard. Robert Count of Flanders also went on crusade taking the Italian route. He was joined by Duke Robert of Normandy (one of William the Conqueror's sons and Count Robert's cousin) and Count Stephen of Blois (a cousin by marriage to the Conqueror's daughter, Adèle). One of Pope Urban's first letters after Clermont was addressed to the Flemings, so the response from here is not surprising. Robert of Flanders is a good example of those barons who went on crusade mainly out of pious zeal. Robert of Normandy mortgaged Normandy to William II of England in order to finance his participation. The army was mainly Flemish, as the Norman lords didn't think much of their duke and were unwilling to follow him. The Flemings went from Rome to Monte Cassino, to visit the monastery of St. Benedict, then went to Bari. Robert of Normandy and Stephen of Blois decided to wait out the winter, for the Adriatic is a dangerous passage in winter. Robert of Flanders, though, crossed anyway, without incident. Robert of Normandy and Stephen followed the next spring. The army took ship on 5 April, but was struck by catastrophe. One of the larger ships broke up in full view of those on shore. About four hundred people, plus horses, supplies and money were lost. A large number of pilgrims decided on the spot to return home. The rest crossed safely and managed to go through Byzantine territory without fighting with the locals. The Flemish army arrived at Constantinople on 14 May The Crusaders were now all assembled at Constantinople. Some of them had been there since the previous winter and were very anxious to move on. Moreover, relations between the Latins and the Greeks were becoming strained. The Greek Emperor at the time was Alexius Comnenus, one of the greatest of the Byzantine emperors. He was the founder of the Comneni dynasty, having come to power after civil war and after the terrible defeat at Manzikert. It was Alexius who had saved some vestige of the Empire in Asia Minor. It was Alexius who had fought the Normans. And it was Alexius who had written a letter to the Bishop of Rome, asking that soldiers be sent to Constantinople to help in the fight against the Turks. The Emperor was relatively secure by the time the First Crusade arrived at his doorstep. He had put the Empire back on a solid economic footing and could look forward with reasonable confidence to recovering portions of Asia Minor. He had a good army and was an adept diplomat. He understood the Turks and their rivalries. Everything, in fact, seemed to be in place for the Emperor to turn at long last from the defensive to the offensive. The Frankish warriors being sent by the Pope would prove a welcome addition--loyal barbarians from the West. Alexius' first encounter with the armies of the First Crusade was with Hugh of Vermandois, the younger son of the French king. He crossed the Adriatic from Bari in the month of October and his comparatively small fleet was nearly destroyed in a unbeknownst seasonal storm of which Hugh had not anticipated. Emperor Alexius felt obligated to send a rescue party to bring what was left of Hugh's army to the capital. Hugh was followed by Godfrey of Boullion, who arrived in December 1096, and proceeded to fall into conflict with Alexius upon arrival. The problem was partly the bad behavior of Godfrey's men, but the underlying issue was an oath of loyalty that Alexius demanded the Franks take before going on into Asia Minor. The first elements of the crusader army arrived at Nicaea on 6 May As they approached the city from the north, they fanned out around the wall. Bohemond positioned his forces along the north wall, while Robert of Flanders and Godfrey took up positions on the east wall. The southern wall was left unblockaded, awaiting the arrival of Raymond of Toulouse, while the North French had not yet even arrived at Constantinople. Alexius had sent his general, Tatikios, to represent him with a token force during the siege. It seems likely that the reason for Alexius' reluctance to be involved directly with the reconquest was political. If the crusaders failed, it would make relations with Kilij Arlsan impossible, and so leave him in a very dangerous position. Alexius was hedging his bets. When the army arrived, Kilij Arslan had left his family at Nicaea and was a thousand miles away fighting the Danishmend for control of Melitene. As soon as he heard news of the attack, he broke off the battle and hastened back. The first incident occurred as Raymond's force was making its way around the wall. Just as it had reached its positions, and was preparing to make camp, Turkish forces swooped out of the wooded hills to the south. Although taken unprepared, Raymond's army fought stoutly, giving Godfrey's men enough time to come to the rescue. Kilij Arslan retreated his men to regroup. The crusaders set to building siege equipment. Raymond also ordered a group of his men to begin digging the foundations out from one of the city's towers, protecting them with a wooden tower which had an armored, sloping roof. Archers and crossbowmen were grouped in strategic positions to keep the defender's heads down. The tower fell late one evening - too late for the crusaders to begin an assault and, by the morning, the Turkish defenders had plugged the gap. Raymond tried to renew the attack but the Turks set fire to the siege equipment and destroyed

47 it. On Godfrey's side of the siege, two of his men - Henry of Esch and Count Herman - also built a tower to help undermine the wall. They managed to bring this tower, which they called 'The Fox', up to the wall, but once there it collapsed killing all twenty inside. During this time the crusaders were well supplied from Byzantium. Alexius also knew that the Nicaea could never be truly be truly surrounded unless there was a naval blockade. He agreed to provide a flotilla of small boats under the command of one of his admirals, Boutoumites. The boats were shipped overland, reassembled of the shores of the Ascanion Lake, and launched to blockade the city. Alexius also sent agents into the city to open negotiations for its surrender. He kept this initiative secret - the crusaders would be expecting to ransack the city when it fell, the standard procedure when a medieval city fell. Alexius, however, did not want to see the second city of his empire pillaged in this way, and so worked hard to persuade the defenders to surrender before the Crusaders breached the walls. Meanwhile, back at the crusader's camp, a man from Lombardy who was an expert in making siege equipment offered to build a more sturdy tower. His price was 15 in Chartres money out of the common fund. This tower did its job - the wall was breached and it seemed that the city was doomed to fall. Alexius' behind-the-scenes bargaining had paid off, however, and the crusaders were startled one morning to see his banner flying over the city. The city had surrendered to him, and was swiftly garrisoned with Byzantine troops. The crusaders were well rewarded for their efforts - it had been a long, hard siege, and many had died. Alexius gave a large sum of money into the common fund, and gave away plenty of food for the common soldiery. At the time, the crusaders were happy enough with the outcome, but the underhand way in which Alexius had taken control of the city rancored with them. It was the beginning of an enmity which would become increasingly overt as the campaign continued. The crusaders soon marched on, heading towards Antioch. In the process they split into two groups, probably because of the sheer size of the army, and Arslan took advantage of the situation to ambush the vanguard near Dorylaeum. Bohemond, Hugh of Vermandois, and Count Stephen of Blois now faced the combined armies of Kilij Arslan and the Danishmend Emir. Bohemond took command and formed the army into defensive positions. After six hours of fierce onslaught, during which the crusaders were driven back on their camp, the main army, led by Raymond of St Giles and Adhémar, appeared on the flank of the Turks and forced them to flee. The passage across Anatolia was treacherous, since the Turks had blocked up the wells and burned the crops. The army reached Iconium in the middle of August 1097 and battled with the Turkish forces near Heraclea later that month. On 10 September 1097, Tancred and his fellow supporters left the main army in a dispute over the best route to take (Tancred was convinced that any route recommended by the Greek guides had to be intentionally misleading). Baldwin followed him. The main army marched on to Cilician Caesarea, reaching there at the end of September and going on to Marash in early October. The weather was growing foul, resulting in the death of Baldwin's wife, but the locals were Armenians and were friendly to the Crusaders. The Crusaders arrived in the vicinity of Antioch on 20 October The Turkish commander was Yaghi-Siyan, who was supposed to be the vassal of Ridwan of Aleppo but openly plotted against him with Kerbogha of Mosul. As a result, when the Franks approached, the anticipated help from Aleppo vanished. Yaghi-Siyan frantically tried to secure his city, exiling many of the Greek and Armenian Christians who had heretofore lived in Antioch peacefully. The emir trusted only the Jacobites, because they hated both the Greeks and the Armenians. His garrison was not very large; his only hope was to hold out until a Turkish army might come to his relief. The Crusaders attacked across the Iron Bridge of the Orontes River, easily carrying the two towers that guarded it. They moved up to the walls of the city the next day. Bohemond encamped opposite the Gate of St. Paul, Raymond at the Gate of the Dog to Bohemond's right, and Godfrey further on at the Gate of the Duke. The siege of Antioch had begun. The most significant event along the road to Antioch was the diversion of one portion of the army away from Jerusalem. Tancred and Baldwin had gone to Tarsus, held by a Turkish garrison. Tancred arrived first and was able to take the city, whose citizens were Greek and Armenian, friendly to the Crusaders. The very day he occupied Tarsus, though, Baldwin arrived with his much larger army. Baldwin had been involving himself in Armenian politics and was prepared to pose as their champion. He insisted that the city be handed over to him. Tancred was hopelessly out-manned and had to withdraw. They squabbled again further down the road, to the point where there was a brief battle between them at Mamistra. The whole affair ended with a reconciliation by which they both agreed they would not found a principality in Cilicia. Here is early evidence that at least some among the Crusaders were interested in using the Crusade as a means of establishing themselves as eastern lords. Tancred eventually re-joined the main army, but Baldwin headed off in an entirely different direction. He had received a plea of Toros of Edessa, the imperial lord of the city. He was Greek Orthodox and so was disliked by many of the native Armenian and Jacobite citizens. He knew that Kerbogha might move to defend Antioch and could easily smash his city along the way. He offered to adopt Baldwin as his son, if the knight would only come right away to his defense. Baldwin agreed, and set out early in February of He had a grand total of eight knights, for most Crusaders were unwilling to turn aside from the road to the Holy Land. He arrived on 6 February Toros adopted him immediately. Within a month, the old man was betrayed. The local Armenians hatched a plot to dethrone him and install Baldwin in his place. On 7 March 1098, a mob stormed the palace. Toros' troops deserted him, and Baldwin refused to defend him. Siege of Antioch (21 Oct June 1098 and 7 to 28 June 1098) He tried to escape through a window, but he was caught and torn to pieces by the mob. On 10 March 1098, Baldwin of Boulougne formally took possession of Edessa, making it the first of the Crusader States. It was not an edifying beginning. The Crusaders did not attack immediately. Antioch was a very strong city, whose walls had originally been built by Justinian. The walls bow out from Mount Silpius in a long arc. Along one portion the Orontes River runs. Another portion climbs a ridge of the mountain. It is a difficult city to attack, and the Crusaders were leery of losing too many men (they initially lacked enough even to cover all the gates). They waited first for Tancred to come up from Alexandretta, then spent some time in securing various out-lying fortresses. So passed November and December, By the end of December 1097, supplies were running low, and Bohemond and Robert of Flanders set out with a large force to gather supplies. Yaghi-Siyan decided it was a good time for a sortie. His attack caught Raymond of Toulouse completely by surprise, but Raymond was able to organize a counter-attack quickly. He drove the Muslims back with such force that his men chased them over the bridge and some actually entered the city. But it was night-time. The horse of one of the lead knights threw its rider and bolted backward. The knights on the bridge behind were thrown into confusion, panicked, and retreated. Meantime, an army had been marching to the relief of Antioch from Damascus. When they learned that Bohemond and Robert were nearby, they attacked. They caught Robert first and fierce fighting erupted. Bohemond came up but held back until the Muslims were well engaged. He then fell on them and inflicted heavy casualties. They had won another victory, but they had lost so many men that they had to return to Antioch with far fewer supplies than they had hoped for. But at least the battle, coupled with ugly weather, forced the Damascene army to return home as well. Yaghi-Siyan was still on his own. January 1098 was grim indeed, with starvation stalking the camps. The women were banished from the Crusader encampments; people began to desert, including Peter the Hermit (he was brought back by Tancred). In February, Ridwan of Aleppo arrived, having made peace with Yaghi-Siyan, but the Crusaders defeated him as well after another hard-fought battle. He returned to Aleppo. Supplies and reinforcements arrived in March, 1098 and the Crusaders were at last able to seal off most of the city. Conditions inside Antioch grew steadily grimmer, even as spring brought better supplies to the besiegers. Yaghi-Siyan was still determined, however, for he had news that Kerbogha of Mosul was at last preparing an army. He set out in early May with a large army mostly made up of allies. His advance was delayed while he spent three weeks besieging Edessa, but Baldwin was able to hold the city. It was during these weeks in May, 1098 that Bohemond made contact with one Firuz, a captain of the guard in Antioch. There had been much buying of spies on both sides during the siege, but Firuz agreed to betray the city. Bohemond told none of the other Crusaders about this, for he was determined that he should rule Antioch. Instead, the Crusaders met to plan an assault on the city before Kerbogha could arrive. It was agreed that whoever should enter the city first would be its lord. Many of the Crusaders were in despair. The city looked as impregnable as ever, and a huge Turkish army was only days away. Desertions increased. On 2 June 1098, Stephen of Blois led a large

48 contingent of French away, thus ending the first Siege of Antioch. Only a few hours later, Bohemond received word from Firuz that the time was right. Bohemond at last revealed the scheme to his fellow captains. Just before sunset, the army decamped as if to go east to meet Kerbogha in the field. After a few hours, it turned around and came back under cover of darkness. Firuz saw to it that one section of the wall was unguarded and sixty knights entered. They opened the Gate of St. George, and the Crusaders streamed into the city. The Christian citizens joined the army in massacring every Turk they found. No Turks were left alive. Yaghi-Siyan fled, but his son gathered a few troops and retreated to the citadel, which he was able to hold. By 3 June 1098, the city, except for the citadel, was in the hands of the Latins. They spent the next day clearing the city of corpses and deciding on the defense of the walls. The day following, 5 June, the first of Kerbogha's troops began arriving, and by the 7th he was encamped. The Crusaders were now besieged within Antioch. The situation was hardly better than it had been for the Crusaders. While they were able to hold off an initial assault on 9 June 1098, they had few supplies and Kerbogha was able to seal the city off. He would starve the Christians into surrender. Alexius Comnenus very nearly came to the rescue. The Greeks had secured western Anatolia, and the Emperor was on the march to Antioch, likely to make sure the Crusaders turned over the Byzantine territories as promised. In any case, he was met on the road by Stephen of Blois and other deserters who told him that the Crusaders were hopelessly trapped and that Antioch would fall any day. Moreover, the Danishmends were forming up again. Faced with the prospect of a Turkish army ahead of him and behind him, Alexius turned around and went home. To the Crusaders, it seemed as if the Emperor had abandoned them to the infidel. Stephen of Blois was branded a coward and upon his return to France his wife was so ashamed she refused to have anything to do with him. Kerbogha continued to press the city hard. On 12 June he nearly captured one of the towers. The Crusaders were starving and were hard-pressed just to hold the 400 towers that lined the city walls. And then, even as the situation seemed hopeless, a miracle occurred. Several miracles, actually. On 10 June 1098, a poor peasant by the name of Peter Bartholomew, the servant of a member of Count Raymond's army, came before Raymond and Bishop Adhemar. He told them of having received several visions over the preceding months from St. Andrew in which the saint told him that the Holy Lance--the spear that pierced Christ's side as he hung on the Cross--lay buried in St. Peter's Cathedral in Antioch. Raymond was convinced, but Adhemar was skeptical and there the matter sat. But news of the vision spread, with everyone having his own opinion. That very evening, another Provençal, this one a priest, told of a vision he had had. Since he swore it was true, and as his reputation was good (Peter Bartholomew's was not), Adhemar believed him. On 14 June 1098, a meteor was seen to fall into the Turkish camp, a very good omen. On 15 June, a group that included Raymond of Toulouse, the historian Raymond of Aguilers, and Peter Bartholomew went to the cathedral and began to dig. The digging went on for hours, with various people taking turns. Count Raymond gave up and left. Then Peter Bartholomew jumped into the hole to take a hand. He very soon cried out that he had found the lance. Raymond of Aguilers says he himself touched the iron while it was still embedded in the ground. Word of the discovery of the Lance spread rapidly and it was taken to Count Raymond. Bishop Adhemar still thought the man was a fake and refused to accept it, but so great was the rejoicing that he kept quiet. The Christians were planning an attack anyway. They knew that there was serious dissension among various emirs in Kerbogha's camp, and in any case they could not stay much longer in Antioch for the army was starving. They set the date for 28 June The Crusaders carried the Holy Lance on a standard at the head of the army. When Kerbogha saw the Crusaders in full array, he tried to send out for a truce, but the Crusaders advanced anyway. The Turks tried their usual tactics, but the Crusaders kept on in good formation. As he feared, emirs began deserting Kerbogha on the field of battle. When Dukak of Damascus left, the entire army collapsed. For once, the Christians resisted the temptation to loot the enemy camp, but instead pressed the Turks hard, killing many. The battle ruined Kerbogha and saved the Crusade. As much as anything, the victory confirmed Peter Bartholomew's visions. As soon as the Turks were gone, the Latins fell to quarreling, this time over who should rule Antioch. Raymond insisted that the city should be turned over to Emperor Alexius, as per their oaths. While he may have been genuine in the sentiment, there is no doubt that Raymond also would do almost anything to prevent Bohemond from having the city. In addition to all the other insults and irritations, Raymond had even been denied the honor of taking the citadel of Antioch. The emir's son watched Kerbogha's defeat and sent out an offer of surrender. But he refused to surrender to Raymond, who was in command of the troops set to guarding the citadel during the battle. Instead, he surrendered to Bohemond, probably by earlier arrangement, and so it was Bohemond's banners that flew there. He was openly claiming the city for his own, although he certainly had no real right to it. Bohemond had no intention of leaving "his" city. Raymond did not want to leave so long as the situation was unresolved. So the Christians stayed at Antioch; they were in poor condition to march anyway. An epidemic broke out in August 1099; its most prominent victim was Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy. He had often acted as a moderating influence on the princes. With his death, there was no one with the authority and prestige to mitigate their quarrels. Peter Bartholomew continued to be visited by St. Andrew. The details of these visions irritated some among the Crusaders. For example, Peter was told that Antioch should be given to Bohemond, that the city should have a Latin patriarch, and that Bishop Adhemar (who had never believed Peter) would go to hell. Raymond was in an awkward position: possession of the Holy Lance was prestigious and Raymond was convinced it was genuine; at the same time, Peter Bartholomew's visions could be downright embarrassing. Over August and September 1098, a number of the barons rode out from Antioch. They secured various towns and fortresses in the Orontes valley. Some went to Edessa to visit Baldwin. October passed. In November 1098, the leaders agreed they should go on to Jerusalem and Raymond at last yielded to Bohemond about Antioch. Another month passed and still they had not left. The common troops now began to exert pressure. They offered leadership of the Crusade to Raymond if he would lead them now. He accepted. A couple of weeks were spent reducing the last major fortress to the south of Antioch, then Raymond led the army southward on13 January Seeing him leave, Robert of Normandy and Tancred immediately followed. Godfrey and Robert of Flanders left at the end of February, not wanting to admit that Raymond was their leader. Bohemond refused to budge from Antioch. Arqa never fell. Raymond kept the army at the siege another month, but at last on 13 May 1099, he reluctantly moved on. The emir of Tripoli sent gifts and kept his city safe. Palestine was under the control of the Fatimids of Egypt and they did not keep troops to guard the province, so the Crusaders passed onward in safety. Beirut, Tyre, Acre, none of these cities offered any resistance and the Crusaders did not try to attack. They turned inland at Jaffa and passed through Ramleh on June 3rd. Emissaries from Bethlehem met the army there and persuaded Tancred to come liberate that Christian town from the Turks. He complied and was back the next day. The army had now been reduced slightly by the departure of Baldwin to Edessa and more substantially by Bohemond and his Normans to Antioch. Even so, the Crusaders were well over ten thousand, perhaps as many as twenty thousand. The petty emirs along the route generally yielded, agreeing to pay some sort of tribute money. They ran into trouble, though, at Arqa, a town about fifteen miles from Tripoli, which refused to surrender. Godfrey and Robert joined the Crusade again there, but even with the additional men, the city held. The siege of Arqa had lasted from 14 February until 5 April 1099, when Peter Bartholomew had another vision, in which St. Andrew said that the city must be taken by storm at once. Now at last, his doubters openly challenged him, declaring he was a fraud and so was the Holy Lance. Peter was furious and demanded to be tested by an ordeal by fire. If he was a fake, he himself obviously believed his visions were genuine. On 8 April 1099, the ordeal was held. Logs were lined up in two parallel rows and were set alight. Peter, holding the Lance high, jumped into the fire and moments later came out the other end. He was terribly burned. He teetered at the edge of the flames and would have fallen back in had not a friend held him up. For twelve days Peter Bartholomew lay in agony, then he died. Those who still believed in him claimed he had gone through unscathed but had been pushed back into the fire. Raymond still kept the Holy Lance. But much of the army believed it was not genuine. The main army moved out on 6 June 1099 and camped at Jerusalem on the 7th. The Egyptian commander had

49 made sure the city was well-stocked and had expelled all the Christians from the city. He poisoned the wells around the city and settled in to await rescue from Egypt. The Crusaders numbered about 1500 knights and foot soldiers, an army that the Egyptians could easily overwhelm if they chose. The Crusaders invested the city, but without siege engines they were unable to do anything effective. The walls were too strong to take by storm, and there was no one on the inside who might betray the city. A general assault on 12 June failed with heavy losses. They had to have siege engines. Jerusalem is in the middle of a desert. It was over twenty miles to the nearest forests, but the Crusaders had no choice. Robert of Flanders and Tancred went to Samaria and began the work of cutting timber. The process took weeks. News came in early July that the Egyptians were at last on the move; the army had maybe a month before they arrived. Acting in accordance with yet another vision, this one of Bishop Adhemar himself, the priests ordered a fast for the whole army. Following the fast, on July 8th, the entire army marched in solemn procession around the walls of Jerusalem. The Muslims watching from the walls mocked the Christians, for they were all dressed as penitents and were singing psalms. After the circuit, the army assembled on the Mount of Olives, where Peter the Hermit preached to them, followed by Raymond of Aguilers, then by Arnulf Malecorne. It was a moving experience for everyone. The next two days were spent preparing the three siege towers. On 10 July 1099, they were rolled into place. They began to bombard the walls. The assault was set for the night of 14 July. All of the 14th was spent simply getting close enough to the walls to attack effectively. Raymond commanded one tower, but he was unable to gain a foothold. Godfrey commanded a second tower (the third was smaller and was used only as a diversion). About mid-day on the 15th, they were able to make a bridge from this tower to the wall. Two Flemish knights--letold and Gilbert of Tournai-were first across. They were followed closely by Godfrey. As they secured a section of the wall, the Lorrainers were able to bring up scaling ladders, and Tancred was able to follow. Godfrey fought his way to the Gate of the Column to open it to the main army. Tancred meanwhile worked his way toward the Temple and the Dome of the Rock. The Fatimid commander surrendered to Tancred, and his banner was set on top of the mosque. As the defense collapsed on the north side of the city, Raymond was able at last to break in on the south side. He occupied the Tower of David, next to the Jaffa Gate. The city had fallen, but the fighting went on into the night. There now began an orgy of killing. The Crusaders went on a rampage, killing everyone they met. They went into houses and dragged out the inhabitants to kill them. They stole everything they found. The princes lost all control. Muslim refugees had taken refuge in the Dome of the Rock, the mosque of al-aqsa, the one Tancred had taken. Despite his banner flying above, on the morning of the 16 July 1099, a group of Crusaders broke in and slaughtered everyone inside. Similarly, the Jews of the city fled to their synagogue, only to have the Crusaders set it on fire, killing everyone. The chroniclers tell of streets running with blood and of horses splashing blood up onto their riders' leggings. Order returned on 17 July, not so much because the commanders regained control as there was simply no one left to kill. All the Jews of Jerusalem were dead. All the Muslims were dead. The Christians had been expelled before the siege began. The city was empty of all save its conquerors. The western sources are briskly unapologetic in their descriptions of the carnage, indicating that the chroniclers were no more dismayed than were the perpetrators. But the Muslim world would never forget or forgive the Crusaders' behavior. Jerusalem was a holy city to the Muslims as much as it was to the Christians. The looting of sacred shrines and the slaughter of innocents confirmed the general Muslim opinion that the Westerners were savage barbarians with no faith at all save in blood and wealth. The commanders met that Sunday, the 17th, to discuss plans. They gave orders to have the streets cleared of corpses and for the return of local Christians. The question of who should rule in Jerusalem was broached at this meeting, seemingly for the first time. No one could agree on who should be chosen as Patriarch and that decision was postponed. The leading candidates for a governor were Raymond and Godfrey. The barons first offered to Raymond, who refused, saying that only Christ could be king in Jerusalem. They made the same offer to Godfrey, who showed an unexpected cleverness. He too declined the title of king, but he accepted the offer, taking as his title "Advocate of the Holy Sepulcher". The title of advocatus was a traditional one in northern France. An advocate was one who was given authority over a town or region by its overlord. The advocate acted on his lord's behalf until such time as the lord should return in person. Godfrey was thus able to lay claim to all the temporal authority of being a ruler of Jerusalem without threatening the theoretical superiority of the Church. Raymond was furious. He holed up in the Tower of David and refused to yield it. He was finally persuaded to give it into the care of a bishop, but as soon as he moved out, the bishop turned it over to Godfrey. Raymond was now sure that everyone was conspiring against him. He left Jerusalem, never to return. Crusader "states" after the fall of Jerusalem: With Raymond gone, Arnulf Malecorne was now chosen as Patriarch of Jerusalem. He was not a particularly good choice. Most of the army liked him, but he banned all rites at the Holy Sepulcher except the Latin, alienating the local Christians, and his moral reputation was not good. Still, Jerusalem now had its leaders. The First Crusade had been a tremendous success. It was to be the only crusade to succeed in its objectives.

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52 Married circa 1100: Ide=Ade de Hainaut,, daughter of Baudouin II, Count de Hainaut and Alix=Ide de Louvain (Ade was Thomas I's first wife). Married circa 1110: Mélisende de Crécy,, daughter of Guy II, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Élizabeth=Adélaïde de Crécy (Mélisende was Thomas I's third wife). Died: in 1130 at Boves, Somme, Picardie, France (Abbott, Page 114.). 81. Mélisende7 de Crécy (André Roux: Scrolls, 165, 182.) (Stuart, Page 4, Line 5-30.). Married Name: de Coucy. AKA: Mélisende de Montaigu (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 181.). Born: before 1086 at France, daughter of Guy II, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Élizabeth=Adélaïde de Crécy, Mélisende is presumed to have been born before her father was 50 years of age. Married circa 1110: Thomas I, Sire de Coucy,, son of Enguérrand I, Seigneur de Coucy and Adèle=Ade, de Roucy (Mélisende was Thomas I's third wife). Died: after Raoul I, Seigneur 7 de Beaugency (André Roux: Scrolls, 112, 196.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 4-30.). Born: before 1075 at Orléanais, France, son of Lancelin=Landry II, Seigneur de Beaugency and Alberge N?, Raoul I was alive in the year 1096, and is presumed to have been born before his father was 50 years of age. Married circa 1108 at France: Mahaud=Mathilde, Countess de Vermandois,, daughter of Hughes, Count de Vermandois and Adèle, Countess de Vermandois. Died: in 1130 Abbott indicates that Raoul died circa 1118 (Abbott, Page 94.). 83. Mahaud=Mathilde, Countess7 de Vermandois (André Roux: Scrolls, 112, 196.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 4-30.). Married Name: de Beaugency. Born: in 1080 at Vermandois, Haute Picardie, France, daughter of Hughes, Count de Vermandois and Adèle, Countess de Vermandois. Married circa 1108 at France: Raoul I, Seigneur de Beaugency,, son of Lancelin=Landry II, Seigneur de Beaugency and Alberge N? Died: on 12 Feb 1131 at Sussex, England.

53 84. Louis VI, King7 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 94, 119.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Hallam, Page 114.) (von Redlich, Page 64.). Also Known As: Louis "Le Gros." Note - between 1081 and 1137 at France: King of France ( ), Louis VI began to take over the military leadership in 1100 after having been named successor to the French Crown by Philippe I, his father. However, he quarreled frequently with his father, so much so, that he had to seek refuge in England by the end of that year (it is also said that his step-mother, Bertrade d'anjou, tried to poison him). To reconcile Louis and his step-mother, Philippe I gave Louis Pontoise and the Vexin in appanage in Louis held his own against Henry I of England, Duke of Normandy and the count of Blois. With support from the clergy, he forced the barons and the French princes into line assuring the growth of the monarchy. The removal of the Montlhéry family made Paris safer. The defeat of other castellans such as Humbert of Saint-Sévère in 1107 opened up the way to the Loire. The king's power thus increased. In 1106, Henry I of England (William the Conqueror's youngest son) captured Normandy from the relatively ineffectual Robert Curthose his brother. Initially Louis, with the support of the Count of Anjou and the Count of Blois was successful against the English theft. But Theobald of Blois switched his support to Henry who also had the support of castellans such as Guy of Rochefort, Hugh du Puiset and Hugh, Count of Troyes. Louis defeated the castellans in the field but was pushed back by Henry. Louis repelled the German invasion of 1124, but was less successful in Flanders in Though vigorous and active in his youth, his tendency towards obesity and gluttony made him so fat that by the time he was 46 years old he could no longer get on a horse. Shortly after Louis' death in 1137, Éléonor of Aquitaine became his ward and married his son and successor Louis VII. Through his second wife, he had six sons and a daughter, in addition to nine illegitimate children produced through Louis' many liaisons. The king's principal preoccupation for most of his reign was the domination of the castellan families of the Ile-de-France. The two most notorious struggles were against Thomas of Marle and Hugh du Puiset. Before his accession, the King had fought the lords of Montmorency and Beaumont and Ebles, Count of Roucy. In 1109, he reduced Péronne and granted it to the House of Vermandois. In 1113, a peace was signed in which Louis recognized Henry's suzerainty over Maine and Brittany. In 1117, he took the county of Amiens from local castellans and gave it to Enguerrand de Roucy. February through March 1118 saw the beginning of Louis' campaign in the Vexin. The royal troops lay siege to the castle of the treacherous and devastating Louis Puiset (who had been previously captured and incarcerated in the tower of Château-Landon, but whom Louis had released believing in Louis Puiset's loyalty oath). In September Louis takes Laigle, previously held by Richer, an ally of King Henry is a year marked by successes and failures. Louis conquers Les Andelys, from the domain of Geoffroi, Archbishop of Rouen and Dangu. The sporadic fighting ended in 1119 when Louis' armies were crushed by Henry I's forces in the Battle of Brémule. On 20 August, King Henry I of England assembles a massive force in the plains of Brémule near Noyon-sur-l'Andelle. The French knights are beaten and Louis finds himself alone, gets lost in the woods and finally is helped by a peasant to get to Les Andelys. In October, 1119, the situation is so bad for Louis that he calls upon the Pope (Calixte II) for help. The Pope admonishes King Henry in such a lame fashion that some English historians would assert that Henry had succeeded in bribing the Pope. In 1120, King Henry and Louis sign a truce, and the only thing Louis gets from it is the homage of the successor to the English Throne, William Adelin, for the Duchy of Normandie. Unfortunately a few days later, the ship which was bringing William back to England -- The White Nef, also known as the White Ship, flounders and sinks. The only survivor is a butcher from Rouen. This accident allows Louis to nominate the son of Robert Courteheuse -- William Clito -- for the Normand succession. In 1123, with the full support of Louis, the supporters of William Clito form a coalition against King Henry I of England -- they include Foulques d'anjou, Amaury de Montfort, Galeran de Meulan and the Lord of the Vexin. Henry I obtains the support of the Emperor Henry V who promises to invade France which he does in early August In 1126, Louis VI wins over Auvergne and Guillaume IX d'auvergne swears an oath of loyalty. On 13 February 1130 a Papal Schism results in two popes being elected: Innocent II and Pierre de Léon [elected three hours later] who adopts the name Anaclet II. Innocent II seeks refuge near the King de France. Not until 1130, when Thomas of Marle fell were the lands north of Paris really secure. To the south, the powerful castellans who often aligned themselves with the counts of Blois and the dukes of Normandy against the King, such as Peter of Maule, Guy the Red and his son Hugh de Crécy had many of their castles destroyed or confiscated. Negotiations overseen by Pope Calixtus II resulted in Louis receiving the homage of William, Henry I's heir and to cede Gisors to Henry. Louis was able to summon a far wider group of vassals to his aid than had his father. In his own lands, Louis VI was still the territorial prince fighting for control, striving to establish his ascendancy. In the rest of France, he was increasingly exercising his royal powers, defending the Church, calling vassals to his court, intervening outside his own direct sphere of influence as a response to appeals made to him. And while his presence was still not felt in many parts of France, his prestige and the prestige of the monarchy was growing. Born: on 1 Dec 1081 at France, son of Philippe I, King de France and Berthe de Hollande, Most sources indicate Louis VI was born in 1081, but von Redlich claims Louis VI was born between 1077 and Married in 1104 at France: Lucienne de Montlhéry,, daughter of Guy II, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Élizabeth=Adélaïde de Crécy. Divorced Lucienne de Montlhéry: on 23 May 1107 at France (The marriage was dissolved in 1107 by the Pope as not fitting the royal dignity). Married in 1115 at Maurienne, Savoie, France: Alix=Adélaïde de Maurienne,, daughter of Humbert II, Comte de Savoie and Gisle=Gisèle, Countess de Bourgogne (Louis VI was Alix's first husband). Died: on 1 Aug 1137 at Château Béthizy-Saint-Pierre, Paris, Seine, Ile-de-France, France, at age 55 Louis VI is buried at Saint Denis. 85. Alix=Adélaïde7 de Maurienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 119.) (Stuart, Page 91, Line ). Married Name: de France. AKA: Adèle=Alix de Savoie (André Roux: Scrolls, 94.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 351.). Born: circa 1092 at Maurienne, Savoie, France, daughter of Humbert II, Comte de Savoie and Gisle=Gisèle, Countess de Bourgogne. Married in 1115 at Maurienne, Savoie, France: Louis VI, King de France,, son of Philippe I, King de France and Berthe de Hollande (Louis VI was Alix's first husband). Married circa 1140: Mathieu I, Seigneur de Montmorency,, son of Bouchard IV, Lord de Montmorency and Agnès de Beaumont-sur-Oise. Married Name: de Montmorency. Died: on 18 Nov Guy, Seigneur7 de Braine (André Roux: Scrolls, 163.) (Stuart, Page 91, Line ) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 120.). AKA: Guy de Baudement. AKA: Guy, Comte de Braine-sur-la-Vesle. Born: before 1112, son of André, Seigneur de Baudement and Agnès de Braine, Guy is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Agnès was born. Married before 1130: Alix=Adélaïde N? Died: in 1142 at France Guy became a monk in Clairveaux in Alix=Adélaïde7 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 163.). Married Name: de Braine. Born: before 1115 at France Alix is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Agnès was born. Married before 1130: Guy, Seigneur de Braine,, son of André, Seigneur de Baudement and Agnès de Braine. Died: after 1144 Alix is named in a charter of Thibaud, Comte de Champagne dated 1144, as the widow of Guy, along with Thibaud and Waléran, Guy's brothers (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 120.). 88. Itier7 de Vitry (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:24 Hours.). AKA: Gonthier, Count de Rethel. Born: before 1112, son of Eudes, Châtelain de Vitry and Matilda, Countess de Rethel, Itier is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter, Béatrix, was born. Married before 1130: Béatrix de Namur,, daughter of Godefroy, Comte de Namur and Ermesende de Luxembourg. Died: in Béatrix7 de Namur. Married Name: de Rethel. Married Name: de Vitry. Born: before 1115 at Belgium, daughter of Godefroy, Comte de Namur and Ermesende de Luxembourg, Béatrix is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her dauther, Béatrix was born. Married before 1130:

54 Itier de Vitry,, son of Eudes, Châtelain de Vitry and Matilda, Countess de Rethel. Died: in Conrad I, Wildgraf7 von Kyrburg. Born: before 1165 Conrad I is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Mathilde was born. Married circa 1168: N? de Bar,, daughter of Renaud I, Comte de Bar-le-Duc and Gisle=Gisèle de Vaudémont. 91. N?7 de Bar. Married Name: von Kyrburg. Born: between 1122 and 1126 at France, daughter of Renaud I, Comte de Bar-le-Duc and Gisle=Gisèle de Vaudémont. Married circa 1168: Conrad I, Wildgraf von Kyrburg. 92. Simon I, Seigneur7 de Broyes (Paul Theroff, posts, 02 October 1994 at 22:39 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.) (Ibid., Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). AKA: Simon I, Seigneur de Beaufort (Ibid., Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Pages 199, 277.). AKA: Simon I, Seigneur de Baye (Ibid., Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). AKA: Simon I, Seigneur de Trie-le-Bardoul (Ibid.). Born: before 1093, son of Hughes II dit "Bardoul", Seigneur de Broyes and Émmeline de Montlhéry, Simon is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time he became Seigneur de Charmentré. Married in 1110 at France: Félicité de Brienne,, daughter of Gérard=Érard I, Count de Brienne and Alix de Roucy (Simon was Félicité's first husband. Félicité and Simon I founded the monastery de Sainte-Marie-de-Basse-Fontaine at Andrécies, near Baye, where they put the religious taken from the Abbey de Juilly) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.). AKA: Simon I, Seigneur de Charmentré (Ibid., Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). Died: between 1132 and 1141 Simon I was alive in the year 1136, according to E.S.; but, Abbott asserts that Simon died before According to the Dictionnaire, Simon I died circa 1141 (Abbott, Pages 69.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). 93. Félicité7 de Brienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 109, 143.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 02 October 1994 at 22:39 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.) (Ibid., Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). Married Name: de Broyes. AKA: Félicité, Dame de Raméru (Abbott, Page 82.). Married Name: de Joinville. AKA: Félicité de Brenne (M. de La Chenaye-desBois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). Born: before 1092 at Champagne, France, daughter of Gérard=Érard I, Count de Brienne and Alix de Roucy, Félicité is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age when she married Simon. Married in 1110 at France: Simon I, Seigneur de Broyes,, son of Hughes II dit "Bardoul", Seigneur de Broyes and Émmeline de Montlhéry (Simon was Félicité's first husband. Félicité and Simon I founded the monastery de Sainte-Marie-de-Basse-Fontaine at Andrécies, near Baye, where they put the religious taken from the Abbey de Juilly) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.). Married before 1141: Geoffroy III, Sire de Joinville,, son of Roger, Sire de Joinville and Aldéarde de Vignory (Geoffroy was Félicité's second husband) (Paul Theroff, posts, ed message, 6-Dec-96 at 22:16 hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.). Died: after 21 Jun Renaud V, Count7 de Joigny (Paul Theroff, posts, 20 May 1995 at 21:44 Hours.). AKA: Renaud IV, Seigneur de Château Renard (Abbott, Page 97.). Born: in 1137 at France, son of Renaud III, Comte de Joigny and Wandelmode de Beaujeu, Abbott calls Renaud V Renaud IV. Married before 1156 at France: Adèle de Nevers,, daughter of Guillaume III, Count de Nevers and Ide de Carinthie. Died: in Adèle7 de Nevers (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 20 May 1995 at 21:44 Hours.). Married Name: de Joigny. Born: between 1140 and 1142 at France, daughter of Guillaume III, Count de Nevers and Ide de Carinthie, Adèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her dauther, Agnès, was born. Married before 1156 at France: Renaud V, Count de Joigny,, son of Renaud III, Comte de Joigny and Wandelmode de Beaujeu. 96. Hughes VIII, Lord7 de Lusignan (André Roux: Scrolls, 84.) (Paul Theroff, posts, "Lusignan", Posted on 11 February 1994 at 09:07 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 423.). Also Known As: Hughes "Le Brun." Also Known As: Hughes "Le Vieux." Born: in 1110 at Poitou, France, son of Hughes VII, Sire de Lusignan and Sarrazine de Lezay. Married before 1143 at France: Bourgogne de Rancon,, daughter of Géoffroy de Rancon and Fossefie = Falsifie, Dame de Moncontour. PaterAlter before 1163 Hughes VIII, Lord de Lusignan/Hughes IX, Seigneur de Lusignan (an unknown value). Died: between 1165 and 1173 at Holy Land Some sources indicate Hughes VIII died in 1165 while others assert it was in Hughes VIII went on a crusade in Bourgogne7 de Rancon (André Roux: Scrolls, 84.). Married Name: de Lusignan. AKA: Bourgogne, Dame de Moncontour (Abbott, Page 415.). Born: before 1129 at France, daughter of Géoffroy de Rancon and Fossefie = Falsifie, Dame de Moncontour, Bourgogne is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Hughes IX was born. Married before 1143 at France: Hughes VIII, Lord de Lusignan,, son of Hughes VII, Sire de Lusignan and Sarrazine de Lezay. MaterAlter: before 1163 Hughes IX, Seigneur de Lusignan/Bourgogne de Rancon Guillaume IV, Count7 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 87, 125.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Marian Sampson [Prodigy ID# RTNL57A], posted in Subject "Fitzalan", 25 March 1997 at 04:36 Hours, citing "Voorouders in der Middeleeuwen" by Leo Lindemans.) (Abbott, Page 458.). Also Known As: Guillaume "Taillefer." AKA: Guillaume VI, Count d'aquitaine (Stuart, Page 114.). Born: before 1122, son of Wulgrin II/III, Count d'angoulême and Ponce de La Marche, Guillaume IV is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Wulgrin III, was born. Married in 1138 at Italy: Emma de Limoges,, daughter of Adhémar=Aymar IV, Viscount de Limoges and Graule, Dame d'angoulême (Emma was Guillaume IV/VI's first wife). Note - in 1140: Guillaume IV was Count in Married in 1150 at France: Marguerite de Turenne,, daughter of Raymond I, Vicomte de Turenne and Mathilde du Perche (Guillaume IV was Marguerite's third husband). Died: on 7 Aug 1179 at Mesina, Sicily, Italy, Guillaume IV/VI died during the Second Crusade Marguerite7 de Turenne (André Roux: Scrolls, 87, 125, 137.) (Stuart, Page 114, Line ). Married Name: d'angoulême. Married Name: de Limoges. Married Name: de Ventadour. Born: in 1117 at Turenne, Guyenne, France, daughter of Raymond I, Vicomte de Turenne and Mathilde du Perche ( 7 December 2008.). Married circa 1128 at France: Ebles III, Vicomte de Ventadour,, son of Ebles II, Vicomte de Ventadour and Alix de Montluçon (Marguerite was Ebles III's first wife). Married circa 1134: Aymar=Adhémar V/IV, Vicomte de Limoges,, son of Archambaud IV, Viscount de Comborn and Brunissende=Humberge de Limoges (Aymar IV was Marguerite's first husband). Married in 1150 at France: Guillaume IV, Count d'angoulême,, son of Wulgrin II/III, Count d'angoulême and Ponce de La Marche (Guillaume IV was Marguerite's third husband). Died: after 1160 at France.

55 102. Hughes II, Seigneur7 d'amboise (Paul Theroff, posts, "Lusignan" posted on 15 February 1994 at 14:08 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 158.). Born: before 1123 at France, son of Sulpice II, Seigneur d'amboise and Agnès de Donzy, Hughes II is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his daughter, Élizabeth, was born. Married before 1142: N? N? 103. N?7 N? Married before 1142: Hughes II, Seigneur d'amboise,, son of Sulpice II, Seigneur d'amboise and Agnès de Donzy Wulgrin II/III, Count 7 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 55, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Marian Sampson [Prodigy ID# RTNL57A], posted in Subject "Fitzalan", 25 March 1997 at 04:36 Hours, citing "Voorouders in der Middeleeuwen" by Leo Lindemans.) (Abbott, Page 458.). Also Known As: Wulgrin "Taillefer." Born: in 1089 at France, son of Guillaume III, Count d'angoulême and Vitapont, Dame de Benauges. Married before 1109 at France: Ponce de La Marche,, daughter of Roger de Montgommery and Almodis de La Marche. Married before 1135: Aimable de Châtellerault,, daughter of Aimery I, Vicomte de Châtellerault and Dangerose de l'isle-bouchard (Aimable was Vulgrin II's second wife). Died: on 16 Nov Ponce7 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 55, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ). Married Name: d'angoulême. AKA: Ponce, Lady of Lancaster. Born: before 1085 at Normandie, France, daughter of Roger de Montgommery and Almodis de La Marche. Married before 1109 at France: Wulgrin II/III, Count d'angoulême,, son of Guillaume III, Count d'angoulême and Vitapont, Dame de Benauges. Died: in Raymond I, Vicomte7 de Turenne (André Roux: Scrolls, 125, 211.) (Abbott, Page 438.). Born: circa 1080 at France, son of Boson I, Vicomte de Turenne and Gerberge de Terrasson. Married in 1105: Mathilde du Perche,, daughter of Geoffroy II, Comte de Mortagne and Béatrix de Roucy (Raymond I was Mathilde's first husband. Raymond I went on crusades in 1096). Died: between 1127 and Mathilde7 du Perche (André Roux: Scrolls, 125, 211.) (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). Married Name: de Turenne. Born: in 1085, daughter of Geoffroy II, Comte de Mortagne and Béatrix de Roucy ( 7 December 2008.). Married in 1105: Raymond I, Vicomte de Turenne,, son of Boson I, Vicomte de Turenne and Gerberge de Terrasson (Raymond I was Mathilde's first husband. Raymond I went on crusades in 1096). Born: in 1105 at Perche, Maine, France, daughter of Geoffroy II, Comte de Mortagne and Béatrix de Roucy (Stuart, Page 185.). Died: on 28 May 1143 at France Mathilde is buried at Arnac.

56 108. Louis VI, King7 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 94, 119.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Hallam, Page 114.) (von Redlich, Page 64.). Also Known As: Louis "Le Gros." Note - between 1081 and 1137 at France: King of France ( ), Louis VI began to take over the military leadership in 1100 after having been named successor to the French Crown by Philippe I, his father. However, he quarreled frequently with his father, so much so, that he had to seek refuge in England by the end of that year (it is also said that his step-mother, Bertrade d'anjou, tried to poison him). To reconcile Louis and his step-mother, Philippe I gave Louis Pontoise and the Vexin in appanage in Louis held his own against Henry I of England, Duke of Normandy and the count of Blois. With support from the clergy, he forced the barons and the French princes into line assuring the growth of the monarchy. The removal of the Montlhéry family made Paris safer. The defeat of other castellans such as Humbert of Saint-Sévère in 1107 opened up the way to the Loire. The king's power thus increased. In 1106, Henry I of England (William the Conqueror's youngest son) captured Normandy from the relatively ineffectual Robert Curthose his brother. Initially Louis, with the support of the Count of Anjou and the Count of Blois was successful against the English theft. But Theobald of Blois switched his support to Henry who also had the support of castellans such as Guy of Rochefort, Hugh du Puiset and Hugh, Count of Troyes. Louis defeated the castellans in the field but was pushed back by Henry. Louis repelled the German invasion of 1124, but was less successful in Flanders in Though vigorous and active in his youth, his tendency towards obesity and gluttony made him so fat that by the time he was 46 years old he could no longer get on a horse. Shortly after Louis' death in 1137, Éléonor of Aquitaine became his ward and married his son and successor Louis VII. Through his second wife, he had six sons and a daughter, in addition to nine illegitimate children produced through Louis' many liaisons. The king's principal preoccupation for most of his reign was the domination of the castellan families of the Ile-de-France. The two most notorious struggles were against Thomas of Marle and Hugh du Puiset. Before his accession, the King had fought the lords of Montmorency and Beaumont and Ebles, Count of Roucy. In 1109, he reduced Péronne and granted it to the House of Vermandois. In 1113, a peace was signed in which Louis recognized Henry's suzerainty over Maine and Brittany. In 1117, he took the county of Amiens from local castellans and gave it to Enguerrand de Roucy. February through March 1118 saw the beginning of Louis' campaign in the Vexin. The royal troops lay siege to the castle of the treacherous and devastating Louis Puiset (who had been previously captured and incarcerated in the tower of Château-Landon, but whom Louis had released believing in Louis Puiset's loyalty oath). In September Louis takes Laigle, previously held by Richer, an ally of King Henry is a year marked by successes and failures. Louis conquers Les Andelys, from the domain of Geoffroi, Archbishop of Rouen and Dangu. The sporadic fighting ended in 1119 when Louis' armies were crushed by Henry I's forces in the Battle of Brémule. On 20 August, King Henry I of England assembles a massive force in the plains of Brémule near Noyon-sur-l'Andelle. The French knights are beaten and Louis finds himself alone, gets lost in the woods and finally is helped by a peasant to get to Les Andelys. In October, 1119, the situation is so bad for Louis that he calls upon the Pope (Calixte II) for help. The Pope admonishes King Henry in such a lame fashion that some English historians would assert that Henry had succeeded in bribing the Pope. In 1120, King Henry and Louis sign a truce, and the only thing Louis gets from it is the homage of the successor to the English Throne, William Adelin, for the Duchy of Normandie. Unfortunately a few days later, the ship which was bringing William back to England -- The White Nef, also known as the White Ship, flounders and sinks. The only survivor is a butcher from Rouen. This accident allows Louis to nominate the son of Robert Courteheuse -- William Clito -- for the Normand succession. In 1123, with the full support of Louis, the supporters of William Clito form a coalition against King Henry I of England -- they include Foulques d'anjou, Amaury de Montfort, Galeran de Meulan and the Lord of the Vexin. Henry I obtains the support of the Emperor Henry V who promises to invade France which he does in early August In 1126, Louis VI wins over Auvergne and Guillaume IX d'auvergne swears an oath of loyalty. On 13 February 1130 a Papal Schism results in two popes being elected: Innocent II and Pierre de Léon [elected three hours later] who adopts the name Anaclet II. Innocent II seeks refuge near the King de France. Not until 1130, when Thomas of Marle fell were the lands north of Paris really secure. To the south, the powerful castellans who often aligned themselves with the counts of Blois and the dukes of Normandy against the King, such as Peter of Maule, Guy the Red and his son Hugh de Crécy had many of their castles destroyed or confiscated. Negotiations overseen by Pope Calixtus II resulted in Louis receiving the homage of William, Henry I's heir and to cede Gisors to Henry. Louis was able to summon a far wider group of vassals to his aid than had his father. In his own lands, Louis VI was still the territorial prince fighting for control, striving to establish his ascendancy. In the rest of France, he was increasingly exercising his royal powers, defending the Church, calling vassals to his court, intervening outside his own direct sphere of influence as a response to appeals made to him. And while his presence was still not felt in many parts of France, his prestige and the prestige of the monarchy was growing. Born: on 1 Dec 1081 at France, son of Philippe I, King de France and Berthe de Hollande, Most sources indicate Louis VI was born in 1081, but von Redlich claims Louis VI was born between 1077 and Married in 1104 at France: Lucienne de Montlhéry,, daughter of Guy II, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Élizabeth=Adélaïde de Crécy. Divorced Lucienne de Montlhéry: on 23 May 1107 at France (The marriage was dissolved in 1107 by the Pope as not fitting the royal dignity). Married in 1115 at Maurienne, Savoie, France: Alix=Adélaïde de Maurienne,, daughter of Humbert II, Comte de Savoie and Gisle=Gisèle, Countess de Bourgogne (Louis VI was Alix's first husband). Died: on 1 Aug 1137 at Château Béthizy-Saint-Pierre, Paris, Seine, Ile-de-France, France, at age 55 Louis VI is buried at Saint Denis Alix=Adélaïde7 de Maurienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 119.) (Stuart, Page 91, Line ). Married Name: de France. AKA: Adèle=Alix de Savoie (André Roux: Scrolls, 94.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 351.). Born: circa 1092 at Maurienne, Savoie, France, daughter of Humbert II, Comte de Savoie and Gisle=Gisèle, Countess de Bourgogne. Married in 1115 at Maurienne, Savoie, France: Louis VI, King de France,, son of Philippe I, King de France and Berthe de Hollande (Louis VI was Alix's first husband). Married circa 1140: Mathieu I, Seigneur de Montmorency,, son of Bouchard IV, Lord de Montmorency and Agnès de Beaumont-sur-Oise. Married Name: de Montmorency. Died: on 18 Nov Renaud, Seigneur7 de Château Renard (André Roux: Scrolls, 120.) (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). AKA: Reginald de Courtenay (Paul Theroff, posts, 11 February 1995 at 23:21 Hours.). Born: circa 1100 at Courtenay, Orléanais, France, son of Miles, Sire de Courtenay and Ermengarde de

57 Nevers. Married in 1111 at France: Hedwige du Donjon,, daughter of Frédéric du Donjon and N? N? Note - in 1150: Renaud was exiled from France in Married before 1188: Mary FitzRobert,, daughter of Robert FitzEdith and Mathilde d'avranches (Maud = Mary was Renaud's second wife). Died: between 1189 and 1190 at England Renaud settled in Sutton, Berkshire. Abbott claims Renaud died in 1160, but that is at variance with other sources (Abbott, Page 100.) Hedwige7 du Donjon (André Roux: Scrolls, 120.) (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). Married Name: de Courtenay. Born: before 1101 at Seine-etOise, France, daughter of Frédéric du Donjon and N? N?, Hedwige is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Renaud. Married in 1111 at France: Renaud, Seigneur de Château Renard,, son of Miles, Sire de Courtenay and Ermengarde de Nevers. Died: after 1155 Hedwige was alive in the years 1148 and Guillaume7 d'aubigny (Paul Theroff, posts, "9th/10th Centy.Kings" Posted on 22 February 1994 at 23:38 Hours.). AKA: William, First Earl of Arundel. AKA: William de Albini (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Kathryn Tolliver [Prodigy ID# MUVZ44A], posted under Subject "Plantagenet/Fitzalan" 8 May 1996 at 22:08 Hours, Citing a pedigree she purchased at Arundel Castle.). AKA: William II d'aubigni (K.S.B. Keats-Rohan (Ed.), Family Trees and the Roots of Politics: The Prosopography of Britain and France from the Tenth to the Twelfth Century, ISBN: , (Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer, Inc., 1997), van Houts, Elisabeth.: Chapter 6: "Wace as Historian", Page 118.). Born: before 1111, son of William d'aubigny and Cecily Bigod, Guillaume is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his daughter, Alice, was born. Married before 1128: Adélaïde de Louvain,, daughter of Godefroy I, Duke de Lorraine and Ide de Namur (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Kathryn Tolliver [Prodigy ID# MUVZ44A], posted under Subject "Plantagenet/Fitzalan" 8 May 1996 at 22:08 Hours, Citing a pedigree she purchased at Arundel Castle.). Note circa 1165: William II granted the Church of Redmile [Leicester] to Belvoir Priory "with the assent of Cecily, my mother" (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Moore, John S.: Chapter 9: "Prosographical Problems of English 'Libri Vitae' ", Page 175.). Died: either 1168 or 1176 Guillaume II held Bougy and Danvou [Calvados], lands of Bayeux. van Houts indicates that William II died in 1176, biut Moore indicates he died in 1168 (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, van Houts, Elisabeth.: Chapter 6: "Wace as Historian", Page 118.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Moore, John S.: Chapter 9: "Prosographical Problems of English 'Libri Vitae' ", Page 175.) Adélaïde7 de Louvain (André Roux: Scrolls, 264.). Married Name: de Ville. AKA: Adèle de Brabant. AKA: Adélaïde de Lorraine (Paul Theroff, posts, "9th/10th Centy.Kings" Posted on 22 February 1994 at 23:38 Hours.). Married Name: d'aubigny. Born: circa 1103 at Louvain, Leeuwen, Brabant, Belgium, daughter of Godefroy I, Duke de Lorraine and Ide de Namur. Married on 29 Jan 1121: Henry I, King of England,, son of Guillaume, Duke de Normandie and Mathilde=Maud de Flandre (Adélaïde was Henri I's second wife and he was her first husband. At 15 years of age, she therefore married this 50-year old widower. Perhaps understandably, her true passion was said to be needlework). Married before 1128: Guillaume d'aubigny,, son of William d'aubigny and Cecily Bigod (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Kathryn Tolliver [Prodigy ID# MUVZ44A], posted under Subject "Plantagenet/Fitzalan" 8 May 1996 at 22:08 Hours, Citing a pedigree she purchased at Arundel Castle.). Married before 1149: Gilbert, Chevalier de Ville (It is unclear whether Gilbert was Adélaïde's second or third husband. Some sources indicate she bore her second husband some 7 children, and his name was Albini). Died: on 23 Apr 1151 at Afflighem, Flandre, Belgium, Adélaïde was 48 years of age when she died. Some sources [via Kathryn Tolliver] indicate Adeliza de Louvain, who was the widow of Henri I and married Guillaume d'aubigny/de Albini, died in 1176 (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.) James7 de Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët. Born: circa 1110 (Ibid.). Married before 1125: Aveline (--?--). Died: in 1154 (Ibid.) Aveline7 (--?--). Married Name: de Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët. Born: circa 1110 (Ibid.). Married before 1125: James de Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët Gilbert7 de Clare (Paul Theroff, posts, 20 December 1994 at 13:47 Hours.). AKA: Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke Gilbert was created Earl of Pembroke in 1138 (von Redlich, Page 223.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Bur, Michel: Chapter 15: "De quelques champenois dans l'entourage français des rois d'angleterre aux XIe et XIIe siècles", Page 342.). Born: in Sep 1100 at England, son of Gilbert, Seigneur de Clare and Adélise de Clermont-enBeauvaisis (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.). Married before 1129: Isabelle de Beaumont,, daughter of Robert, Seigneur de Beaumont-le-Roger and Élizabeth=Isabelle de Vermandois. Died: on 14 Sep 1148 (von Redlich, Page 223.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.) Isabelle7 de Beaumont (Paul Theroff, posts, 20 December 1994 at 13:47 Hours.). Married Name: de Clare. Married Name: de Montmorency. AKA: Elizabeth de Meulan (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Bur, Michel: Chapter 15: "De quelques champenois dans l'entourage français des rois d'angleterre aux XIe et XIIe siècles", Page 342.). Born: between 1096 and 1101 at Leicester, Leicestershire, England, daughter of Robert, Seigneur de Beaumont-le-Roger and Élizabeth=Isabelle de Vermandois (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.). Significant-Other: Henry I, King of England before 1097 at England - Isabel was a mistress [presumably, or concubine] of King Henri I. Married before 1129: Gilbert de Clare,, son of Gilbert, Seigneur de Clare and Adélise de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Married circa 1149: Hervé de Montmorency (Isabelle was the widow of Gilbert when she married Hervé). Died: after Dermod, King of7 Leinster (O'Hart, Page 556, #113.). AKA: Diarmaid Mac Murrough (John O'Donovan, (Ed.), Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Four Masters (New York: AMS Press Inc. for Hodges, Smith, & Co., 1966), Vol. 2, Page 862.). AKA: Dermod MacMorough (O'Hart, Page 556, #113.). Also Known As: Diarmuid "na-ngall" (- 'of the Foreigners') (O'Hart, Page 556, #113; Page 511, #115.). Born: between 1110 and 1111 at Leinster, Ireland, son of Donoch, King of Leinster and N? N? (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert L. Brooks, Prodigy ID [dkbm63a], message, 11 February 1998 at 11:12 Hours.). AKA: Diarmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster (Moody, New History of Ireland, pages 134, 149.). Married circa 1130 at Of Lough Carmen, County Wexford, Leinster, Ireland: Mór, Princess Muirceartach,, daughter of Muirceartach, King of the UiMuirceartaigh and Inghin O'Byrne. Note - between 1135 and 1166: Dermod became the 58th. Christian King of Leinster in In 1153 he carried off Dearvolga, daghter of O'Melaghlin, the last King of Meath, and the wife of O'Ruark, Prince of Brefney. In 1166, Dermod was deposed by the Monarch Roderick O'Connor, aided by Tiernan O'Ruarc, Prince of West Brefni. Died: on 1 May 1171 at Ferns, Leinster, Ireland Mór, Princess7 Muirceartach (O'Hart, Vol. 1, Page 482, #113.). Married Name: Leinster. AKA: More O'Toole. Born: circa 1114 at Leinster, Ireland, daughter of Muirceartach, King of the Ui-Muirceartaigh and Inghin O'Byrne. Married circa 1130 at Of Lough Carmen, County Wexford, Leinster, Ireland: Dermod, King of Leinster,, son of Donoch, King of Leinster and N? N? Died: in 1191.

58 --- 8th Generation Fastré II8 d'oisy (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Stuart, Page 32, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 22 April 1994 at 01:39 hours.) (M. de La Chenayedes-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 538.). AKA: Fastre, Steward de Doornick. Born: in 1075 at France, son of Fastre d'oisy and Adé=Ide d'avesnes ( Married before 1090: Richilde N? Died: in 1111 at Belgium Fastre was alive in January Richilde8 N? (Stuart, Page 32, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 22 April 1994 at 01:39 hours.). Married Name: d'oisy. Born: in 1080 at France ( Married before 1090: Fastré II d'oisy,, son of Fastre d'oisy and Adé=Ide d'avesnes Évrard I, Duke8 de Mortagne-sur-l'Éscaut (Stuart, Page 32, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 22 April 1994 at 01:39 hours.). AKA: Éverard I Radulf, Burggrave de Doornick. AKA: Éverard I, Seigneur de Mortagne-du-Nord (Abbott, Page 298.). AKA: Radulf, Burggrave de Doornick. AKA: Évrard, Châtelain de Tournay (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 538.). Born: before 1067 at Hainaut, Belgium, son of Alard I van Peteghem and N? N? Married before 1090: Francka N? Died: after 1112 (Abbott, Page 298.). PaterAlter before 1116 Évrard I, Duke de Mortagne-sur-l'Éscaut/Éverard II Radulf, Burggrave de Doornick (an unknown value) (Ibid.) Francka8 N? (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 September 1994 at 02:04 Hours.). Married Name: de Doornick. Born: before 1075 Francka is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her dauther, Ide, was born. Married before 1090: Évrard I, Duke de Mortagne-sur-l'Éscaut,, son of Alard I van Peteghem and N? N? MaterAlter: before 1116 Éverard II Radulf, Burggrave de Doornick/Francka N? (Abbott, Page 298.) Albert III, Count8 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 197.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). Born: circa 1030 at Belgium, son of Albert II, Count de Namur and Relinde de Lorraine. Married between 1065 and 1066: Ide=Relinde de Saxe,, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Bertrade, Princess of Norway (Albert III was Ide's second husband). PaterAlter before 1083 Albert III, Count de Namur/Ide de Namur (an unknown value). Died: in Ide=Relinde8 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 197.) (Stuart, Page 151, Line ). AKA: Ide de Laroche Ide was the heiress of Laroche. Married Name: de Namur. MaterAlter: Elica von Schweinfürt/Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Born: before 1052, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Bertrade, Princess of Norway, Ide is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Godefroy was born. Some sources indicate that Elica von Scheinfurt was Ide's mother. Married before 1064: Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg (He was Ide's first husband). Married between 1065 and 1066: Albert III, Count de Namur,, son of Albert II, Count de Namur and Relinde de Lorraine (Albert III was Ide's second husband). MaterAlter: before 1083 Ide de Namur/Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Died: on 31 Jul Henri I, Count8 de Limbourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 257.) (Stuart, Page 268, Line ). AKA: Henri I, Count d'arlon. AKA: Henry I, Duke de Lorraine Henry I was Duke of Lower Lorraine. Note -: Henry I was an adherent of Emperor Henry IV in his disputes with his son. André Roux refers to him as Henri II. Born: circa 1059 at Limbourg, Liège, Belgium, son of Waléran=Udo II, Count de Limbourg and Judith de Luxembourg, Henri I was alive

59 in the year Married in 1080: Adèle von Botenstein,, daughter of Boso von Botenstein and Judith von Schweinfürt. Died: in Adèle8 von Botenstein (Ibid.). AKA: Adèle d'arlon. Married Name: de Limbourg. Born: before 1065, daughter of Boso von Botenstein and Judith von Schweinfürt, Adèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time she married Henri I. Married in 1080: Henri I, Count de Limbourg,, son of Waléran=Udo II, Count de Limbourg and Judith de Luxembourg Godfrey, Signeur8 de Guise (Stuart, Page 21, Line ). Born: before 1093 Godfrey is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Guy was born. Married before 1107: Ada N? 137. Ada8 N? (Ibid.). Married Name: de Guise. Born: before 1093 Ada is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Guy was born. Married before 1107: Godfrey, Signeur de Guise. Died: after 1121 She is buried at the Monastery of Lesquilles Bouchard IV, Lord8 de Montmorency (André Roux: Scrolls, 184, 239.) (Stuart, Page 21, Line ). AKA: Bouchard IV, Seigneur d'éscalien. Born: before 1086 at France, son of Hervé de Montmorency and Agnès d'eu, Bouchard IV is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age when he was attacked by the King. Note - between 1101 and 1119: Bouchard IV was besieged in Montmorency in 1101 by the future King Louis VI because of his persecution of the Abbey of Saint Denis. In 1119, Bouchard IV was present with the King at the unsuccessful Battle of Brémule against the English King, Henry I (Abbott, Page 49.). Married before 1115: Agnès de Beaumont-sur-Oise,, daughter of Yves II/III, Count de Beaumont-sur-Oise and Adèle=Adélaïde de Gournay. Died: between 1130 and 1132 Bouchard IV was alive in the year Agnès8 de Beaumont-sur-Oise (André Roux: Scrolls, 184, 239.) (Stuart, Page 199, Line ). Married Name: de Montmorency. AKA: Agnès, Dame de Conflans-Sainte-Honorine ( Born: before 1083 at France, daughter of Yves II/III, Count de Beaumont-sur-Oise and Adèle=Adélaïde de Gournay. Married before 1115: Bouchard IV, Lord de Montmorency,, son of Hervé de Montmorency and Agnès d'eu. Died: after Baudouin III, Count8 de Hainaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 118.) (Abbott, Page 559.). Born: in 1088, son of Baudouin II, Count de Hainaut and Alix=Ide de Louvain. Married circa 1107: Yolande de Gueldre,, daughter of Gérard, Count von Wassenburg and Clémence, Comtesse de Longwy. Died: in 1120 (Abbott, Page 292.) Yolande8 de Gueldre (André Roux: Scrolls, 118.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). Married Name: de Hainaut. AKA: Yolande von Geldern. Born: before 1092, daughter of Gérard, Count von Wassenburg and Clémence, Comtesse de Longwy, Yolande is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age when she married Baudouin III. Married circa 1107: Baudouin III, Count de Hainaut,, son of Baudouin II, Count de Hainaut and Alix=Ide de Louvain. Died: circa Godefroy, Comte8 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 197, 200.) (Stuart, Page 92, Line ). AKA: Godefroi, Comte de Château-Porcien. AKA: Godfrey, Count de Dagsburg. Born: circa 1067 at Belgium, son of Albert III, Count de Namur and Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Married circa 1087: Sybille de Château-Porcien,, daughter of Roger, Comte de Château-Porcien and N? N? (Sybille was Godefroy's first wife). Annulled he and Sybille de ChâteauPorcien: circa 1100 (an unknown value). Married in 1101: Ermesende de Luxembourg,, daughter of Conrad I, Count de Luxembourg and Clémence, Comtesse de Longwy (Godefroy's marriage to Ermessende de Luxembourg represented his second and he was her second husband, and they both were alive in 1121). Died: on 19 Aug 1139 Godefroy is burried at Florette Ermesende8 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 197, 200.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 3-30.). Married Name: de Namur. AKA: Ermesinde de Longwy. Married Name: von Egisheim. Born: in 1075 at Luxembourg, daughter of Conrad I, Count de Luxembourg and Clémence, Comtesse de Longwy. Note - between 1086 and 1142: Ermesende was the heiress of Luxemburg and of Longwy. Married between 1092 and 1095: Adalbert II von Egisheim,, son of Henry I, Count von Egisheim and N? von Moka (Ermesinde was Adalbert II's second wife and he was her first husband). Married in 1101: Godefroy, Comte de Namur,, son of Albert III, Count de Namur and Ide=Relinde de Saxe (Godefroy's marriage to Ermessende de Luxembourg represented his second and he was her second husband, and they both were alive in 1121). Died: on 24 Jun 1143 at Belgium Some sources indicate that Ermesende died in Thierry, Duke8 d'alsace (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 169.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 23 January 1995 at 02:39 Hours.). AKA: Dietrich II, Duke de Lorraine. AKA: Dietrich II d'alsace. AKA: Thierry, Comte de Flandre By his marriage to Gertrude, Thierry became Comte de Flandre. His family would rule Flandre until 1191, when his daughter Marguerite married Baudouin V, Comte de Hainaut, and returned Flandre to the Hainaut line. Also Known As: Thierry "Le Vaillant" (Abbott, Page 541.). Note -: Thierry was Duke of the Upper Lorraine. Born: in 1060, son of Gérard IV, Count d'alsace and Hadvis=Hadwige de Namur. Married circa 1075: Hedwig von Formbach,, daughter of Frédérick von Formbach and Gertrude von Haldensleben (Hedwig married Thierry after her first husband, Gerhard von Supplinburg in the Herzgau was slain on 9 May She was his first wife. Hedwig was Thierry's first wife). Married between 1095 and 1096: Gertrude de Flandre,, daughter of Robert I, Count de Flandre and Gertrude de Saxe (Thierry was Gertrude's second husband, and she was his second wife) (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/genfiles/lor1.txt, on 07 April 1996 at 03:45 Hours.). Died: on 23 Jan 1115 Thierry is buried at Châtenois Gertrude8 de Flandre (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 169.) (Stuart, Page 152, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 292.). Married Name: de Louvain. Married Name: d'alsace. Born: circa 1070, daughter of Robert I, Count de Flandre and Gertrude de Saxe. Married before 1091: Henry III, Count de Louvain,, son of Henri II, Count de Louvain and Adèle=Alix de Turinge (Henry III was Gertrude's first husband and they had four daughters). Note - in 1093: Gertrude was the heiress of Flanders. Married between 1095 and 1096: Thierry, Duke d'alsace,, son of Gérard IV, Count d'alsace and Hadvis=Hadwige de Namur (Thierry was Gertrude's second husband, and she was his second wife) (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/genfiles/lor1.txt, on 07 April 1996 at 03:45 Hours.). Died: in Fouques V, King8 de Jérusalem (André Roux: Scrolls, 147, 241.) (Stuart, Page 37, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 10 July 1994 at 00:34 Hours.). Also Known As: Fouques "Le Jeune." Born: in 1092 at France, son of Fouques IV, Count d'anjou and Bertrade de Montfort. Married between 14 Apr 1108 and 11 Jul 1110: Éremburge, Countess du Maine,, daughter of Hélie, Seigneur de La Flèche and Mathilde, Dame de Château-du-Loir (Some sources indicate that Éremburge and Fouques V were married before 14 April 1109, while others claim they were married in 11 July 1110)

60 (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 2., Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales."). AKA: Foulques V, Comte du Maine ( AKA: Fouques V, Count d'anjou Fouques V spent much of his time trying to submit his vassals. In 1129, being widowed of Ermentrude, heiress du Maine, he was chosen to marry Mélisende, daughter of Baudouin II, King de Jérusalem. That same year, he handed over Anjou and Maine to his son, Geoffroy Plantagenêt. Fouques became King de Jérusalem, where he was succeeded by his sons of the second marriage (Ibid.) (Abbott, Page 144.). AKA: Foulques V, Comte de Tours ( Note - between 1128 and 1131: On 2 June 1128, the envoys of King Baudouin II of Jerusalem are sent to ask King Louis VI "Le Gros" de France, to name a prince, who by marrying the only daughter of their King, would one day reign on the Kingdom of Christ. King Louis VI named Foulques V. Fouques V became King of Jerusalem in Married on 2 Jun 1129: Mélisende de Rethel,, daughter of Baudouin II, King de Jérusalem and Malfia = Moraphia de Mélitène (Mélisende was Fouques V's second wife. By his marriage to Mélisende, Fouques V became King of Jerusalem). Buried: in 1143 at Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem, Holy Land. Died: on 10 Nov 1143 at Saint-Jean-d'Acre, Palestine, Holy Land, Fouques V is buried at the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem Éremburge, Countess8 du Maine (André Roux: Scrolls, 147, 241.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ) (Abbott, Page 130.). AKA: Ermentrude, Dame de Château-du-Loir (Abbott, Page 134.). Married Name: de Jérusalem. AKA: Éremburge de Mans. Born: circa 1096 at Maine, France, daughter of Hélie, Seigneur de La Flèche and Mathilde, Dame de Château-du-Loir. Married between 14 Apr 1108 and 11 Jul 1110: Fouques V, King de Jérusalem,, son of Fouques IV, Count d'anjou and Bertrade de Montfort (Some sources indicate that Éremburge and Fouques V were married before 14 April 1109, while others claim they were married in 11 July 1110) (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 2., Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales."). Note - in 1110: Éremburge was the heiress of Maine. Died: on 15 Jan Étienne dit Henri, Count8 de Champagne (André Roux: Scrolls, 121, 149.) (Stuart, Page 98, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 20 May 1995 at 21:50 Hours.). AKA: Étienne, Count de Chartres. AKA: Étienne, Count de Meaux. AKA: Étienne, Count de Brie. AKA: Étienne III, Count de Blois. Born: circa 1046, son of Thibaud III, Count de Blois and Gersende, Comtesse du Maine, Étienne's maternal parentage is in dispute with some sources indicating he was the son of Gundrada [Thibaut III's second wife] rather than Gersende [Thibaut III's first wife.]. MaterAlter: in 1046 Gundrada N?/Étienne dit Henri, Count de Champagne. Married before 1073 at Chartres, Eure-et-Loir, Orléanais, France: Alix=Adèle de Normandie,, daughter of Guillaume, Duke de Normandie and Mathilde=Maud de Flandre (Some sources indicate that Étienne and Alix were married in Alix appears to have controlled her husband (Étienne-Henri, Count de Blois and Meaux). When he went on a crusade in 1096, she was made his Regent. Although he returned fairly quickly, she sent him back again and he died overseas in 1102). Died: on 27 May 1102 at Ramleh, Holy Land, Slain at he Battle of Ramleh in 1102, Étienne (Henri) was also Count de Champagne and of Blois, Chartres and of Meaux. He participated in the Crusade in 1096, and through the urging of his wife (Adèle, daughter of William the Conqueror - a bastard), he went back and was killed overseas in 1102, leaving his younger son, Thibaud II to become the next Count Alix=Adèle8 de Normandie (André Roux: Scrolls, 121, 149, 231.) (Stuart, Page 58, Line ). Married Name: de Blois. Married Name: de Champagne. AKA: Adela, Princess of England. Born: between 1050 and 1051 at France, daughter of Guillaume, Duke de Normandie and Mathilde=Maud de Flandre. Married before 1073 at Chartres, Eure-et-Loir, Orléanais, France: Étienne dit Henri, Count de Champagne,, son of Thibaud III, Count de Blois and Gersende, Comtesse du Maine (Some sources indicate that Étienne and Alix were married in Alix appears to have controlled her husband (Étienne-Henri, Count de Blois and Meaux). When he went on a crusade in 1096, she was made his Regent. Although he returned fairly quickly, she sent him back again and he died overseas in 1102). Died: on 8 Mar 1138 at Marcigny-sur-Loire, Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France, Alix died a Nun at the Abbey of Marcigny.

61 154. Engilbert III, Duke8 de Carinthie (André Roux: Scrolls, 121.) (Stuart, Page 167, Line ). AKA: Engelbert III, Governor de Saint-Paul. AKA: Engelbert III, Count von Ortenburg. AKA: Engelbert II, Margrave of Istria. AKA: Engilbert III, Marquis de Friuli. AKA: Engelbert II von Sponheim (Ibid.). AKA: Egelbert II, Lord de Marquardstein. Born: before 1093, son of Engelbert I, Count von Sponheim and Hedwig von Flinsbach, Engilbert III is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Mahaud was born. Married before 1105: Uta, Lady von Passau,, daughter of Ulrich The Rich, Count von Passau and Adelheid von Fratenhausen. Died: in 1141 at Sean Engilbert III died a monk at Sean Uta, Lady8 von Passau (Stuart, Page 94, Line ). Married Name: de Carinthie. Born: before 1093, daughter of Ulrich The Rich, Count von Passau and Adelheid von Fratenhausen, Uta is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Mahaud was born. Married before 1105: Engilbert III, Duke de Carinthie,, son of Engelbert I, Count von Sponheim and Hedwig von Flinsbach. Died: in 1140 ( Louis VI, King8 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 94, 119.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Hallam, Page 114.) (von Redlich, Page 64.). Also Known As: Louis "Le Gros." Note - between 1081 and 1137 at France: King of France ( ), Louis VI began to take over the military leadership in 1100 after having been named successor to the French Crown by Philippe I, his father. However, he quarreled frequently with his father, so much so, that he had to seek refuge in England by the end of that year (it is also said that his step-mother, Bertrade d'anjou, tried to poison him). To reconcile Louis and his step-mother, Philippe I gave Louis Pontoise and the Vexin in appanage in Louis held his own against Henry I of England, Duke of Normandy and the count of Blois. With support from the clergy, he forced the barons and the French princes into line assuring the growth of the monarchy. The removal of the Montlhéry family made Paris safer. The defeat of other castellans such as Humbert of Saint-Sévère in 1107 opened up the way to the Loire. The king's power thus increased. In 1106, Henry I of England (William the Conqueror's youngest son) captured Normandy from the relatively ineffectual Robert Curthose his brother. Initially Louis, with the support of the Count of Anjou and the Count of Blois was successful against the English theft. But Theobald of Blois switched his support to Henry who also had the support of castellans such as Guy of Rochefort, Hugh

62 du Puiset and Hugh, Count of Troyes. Louis defeated the castellans in the field but was pushed back by Henry. Louis repelled the German invasion of 1124, but was less successful in Flanders in Though vigorous and active in his youth, his tendency towards obesity and gluttony made him so fat that by the time he was 46 years old he could no longer get on a horse. Shortly after Louis' death in 1137, Éléonor of Aquitaine became his ward and married his son and successor Louis VII. Through his second wife, he had six sons and a daughter, in addition to nine illegitimate children produced through Louis' many liaisons. The king's principal preoccupation for most of his reign was the domination of the castellan families of the Ile-de-France. The two most notorious struggles were against Thomas of Marle and Hugh du Puiset. Before his accession, the King had fought the lords of Montmorency and Beaumont and Ebles, Count of Roucy. In 1109, he reduced Péronne and granted it to the House of Vermandois. In 1113, a peace was signed in which Louis recognized Henry's suzerainty over Maine and Brittany. In 1117, he took the county of Amiens from local castellans and gave it to Enguerrand de Roucy. February through March 1118 saw the beginning of Louis' campaign in the Vexin. The royal troops lay siege to the castle of the treacherous and devastating Louis Puiset (who had been previously captured and incarcerated in the tower of Château-Landon, but whom Louis had released believing in Louis Puiset's loyalty oath). In September Louis takes Laigle, previously held by Richer, an ally of King Henry is a year marked by successes and failures. Louis conquers Les Andelys, from the domain of Geoffroi, Archbishop of Rouen and Dangu. The sporadic fighting ended in 1119 when Louis' armies were crushed by Henry I's forces in the Battle of Brémule. On 20 August, King Henry I of England assembles a massive force in the plains of Brémule near Noyon-sur-l'Andelle. The French knights are beaten and Louis finds himself alone, gets lost in the woods and finally is helped by a peasant to get to Les Andelys. In October, 1119, the situation is so bad for Louis that he calls upon the Pope (Calixte II) for help. The Pope admonishes King Henry in such a lame fashion that some English historians would assert that Henry had succeeded in bribing the Pope. In 1120, King Henry and Louis sign a truce, and the only thing Louis gets from it is the homage of the successor to the English Throne, William Adelin, for the Duchy of Normandie. Unfortunately a few days later, the ship which was bringing William back to England -- The White Nef, also known as the White Ship, flounders and sinks. The only survivor is a butcher from Rouen. This accident allows Louis to nominate the son of Robert Courteheuse -- William Clito -- for the Normand succession. In 1123, with the full support of Louis, the supporters of William Clito form a coalition against King Henry I of England -- they include Foulques d'anjou, Amaury de Montfort, Galeran de Meulan and the Lord of the Vexin. Henry I obtains the support of the Emperor Henry V who promises to invade France which he does in early August In 1126, Louis VI wins over Auvergne and Guillaume IX d'auvergne swears an oath of loyalty. On 13 February 1130 a Papal Schism results in two popes being elected: Innocent II and Pierre de Léon [elected three hours later] who adopts the name Anaclet II. Innocent II seeks refuge near the King de France. Not until 1130, when Thomas of Marle fell were the lands north of Paris really secure. To the south, the powerful castellans who often aligned themselves with the counts of Blois and the dukes of Normandy against the King, such as Peter of Maule, Guy the Red and his son Hugh de Crécy had many of their castles destroyed or confiscated. Negotiations overseen by Pope Calixtus II resulted in Louis receiving the homage of William, Henry I's heir and to cede Gisors to Henry. Louis was able to summon a far wider group of vassals to his aid than had his father. In his own lands, Louis VI was still the territorial prince fighting for control, striving to establish his ascendancy. In the rest of France, he was increasingly exercising his royal powers, defending the Church, calling vassals to his court, intervening outside his own direct sphere of influence as a response to appeals made to him. And while his presence was still not felt in many parts of France, his prestige and the prestige of the monarchy was growing. Born: on 1 Dec 1081 at France, son of Philippe I, King de France and Berthe de Hollande, Most sources indicate Louis VI was born in 1081, but von Redlich claims Louis VI was born between 1077 and Married in 1104 at France: Lucienne de Montlhéry,, daughter of Guy II, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Élizabeth=Adélaïde de Crécy. Divorced Lucienne de Montlhéry: on 23 May 1107 at France (The marriage was dissolved in 1107 by the Pope as not fitting the royal dignity). Married in 1115 at Maurienne, Savoie, France: Alix=Adélaïde de Maurienne,, daughter of Humbert II, Comte de Savoie and Gisle=Gisèle, Countess de Bourgogne (Louis VI was Alix's first husband). Died: on 1 Aug 1137 at Château Béthizy-Saint-Pierre, Paris, Seine, Ile-de-France, France, at age 55 Louis VI is buried at Saint Denis Alix=Adélaïde8 de Maurienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 119.) (Stuart, Page 91, Line ). Married Name: de France. AKA: Adèle=Alix de Savoie (André Roux: Scrolls, 94.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 351.). Born: circa 1092 at Maurienne, Savoie, France, daughter of Humbert II, Comte de Savoie and Gisle=Gisèle, Countess de Bourgogne. Married in 1115 at Maurienne, Savoie, France: Louis VI, King de France,, son of Philippe I, King de France and Berthe de Hollande (Louis VI was Alix's first husband). Married circa 1140: Mathieu I, Seigneur de Montmorency,, son of Bouchard IV, Lord de Montmorency and Agnès de Beaumont-sur-Oise. Married Name: de Montmorency. Died: on 18 Nov Guillaume X, Duke8 d'aquitaine (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 66, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 303.). AKA: Guillaume VIII, Count de Poitou (Abbott, Page 402.). AKA: Guillaume, Duke de Normandie. Born: in 1099, son of Guillaume VII, Comte de Poitou and Philippes=Mahaut, Countess de Toulouse. Married in 1121: Éléonore de Châtellerault,, daughter of Aimery I, Vicomte de Châtellerault and Dangerose de l'isle-bouchard. Married before 1137 at France: Emma de Limoges,, daughter of Aymar III, Vicomte de Limoges and Umberge d'angoulême (Emma was Guillaume VIII/X's second wife). Died: on 9 Apr 1137 at Galice, Spain, Guillaume X died on a pilgrimage to San Iago de Composterba Éléonore8 de Châtellerault (Stuart, Page 116, Line ). Married Name: d'aquitaine. Born: circa 1105 at Châtellerault, Vienne, France, daughter of Aimery I, Vicomte de Châtellerault and Dangerose de l'isle-bouchard. Married in 1121: Guillaume X, Duke d'aquitaine,, son of Guillaume VII, Comte de Poitou and Philippes=Mahaut, Countess de Toulouse. Died: after Mar 1130.

63 Coat of Arm associated with Enguérrand I, Seigneur de Coucy.

64 160. Enguérrand I, Seigneur8 de Coucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 165.) (Stuart, Page 22, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 03 May 1994 at 14:25 hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 181.). AKA: Enguerrand de La Fère (Abbott, Page 36.). AKA: Enguérrand I, Baron de Boves (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 181.). AKA: Enguérrand I, Count d'amiens (Ibid.). Born: circa 1042 at Coucy, Ile-de-France, France, son of Dreux, Seigneur de Boves and Adèle de Coucy. Married before 1073: Adèle=Ade, de Roucy,, daughter of Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle and Mahaut N? (Adèle was Enguérrand I's first wife. Through this marriage, Enguérrand I came into possession of lands de Marle, de La Fere, and de Vervins). Married before 1116: Sibylle de Porcéan,,

65 daughter of Roger de Porcéan and N? N? (Sibylle was Enguérrand I's second wife. She tried to have her stepson, Thomas de Marle assassinated. However, he, in turn, became a hardened character) (Abbott, Page 36.). Died: in 1116 Most sources indicate Enguerrand died in 1116, but Abott shows the year as 1118 (Abbott, Page 114.) Adèle=Ade,8 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 165.) (Stuart, Page 4, Line 6-31.). AKA: Adèle, Dame de Marle. AKA: Adé, Dame de La Fère (Abbott, Page 121.). Married Name: de Coucy. Born: before 1058 at Champagne, France, daughter of Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle and Mahaut N?, Adèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Thomas I was born. Married before 1073: Enguérrand I, Seigneur de Coucy,, son of Dreux, Seigneur de Boves and Adèle de Coucy (Adèle was Enguérrand I's first wife. Through this marriage, Enguérrand I came into possession of lands de Marle, de La Fere, and de Vervins) Guy II, Seigneur8 de Montlhéry (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 4, Line 5-31.) (Castelot, Tome I, Page 506.). AKA: Guy II, Seigneur de Châteaufort. AKA: Guy II, Seigneur de Fornay. AKA: Guy II, Seigneur de Gometz (Abbott, Page 104.). AKA: Guy II Trousseau (Abbott, Page 48.). AKA: Guy, Seigneur de Mantes. Also Known As: Guy "Le Roux." AKA: Guy I, Count de Rochefort-en-Yvelines. AKA: Guy, Seigneur de La Ferté-Alais (Abbott, Page 104.). Born: before 1068 at Essone, France, son of Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Sainte Hodierne de Gometz, Guy II is presumed to have been at least 14 years of age when he married Élisabeth. The parentage of Guy II is held in some controversy. André Roux's data indicate he was the son of Miles II by Lithuise de Champagne, while other sources indicate that Guy II was the son of Guy I by Hodierne de Gomez, and thus the brother of Miles II [as shown herein]. PaterAlter before 1068 Guy II, Seigneur de Montlhéry/Miles III, Seigneur de Montlhéry (an unknown value). MaterAlter: before 1068 Lithuise de Champagne/Guy II, Seigneur de Montlhéry. Married before 1082 at France: Élizabeth=Adélaïde de Crécy (Élizabeth was Guy II's second wife [of three]). Occupation: before 1100 at France Guy II was Sénéchal de France. Died: in Élizabeth=Adélaïde8 de Crécy (André Roux: Scrolls, 182.) (Stuart, Page 4, Line 5-31.). Married Name: de Montlhéry. Note -: Élizabeth was the heiress of Crécy. Born: before 1069 at France Élizabeth is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her dauther, Lithuise, was born. Married before 1082 at France: Guy II, Seigneur de Montlhéry,, son of Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Sainte Hodierne de Gometz (Élizabeth was Guy II's second wife [of three]). Died: after 1104 Élizabeth was alive in the year Lancelin=Landry II, Seigneur8 de Beaugency (André Roux: Scrolls, 196.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 4-31.). Born: before 1025, son of Lancelin I, Seigneur de Beaugency and Paule I du Maine, Lancelin II is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Hildegarde was born. Lancelin II's maternal parentage is very uncertain. Married before 1052: Alberge N? Died: in Alberge8 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 196.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 4-31.). Married Name: de Beaugency. Born: before 1038 Alberge is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Hildegarde was born. Married before 1052: Lancelin=Landry II, Seigneur de Beaugency,, son of Lancelin I, Seigneur de Beaugency and Paule I du Maine Hughes, Count8 de Vermandois (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 112.) (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). AKA: Hughes, Count de Paris. AKA: Hughes, Count de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. AKA: Hughes, Count de Valois. AKA: Hughes Magnus de Crépy. AKA: Hughes Magnus, Duke de Bourgogne. AKA: Hughes Magnus, Marquis d'orléans. AKA: Hughes Magnus, Count d'amiens. Also Known As: Hughes "Le Grand." AKA: Hughes, Comte d'amiens. Born: in 1057 at Ile-de-France, France, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne, Queen de France. Married in 1077: Adèle, Countess de Vermandois,, daughter of Herbert IV, Count de Vermandois and Adèle, Countess de Crépy (Hughes was Adèle's first husband). Note - before 1101: Hughes was a leader in the First Crusade. Died: on 18 Oct 1101 at Tarsus, Cilicia, Asia Minor, Hughes is buried in Saint-Paul-de-Tarse Adèle, Countess8 de Vermandois (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 112.) (Stuart, Page 175, Line ; Page 196, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 23 April 1994 at 15:57 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Pages ). AKA: Adélaïde, Dame de Saint-Quentin (Abbott, Page 127.). AKA: Adélaïde, Countess de Valois (Abbott, Pages 57.). Married Name: de Clermont-enBeauvaisis. Born: circa 1062, daughter of Herbert IV, Count de Vermandois and Adèle, Countess de Crépy. Married in 1077: Hughes, Count de Vermandois,, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne, Queen de France (Hughes was Adèle's first husband). Married in 1103 at France: Renaud II, Count de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,, son of Hugues I, Comte de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Marguerite de Roucy (Adèle was Renaud II's first wife). Died: in 1124 at Meulan, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France, Adèle was alive in the year 1118 (Abbott, Pages 57.). Philippe de France, Duke of Anjou; Duke of Orléans Philippe I, King8 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Hallam, Page 77.). Born: between 1052 and 1053 at Marne, Champagne, France, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne, Queen de France, Since Anne, his mother, claimed to be descendant [through the women's side] of Philippe of Macedonia, she chose for her son the first name of the father of Alexander The Great. Most historical sources indicate

66 Philippe I was born in Other sources seem to be sure of 23 May but not whether it was in 1052 or Note - between 1060 and 1099: Philippe I enjoyed uniformly bad press from his contemporaries, in large part because he was opposed to the reforming elements in the Church. Interestingly, Robert his grandfather had shown an almost equal antipathy toward the Church, and had burned down a monastery, but he was dubbed "the pious". Philippe became the King of France in He first worked under the tutorage of Baldwin= Baudouin V, Count of Flanders ( ). In fact from 1060 until 1067, France was under the Regency of Baldwin V, who was praised as a prudent administrator. Philippe annexed the Gâtinais (in 1067), and took over French Vexin (in 1101) and that same year regained the viscounty of Bourges (which Philippe purchased between 1097 and 1102 from its owner Odo Arpin who needed the funds to go on a crusade). In 1071, he intervene in the affairs of Flanders, but was beaten near Cassel. He was excommunicated (through Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095) for repudiating his wife Berthe, daughter of Florent I, Count of Holland, and having kidnapped (in 1092) Bertrada de Montfort, wife of Foulques Réchin, Count of Anjou. He lived openly with Bertrada. He sold church offices arousing widespread hostility from the French episcopate. He also plundered religious houses. Although he re-founded his father's house of SaintMartin-des-Champs as a Cluniac priory, he was not outstandingly generous toward Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire or Fleury, where he was later buried. More of an opportunist than a warrior, he quickly became obese and inactive spending much of his time in gluttony and sleep. The disputes raised by Philippe's marriage to Bertrada of Montfort illustrate the clash between the ideas of the high-born laity about marriage and the firm stance taken by the reforming Church on the issues of divorce, bigamy and incest. The resulting scandal left Philippe with the reputation of a greedy, lecherous adulterer and seducer; in fact, his actions would have seemed quite acceptable to many of his lay contemporaries and a sensible move to produce more heirs and safeguard the succession. In 1104, Philippe repudiated Bertrada at the Council of Beaugency and compromised over the bishopric of Beauvais. Even though he continued to live with Bertrada, his relationship with the papacy was much improved. He supported Robert Courte-Heuse against his father, William "Le Conquérant", and fought with some success against Guillaume Le Roux in Normandie in Philippe's reign saw the first crusade, the earliest of the holy wars conducted on a grand scale by the Western nobility in Palestine (although there had been crusades from Spain in the 1060's) with the aim of regaining and protecting the holy places from their infidel captors. In response to an appeal by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095, and the inspired preaching of the Papal legate Bishop Adhémar of Le Puy, a powerful army from the West consisting mainly of men from the various regions of France embarked in 1096 for the Holy Land via Constantinople. By 1099, in spite of internal dissensions, the Norman Bohémond (a Hauteville from Sicily), Godfrey of Bouillon, Hugh of Vermandois, Raymond IV, Count of Flanders, Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, and Robert II, Count of Flanders succeeded in capturing Antioch and Jerusalem, having routed their Seljuk and Fatimid adversaries. They then established four Latin states in Outremer. This was a striking achievement from which the Papacy did not fail to profit. Married in 1072: Berthe de Hollande,, daughter of Florent I, Count de Hollande and Gertrude de Saxe (Berthe was Philippe's first wife. King Philippe's marriage to her probably allowed him to regain Corbie, which lordship had been granted by King Henry I to the Count of Flanders as dowry of his sister Adela). Divorced Berthe de Hollande: either 1091 or 1092 (King Philippe I either divorced Berthe in 1091 or repudiated her in 1092, depending on the source). Married in 1093: Bertrade de Montfort,, daughter of Simon I, Seigneur de Montfort and Agnès d'évreux. He was excommunicated in 1095 at Clermont, Oise, Ile-de-France, France (For having rejected his wife and kidnapped Bertrada, Wife of Fulk Réchin, Count of Anjou) (Hallam, Page 75.). He witnessed the separated: of Philippe I, King de France and Bertrade de Montfort in Died: on 21 Jul 1108 at Melun, Seine-et-Marne, Ile-de-France, France, Philippe I is buried at the Abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire. Buried: on 29 Jul 1108 at Fleury, France, Philippe I is buried at the Abbey de SaintBenoît-sur-Loire Berthe8 de Hollande (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 222, Line ). Married Name: de France. Born: circa 1055 at Frison, Frisia, Holland, daughter of Florent I, Count de Hollande and Gertrude de Saxe. Married in 1072: Philippe I, King de France,, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne, Queen de France (Berthe was Philippe's first wife. King Philippe's marriage to her probably allowed him to regain Corbie, which lordship had been granted by King Henry I to the Count of Flanders as dowry of his sister Adela). Divorced Philippe I, King de France: either 1091 or 1092 (King Philippe I either divorced Berthe in 1091 or repudiated her in 1092, depending on the source). Died: in 1094 at Montreuil-sur-Mer, Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, France Humbert II, Comte8 de Savoie (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 123.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ) (Abbott, Page 644.). AKA: Umberto, Marquis de Turin. AKA: Humbert I, Comte de Maurienne. Also Known As: Humbert "Le Gros." AKA: Humbert II, Comte de Suse. Born: circa 1070, son of Amédie=Amédé II, Count de Maurienne and Jeanne=Johanna de Genève, Humbert II's maternal parentage as Jeanne de Genève is probable. Married in 1090 at France: Gisle=Gisèle, Countess de Bourgogne,, daughter of Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne and Étiennette de Barcelone. Died: on 14 Oct Gisle=Gisèle, Countess8 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 123.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 27 July 1994 at 13:58 Hours.). Married Name: de Savoie. Married Name: de Montferrat. Born: circa 1070, daughter of Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne and Étiennette de Barcelone. Married in 1090 at France: Humbert II, Comte de Savoie,, son of Amédie=Amédé II, Count de Maurienne and Jeanne=Johanna de Genève. Married before 1117: Rainier III, Margrave de Montferrat,, son of Guillaume III de Montferrat and Otta di Agledo (Rainier was Gisèle's second husband). Died: after 1133 (Stuart, Page 71.) André, Seigneur8 de Baudement (André Roux: Scrolls, 163.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 02 October 1994 at 20:48 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 120.). AKA: André, Sénéschal de Champagne. AKA: André, Seigneur de Longueville. AKA: André, Seigneur de Quincy. AKA: André, Seigneur de Braine. Born: circa 1060 at Ile-de-France, France. Married before 1089: Agnès de Braine,, daughter of Gauthier, Comte de Braine and Adé de Soissons (André was Agnès' second husband). Note - in 1100: Around 1100, Braine was in the hands of André de Baudement. The County of Braine was, from the Thirteenth Century, under the suzerainty of the counts de Champagne (Abbott, Pages ). Died: in 1142 André was alive in the year He died a monk Agnès8 de Braine (André Roux: Scrolls, 163.) (Stuart, Page 61, Line ). Married Name: de Baudement. Married Name: de Montréal. Born: before 1070 at Braine, Aisne, Ile-de-France, France, daughter of Gauthier, Comte de Braine and Adé de Soissons, Agnès was the heiress of Braine-surla-Vesle. Married before 1087: Hughes, Sire de Montréal (Hughes was Agnès' first husband, and she was a widow when she married her second husband, André). Married before 1089: André, Seigneur de Baudement (André was Agnès' second husband) Eudes, Châtelain8 de Vitry. Born: before 1094 Eudes is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son Itier was born. Married before 1111: Matilda, Countess de Rethel,, daughter of Hugh I, Count de Rethel and Mélisende de Montlhéry. Died: in Matilda, Countess8 de Rethel (Paul Theroff, posts, 21 September 1994 at 23:36 Hours.). Married Name: de Vitry. Born: before 1083, daughter of

67 Hugh I, Count de Rethel and Mélisende de Montlhéry, Matilda was born before her sister, Béatrice. Married before 1111: Eudes, Châtelain de Vitry. Died: after 1151 Mathilde was alive in the year Godefroy, Comte8 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 197, 200.) (Stuart, Page 92, Line ). AKA: Godefroi, Comte de Château-Porcien. AKA: Godfrey, Count de Dagsburg. Born: circa 1067 at Belgium, son of Albert III, Count de Namur and Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Married circa 1087: Sybille de Château-Porcien,, daughter of Roger, Comte de Château-Porcien and N? N? (Sybille was Godefroy's first wife). Annulled he and Sybille de ChâteauPorcien: circa 1100 (an unknown value). Married in 1101: Ermesende de Luxembourg,, daughter of Conrad I, Count de Luxembourg and Clémence, Comtesse de Longwy (Godefroy's marriage to Ermessende de Luxembourg represented his second and he was her second husband, and they both were alive in 1121). Died: on 19 Aug 1139 Godefroy is burried at Florette Ermesende8 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 197, 200.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 3-30.). Married Name: de Namur. AKA: Ermesinde de Longwy. Married Name: von Egisheim. Born: in 1075 at Luxembourg, daughter of Conrad I, Count de Luxembourg and Clémence, Comtesse de Longwy. Note - between 1086 and 1142: Ermesende was the heiress of Luxemburg and of Longwy. Married between 1092 and 1095: Adalbert II von Egisheim,, son of Henry I, Count von Egisheim and N? von Moka (Ermesinde was Adalbert II's second wife and he was her first husband). Married in 1101: Godefroy, Comte de Namur,, son of Albert III, Count de Namur and Ide=Relinde de Saxe (Godefroy's marriage to Ermessende de Luxembourg represented his second and he was her second husband, and they both were alive in 1121). Died: on 24 Jun 1143 at Belgium Some sources indicate that Ermesende died in Renaud I, Comte8 de Bar-le-Duc (André Roux: Scrolls, 169, 205.) (Stuart, Page 109, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 26 June 1995 at 01:24 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 640.). AKA: Renaud I, Count de Mousson. Also Known As: Renaud "Le Borgne" (Abbott, Pages 545, 549.). AKA: Renaud I, Comte de Brie ( AKA: Renaud I, Comte de Verdun (Ibid.). AKA: Renaud, Seigneur de Commercy The Seigneurie de Commercy existed from 858. It was at first held by the Emperor, and then by the bishops of Metz, who confided it to seigneurs. Around 970, the Seigneur was Louis de Mousson, ancestor of the second House of Bar-le-Duc. Early in the Eleventh Century, the seigneurs had to render homage to the counts of Champagne who claimed the fief as part of the dowry of a countess of royal birth. But, at the end of the century, the Bishop of Metz was suzerain (Abbott, Page 549.). Born: between 1066 and 1090 at Alsace, France, son of Thierry I/II, Comte de Barle-Duc and Ermentrude de Bourgogne. Note - between 1110 and 1149: Renaud I was an opponent of the Emperor Henry V. He went on the Second Great Crusade with King Louis VII in He founded the Priory of Monçon and the Monastery at Rièval. Married in 1120 at France: Gisle=Gisèle de Vaudémont,, daughter of Gérard, Count de Vaudémont and Helvide de Dabo (Gisèle was Renaud I's second wife. He had had a son who died young by his first wife). Died: on 10 Mar 1149 Renaud I is buried at Mousson, France Gisle=Gisèle8 de Vaudémont (André Roux: Scrolls, 169.) (Stuart, Page 182, Line ). Married Name: de Bar-le-Duc. Born: circa 1092 at Vaudémont, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Lorraine, France, daughter of Gérard, Count de Vaudémont and Helvide de Dabo. Married in 1120 at France: Renaud I, Comte de Bar-le-Duc,, son of Thierry I/II, Comte de Bar-le-Duc and Ermentrude de Bourgogne (Gisèle was Renaud I's second wife. He had had a son who died young by his first wife). Died: in Hughes II dit "Bardoul", Seigneur 8 de Broyes (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). AKA: Hughes II, Seigneur de Beaufort (Ibid.). AKA: Hughes II dit "Bardoul", Seigneur de Baye (Ibid.). AKA: Hughes II dit "Bardoul", Seigneur de Trie-le-Bardoul (Ibid.). Born: before 1063 at France, son of Bathélémy, Seigneur de Broyes and Élizabeth de Valois, Hughes is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his son, Barthélémi, was born. Hughes II was alive in the year Married before 1080 at France: Émmeline de Montlhéry,, daughter of Miles III, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Lithuise=Lithaise, Vicomtesse de Troyes. AKA: Hughes II dit "Bardoul", Seigneur de Charmentré (Ibid.). Died: circa 1112 (Ibid.) Émmeline8 de Montlhéry (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.) (Ibid.). Married Name: de Broyes. AKA: Émeline de Mont-Lhéri (Ibid.). Born: circa 1066 at France, daughter of Miles III, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Lithuise=Lithaise, Vicomtesse de Troyes. Married before 1080 at France: Hughes II dit "Bardoul", Seigneur de Broyes,, son of Bathélémy, Seigneur de Broyes and Élizabeth de Valois. Died: in 1121.

68 186. Gérard=Érard I, Count8 de Brienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 143, 198.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 02 October 1994 at 20:48 Hours.) (M. de La Chenayedes-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Pages ). Born: before 1044 at France, son of Gauthier=Walter I, Count de Brienne and Eustache, Countess de Bar-sur-Seine. Married before 1089: Alix de Roucy,, daughter of André, Count de Roucy and Alix N? Note - in 1097: Érard went on a crusade in the year Died: between 1112 and 1125 at France According to André Roux and the Dictionnaire, Gérard was alive on 2 April That year, he attended a coucil in Troyes upon the return of Hughes de Payen, Comte de Troyes from the Holy Land. This meeting included the Count de Champagne and eventually led to the founding of the Order of the Temple -- Knights Templar. André Roux indicates that Gérard died in 1112 while E.S. [via Paul Theroff] indicates that Érard died between 1114 and According to the Dictionnaire, based on a Chart dated 1112 Érard ceded to the Abbey de Beaulieu all he had in the village of Giffey (Ibid., Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.) Alix8 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 143, 198.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 02 October 1994 at 20:48 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.) (Ibid.) (Ibid.). AKA: Alix de Montdidier. AKA: Alix de Raméru (Abbott, Pages 64.). Married Name: de Brienne. AKA: Alix, Dame de Rosnay (Abbott, Page 82.). AKA: Alix de Ramerupt. Born: before 1075 at France, daughter of André, Count de Roucy and Alix N?, Alix is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Gauthier II was born. Married before 1089: Gérard=Érard I, Count de Brienne,, son of Gauthier=Walter I, Count de Brienne and Eustache, Countess de Bar-sur-Seine Renaud III, Comte8 de Joigny (Paul Theroff, posts, 12 May 1995 at 03:01 Hours.). AKA: Renaud III, Seigneur de Château Renard (Abbott, Page 97.). Born: before 1100 at France, son of Geoffroy II de Joinville and Hodierne de Courtenay. Married before 1136 at France: Wandelmode de Beaujeu,, daughter of Humbert II, Seigneur de Beaujeu and Wandelmode de Thiern. Died: in Wandelmode8 de Beaujeu (Paul Theroff, posts, 12 May 1995 at 03:01 Hours.). Married Name: de Joigny. Born: before 1079 at France, daughter of Humbert II, Seigneur de Beaujeu and Wandelmode de Thiern. Married before 1136 at France: Renaud III, Comte de Joigny,, son of Geoffroy II de Joinville and Hodierne de Courtenay.

69 190. Guillaume III, Count8 de Nevers (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Abbott, Page 183.). AKA: Guillaume III, Count d'auxerre (Abbott, Page 202.). AKA: Guillaume III, Count de Tonnerre. Born: between 1106 and 1130 at Nivernais, France, son of Guillaume II, Count de Nevers and Adélaïs N?, Guillaume III is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when he married Ide. Married circa 1140 at France: Ide de Carinthie,, daughter of Engelbert II, Duke de Carinthie and N? N? Died: on 21 Nov 1161 at Auxerre, Yonne, Bourgogne, France Ide8 de Carinthie. Married Name: de Nevers. Born: before 1130, daughter of Engelbert II, Duke de Carinthie and N? N?, Ide is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Guillaume III. Married circa 1140 at France: Guillaume III, Count de Nevers,, son of Guillaume II, Count de Nevers and Adélaïs N? Died: on 25 May Hughes VII, Sire8 de Lusignan (André Roux: Scrolls, 84, 142.) (Abbott, Page 423.). Also Known As: Hughes "Le Brun." Born: in 1065 at Lusignan, Vienne, Poitou, France, son of Hughes VI, Lord de Lusignan and Ildegarde de Thouars. Married before 1109 at Poitou, France: Sarrazine de Lezay. Died: in 1151 Hughes VII was alive in the year Sarrazine8 de Lezay (André Roux: Scrolls, 84.). Married Name: de Lusignan. Born: in 1067 at Poitou, France. Married before 1109 at Poitou, France: Hughes VII, Sire de Lusignan,, son of Hughes VI, Lord de Lusignan and Ildegarde de Thouars. Died: in Géoffroy8 de Rancon (Ibid.). Born: before 1111 at France Geoffroy is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Bourgogne was born. Married before 1128 at France: Fossefie = Falsifie, Dame de Moncontour,, daughter of Pierre, Châtelain de Moncontour and N? N? 195. Fossefie = Falsifie, Dame8 de Moncontour (Ibid.) (Abbott, Page 415.). Married Name: de Rancon. Born: before 1114 at Moncontour, Vienne, Poitou, France, daughter of Pierre, Châtelain de Moncontour and N? N?, Fossefie is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Bourgogne was born. Married before 1128 at France: Géoffroy de Rancon Wulgrin II/III, Count 8 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 55, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Marian Sampson [Prodigy ID# RTNL57A], posted in Subject "Fitzalan", 25 March 1997 at 04:36 Hours, citing "Voorouders in der Middeleeuwen" by Leo Lindemans.) (Abbott, Page 458.). Also Known As: Wulgrin "Taillefer." Born: in 1089 at France, son of Guillaume III, Count d'angoulême and Vitapont, Dame de Benauges. Married before 1109 at France: Ponce de La Marche,, daughter of Roger de Montgommery and Almodis de La Marche. Married before 1135: Aimable de Châtellerault,, daughter of Aimery I, Vicomte de Châtellerault and Dangerose de l'isle-bouchard (Aimable was Vulgrin II's second wife). Died: on 16 Nov Ponce8 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 55, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ). Married Name: d'angoulême. AKA: Ponce, Lady of Lancaster. Born: before 1085 at Normandie, France, daughter of Roger de Montgommery and Almodis de La Marche. Married before 1109 at France: Wulgrin II/III, Count d'angoulême,, son of Guillaume III, Count d'angoulême and Vitapont, Dame de Benauges. Died: in Raymond I, Vicomte8 de Turenne (André Roux: Scrolls, 125, 211.) (Abbott, Page 438.). Born: circa 1080 at France, son of Boson I, Vicomte de Turenne and Gerberge de Terrasson. Married in 1105: Mathilde du Perche,, daughter of Geoffroy II, Comte de Mortagne and Béatrix de Roucy (Raymond I was Mathilde's first husband. Raymond I went on crusades in 1096). Died: between 1127 and Mathilde8 du Perche (André Roux: Scrolls, 125, 211.) (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). Married Name: de Turenne. Born: in 1085, daughter of Geoffroy II, Comte de Mortagne and Béatrix de Roucy ( 7 December 2008.). Married in 1105: Raymond I, Vicomte de Turenne,, son of Boson I, Vicomte de Turenne and Gerberge de Terrasson (Raymond I was Mathilde's first husband. Raymond I went on crusades in 1096). Born: in 1105 at Perche, Maine, France, daughter of Geoffroy II, Comte de Mortagne and Béatrix de Roucy (Stuart, Page 185.). Died: on 28 May 1143 at France Mathilde is buried at Arnac Sulpice II, Seigneur 8 d'amboise (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 August 1994 at 01:59 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 158.). AKA: Sulpice II de Bazougers (Ibid.). Born: before 1105 at Amboise, Indre-Et-Loire, Touraine, France, son of Hughes, Seigneur d'amboise and Élisabeth de Souvigny, Sulpice II is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Hughes II, was born. Married before 1122 at France: Agnès de Donzy,, daughter of Hervé II de Donzy and N? de La Ferté. Died: either 4 Aug 1129 or Agnès8 de Donzy (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 August 1994 at 01:59 Hours.). Married Name: d'amboise. Born: before 1103 at France, daughter of Hervé II de Donzy and N? de La Ferté, Agnès is presumed to have been born before her father was 50 years of age. Married before 1122 at France: Sulpice II, Seigneur d'amboise,, son of Hughes, Seigneur d'amboise and Élisabeth de Souvigny Guillaume III, Count8 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Abbott, Page 458.). AKA: Guillaume V, Count d'angoulême. Also Known As: Guillaume III "Taillefer" (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). AKA: Guillaume III, Seigneur de Montausier (Abbott, Page 469.). Born: circa 1065 at Aquitaine, France, son of Fouques, Count d'angoulême and Condohe Végena. Married in 1086: Vitapont, Dame de Benauges,, daughter of Amanieu, Sire de Benauges and N? N? Died: on 6 Apr 1120 at France While other sources indicate that Guillaume III died 6-Apr-1120, Lord Mountbatten [Via Robert Carver] shows he died 6-Apr-1122 (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry.") Vitapont, Dame8 de Benauges (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Abbott, Page 311.). Married Name: d'angoulême. AKA: Vitapoy, Dame de Saint-Macaire ( Born: before 1074 at France, daughter of Amanieu, Sire de Benauges and N? N?, Vitapont is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Wulgrin II was born. Roderick Stuart's Royalty for Commoners has her birth year at 1086 which makes her all of three years of age when her son Wulgrin was born (1089). Stuart confused Vitapont's date of marriage with her date of birth. Married in 1086: Guillaume III, Count d'angoulême,, son of Fouques, Count d'angoulême and Condohe Végena. Died: after 1089.

70 210. Roger8 de Montgommery (Stuart, Page 238.) (Leana Randall, a Prodigy Bulletin Board Member, was active in posting lengthy lines since July 1994, Posting in Subject "Peverell", 22 July 1994 at 00:54 Hours.). Also Known As: Roger "Le Poitevin." AKA: Roger, Vicomte d'exmes. AKA: Roger, Earl of Arundel. AKA: Roger, Comte de La Marche. AKA: Roger III, Count of Lancaster. Note -: Roger III was the Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury as well as Viscomte of Exemes and Lord of Lancaster. A companion of William The Bastard (The Conqueror as the British would have it), Roger was exiled from England by Henry I in Born: circa 1054 at Wales, son of Roger, Seigneur de Montgommery and Mabile, Comtesse de Bellême. Married before 1082 at France: Almodis de La Marche,, daughter of Audebert II, Comte de La Marche and Ponce N? (Almodis was Roger's second wife). Died: in 1123 at France Roger Le Poitevin is burried at Grestain (Stuart, Page 238.) Almodis8 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 36, 55.). Married Name: de Montgommery. AKA: Adélaïde de Breteuil. Born: before 1068 at Breteuil, Haute Marche, France, daughter of Audebert II, Comte de La Marche and Ponce N?, Almodis is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Ponce was born. Married before 1082 at France: Roger de Montgommery,, son of Roger, Seigneur de Montgommery and Mabile, Comtesse de Bellême (Almodis was Roger's second wife). Died: in 1116 ( Boson I, Vicomte8 de Turenne (André Roux: Scrolls, 80, 125.) (Abbott, Page 438.). Born: circa 1050 at Guyenne, France, son of Guillaume, Vicomte de Turenne and Mathilde N? (Stuart, Page 114.). Married before 1074 at France: Gerberge de Terrasson,, daughter of Pierre, Comtor de Terrasson and N? N? (Gerberge was Boson I's second wife). Died: in 1091 at Jérusalem, Holy Land, Boson left for the Holy Land in 1076 on a pilgrimage Gerberge8 de Terrasson (André Roux: Scrolls, 125.). Married Name: de Turenne. Born: circa 1055 at Terrasson, Guyenne, France, daughter of Pierre, Comtor de Terrasson and N? N? Married before 1074 at France: Boson I, Vicomte de Turenne,, son of Guillaume, Vicomte de Turenne and Mathilde N? (Gerberge was Boson I's second wife). Died: in 1103 at France Geoffroy II, Comte8 de Mortagne (André Roux: Scrolls, 198, 211.) (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). AKA: Geoffroy II, Count du Perche (Abbott, Page 138.). AKA: Geoffroy II, Seigneur de Mortagne ( Born: before 1051 at Mortagne-au-Perche, Normandie, France, son of Rotrou I, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Adélaïde de Domfront, Geoffroy II fought in the Norman Army at the Battle of Hastings 11 October 1066 and is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age at that time. Married before 1069: Béatrix de Roucy,, daughter of Hildouin, Comte d'arcissur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy. Died: in Oct 1100 He participated in the conquest of Englad (Ibid.) Béatrix8 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.) (Stuart, Page 195, Line ). Married Name: de Mortagne. AKA: Béatrix de Montdidier. Born: before 1054 at France, daughter of Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy, Béatrix is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Juhanne was born. Married before 1069: Geoffroy II, Comte de Mortagne,, son of Rotrou I, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Adélaïde de Domfront. Died: after Philippe de France, Duke of Anjou; Duke of Orléans Philippe I, King8 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Hallam, Page 77.). Born: between 1052 and 1053 at Marne, Champagne, France, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne, Queen de France, Since Anne, his mother, claimed to be descendant [through the women's side] of Philippe of Macedonia, she chose for her son the first name of the father of Alexander The Great. Most historical sources indicate Philippe I was born in Other sources seem to be sure of 23 May but not whether it was in 1052 or Note - between 1060 and 1099: Philippe I enjoyed uniformly bad press from his contemporaries, in large part because he was opposed to the reforming elements in the Church. Interestingly, Robert his grandfather had shown an almost equal antipathy toward the Church, and had burned down a monastery, but he was dubbed "the pious". Philippe became the King of France in He first worked under the tutorage of Baldwin= Baudouin V, Count of Flanders ( ). In fact from 1060 until 1067, France was under the Regency of Baldwin V, who was praised as a prudent administrator. Philippe annexed the Gâtinais (in 1067), and took over French Vexin (in 1101) and that same year regained the viscounty of Bourges (which Philippe purchased between 1097 and 1102 from its owner Odo Arpin who needed the funds to go on a crusade). In 1071, he intervene in the affairs of Flanders, but was beaten near Cassel. He was excommunicated (through Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095) for repudiating his wife Berthe, daughter of Florent I, Count of Holland, and having kidnapped (in 1092) Bertrada de Montfort, wife of Foulques Réchin, Count of Anjou. He lived openly with Bertrada. He sold church offices arousing widespread hostility from the French episcopate. He also plundered religious houses. Although he re-founded his father's house of SaintMartin-des-Champs as a Cluniac priory, he was not outstandingly generous toward Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire or Fleury, where he was later buried. More of an opportunist than a warrior, he quickly became obese and inactive spending much of his time in gluttony and sleep. The disputes raised by Philippe's marriage to Bertrada of Montfort illustrate the clash between the ideas of the high-born laity about marriage and the firm stance taken by the reforming

71 Church on the issues of divorce, bigamy and incest. The resulting scandal left Philippe with the reputation of a greedy, lecherous adulterer and seducer; in fact, his actions would have seemed quite acceptable to many of his lay contemporaries and a sensible move to produce more heirs and safeguard the succession. In 1104, Philippe repudiated Bertrada at the Council of Beaugency and compromised over the bishopric of Beauvais. Even though he continued to live with Bertrada, his relationship with the papacy was much improved. He supported Robert Courte-Heuse against his father, William "Le Conquérant", and fought with some success against Guillaume Le Roux in Normandie in Philippe's reign saw the first crusade, the earliest of the holy wars conducted on a grand scale by the Western nobility in Palestine (although there had been crusades from Spain in the 1060's) with the aim of regaining and protecting the holy places from their infidel captors. In response to an appeal by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095, and the inspired preaching of the Papal legate Bishop Adhémar of Le Puy, a powerful army from the West consisting mainly of men from the various regions of France embarked in 1096 for the Holy Land via Constantinople. By 1099, in spite of internal dissensions, the Norman Bohémond (a Hauteville from Sicily), Godfrey of Bouillon, Hugh of Vermandois, Raymond IV, Count of Flanders, Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, and Robert II, Count of Flanders succeeded in capturing Antioch and Jerusalem, having routed their Seljuk and Fatimid adversaries. They then established four Latin states in Outremer. This was a striking achievement from which the Papacy did not fail to profit. Married in 1072: Berthe de Hollande,, daughter of Florent I, Count de Hollande and Gertrude de Saxe (Berthe was Philippe's first wife. King Philippe's marriage to her probably allowed him to regain Corbie, which lordship had been granted by King Henry I to the Count of Flanders as dowry of his sister Adela). Divorced Berthe de Hollande: either 1091 or 1092 (King Philippe I either divorced Berthe in 1091 or repudiated her in 1092, depending on the source). Married in 1093: Bertrade de Montfort,, daughter of Simon I, Seigneur de Montfort and Agnès d'évreux. He was excommunicated in 1095 at Clermont, Oise, Ile-de-France, France (For having rejected his wife and kidnapped Bertrada, Wife of Fulk Réchin, Count of Anjou) (Hallam, Page 75.). He witnessed the separated: of Philippe I, King de France and Bertrade de Montfort in Died: on 21 Jul 1108 at Melun, Seine-et-Marne, Ile-de-France, France, Philippe I is buried at the Abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire. Buried: on 29 Jul 1108 at Fleury, France, Philippe I is buried at the Abbey de SaintBenoît-sur-Loire Berthe8 de Hollande (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 222, Line ). Married Name: de France. Born: circa 1055 at Frison, Frisia, Holland, daughter of Florent I, Count de Hollande and Gertrude de Saxe. Married in 1072: Philippe I, King de France,, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne, Queen de France (Berthe was Philippe's first wife. King Philippe's marriage to her probably allowed him to regain Corbie, which lordship had been granted by King Henry I to the Count of Flanders as dowry of his sister Adela). Divorced Philippe I, King de France: either 1091 or 1092 (King Philippe I either divorced Berthe in 1091 or repudiated her in 1092, depending on the source). Died: in 1094 at Montreuil-sur-Mer, Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, France Humbert II, Comte8 de Savoie (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 123.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ) (Abbott, Page 644.). AKA: Umberto, Marquis de Turin. AKA: Humbert I, Comte de Maurienne. Also Known As: Humbert "Le Gros." AKA: Humbert II, Comte de Suse. Born: circa 1070, son of Amédie=Amédé II, Count de Maurienne and Jeanne=Johanna de Genève, Humbert II's maternal parentage as Jeanne de Genève is probable. Married in 1090 at France: Gisle=Gisèle, Countess de Bourgogne,, daughter of Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne and Étiennette de Barcelone. Died: on 14 Oct Gisle=Gisèle, Countess8 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 123.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 27 July 1994 at 13:58 Hours.). Married Name: de Savoie. Married Name: de Montferrat. Born: circa 1070, daughter of Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne and Étiennette de Barcelone. Married in 1090 at France: Humbert II, Comte de Savoie,, son of Amédie=Amédé II, Count de Maurienne and Jeanne=Johanna de Genève. Married before 1117: Rainier III, Margrave de Montferrat,, son of Guillaume III de Montferrat and Otta di Agledo (Rainier was Gisèle's second husband). Died: after 1133 (Stuart, Page 71.) Miles, Sire8 de Courtenay (André Roux: Scrolls, 117, 120.) (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). AKA: Miles, Seigneur de Château Renard (Abbott, Page 97.). Born: circa 1069 at Courtenay, Orléanais, France, son of Josselin I, Seigneur de Courtenay and Élizabeth de Montlhéry. Married circa 1095: Ermengarde de Nevers,, daughter of Renaud II, Count de Nevers and Ide de Forez (Ermengarde was Miles' second wife). Died: after 1127 Miles was alive in the year Ermengarde8 de Nevers (André Roux: Scrolls, 120, 117.) (Stuart, Page 169, Line ). Married Name: de Courtenay. Born: circa 1073 at France, daughter of Renaud II, Count de Nevers and Ide de Forez. Married circa 1095: Miles, Sire de Courtenay,, son of Josselin I, Seigneur de Courtenay and Élizabeth de Montlhéry (Ermengarde was Miles' second wife) Frédéric8 du Donjon (André Roux: Scrolls, 120.) (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). Born: circa 1085 at Donjon Castle, Corbeil, Seine-et-Oise, Ilede-France, France, son of Éverard du Donjon and N? N? Married before 1101: N? N? Died: after 1138 Frédéric was alive in the year N?8 N? Married before 1101: Frédéric du Donjon,, son of Éverard du Donjon and N? N? 240. William8 d'aubigny (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Moore, John S.: Chapter 9: "Prosographical Problems of English 'Libri Vitae' ", Page 175.). Born: before Married before 1110: Cecily Bigod. Died: between 1133 and Cecily8 Bigod (Ibid.). Married Name: d'aubigny. Born: before Married before 1110: William d'aubigny. Died: after Godefroy I, Duke8 de Lorraine (Stuart, Page 49, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 217.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Godefroy I, Margrave of Antwerp. AKA: Godefroy I, Duke de Brabant. AKA: Godefroy I, Count de Louvain. Born: circa 1060 at Brabant, Belgium, son of Henri II, Count de Louvain and Adèle=Alix de Turinge. Married before 1103: Ide de Namur,, daughter of Otto II, Comte de Chiny and Adélaïde de Namur. Married circa 1121: Clémence de Vienne,, daughter of Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne and Étiennette de Barcelone (Clémence was Godefroy I's second wife). Died: on 25 Jan 1140 Some sources indicate that Godefroy I died in Ide8 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 197, 217.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). AKA: Ide de Chiny Chiny is in the Alsace-Lorraine region. Married Name: de Lorraine. MaterAlter: before 1083 Ide=Relinde de Saxe/Ide de Namur. PaterAlter before 1083 Ide de Namur/Albert III, Count de Namur (an unknown value). Born: in 1083, daughter of Otto II, Comte de Chiny and Adélaïde de Namur, Roderick Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" inserts a generation between André Roux's Ide the Namur and her parents Adalbert III and Ide de Saxe. Married before 1103: Godefroy I, Duke de

72 Lorraine,, son of Henri II, Count de Louvain and Adèle=Alix de Turinge. Died: after Gilbert, Seigneur8 de Clare (Paul Theroff, posts, 23 April 15:57 Hours.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Moore, John S.: Chapter 9: "Prosographical Problems of English 'Libri Vitae' ", Page 176.). AKA: Gilbert, Count of Tonbridge (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Bur, Michel: Chapter 15: "De quelques champenois dans l'entourage français des rois d'angleterre aux XIe et XIIe siècles", Page 342.). Born: before 1063, son of Richard, Seigneur de Bienfaite and Rohèse Giffard. Married before 1080: Adélise de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,, daughter of Hugues I, Comte de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Marguerite de Roucy. AKA: Gilbert of Tonbridge Tonbridge, Kent, England (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Moore, John S.: Chapter 9: "Prosographical Problems of English 'Libri Vitae' ", Page 176.). PaterAlter before 1100 Gilbert, Seigneur de Clare/Alice de Clare (an unknown value) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Bur, Michel: Chapter 15: "De quelques champenois dans l'entourage français des rois d'angleterre aux XIe et XIIe siècles", Page 342.). Died: in Adélise8 de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (Stuart, Page 21, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 23 April 15:57 Hours.). Married Name: de Clare. Married Name: de Montmorency. AKA: Adèline de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Born: before 1043, daughter of Hugues I, Comte de Clermont-enBeauvaisis and Marguerite de Roucy. Married before 1057 at France: Bouchard III, Seigneur de Montmorency,, son of Bouchard II, Seigneur de Montmorency and Helvide de Basset. Married before 1080: Gilbert, Seigneur de Clare,, son of Richard, Seigneur de Bienfaite and Rohèse Giffard. MaterAlter: before 1100 Alice de Clare/Adélise de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Died: after Robert, Seigneur8 de Beaumont-le-Roger (Paul Theroff, posts, 6 July 1994 at 23:10 Hours.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, van Houts, Elisabeth.: Chapter 6: "Wace as Historian", Page 119.). AKA: Robert, Seigneur de Vatteville. AKA: Robert I, Count de Meulan-sur-Seine. AKA: Robert, First Earl of Leicester. AKA: Robert, Seigneur de Pont-Audemer (Abbott, Page 238.). AKA: Robert, Seigneur de Brionne. Born: circa 1046 at Eure, Normandie, France, son of Roger, Seigneur de Beaumont-le-Roger and Adeline de Meulan-sur-Seine. Married before 1094: Godehild de Tosny,, daughter of Raoul III de Tosny and Isabel de Montfort. Divorced Godehild de Tosny: before Married in 1096: Élizabeth=Isabelle de Vermandois,, daughter of Hughes, Count de Vermandois and Adèle, Countess de Vermandois (Robert was Élizabeth's first husband and she was his second wife). Divorced Élizabeth=Isabelle de Vermandois: in Died: on 5 Jun Élizabeth=Isabelle8 de Vermandois (Stuart, Page 105, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, "Capet", posted on 30 January 1994 at 00:01 Hours.). AKA: Isabelle, Countess of Leicester. Married Name: de Varennes. Married Name: de Beaumont. AKA: Isobel de Crépy (Internet, as of 1 November 1998.). Born: in 1081 at Normandie, France, daughter of Hughes, Count de Vermandois and Adèle, Countess de Vermandois. Married in 1096: Robert, Seigneur de Beaumont-le-Roger,, son of Roger, Seigneur de Beaumont-leRoger and Adeline de Meulan-sur-Seine (Robert was Élizabeth's first husband and she was his second wife). Divorced Robert, Seigneur de Beaumontle-Roger: in Married between 1116 and 1118: Guillaume II de Varennes,, son of Guillaume I, Seigneur de Varennes and Gundred of Chester. Died: on 13 Feb 1131 at Saint-Nicaise, Meulan, France Donoch, King of8 Leinster (O'Hart, Page 556, #112.). AKA: Donoch MacMorough. AKA: Donnchadh Mac Murrough (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Page 862.). AKA: Doncha, King of Dublin. Born: before 1069 at Leinster, Ireland, son of Murcha, King of Leinster and N? N? Married before 1089 at Ireland: N? N? AKA: Donnchad, King of Leinster (Moody, New History of Ireland, page 134.). Occupation: before 1115 Donoch was the 56th. Christian King of Leinster, and King of Dublin. Died: in 1115 at Dublin, Ireland, Donoch was slain by Donal O'Brien and the Danes in Dublin (O'Hart, Page 556, #112.) (Moody, New History of Ireland, page 134.) N?8 N? Married before 1089 at Ireland: Donoch, King of Leinster,, son of Murcha, King of Leinster and N? N? 254. Muirceartach, King of the8 Ui-Muirceartaigh (O'Hart, Vol. 1, Page 763, #115.). AKA: Murcertac O'Toole. Born: circa 1089 at Leinster, Ireland, son of Gillacomghall, Lord of the Ui-Muirceartaigh and N? N? Married before 1113: Inghin O'Byrne,, daughter of Donoch Mór O'Byrne and N? N? Died: in 1164 In 1154, Muirceartach slew the King of Ui Enachglais. died 10 years later after "penance" (O'Hart, Vol. 1, Pages 482, #113; 763, #115.) Inghin8 O'Byrne. Born: circa 1094 at Leinster, Ireland, daughter of Donoch Mór O'Byrne and N? N? Married before 1113: Muirceartach, King of the Ui-Muirceartaigh,, son of Gillacomghall, Lord of the Ui-Muirceartaigh and N? N? --- 9th Generation Fastre9 d'oisy (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Stuart, Page 32, Line ). Note -: Fastre was an advocate of Doornick. AKA: Fastré I, Vicomte de Tournai Fastre was an Avoué of Tournai ( Born: in 1050 at Oisy, Tournais, Artois, France (Ibid.). Married before 1070: Adé=Ide d'avesnes,, daughter of Wadric, Seigneur d'avesnes and N? N? (The Liber de Restauratione Sancti Martini Tornacensis names "Idam, germanam Theoderic de Asvensis" as wife of "Fastredus") (Internet, Died: after 1098 Fastre was alive in the year 1098, although some sources claim he died in 1092 and others claim he died in 1093 (M. de La Chenaye-desBois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 538.).

73 257. Adé=Ide9 d'avesnes (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Stuart, Page 32, Line ). Married Name: d'oisy. Born: in 1054 at Da Fearta, Ireland, daughter of Wadric, Seigneur d'avesnes and N? N? ( Married before 1070: Fastre d'oisy (The Liber de Restauratione Sancti Martini Tornacensis names "Idam, germanam Theoderic de Asvensis" as wife of "Fastredus") (Internet, Alard I9 van Peteghem (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 September 1994 at 02:04 Hours.). AKA: Alard I van Eine. Born: before 1043 at Belgium, son of Ingelbert II van Peteghem and Glismode N? Married before 1065: N? N? Died: circa N?9 N? Married before 1065: Alard I van Peteghem,, son of Ingelbert II van Peteghem and Glismode N? 264. Albert II, Count9 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). Born: circa 1000 at Belgium, son of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Married before 1030: Relinde de Lorraine,, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N? Died: in 1037 Albert II was killed. Some sources indicate that Albert II died between 1063 and Relinde9 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.). Married Name: de Namur. AKA: Regelinde, Countess de Châtenois. Born: circa 994, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N? Married before 1030: Albert II, Count de Namur,, son of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Died: on 1 Feb Bernard II, Duke9 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Born: circa 995, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Married between 1019 and 1020: Bertrade, Princess of Norway,, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married in 1020: Elica von Schweinfürt,, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg ( Died: on 29 Jun Bertrade, Princess of9 Norway (Stuart, Page 151, Line ). Married Name: de Saxe. Born: before 970, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married between 1019 and 1020: Bernard II, Duke de Saxe,, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Died: after 1030 Bertrade was alive in the year 1030.

74 268. Waléran=Udo II, Count 9 de Limbourg (Stuart, Page 44, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 257.). AKA: Otton, Comte de Limbourg. Born: before 1025, son of Waléran I, Count d'arlon and Adélaïde de Lorraine, Waléran is presumed to have been at least 25 years old when he married. Married either 1050 or 1060: Judith de Luxembourg,, daughter of Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine and Gerberge de Boulogne. Died: between 1062 and Judith9 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 200, 257.) (Stuart, Page 42, Line ). Married Name: Jutta de Limbourg ( Born: before 1035 at Basse Lorainne, France, daughter of Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine and Gerberge de Boulogne (Ibid.). Married either 1050 or 1060: Waléran=Udo II, Count de Limbourg,, son of Waléran I, Count d'arlon and Adélaïde de Lorraine Boso9 von Botenstein (Stuart, Page 31, Line ). AKA: Boto, Count von Pottenstein (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). AKA: Boto de Bavière. Also Known As: Boto "The Bold." Note -: Boto founded the Monastery of Theres on his lands North of the Danube. He was enfiefed in Bavaria as an adherent of the Bavarian Dukes, and fought the Hungarians who captured him. He gave his name to Botenstein Castle in Frankish Switzerland. Born: circa 1027 at Bavaria, son of Hartwig II von Botenstein and Frideruna de Bavière, Boto was born posthumously. Married circa 1061: Judith von Schweinfürt,, daughter of Otto III von Schweinfürt and Matylda of Poland (Judith was the widow of Duke Kunode Bavière when she married Boto). Died: on 1 Mar Judith9 von Schweinfürt (Stuart, Page 30, Line ) ( Married Name: von Botenstein. Born: in 1035, daughter of Otto III von Schweinfürt and Matylda of Poland. Married before 1053: Conrad I von Zütphen (Ibid.). Married Name: Conrad I (Ibid.). Married circa 1061: Boso von Botenstein,, son of Hartwig II von Botenstein and Frideruna de Bavière (Judith was the widow of Duke Kunode Bavière when she married Boto). Died: between 1094 and 1104 (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.) Hervé9 de Montmorency (André Roux: Scrolls, 184.). Occupation: Hervé was the Bouteiller de France. Born: before 1059 at Ile-de-France, France, son of Bouchard III, Seigneur de Montmorency and Adélise de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Hervé was alive in the year Married before 1085: Agnès d'eu,, daughter of Guillaume dit Busac, Count d'eu and Adélaïde, Countess de Soissons. Died: circa Agnès9 d'eu (André Roux: Scrolls, 184, 195.). AKA: Agnès de Soissons. Married Name: de Montmorency. Born: before 1066 at France, daughter of Guillaume dit Busac, Count d'eu and Adélaïde, Countess de Soissons. Married before 1085: Hervé de Montmorency,, son of Bouchard III, Seigneur de Montmorency and Adélise de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis Yves II/III, Count9 de Beaumont-sur-Oise (André Roux: Scrolls, 239.) (Stuart, Page 199, Line ). AKA: Yves I, Seigneur de Beaumont-surOise (Abbott, Page 31.). AKA: Yves I, Seigneur de Val d'oise (Abbott, Pages ). AKA: Yves, Chambrier de France. Born: circa 1044 at France, son of Yves I/II, Count de Beaumont-sur-Oise and Emma (--?--). Married before 1072: Judith N? (Judith was Yves II's first wife). Married before 1078: Adèle=Adélaïde de Gournay,, daughter of Hughes, Count de Gournay and N? N? (Adèle was Yves II's second wife). Note - before 1083: Yves, the first Seigneur, was a vassal of Hughes Capet. He amassed lands in the district. His son assumed the title of Comte (Abbott, Pages ). Died: between 1083 and 1090 Yves II was alive in the year 1080 in Conflans-Saint-Honoré Adèle=Adélaïde9 de Gournay (Stuart, Page 199, Line ). Married Name: de Beaumont-sur-Oise. Born: circa 1055, daughter of Hughes, Count de Gournay and N? N? Married before 1078: Yves II/III, Count de Beaumont-sur-Oise,, son of Yves I/II, Count de Beaumont-sur-Oise and Emma (--?--) (Adèle was Yves II's second wife). Died: on 8 Apr 1099.

75 288. Baudouin II, Count9 de Hainaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 253.) (Stuart, Page 54, Line ) (Abbott, Pages 292, 559.). AKA: Baudouin, Count de Jérusalem (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 253.). Born: circa 1056, son of Baudouin VI de Flandre and Rothilde=Richilde, Comtesse de Hainaut. Note in 1070: Baudouin II was ignored in the succession to Flanders by his uncle, who succeeded Arnoul III. Married in 1084: Alix=Ide de Louvain,, daughter of Henri II, Count de Louvain and Adèle=Alix de Turinge. Died: after 8 Jun 1098 at Holy Land Baudouin II died while on the First Crusade Alix=Ide9 de Louvain (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 217, 253.) (Stuart, Page 101, Line ). Born: circa 1065 at Louvain, Louvain, Brabant, Belgium, daughter of Henri II, Count de Louvain and Adèle=Alix de Turinge, Louvain the French version for the city known as Leeuven in Flemish. Married in 1084: Baudouin II, Count de Hainaut,, son of Baudouin VI de Flandre and Rothilde=Richilde, Comtesse de Hainaut. Died: in 1139 Ide was a widow by the year Gérard, Count9 von Wassenburg (André Roux: Scrolls, 118.) (Stuart, Page 87, Line ). AKA: Gérard, Count de Gueldre. AKA: Gérard I, Count von Geldern. AKA: Gérard I Flaminius. Born: circa 1053, son of Dietrich Heinrich, Count de Velue and N? N? Note - in 1085: Gérard built the Castle of Wassenburg, between the Rhine and the Meuse in the year Married circa 1087: Clémence, Comtesse de Longwy,, daughter of Guillaume V, Comte de Poitou and Ermesinde de Longwy. Died: in Clémence, Comtesse9 de Longwy (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 3-31.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). Married Name: de Luxembourg. AKA: Clémence de Poitou. Married Name: de Wassemberge. AKA: Clémence d'aquitaine. Born: before 1040 at Lorraine, France, daughter of Guillaume V, Comte de Poitou and Ermesinde de Longwy, Clémence is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Mathilde was born. Note - in 1058: Clémence was the heiress of Longwy and of Blieskastel. Married circa 1070: Conrad I, Count de Luxembourg,, son of Gilbert I, Count de Luxembourg and N? N? Married circa 1087: Gérard, Count von Wassenburg,, son of Dietrich Heinrich, Count de Velue and N? N? Died: in 1142 ( Albert III, Count9 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 197.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). Born: circa 1030 at Belgium, son of Albert II, Count de Namur and Relinde de Lorraine. Married between 1065 and 1066: Ide=Relinde de Saxe,, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Bertrade, Princess of Norway (Albert III was Ide's second husband). PaterAlter before 1083 Albert III, Count de Namur/Ide de Namur (an unknown value). Died: in Ide=Relinde9 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 197.) (Stuart, Page 151, Line ). AKA: Ide de Laroche Ide was the heiress of Laroche. Married Name: de Namur. MaterAlter: Elica von Schweinfürt/Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Born: before 1052, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Bertrade, Princess of Norway, Ide is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Godefroy was born. Some sources indicate that Elica von Scheinfurt was Ide's mother. Married before 1064: Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg (He was Ide's first husband). Married between 1065 and 1066: Albert III, Count de Namur,, son of Albert II, Count de Namur and Relinde de Lorraine (Albert III was Ide's second husband). MaterAlter: before 1083 Ide de Namur/Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Died: on 31 Jul Conrad I, Count9 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 3-31.). Born: circa 1040 at Franche-Comté, France, son of Gilbert I, Count de Luxembourg and N? N? Occupation: between 1059 and 1086 Conrad I was Comte de Luxembourg during this period ( Married circa 1070: Clémence, Comtesse de Longwy,, daughter of Guillaume V, Comte de Poitou and Ermesinde de Longwy. Died: in 1086.

76 295. Clémence, Comtesse9 de Longwy (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 3-31.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). Married Name: de Luxembourg. AKA: Clémence de Poitou. Married Name: de Wassemberge. AKA: Clémence d'aquitaine. Born: before 1040 at Lorraine, France, daughter of Guillaume V, Comte de Poitou and Ermesinde de Longwy, Clémence is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Mathilde was born. Note - in 1058: Clémence was the heiress of Longwy and of Blieskastel. Married circa 1070: Conrad I, Count de Luxembourg,, son of Gilbert I, Count de Luxembourg and N? N? Married circa 1087: Gérard, Count von Wassenburg,, son of Dietrich Heinrich, Count de Velue and N? N? Died: in 1142 ( Gérard IV, Count9 d'alsace (André Roux: Scrolls, 169, 193.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ). AKA: Gérard, Count de Châtenois. AKA: Gérard IV, Duke de Lorraine Gérard IV became the Duke of the Haute Lorraine in 1048 (Abbott, Page 541.). Born: before 1026, son of Gérard III, Count d'alsace and Gisèle de Metz, Gérard IV was born before Béatrix. Married before 1056: Hadvis=Hadwige de Namur,, daughter of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Died: on 14 Apr 1070 at Remiremont, Vosges, Lorraine, France Hadvis=Hadwige9 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 169, 193, 197.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ). Married Name: d'alsace. Born: before 1010, daughter of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Married before 1056: Gérard IV, Count d'alsace,, son of Gérard III, Count d'alsace and Gisèle de Metz. Died: between 1075 and 1080 Gary Murray's sources indicate Hedwig died 28 January 1067 (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Gary Murray [Prodigy ID# SJJA18A] under Subject "de Lorraine", 31 October 1997 at 14:29 Hours.) Robert I, Count9 de Flandre (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 118.) (Stuart, Page 152, Line ). AKA: Robert I, Count de Hollande. Also Known As: Robert "Le Frison" (Abbott, Page 292.). Born: circa 1035 at France, son of Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre and Adèle=Alix, Princess de France. Note - between 1062 and 1071: Robert was Count of Holland, France ( ) during the minority of his stepson, and Count of Flanders in Married in 1063 at Belgium: Gertrude de Saxe,, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Elica von Schweinfürt. Died: on 3 Oct Gertrude9 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 118.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Married Name: de Flandre. Married Name: de Hollande. Born: circa 1030, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Elica von Schweinfürt. Married in 1050: Florent I, Count de Hollande,, son of Dietrich III, Count of West Friesland and Orthelendis von der Nordmark (Gertrude was Florent I's first wife). Married in 1063 at Belgium: Robert I, Count de Flandre,, son of Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre and Adèle=Alix, Princess de France. Died: on 4 Aug Fouques IV, Count9 d'anjou (André Roux: Scrolls, 147.) (Stuart, Page 37, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 10 July 1994 at 00:34 Hours.) (KeatsRohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). AKA: Fouques, Comte de Gâtinais In 1068, Fouques deposed his older brother Geoffroy III, and became Comte de Gâtinais. To obtain the complicity of King Philippe I, he ceded him in 1069 the County of Gâtinais (Abbott, Page 39.). Also Known As: Foulques "Le Querelleux" ( Also Known As: Fouques "Le Réchin" (Abbott, Page 144.). Note -: (an unknown value). Born: in 1043 at France, son of Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count de Gâtinais and Ermengarde d'anjou (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 257.). Married before 1067: Hildegarde de Beaugency,, daughter of Lancelin=Landry II, Seigneur de Beaugency and Alberge N? (Hildegarde was Fouques IV's first wife). AKA: Foulques IV, Comte du Maine Comte 1068 to 1103, then co-comte 1103 to 1106, then Comte ( AKA: Foulques IV, Comte de Tours Comte 1068 to 1103, then co-comte 1103 to 1106, then Comte (Ibid.). Married in 1070: Ermengarde de Bourbon,, daughter of Archambaud IV, Sire de Bourbon and Béliarde N? (Ermengarde was Fouques IV's second wife). Divorced Ermengarde de Bourbon: between 1073 and 1076 ( Married in 1076: Ermengarde de Châtel-Aillon,, daughter of Isembert de Castellion and N? N? (Ermengarde was Fouques IV's third wife). Divorced Ermengarde de Châtel-Aillon: in 1080 ( Married between 1080 and 1087: N? de Brienne (She was Fouques IV's fourth wife). Married in 1089: Bertrade de Montfort,, daughter of Simon I, Seigneur de Montfort and Agnès d'évreux (Bertrade was Fouques IV's fifth wife). Divorced Bertrade de Montfort: on 15 Apr Died: on 14 Apr Bertrade9 de Montfort (André Roux: Scrolls, 147, 168.) (Stuart, Page 68, Line ). Married Name: de France. Married Name: d'anjou. Born: circa 1060 at Montfort-l'Amauri, Toulousain, Languedoc, France, daughter of Simon I, Seigneur de Montfort and Agnès d'évreux. MaterAlter: circa 1078 Constance d'antigny/bertrade de Montfort. Married in 1089: Fouques IV, Count d'anjou,, son of Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count de Gâtinais and Ermengarde d'anjou (Bertrade was Fouques IV's fifth wife). Divorced Fouques IV, Count d'anjou: on 15 Apr Married in 1093: Philippe I, King de France,, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne, Queen de France. She witnessed the separated: of Bertrade de Montfort and Philippe I, King de France in Died: on 14 Feb 1117 at Abbey de Fontevrault, Fontevrault, Maine-et-Loire, Anjou, France Hélie, Seigneur9 de La Flèche (André Roux: Scrolls, 53, 196, 241, 256.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Phil Currie, "Delano, Sarah", posted on 29 October 1995 at 01:13 Hours.). AKA: Hélie de Beaugency. AKA: Hélie, Seigneur de Ballon. AKA: Élie, Comte de Saint-Saens (Abbott, Page 130.). AKA: Élie, Count du Maine (Ibid.). Born: circa 1068 at France, son of Jean, Seigneur de La Flèche and Paule II du Maine. Note - in 1090: Hélie purchased Le Maine, and became the Count du Maine, in the year Married in 1090 at France: Mathilde, Dame de Château-du-Loir,, daughter of Gervais II, Seigneur de Château-du-Loir and Aremburge N? (Mathilde was Hélie's first wife. Hélie's second wife was Agnès d'aquitaine). Died: on 11 Jul 1110 Hélie is buried in the Abbey de La Coutoure du Mans Mathilde, Dame9 de Château-du-Loir (André Roux: Scrolls, 53, 241, 256.) (Stuart, Page 248, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Phil Currie, "Delano, Sarah", posted on 29 October 1995 at 01:13 Hours.). Married Name: de La Flèche. AKA: Mahaut, Dame de Château-du-Loir (Abbott, Page 134.). Born: circa 1070 at Maine, France, daughter of Gervais II, Seigneur de Château-du-Loir and Aremburge N? Married in 1090 at France: Hélie, Seigneur de La Flèche,, son of Jean, Seigneur de La Flèche and Paule II du Maine (Mathilde was Hélie's first wife. Hélie's second wife was Agnès d'aquitaine). Died: in 1099 (André Roux: Scrolls.).

77 This Coat of Arms was associated with Thibaut III. Comte de Champagne. This Coat of Arms was associated with Thibaut III. Comte de Blois Thibaud III, Count de Blois (André Roux: Scrolls, 121.) (Stuart, Page 97, Line ) (Hallam, Page 74.). AKA: Thibaud, Count de Chartres. AKA: Thibaud III, Comte de Champagne Thibaud III became Comte de Champagne in 1063 (Abbott, Pages 61.). AKA: Thibaud III, Count de Tours. AKA: Thibaud III, Comte de Châteaudun. AKA: Thibaud III, Comte de Troyes. Note -: Thibaud I (Theobald) took the paternal lands of Blois, upon the death of his father. Then, when his nephew, Eudes=Odo III went to England, Thibaud also got control of Troyes and Meaux, and he expanded southwards from the Troyes lands. Through his second wife, he got control of Bar and Vitry. Thibaud also was the Count of the Palace to Philippe I, King of France. In 1044, when Geoffrey Martel of Anjou acted on the sanction given by a royal investiture given him by King Henry I, Thibaud lost the Touraine and Vendôme. These were grave setbacks for the house of Blois, and Thibaud now aligned himself more closely with the King. Born: circa 1022, son of Eudes II, Count de Blois and Ermengarde d'auvergne. Married before 1037: Gersende, Comtesse du Maine,, daughter of Herbert I, Count du Maine and N? N? (Gersende was Thibaud III's first wife). Repudiated: Gersende, Comtesse du Maine in 1048 at France. Married circa 1055: Gundrada N? (Gundrada was Thibaud I/III's second wife). Married in 1069 at France: Adélaïde de Crépy,, daughter of Raoul III, Comte de Valois and Alix de Bar-sur-Aube (Adélaïde=Adèle was Thibaud III's second wife. Adèle's father Raoul III, Count de Crépy (also Raoul IV de Valois) passed the lands of Bar-sur-Aube and Vitry to her (actually to her husband) when Adèle's brother, Simon, became a monk. Some sources indicate Thibaud and Adélaïde were married before 1061). Died: on 29 Sep 1090 at Épernay, France, Thibaut III died just before he could lead the Third Crusade Gersende, Comtesse9 du Maine (André Roux: Scrolls, 241.) (Abbott, Page 130.). Married Name: de Blois. Married Name: de Champagne. Married Name: de Ligurie. PaterAlter before 1023 Gersende, Comtesse du Maine/Herbert II, Count du Maine (an unknown value) (Ibid.). Born: circa 1025 at Chartres, Blois, Orléanais, France, daughter of Herbert I, Count du Maine and N? N?, André Roux shows Gersende as daughter of Herbert I, but Abbott shows the Gersende who married Azzo I as daughter of Herbert II (Ibid.). Married before 1037: Thibaud III, Count de Blois,, son of Eudes II, Count de Blois and Ermengarde d'auvergne (Gersende was Thibaud III's first wife). Repudiated: Thibaud III, Count de Blois in 1048 at France. Married between 1048 and 1049: Azon, Marquis de Ligurie,, son of Alberto Azzo I, Marchese de Ligurie and Adela N? (Azon was Gersende's second husband). Died: circa 1074.

78 306. Guillaume, Duke9 de Normandie (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 118, 231.) (Stuart, Page 67, Line ) (Hallam, Page 74.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Robert Carver [ID# MNDY85D] "William the Conq." posted on 25 August 1995 at 21:32 Hours - citing "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle."). Also Known As: William "The Conqueror" (Abbott, Page 219.). AKA: William I, King of England. Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Bâtard." Born Illeg.: between 1027 and 1028 at Château de Falaise, Falaise, Normandie, France, -, son of Robert II, Count d'exmes and Arlette de Mortain, - Robert "Le Magnifique" was not with Arletta when the child was born. His name had been chosen long before, without regard to originality and it is uncertain whether he was born in late 1027 or very early Note - between 1035 and 1087: In his early years, William had to defend himself against the Angevin aggression (From Queen Constance widow of King Robert "Le Pieux"). As the illegitimate son of Robert "the Magnificent", William = Guillaume, who had succeeeded to Normandy in 1035, when still a minor, was in a precarious position in the duchy. In 1047, a powerful coallition of nobles massed against him and he sough royal support from King Henry I. Henry rescued him and defeated the rebels at the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes with Guillaume fighting at his side. Then from 1048 until 1052 Guillaume and Henry made war on Geoffrey Martel of Anjou. In 1048, they captured Mouliherne and in 1049 Guillaume went into Maine while the King went into the Touraine. In 1049, Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre promises his daughter to Guillaume. In

79 1052, King Henry switched his alliance from Normandy to Anjou. King Henry supported the rebellion of the Count of Arques against the Norman Duke in In 1054, the King, Geoffrey of Anjou and the king's brother Eudes marched into Normandy. Eudes de France was soundly beaten by Guillaume at Mortemer-sur-Eaulne. In 1058, King Henry I and Geoffroi Martel I again started an offensive against Normandy, but part of their army was cut-off and was massacred at Varaville. In 1060, when both of them had died, Guillaume of Normandy had ample opportunities to expand his territories which he used to considerable effect. While in 1063, some smaller feudal lords rebelled against Guillaume's iron-handed rule, this did not prevent him from acquiring Le Mans. On 5 January 1064, Harold sails to the continent, presumably to assure Guillaume that he would succeed King Edward of England (if one is to believe the tapissery of Bayeux) -- the two being related by blood (Emma, mother of Edward the Confessor, is the great aunt of the Normand Chief). On 5 January 1066, King Edward of England falls gravely ill, and in spite of his sworn oath to Guillaume, duke de Normandie, Harold is crowned King of England. This action, of course cancels the plans for marrying Guillaume's daughter. Guillaume sought to assert his hereditary right and was supported by Pope Alexander II, as well as by the King of Denmark and the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1066, in record time, with the assistance of the Lords of Eu, d'avranches, de Coutances, de Bayeux, d'évreux and de Beaumont, Guillaume assembles a fleet. On 12 September, the fleet is ready, but the winds do not become favorable until 27 September. Sailing North from Saint-Valery-sur-Somme, Guillaume succeeds on 29 September 1066 on the Feast of Saint Michael, in landing between Eastbourne and Hastings. This is one accomplishment which even Napoleon and Hitler would be unable to replicate. The landing is celebrated with a feast (and it is clear from the tapestry of Bayeux that the art of the barbecue was not invented yesterday). On 14 October 1066, after failures of negotiations, the Battle of Hastings is engaged. Harold is mortally wounded by an arrow to the head, and the AngloSaxons flee in disarray. It is said that in 1066, Ealdred, Archbishop of York and the citizens of London wished to have Prince Edgar for King as was his right by birth and Edwin and Morcar had promised to fight for him. On 25 December 1066, Guillaume is annointed King in Westminster by the Archbishop of York, Ealdred. [Ealdred, Archbishop of York for 10 years less 15 weeks, died 11 September 1067 and is buried in York, the seat of his Episcopal see]. He had himself crowned King of England in London. Guillaume had to fight against his son Robert Courtheuse, who was supported by King Philippe I of France. In 1076, Philippe I, King of France is able to break Guillaume's siege of Dol, and in 1077, a short-lived peace is arranged between the two kings. It was during military operations against Philip, the bastard died of wounds. He was also known as William the Conqueror - Only the irrational British mind could conceive of bestowing such an illustrious title on one of such questionable origin. Married in 1050 at France: Mathilde=Maud de Flandre,, daughter of Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre and Adèle=Alix, Princess de France (In 1049, Baudouin V offers his daughter's hand in marriage to Guillaume, Duke de Normandie. French history texts uniformly indicate that the headstrong Flemish woman would have nothing to do with a bastard. Guillaume is said to have galoped all the way to Lille, enterred Mathilde's room, and tamed her by beating her with his stirrups, tearing her robe to shreds in the process. After that, Mathilde is said to have enthusiastically consented to become the Duchess of Normandy. Mathilde and William were devoted to each other, and there is no evidence to suggest that William had any mistress according to Debrett's "Kings and Queens of Great Britain", no illegitimate children have ever been convincingly shown. The marriage was approved by the Pope in the year 1059). Died: on 9 Sep 1087 at Abbaye aux Hommes, Rouen, Saint-Gervais, Normandie, France, Guillaume is buried at the Abbey of Saint-Étienne in Caen, France in accordance with his wishes Mathilde=Maud9 de Flandre (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 149, 231.) (Stuart, Pages 103, Line ). Married Name: de Normandie. AKA: Matilda, Queen of England. AKA: Maud, Duchesse de Normandie. Born: in 1032 at Flandre, Belgium, daughter of Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre and Adèle=Alix, Princess de France, While many French history texts seem fond of claiming that it was after this Mathilde that the famous tapissery of Bayeux is named, more respectable encyclopedic sources (including Larousse) indicate this is an error. Married in 1050 at France: Guillaume, Duke de Normandie,, son of Robert II, Count d'exmes and Arlette de Mortain (In 1049, Baudouin V offers his daughter's hand in marriage to Guillaume, Duke de Normandie. French history texts uniformly indicate that the headstrong Flemish woman would have nothing to do with a bastard. Guillaume is said to have galoped all the way to Lille, enterred Mathilde's room, and tamed her by beating her with his stirrups, tearing her robe to shreds in the process. After that, Mathilde is said to have enthusiastically consented to become the Duchess of Normandy. Mathilde and William were devoted to each other, and there is no evidence to suggest that William had any mistress according to Debrett's "Kings and Queens of Great Britain", no illegitimate children have ever been convincingly shown. The marriage was approved by the Pope in the year 1059). Died: on 3 Nov 1083 at Caen, Calvados, Normandie, France Engelbert I, Count9 von Sponheim (Stuart, Page 167, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Engelbert I, Count von Levanthal Levanthal in the Kraichgau. AKA: Engilbert II, Count de Treveso Treveso in Italy. AKA: Engelbert I, Count von Ortenburg. Note -: Engelbert I was an advocate of Salzburg. Born: before 1055 at Austria, son of Siegfried, Count von Sponheim and Richgard, Countess von Lavant, Egelbert I was alive in the year 1060, and is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Richgard was born. Married before 1070: Hedwig von Flinsbach,, daughter of Bernhard von Flinsbach and Cécilia N? Died: on 1 Apr Hedwig9 von Flinsbach (Stuart, Page 167, Line ). Married Name: von Sponheim. Born: circa 1040, daughter of Bernhard von Flinsbach and Cécilia N? Married before 1070: Engelbert I, Count von Sponheim,, son of Siegfried, Count von Sponheim and Richgard, Countess von Lavant. Died: after Ulrich The Rich, Count 9 von Passau (Stuart, Page 94, Line ). Born: before 1072, son of N. von Augstgau and N? N?, Ulrich was Count in Married before 1093: Adelheid von Fratenhausen,, daughter of Heinrich I, Count von Lechsgemuend and Irmgard von Rott (Adelheid=Adélaïde was Ulrich's second wife and she was the widow of Markwart von Markwartstein (Marquardstein), and her third husband was Bérenger von Sulzbach) (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). Died: on 14 Apr 1099 at Holland Ulrich died of the plague Adelheid9 von Fratenhausen (Stuart, Page 157, Line ). Married Name: de Sulzbach. Married Name: von Passau. AKA: Adelheid von Lechsgemuend. Born: before 1077, daughter of Heinrich I, Count von Lechsgemuend and Irmgard von Rott (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). Married before 1093: Ulrich The Rich, Count von Passau,, son of N. von Augstgau and N? N? (Adelheid=Adélaïde was Ulrich's second wife and she was the widow of Markwart von Markwartstein (Marquardstein), and her third husband was Bérenger von Sulzbach) (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). Married circa 1100: Bérenger II, Count de Sulzbach,, son of Gebhard II, Count von Sulzbach and Ermengarde=Irmgard von Rott (Bérenger II was Adelheid's third husband. While there appears to be a variance between Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" and E.S. as to who Bérenger II married, that variance really relates to Adélaïde's = Adelheid's parentage) (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). Died: on 24 Feb 1111 Adelheid is buried at Sulzbach.

80 Philippe de France, Duke of Anjou; Duke of Orléans Philippe I, King de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Hallam, Page 77.). Born: between 1052 and 1053 at Marne, Champagne, France, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne, Queen de France, Since Anne, his mother, claimed to be descendant [through the women's side] of Philippe of Macedonia, she chose for her son the first name of the father of Alexander The Great. Most historical sources indicate Philippe I was born in Other sources seem to be sure of 23 May but not whether it was in 1052 or Note - between 1060 and 1099: Philippe I enjoyed uniformly bad press from his contemporaries, in large part because he was opposed to the reforming elements in the Church. Interestingly, Robert his grandfather had shown an almost equal antipathy toward the Church, and had burned down a monastery, but he was dubbed "the pious". Philippe became the King of France in He first worked under the tutorage of Baldwin= Baudouin V, Count of Flanders ( ). In fact from 1060 until 1067, France was under the Regency of Baldwin V, who was praised as a prudent administrator. Philippe annexed the Gâtinais (in 1067), and took over French Vexin (in 1101) and that same year regained the viscounty of Bourges (which Philippe purchased between 1097 and 1102 from its owner Odo Arpin who needed the funds to go on a crusade). In 1071, he intervene in the affairs of Flanders, but was beaten near Cassel. He was excommunicated (through Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095) for repudiating his wife Berthe, daughter of Florent I, Count of Holland, and having kidnapped (in 1092) Bertrada de Montfort, wife of Foulques Réchin, Count of Anjou. He lived openly with Bertrada. He sold church offices arousing widespread hostility from the French episcopate. He also plundered religious houses. Although he re-founded his father's house of SaintMartin-des-Champs as a Cluniac priory, he was not outstandingly generous toward Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire or Fleury, where he was later buried. More of an opportunist than a warrior, he quickly became obese and inactive spending much of his time in gluttony and sleep. The disputes raised by Philippe's marriage to Bertrada of Montfort illustrate the clash between the ideas of the high-born laity about marriage and the firm stance taken by the reforming Church on the issues of divorce, bigamy and incest. The resulting scandal left Philippe with the reputation of a greedy, lecherous adulterer and seducer; in fact, his actions would have seemed quite acceptable to many of his lay contemporaries and a sensible move to produce more heirs and safeguard the succession. In 1104, Philippe repudiated Bertrada at the Council of Beaugency and compromised over the bishopric of Beauvais. Even though he continued to live with Bertrada, his relationship with the papacy was much improved. He supported Robert Courte-Heuse against his father, William "Le Conquérant", and fought with some success against Guillaume Le Roux in Normandie in Philippe's reign saw the first crusade, the earliest of the holy wars conducted on a grand scale by the Western nobility in Palestine (although there had been crusades from Spain in the 1060's) with the aim of regaining and protecting the holy places from their infidel captors. In response to an appeal by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095, and the inspired preaching of the Papal legate Bishop Adhémar of Le Puy, a powerful army from the West consisting mainly of men from the various regions of France embarked in 1096 for the Holy Land via Constantinople. By 1099, in spite of internal dissensions, the Norman Bohémond (a Hauteville from Sicily), Godfrey of Bouillon, Hugh of Vermandois, Raymond IV, Count of Flanders, Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, and Robert II, Count of Flanders succeeded in capturing Antioch and Jerusalem, having routed their Seljuk and Fatimid adversaries. They then established four Latin states in Outremer. This was a striking achievement from which the Papacy did not fail to profit. Married in 1072: Berthe de Hollande,, daughter of Florent I, Count de Hollande and Gertrude de Saxe (Berthe was Philippe's first wife. King Philippe's marriage to her probably allowed him to regain Corbie, which lordship had been granted by King Henry I to the Count of Flanders as dowry of his sister Adela). Divorced Berthe de Hollande: either 1091 or 1092 (King Philippe I either divorced Berthe in 1091 or repudiated her in 1092, depending on the source). Married in 1093: Bertrade de Montfort,, daughter of Simon I, Seigneur de Montfort and Agnès d'évreux. He was excommunicated in 1095 at Clermont, Oise, Ile-de-France, France (For having rejected his wife and kidnapped Bertrada, Wife of Fulk Réchin, Count of Anjou) (Hallam, Page 75.). He witnessed the separated: of Philippe I, King de France and Bertrade de Montfort in Died: on 21 Jul 1108 at Melun, Seine-et-Marne, Ile-de-France, France, Philippe I is buried at the Abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire. Buried: on 29 Jul 1108 at Fleury, France, Philippe I is buried at the Abbey de SaintBenoît-sur-Loire Berthe9 de Hollande (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 222, Line ). Married Name: de France. Born: circa 1055 at Frison, Frisia, Holland, daughter of Florent I, Count de Hollande and Gertrude de Saxe. Married in 1072: Philippe I, King de France,, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne, Queen de France (Berthe was Philippe's first wife. King Philippe's marriage to her probably allowed him to regain Corbie, which lordship had been granted by King Henry I to the Count of Flanders as dowry of his sister Adela). Divorced Philippe I, King de France: either 1091 or 1092 (King Philippe I either divorced Berthe in 1091 or repudiated her in 1092, depending on the source). Died: in 1094 at Montreuil-sur-Mer, Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, France Humbert II, Comte9 de Savoie (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 123.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ) (Abbott, Page 644.). AKA: Umberto, Marquis de Turin. AKA: Humbert I, Comte de Maurienne. Also Known As: Humbert "Le Gros." AKA: Humbert II, Comte de Suse. Born: circa 1070, son of Amédie=Amédé II, Count de Maurienne and Jeanne=Johanna de Genève, Humbert II's maternal parentage as Jeanne de Genève is probable. Married in 1090 at France: Gisle=Gisèle, Countess de Bourgogne,, daughter of Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne and Étiennette de Barcelone. Died: on 14 Oct Gisle=Gisèle, Countess9 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 123.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 27 July 1994 at 13:58 Hours.). Married Name: de Savoie. Married Name: de Montferrat. Born: circa 1070, daughter of Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne and Étiennette de

81 Barcelone. Married in 1090 at France: Humbert II, Comte de Savoie,, son of Amédie=Amédé II, Count de Maurienne and Jeanne=Johanna de Genève. Married before 1117: Rainier III, Margrave de Montferrat,, son of Guillaume III de Montferrat and Otta di Agledo (Rainier was Gisèle's second husband). Died: after 1133 (Stuart, Page 71.) Guillaume VII, Comte9 de Poitou (André Roux: Scrolls, 85, 150.) (Stuart, Page 66, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 402.) (Stuart, Page 66.). AKA: Guillaume IX, Duke de Guyenne. AKA: Guillaume IX, Duke d'aquitaine (Abbott, Page 303.). Note -: Guillaume VII de Poitou was also Guillaume IX, Duke d'aquitaine, and a crusader. Born: on 22 Oct 1071 at France, son of Guillaume VI dit Guy, Comte de Poitou and Hildegarde de Bourgogne. Married in 1089 at France: Ermengarde d'anjou,, daughter of Fouques IV, Count d'anjou and Hildegarde de Beaugency (Ermengarde was Guillaume VII/IX's first wife and he was her second husband). Significant-Other: Dangerose de l'islebouchard before Divorced Ermengarde d'anjou: in Married in 1094: Philippes=Mahaut, Countess de Toulouse,, daughter of Guillaume IV, Count de Toulouse and Emmé de Mortain (Philippes was Guillaume VII's second wife). Divorced Philippes=Mahaut, Countess de Toulouse: in Significant-Other: Maubergeron N? before Died: on 10 Feb 1127 at age Philippes=Mahaut, Countess 9 de Toulouse (André Roux: Scrolls, 85, 150.) (Stuart, Page 117, Line ) (Abbott, Page 371.). AKA: Philippa, Régente de Toulouse. Married Name: de Poitou. MaterAlter: Matilda N?/Philippes=Mahaut, Countess de Toulouse. Born: circa 1073 at Languedoc, France, daughter of Guillaume IV, Count de Toulouse and Emmé de Mortain, Some sources assert that Philippes was the daughter of Guillaume IV by Matilda his first wife. Married in 1094: Guillaume VII, Comte de Poitou,, son of Guillaume VI dit Guy, Comte de Poitou and Hildegarde de Bourgogne (Philippes was Guillaume VII's second wife). Divorced Guillaume VII, Comte de Poitou: in Died: on 28 Nov Aimery I, Vicomte9 de Châtellerault (Stuart, Page 116, Line ) (Abbott, Page 408.). Born: circa 1076 at Châtellerault, Vienne, France, son of Boson II, Vicomte de Châtellerault and Éléonore de Thouars. Married before 1105: Dangerose de l'isle-bouchard,, daughter of Barthélémy Borrel, Seigneur de l'isle-bouchard and N? N? Married before 1130 at France: Maubergeron N? (Maubergeron was Aimery I's second wife). Died: on 7 Nov 1151 Aimery I died a monk at Notre Dame de Noyers. Some sources indicate that Aimery I died before Dangerose9 de l'isle-bouchard (Stuart, Page 116, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). Married Name: de Châtellerault. Born: between 1075 and 1080 at France, daughter of Barthélémy Borrel, Seigneur de l'isle-bouchard and N? N? Significant-Other: Guillaume VII, Comte de Poitou before Married before 1105: Aimery I, Vicomte de Châtellerault,, son of Boson II, Vicomte de Châtellerault and Éléonore de Thouars. Died: after 1119 Dangerose was alive in the year Dreux, Seigneur9 de Boves (André Roux: Scrolls, 165.) (Stuart, Page 22, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Dreux de Parpiriaco Parpiriaco = Parpes (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 181.). Born: before 1019 at Somme, Picardie, France, son of Hughes, Seigneur de Boves and N? N?, Dreux is presumed to have been at least 16 years of age by the time he married Adèle. AKA: Dreux de Coucy by rights of marriage with Adèle. Married in 1035 at Ardennes, France: Adèle de Coucy,, daughter of Aubri, Seigneur de Coucy and Mathilde N? Died: after 1059 Dreux is mentioned in a Charter of 1042 for a donation he made to the Canons of the Church of Amiens de La Justice de Coitency., and is also mentioned in a Charter dated Adèle9 de Coucy (Stuart, Page 22, Line ). Married Name: de Boves. Born: before 1020 at Coucy, Ile-de-France, France, daughter of Aubri, Seigneur de Coucy and Mathilde N?, Adèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time she married Dreux. Married in 1035 at Ardennes, France: Dreux, Seigneur de Boves,, son of Hughes, Seigneur de Boves and N? N? 322. Liétaud, Seigneur9 de Marle (Stuart, Page 4, Line 6-32.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Liétaud de Roucy. PaterAlter before 1040 Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle/Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne (an unknown value). MaterAlter: before 1040 N. de Poitiers/Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle. Born: before 1040, son of Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle and N? N?, Liétaud is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Adèle was born. Some sources skip a generation and indicate that this Liétaud's parents were Gervais de Roucy and his wife N? de Poitiers. Married before 1057 at La Fère, Aisne, Picardie, France: Mahaut N? 323. Mahaut9 N? (Ibid.). Married Name: de Marle. Born: before 1043 Mahaut is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her dauther, Adèle, was born. Married before 1057 at La Fère, Aisne, Picardie, France: Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle,, son of Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle and N? N? 324. Guy I, Seigneur9 de Montlhéry (André Roux: Scrolls, 182.) (Stuart, Page 178, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Chèvreuse. AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Châteaufort. AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Bray. AKA: Gui, Châtelain de Rochefort-enYvelines. AKA: Guy, Seigneur de Mantes In 1087, Mantes was burned by William teh Conqueror but he was wounded in an accident and soon after died. At this time, Mantes had a seigneur in Guy de Montlhéry, but King Louis VI claimed Mantes in his capacity as Count de Vexin (Abbott, Page 44.). PaterAlter circa 1009 Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry/Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry (an unknown value). Born: circa 1009 at Montlhéry, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France, son of Milon I de Monteleherico and N?, Dame de Montlhéry, Guy I founded the Abbey de Longpont. Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" inserts an extra generation [which André Roux's data does not show] and alleges that Gui I was the son of Milon I de La Ferté-sur-Ourcy and N. Dame de Montlhéry daughter of Thibault. E.S. [via Paul Theroff] also indicates that Guy I's father was Milon whom it views as the progenitor of the Montlhéry family. Abbott shows Thibaut as father of Guy (Abbott, Page 48.). MaterAlter: circa 1009 N?, Dame de Montlhéry/Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry. Married before 1035 at France: Sainte Hodierne de Gometz,, daughter of Guillaume de Gometz and N? N? Died: in 1095 at Longpont, Aisne, Ile-de-France, France, Guy I died a monk at the Abbey of Longpont where he is buried Sainte Hodierne9 de Gometz (Stuart, Page 4, Line 5-32, Page 178, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 182.). AKA: Hodierne, Dame de la Fertésur-Oucy. AKA: Hodierne, Dame de La Ferté-Alais (Abbott, Page 104.). Married Name: de Montlhéry. AKA: Hodierne, Dame de Bures (Ibid.). AKA: Hodierne, Dame de Gometz (Ibid.). Born: before 1020 at France, daughter of Guillaume de Gometz and N? N?, Sainte Hodierne is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Milon I was born. Married before 1035 at France: Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry,, son of Milon I de Monteleherico and N?, Dame de Montlhéry Lancelin I, Seigneur9 de Beaugency (André Roux: Scrolls, 196.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ; Page 3, Line 4-32.). AKA: Lancelin I, Seigneur de La Flèche Lancelin I was Lord of La Flèche in Anjou, France. Born: before 1007 at Beaugency, Orléanais, France, son of Landry, Sire de Beaugency

82 and N? N?, Lancelin was alive in the years 1033 and He is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son Lancelin II was born. The parentage of Lancelin I is uncertain. Married before 1024 at France: Paule I du Maine,, daughter of Herbert I, Count du Maine and N? N? (There is some uncertainty about the marriage of Lancelin I. Roderick Stuart in his Royalty for Commoners misinterpretes his own reference Turton who suggests Lancelin I did marry Paule du Maine but that Paule was the Godmother of Paule du Maine who married Jean, Lancelin's son. The two Paule are not the same person as Roderick Stuart assumes Turton meant. Other sources question whether Paule I was ever married to Lancelin I or had any children from him). Died: between 1051 and 1060 at France Paule I9 du Maine (André Roux: Scrolls, 196, 241.) (Stuart, Page 31, Line ). Married Name: de Beaugency. Born: before 1010 at France, daughter of Herbert I, Count du Maine and N? N?, Paule is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Lancelin II was born if Lancelin II was her son. Married before 1024 at France: Lancelin I, Seigneur de Beaugency,, son of Landry, Sire de Beaugency and N? N? (There is some uncertainty about the marriage of Lancelin I. Roderick Stuart in his Royalty for Commoners misinterpretes his own reference Turton who suggests Lancelin I did marry Paule du Maine but that Paule was the Godmother of Paule du Maine who married Jean, Lancelin's son. The two Paule are not the same person as Roderick Stuart assumes Turton meant. Other sources question whether Paule I was ever married to Lancelin I or had any children from him). Henri I, King of France Henri I, King de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Hallam, Page 73.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (von Redlich, Page 125.). AKA: Henry I, Comte de Paris. AKA: Henry I, Duke de Bourgogne (Abbott, Page 198.). Born: on 4 May 1008 at Reims, France, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence. Note - between 1031 and 1060 at France: King: Until about 1044, Henri I was preoccupied with Odo II, Count of Blois, who was trying to make good his own claim to the Kingdom of Burgundy, and the nobles of the Ile-de-France. In disputes with his younger brother Robert goaded by the malicious hatred of his mother Constance for Henri, Henri managed to keep his crown thanks to the help of Robert Le Diable, Duke of Normandy. Henry pardoned his brother, and gave him the Duchy of Bourgogne, thus forming the first Capetian House of Bourgogne. In 1033, Henry concluded an alliance with the Emperor Conrad II, but the Count of Blois took the side of Odo, the King's youngest brother who had been left landless. They, in turn, rallied a coalitions of nobles in opposition to Henry. In 1034, after savage fighting, Odo of Blois submitted thanks to the vigorous actions of Robert "Le Magnifique", but the war broke out soon afterwards. In July, 1034, Constance died. In 1037 Odo of Blois died while fighting in Lorraine, and his lands were divided between his two sons, Theobald I who took Blois and Stephen who was given Troyes and Meaux. The King was victorious against them, and Eudes (Henri's brother) was captured and incarcerated in Orléans in 1039; Stephen defeated and his ally, the Count of Vermandois was imprisoned. The Comte de Blois would lose Touraine to the Comte d'anjou, Henri's ally. The King took control of Sens together with the abbeys of Saint-Père at Châlons, and Saint-Médard at Soissons. In 1043, Emperor Henri III of Germany and King Henri I of France meet in Ivois to arrange a lasting peace (shortly after Henry III married Agnès de Bourgogne). By 1046, while relations between the Emperor and the King of France soured -- the Emperor apparently still miffed at Henri I's having fomented a revolt against the imperial crown in 1044 by the lords of Franche-Comté and of Bourgogne, Guillaume, the young Duke de Normandie, requests the royal assistance of the King to quell a rebellion by the lords of lower Bourgogne led by Renouf, Vicomte de Bessin and Gui, son of the Comte de Bourgogne, titular fief of Brionne. In 1047 at Val-ès-Dunes, just South of Caen, William fighting at the King's side is victorious and erects the Chapel de Sainte-Paix near Caen to commemorate the occasion. Gui de Brionne would require 3 more years of fighting to tame. In 1050, Henry I fought against Geoffrey Martel of Anjou with the help of William, Duke de Normandie. In Northern France, he was therefore able to contain the threats from Blois-Champagne and to profit from the involvement of Normandy and Anjou against one another. He consolidated his power within the royal principality, but his broader schemes, particularly for regaining Lorraine were not so successful. Married before 1033: Mathilde, Princess of Germany,, daughter of Conrad II, King of Germany and Gisèle de Souabe (Mathilde was Henri I's first of three wives). Married in 1043: Mathilda de Saxe,, daughter of Ludwig von Braunschweig and Gertrude von Egisheim (Hallam, Page 72.). Married on 19 May 1051 at For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims, Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Anne, Queen de France,, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden (According to Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners": After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King de France marries Anne de Russie, daughter of the Grand-Duke de Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. However, von Redlich's "Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants" claims that Henri I and Anne were married circa 29 January 1044 [id est, immediately after Henri I's second wife died). Died: on 4 Aug 1060 at Vitry-en-Brie, France, at age 52 Some French history text indicate that Henri I died in Vitry-aux-Loges. Henri I is buried at Saint Denis. Buried: on 24 Aug 1060.

83 333. Anne, Queen9 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ) (von Redlich, Page 63.). AKA: Anne de Russie. AKA: Anna=Agnès Jaroslawna. Married Name: de Valois. AKA: Anne de Kiev. Born: in 1036 at Kiev, Ukraine, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden. Married on 19 May 1051 at For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims, Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Henri I, King de France,, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence (According to Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners": After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King de France marries Anne de Russie, daughter of the Grand-Duke de Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. However, von Redlich's "Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants" claims that Henri I and Anne were married circa 29 January 1044 [id est, immediately after Henri I's second wife died). Married circa 1061 at France: Raoul III, Comte de Valois,, son of Raoul II, Count de Crépy and Adèle de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (Anne was Raoul III's third wife and he her second husband as she was the widow of Henri I when she married Raoul. When Henri I died on 4 August 1060, Anne, 36 years of age, was still considered quite lovely. It is said that she had herself whisked off by Raoul Comte de Crépy and de Valois, as he in turn, repudiated his wife, Haquenez. She complains to Pope Alexander II, who would excommunicate Raoul). Died: between 1076 and 1089 at France Anna is buried at the Abbey of Villiers in La Ferté-Alais on the Essonne, 19-km from Corbeil, in the Seine & Oise Department, France Herbert IV, Count9 de Vermandois (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Stuart, Page 175, Line ). AKA: Herbert IV, Seigneur de Saint-Quentin (Abbott, Page 127.). AKA: Herbert, Count de Vexin. AKA: Héribert IV, Count de Valois. Born: circa 1032 at France, son of Othon, Comte de Vermandois and Pavie N? Married before 1060: N? N? (She was Herbert IV's first wife). Married before 1062: Adèle, Countess de Crépy,, daughter of Raoul III, Comte de Valois and Alix de Bar-sur-Aube (Adèle was Herbert IV's second wife). Died: circa Adèle, Countess9 de Crépy (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Stuart, Page 196, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 15 September 1994 at 00:16 Hours.). AKA: Adèle de Vexin. Married Name: de Vermandois. AKA: Adèle, Countess de Valois (Abbott, Pages 56.). Born: before 1043, daughter of Raoul III, Comte de Valois and Alix de Bar-sur-Aube, Adèle was alive in the year Married before 1062: Herbert IV, Count de Vermandois,, son of Othon, Comte de Vermandois and Pavie N? (Adèle was Herbert IV's second wife). Note - in 1074 at France: Adèle became the heiress of the countship of Valois when her brother Simon became a monk, and her father redistributed the lands. Died: in 1118 Adèle was alive in the year Henri I, King of France Henri I, King de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Hallam, Page 73.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (von Redlich, Page 125.). AKA: Henry I, Comte de Paris. AKA: Henry I, Duke de Bourgogne (Abbott, Page 198.). Born: on 4 May 1008 at Reims, France, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence. Note - between 1031 and 1060 at France: King: Until about 1044, Henri I was preoccupied with Odo II, Count of Blois, who was trying to make good his own claim to the Kingdom of Burgundy, and the nobles of the Ile-de-France. In disputes with his younger brother Robert goaded by the malicious hatred of his mother Constance for Henri, Henri managed to keep his crown thanks to the help of Robert Le Diable, Duke of Normandy. Henry pardoned his brother, and gave him the Duchy of Bourgogne, thus forming the first Capetian House of Bourgogne. In 1033, Henry concluded an alliance with the Emperor Conrad II, but the Count of Blois took the side of Odo, the King's youngest brother who had been left landless. They, in turn, rallied a coalitions of nobles in opposition to Henry. In 1034, after savage fighting, Odo of Blois submitted thanks to the vigorous actions of Robert "Le Magnifique", but the war broke out soon afterwards. In July, 1034, Constance died. In 1037 Odo of Blois died while fighting in Lorraine, and his lands were divided between his two sons, Theobald I who took Blois and Stephen who was given Troyes and Meaux. The King was victorious against them, and Eudes (Henri's brother) was captured and incarcerated in Orléans in 1039; Stephen defeated and his ally, the Count of Vermandois was imprisoned. The Comte de Blois would lose Touraine to the Comte d'anjou, Henri's ally. The King took control of Sens together with the abbeys of Saint-Père at Châlons, and Saint-Médard at Soissons. In 1043, Emperor Henri III of Germany and King Henri I of France meet in Ivois to arrange a lasting peace (shortly after Henry III married Agnès de Bourgogne). By 1046, while relations between the Emperor and the King of France soured -- the Emperor apparently still miffed at Henri I's having fomented a revolt against the imperial crown in 1044 by the lords of Franche-Comté and of Bourgogne, Guillaume, the young Duke de Normandie, requests the royal assistance of the King to quell a rebellion by the lords of lower Bourgogne led by Renouf, Vicomte de Bessin and Gui, son of the Comte de Bourgogne, titular fief of Brionne. In 1047 at Val-ès-Dunes, just South of Caen, William fighting at the King's side is victorious and erects the Chapel de Sainte-Paix near Caen to commemorate the occasion. Gui de Brionne would require 3 more years of fighting to tame. In 1050, Henry I fought against Geoffrey Martel of Anjou with the help of William, Duke de Normandie. In Northern France, he was therefore able to contain the threats from Blois-Champagne and to profit from the involvement of Normandy and Anjou against one another. He consolidated his power within the royal principality, but his broader schemes,

84 particularly for regaining Lorraine were not so successful. Married before 1033: Mathilde, Princess of Germany,, daughter of Conrad II, King of Germany and Gisèle de Souabe (Mathilde was Henri I's first of three wives). Married in 1043: Mathilda de Saxe,, daughter of Ludwig von Braunschweig and Gertrude von Egisheim (Hallam, Page 72.). Married on 19 May 1051 at For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims, Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Anne, Queen de France,, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden (According to Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners": After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King de France marries Anne de Russie, daughter of the Grand-Duke de Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. However, von Redlich's "Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants" claims that Henri I and Anne were married circa 29 January 1044 [id est, immediately after Henri I's second wife died). Died: on 4 Aug 1060 at Vitry-en-Brie, France, at age 52 Some French history text indicate that Henri I died in Vitry-aux-Loges. Henri I is buried at Saint Denis. Buried: on 24 Aug Anne, Queen9 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ) (von Redlich, Page 63.). AKA: Anne de Russie. AKA: Anna=Agnès Jaroslawna. Married Name: de Valois. AKA: Anne de Kiev. Born: in 1036 at Kiev, Ukraine, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden. Married on 19 May 1051 at For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims, Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Henri I, King de France,, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence (According to Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners": After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King de France marries Anne de Russie, daughter of the Grand-Duke de Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. However, von Redlich's "Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants" claims that Henri I and Anne were married circa 29 January 1044 [id est, immediately after Henri I's second wife died). Married circa 1061 at France: Raoul III, Comte de Valois,, son of Raoul II, Count de Crépy and Adèle de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (Anne was Raoul III's third wife and he her second husband as she was the widow of Henri I when she married Raoul. When Henri I died on 4 August 1060, Anne, 36 years of age, was still considered quite lovely. It is said that she had herself whisked off by Raoul Comte de Crépy and de Valois, as he in turn, repudiated his wife, Haquenez. She complains to Pope Alexander II, who would excommunicate Raoul). Died: between 1076 and 1089 at France Anna is buried at the Abbey of Villiers in La Ferté-Alais on the Essonne, 19-km from Corbeil, in the Seine & Oise Department, France Florent I, Count9 de Hollande (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.). Born: before 1036, son of Dietrich III, Count of West Friesland and Orthelendis von der Nordmark, Florent I is presumed to have been at least 14 years of age when he married Gertrude. Married in 1050: Gertrude de Saxe,, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Elica von Schweinfürt (Gertrude was Florent I's first wife). Died: on 28 Jun 1061 at Hannert Florent I was killed Gertrude9 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 118.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Married Name: de Flandre. Married Name: de Hollande. Born: circa 1030, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Elica von Schweinfürt. Married in 1050: Florent I, Count de Hollande,, son of Dietrich III, Count of West Friesland and Orthelendis von der Nordmark (Gertrude was Florent I's first wife). Married in 1063 at Belgium: Robert I, Count de Flandre,, son of Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre and Adèle=Alix, Princess de France. Died: on 4 Aug Amédie=Amédé II, Count9 de Maurienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 174, 187.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ). AKA: Amédie II, Seigneur du Valais. AKA: Amédeus II, Margrave de Suse. AKA: Amédéo II, Seigneur de Piedmont. AKA: Amédé II, Seigneur de Chablais. AKA: Amédé II, Count de Savoie (Abbott, Page 644.). Born: circa 1046 at Maurienne, Savoie, France, son of Odon dit Amé, Comte de Savoie and Adélaïde, Countess de Turin. Married between 1065 and 1070 at France: Jeanne=Johanna de Genève,, daughter of Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count de Genève and Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge de Bourgogne (Though not certain, the marriage of Amadeus II with Jeanne is viewed as very likely). Died: on 26 Jan Jeanne=Johanna9 de Genève (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 174, 187.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ). Married Name: de Maurienne. Born: before 1040 at Genève, Savoie, France, daughter of Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count de Genève and Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge de Bourgogne. Married between 1065 and 1070 at France: Amédie=Amédé II, Count de Maurienne,, son of Odon dit Amé, Comte de Savoie and Adélaïde, Countess de Turin (Though not certain, the marriage of Amadeus II with Jeanne is viewed as very likely). Died: circa Guillaume I, Comte9 de Vienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.) (Stuart, Page 73, Line ). Also Known As: Guillaume "Tête Hardie." AKA: Guillaume, Comte de Mâcon (Abbott, Page 213.). AKA: Guillaume, Count de Bourgogne (Abbott, Page 600.). Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Grand" (Abbott, Page 506.). Born: circa 1024 at Vienne, Isère, France, son of Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne and Adélise=Judith de Normandie. Married in 1049 at France: Étiennette de Barcelone,, daughter of Raymond II, Count de Barcelone and Sancha de Navarre (Guillaume's wife was Stephanie of Barcelone who is probably the same person as Stephanie of Longwy). Died: on 12 Nov 1087 (Stuart, Page 73.) Étiennette9 de Barcelone (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.). Married Name: de Vienne. AKA: Étienette de Longwy. AKA: Stephanie de Longwy. PaterAlter circa 1035 Étiennette de Barcelone/Adalbert III, Count de Longwy (an unknown value). MaterAlter: circa 1035 Clémence de Foix/Étiennette de Barcelone. Born: circa 1035, daughter of Raymond II, Count de Barcelone and Sancha de Navarre, Étiennette's parentage may be in dispute with sources referenced in Roderick Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" showing her to be the daughter of Adalbert III, Comte de Longwy by Clémence de Foix. Married in 1049 at France: Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne,, son of Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne and Adélise=Judith de Normandie (Guillaume's wife was Stephanie of Barcelone who is probably the same person as Stephanie of Longwy). Died: after Gauthier, Comte9 de Braine. Born: between 1030 and 1035 at Champagne, France. Married circa 1070: Adé de Soissons,, daughter of Guillaume dit Busac, Count d'eu and Adélaïde, Countess de Soissons Adé9 de Soissons. Married Name: de Braine. AKA: Adé de Bar-sur-Aube. Born: in 1058, daughter of Guillaume dit Busac, Count d'eu and Adélaïde, Countess de Soissons. Married circa 1070: Gauthier, Comte de Braine Hugh I, Count9 de Rethel (Stuart, Page 106, Line ). Buried: at Novi, Yugoslavia. Born: before 1040, son of Manassès II, Count de Rethel and Judith N?, Hughes I was alive in the year 1081, and he is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son Gervais was born. Married before 1057 at France: Mélisende de Montlhéry,, daughter of Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Sainte Hodierne de Gometz. Died: in Mélisende9 de Montlhéry (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 106, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). Married Name: de Rethel. Married Name: de Trainel. Born: between 1041 and 1043 at France, daughter of Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Sainte Hodierne de Gometz, Mélisende is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Baudouin II was born. Married before 1057 at France:

85 Hugh I, Count de Rethel,, son of Manassès II, Count de Rethel and Judith N? Married before 1084 at France: Ponce I de Trainel Albert III, Count9 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 197.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). Born: circa 1030 at Belgium, son of Albert II, Count de Namur and Relinde de Lorraine. Married between 1065 and 1066: Ide=Relinde de Saxe,, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Bertrade, Princess of Norway (Albert III was Ide's second husband). PaterAlter before 1083 Albert III, Count de Namur/Ide de Namur (an unknown value). Died: in Ide=Relinde9 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 197.) (Stuart, Page 151, Line ). AKA: Ide de Laroche Ide was the heiress of Laroche. Married Name: de Namur. MaterAlter: Elica von Schweinfürt/Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Born: before 1052, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Bertrade, Princess of Norway, Ide is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Godefroy was born. Some sources indicate that Elica von Scheinfurt was Ide's mother. Married before 1064: Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg (He was Ide's first husband). Married between 1065 and 1066: Albert III, Count de Namur,, son of Albert II, Count de Namur and Relinde de Lorraine (Albert III was Ide's second husband). MaterAlter: before 1083 Ide de Namur/Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Died: on 31 Jul Conrad I, Count9 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 3-31.). Born: circa 1040 at Franche-Comté, France, son of Gilbert I, Count de Luxembourg and N? N? Occupation: between 1059 and 1086 Conrad I was Comte de Luxembourg during this period ( Married circa 1070: Clémence, Comtesse de Longwy,, daughter of Guillaume V, Comte de Poitou and Ermesinde de Longwy. Died: in Clémence, Comtesse9 de Longwy (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 3-31.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). Married Name: de Luxembourg. AKA: Clémence de Poitou. Married Name: de Wassemberge. AKA: Clémence d'aquitaine. Born: before 1040 at Lorraine, France, daughter of Guillaume V, Comte de Poitou and Ermesinde de Longwy, Clémence is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Mathilde was born. Note - in 1058: Clémence was the heiress of Longwy and of Blieskastel. Married circa 1070: Conrad I, Count de Luxembourg,, son of Gilbert I, Count de Luxembourg and N? N? Married circa 1087: Gérard, Count von Wassenburg,, son of Dietrich Heinrich, Count de Velue and N? N? Died: in 1142 ( Thierry I/II, Comte9 de Bar-le-Duc (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 205.) (Stuart, Page 109, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 26 June 1995 at 01:24 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 545.). AKA: Dietrich I, Count von Pfirt. AKA: Thierry, Comte de Ferrette Ar first, Ferrette was part of the Kingdom of Bourgogne and then part of Alsace. Around 900, Hughes bore the title Comte d'alsace et de Ferrette. Othon, Count of Elsgau and Sundgau, died around A part of Elsgau was granted to Louis de Mousson. After 1125, Ferrette was separated from Elsgau, where Montbéliard remained, and came under Sundgau (Abbott, Page 526.). AKA: Thierry, Seigneur de Blâmont (Abbott, Page 548.). AKA: Thierry I, Comte de Bar ( AKA: Thierry, Comte de Montbéliard (Abbott, Page 640.). AKA: Thierry I, Comte de Verdun ( AKA: Thierry I, Comte de Mousson (Ibid.). Born: in 1045 at Bar-le-Duc, Alsace, France, son of Louis II, Comte de Montbéliard and Sophie, Countess de Bar-le-Duc (Ibid.). Married in 1065: Ermentrude de Bourgogne,, daughter of Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne and Étiennette de Barcelone. Occupation: in 1093 Thierry was the Count de Montbéliard in Died: on 2 Jan Ermentrude9 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 205.) (Stuart, Page 109, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 26 June 1995 at 01:24 Hours.). Married Name: de Bar-le-Duc. AKA: Ermentrude, Comtesse de Monbéliard ( Born: circa 1050 at France, daughter of Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne and Étiennette de Barcelone. Married in 1065: Thierry I/II, Comte de Bar-le-Duc,, son of Louis II, Comte de Montbéliard and Sophie, Countess de Bar-le-Duc. Died: after 8 Mar Gérard, Count9 de Vaudémont (André Roux: Scrolls, 169, 193.) (Stuart, Page 182, Line ). AKA: Gérard I, Count d'alsace. AKA: Gérard de Lorraine (Abbott, Page 541.). Born: in 1057 at Alsace, France, son of Gérard IV, Count d'alsace and Hadvis=Hadwige de Namur. Married in 1070: Helvide de Dabo,, daughter of Gerhard III, Count von Egisheim and Pétronille = Richarde de Verdun. Died: circa 1120 at Lorraine, France, Gérard I is buried at Belval.

86 367. Helvide9 de Dabo (André Roux: Scrolls, 169.) (Stuart, Page 182, Line ). AKA: Edith von Egisheim. Married Name: de Vaudémont. AKA: Heilwige, Countess von Egisheim (Abbott, Page 526.). Born: before 1060, daughter of Gerhard III, Count von Egisheim and Pétronille = Richarde de Verdun, Helvide is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Gérard. Married in 1070: Gérard, Count de Vaudémont,, son of Gérard IV, Count d'alsace and Hadvis=Hadwige de Namur. Died: after Bathélémy, Seigneur 9 de Broyes (Paul Theroff, posts, 15 September 1994 at 00:16 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). Born: before 1046 at France, son of Hughes dit Bardoul, Seigneur de Broyes and N? N?, Barthélémy is presumed to have been born at about the same time as his wife Élizabeth. Married before 1062 at France: Élizabeth de Valois,, daughter of Raoul III, Comte de Valois and Alix de Bar-sur-Aube. Died: circa 1081 (Abbott, Pages 69.). AKA: Bathélémy, Seigneur de Beaufort (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.) Élizabeth9 de Valois (Paul Theroff, posts, 15 September 1994 at 00:16 Hours.). Married Name: Alix de Broyes. Born: before 1042 at HauteMarne, Champagne, France, daughter of Raoul III, Comte de Valois and Alix de Bar-sur-Aube, Élizabeth was born before her sister Adèle. Married before 1062 at France: Bathélémy, Seigneur de Broyes,, son of Hughes dit Bardoul, Seigneur de Broyes and N? N? 370. Miles III, Seigneur9 de Montlhéry (André Roux: Scrolls, 121, 182.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). AKA: Millon, Seigneur de Chèvreuse. AKA: Milon I, Vicomte de Troyes (Stuart, Page 41, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). AKA: Miles III, Seigneur de Bray-sur-Seine (Abbott, Page 35.). AKA: Millon I, Seigneur de La Ferté. AKA: Milon II, Châtelain de Montlhéry (Le Chevalier de Courcelles, Généogiste Honoraire du Roi M., Histoire Généalogique et Héraldique de Pairs de France, des Grands Dignitaires de la Couronne, des Principales Familles Nobles du Royaume et des Maisons Princières de l'europe in no series (No. 15, Rue de Vaugirard (Derrière l'odéon), Paris, France: Imprimerie de Plassant, MDCCCXXDV (1825)), Tome Cinquième (1825), de Melun, p. 8.). Also Known As: Miles "Le Grand" (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). AKA: Milon II de Bray (M., Histoire Généalogique, Tome Cinquième (1825), de Melun, p. 8.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). Born: circa 1035, son of Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Sainte Hodierne de Gometz. Married circa 1060 at France: Lithuise=Lithaise, Vicomtesse de Troyes,, daughter of Guillaume dit Busac, Count d'eu and Adélaïde, Countess de Soissons. PaterAlter before 1068 Miles III, Seigneur de Montlhéry/Guy II, Seigneur de Montlhéry (an unknown value). Married before 1074 at France: Lithuise de Champagne,, daughter of Étienne dit Henri, Count de Champagne and Alix=Adèle de Normandie. Married before 1079: N? N? PaterAlter before 1094 Miles III, Seigneur de Montlhéry/Élizabeth Troussel = Trousseau (an unknown value). Note - in 1102: Milon I went on the First Crusade. He was killed on crusade at Rosala, according to Abbott (Abbott, Page 48.). Died: between 1102 and 1118 Abbott alleges Milon was killed in 1102, other sources show he died in Lithuise=Lithaise, Vicomtesse9 de Troyes (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 41, Line ) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). AKA: Lithuise, Dame de Bray. Married Name: de Montlhéry. Born: before 1050 at France, daughter of Guillaume dit Busac, Count d'eu and Adélaïde, Countess de Soissons, Lithuise is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Millon I. Married circa 1060 at France: Miles III, Seigneur de Montlhéry,, son of Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Sainte Hodierne de Gometz. MaterAlter: before 1094 Élizabeth Troussel = Trousseau/Lithuise=Lithaise, Vicomtesse de Troyes. Note - before 1100: Lithuise was the heiress of Troyes Gauthier=Walter I, Count9 de Brienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 143, 198.) (Stuart, Page 266, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 02 October 1994 at 20:48 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 198.). Born: before 1023 at France, son of Engelbert IV, Count de Brienne and Pétronille, Comtesse de Joigny, Gauthier I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Engelbert, was born. Married before 1039: Eustache, Countess de Bar-sur-Seine,, daughter of Renaud I, Comte de Bar-sur-Seine and

87 Ervide N? (Upon the marriage of Eustachie with Gauthier, the Seigneurie de Conflans passed to Gauthier and then to their third son, Engilbert. In 1068, Eustache and Gautier made donations to the Abbey de Monstier-Ramey) (Abbott, Page 73.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 198.). Died: between 1089 and 1090 at France. This Coat of Arms is associated with the Comtes de Bar-sur-Seine 373. Eustache, Countess9 de Bar-sur-Seine (André Roux: Scrolls, 143, 198.) (Stuart, Page 266, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 02 October 1994 at 20:48 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 198.) (Ibid.). Married Name: de Brienne. AKA: Eustachie, Dame de Conflans (Abbott, Page 73.). Born: before 1026, daughter of Renaud I, Comte de Bar-sur-Seine and Ervide N?, Eustache is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Engelbert, was born. Some sources (e.g. Abbott) indicate that Eustache was the daughter of Milon de Bar-sur-Seine, Comte de Tonnerre thus skipping a generation (Abbott, Pages 65.). Married before 1039: Gauthier=Walter I, Count de Brienne,, son of Engelbert IV, Count de Brienne and Pétronille, Comtesse de Joigny (Upon the marriage of Eustachie with Gauthier, the Seigneurie de Conflans passed to Gauthier and then to their third son, Engilbert. In 1068, Eustache and Gautier made donations to the Abbey de Monstier-Ramey) (Abbott, Page 73.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 198.). Died: after 1111 Eustache and Gauthier I were alive together in the year 1068, and Abbott shows her alive in 1111 (Abbott, Pages 65.) André, Count9 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.). AKA: André, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube (Abbott, Pages 64.). AKA: André, Comte de Raméru (Abbott, Page 82.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.). Born: before 1060 at France, son of Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy, André is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter, Alix, was born. Married before 1074: Alix N? (Alix was André's first wife) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.). Died: after 1118 In one instance, Abbott says André died circa 1103, in another instance he indicates that André died after 1118 (Abbott, Pages 64, 82.) Alix9 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.). Married Name: de Roucy. Born: before 1063 Alix is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Alix was born. Married before 1074: André, Count de Roucy,, son of Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy (Alix was André's first wife) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.) Geoffroy II9 de Joinville (André Roux: Scrolls, 109, 120.) (Paul Theroff, posts, ed message, 6-Dec-96 at 22:16 hours.). AKA: Geoffroi II/IV de Joigny (M. Lainé (Pub), Archives Généalogiques et Historiques de La Noblesse de France ou Receuil de Preuves, Mémoires et Notices Généalogiques in Imprimerie de Béthune, Rue Palatine, No. 5, 1-11 (No. 1, Rue du Paon-Saint-André-des-Arcs, Paris, France: M. Lainé, ), Tome Neuvième (Volume 9), MDCCCXLIV (1844), De Briey d'aspremont, Pages 25.). Born: before 1067 at Champagne, France, son of Geoffroy I de Joinville and Blanche de Reynel, Geoffroy II is presumed to have been born before his father was 50 years of age. Sources disagree as to the parentage of Geoffroy II. André Roux asserts that he was the son of Étienne by Adèle, Comtesse de Joigny. E.S. via Paul Theroff show him to be the son of Geoffroy I by Blanche de Reynel (Paul Theroff, posts, ed message, 6-Dec-96 at 22:16 hours.). MaterAlter: before 1067 Adèle, Countess de Joigny/Geoffroy II de Joinville. PaterAlter before 1067 Geoffroy II de Joinville/Étienne de Joinville (an unknown value). Married before 1099 at France: Hodierne de Courtenay,, daughter of Josselin I, Seigneur de Courtenay and Hildegarde d'anjou. Died: before 1101 Geoffroy II was alive in the year Hodierne9 de Courtenay (André Roux: Scrolls, 109, 120.). Married Name: de Joinville. AKA: Hodierne, Dame de Château Renard (Abbott, Page 97.). Born: before 1065, daughter of Josselin I, Seigneur de Courtenay and Hildegarde d'anjou. Died: after 1080 Hodierne was alive in the year Married before 1099 at France: Geoffroy II de Joinville,, son of Geoffroy I de Joinville and Blanche de Reynel Humbert II, Seigneur9 de Beaujeu (André Roux: Scrolls, 103.) (Abbott, Page 575.). Born: before 1066 at France, son of Guichard II, Seigneur de Beaujeu and Ricoaire de Salornay, Humbert II is presumed to have been at least 14 years of age when he married Auxillie. Married before 1075 at France: Wandelmode de Thiern,, daughter of Guillaume II, Vicomte de Thiern and Adélaïs, Comtesse de Chalon-sur-Saône (This may or may not be the Wandelmode de Chalon whom Humbert II married -- If this is not the case, the Humbert II married three times. The Wandelmode de Chalon is,

88 according to André Roux, of different parentage than this Wandelmode). Married circa 1080: Auxillie de Savoie,, daughter of Amédie=Amédé II, Count de Maurienne and Jeanne=Johanna de Genève (It remains uncertain whether the mother of Guichard III was N. de Chalon or Auxillie). Married before 1101: Wandelmode de Chalon,, daughter of Hughes de Chalon and N? N? Died: either 1102 or Wandelmode9 de Thiern (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 August 1994 at 01:59 Hours.). Married Name: de Beaujeu. Married before 1075 at France: Humbert II, Seigneur de Beaujeu,, son of Guichard II, Seigneur de Beaujeu and Ricoaire de Salornay (This may or may not be the Wandelmode de Chalon whom Humbert II married -- If this is not the case, the Humbert II married three times. The Wandelmode de Chalon is, according to André Roux, of different parentage than this Wandelmode). Born: before 1085 at France, daughter of Guillaume II, Vicomte de Thiern and Adélaïs, Comtesse de Chalon-sur-Saône, Wandelmode is presumed to have been born before her mother was 50 years of age Guillaume II, Count9 de Nevers (André Roux: Scrolls, 117.) (Abbott, Page 183.). AKA: Guillaume II, Count d'auxerre. AKA: Guillaume II, Count de Tonnerre Guillaume II became Comte de Tonnerre in 1089 (Abbott, Page 86.). Born: before 1089 at Nivernais, France, son of Renaud II, Count de Nevers and Agnès de Beaugency, Guillaume II was alive in Married circa 1105: Adélaïs N? Died: on 20 Aug Adélaïs9 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 117.). Married Name: de Nevers. Born: before 1095 Adélaïs is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Guillaume II. Married circa 1105: Guillaume II, Count de Nevers,, son of Renaud II, Count de Nevers and Agnès de Beaugency Engelbert II, Duke9 de Carinthie. Born: before 1110 at Carinthia, Austria Engelbert II is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his daughter Ide was born. Married before 1130: N? N? 383. N?9 N? Married before 1130: Engelbert II, Duke de Carinthie Hughes VI, Lord9 de Lusignan (André Roux: Scrolls, 84, 141.) (Abbott, Page 423.). Also Known As: Hughes "Le Diable." Born: before 1043 at France, son of Hughes V de Lusignan and Almodis de La Marche. Married before 1060 at Poitou, France: Ildegarde de Thouars,, daughter of Aimery IV, Vicomte de Thouars and Aurengarde de Mauléon. Died: between 1102 and 1110 at France Hughes VI went on a crusade from 1101 to 1103, although André Roux indicates he died in Ildegarde9 de Thouars (André Roux: Scrolls, 84, 141.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 June 1995 at 03:10 Hours.). Married Name: de Lusignan. Born: before 1045 at Poitou, France, daughter of Aimery IV, Vicomte de Thouars and Aurengarde de Mauléon, Ildegarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age when she married Hughes VI. Married before 1060 at Poitou, France: Hughes VI, Lord de Lusignan,, son of Hughes V de Lusignan and Almodis de La Marche. Died: after 7 Dec Pierre, Châtelain9 de Moncontour (Abbott, Page 415.). Born: before 1094 at Moncontour, Vienne, Poitou, France, son of Bertrand, Châtelain de Moncontour and N? N?, Pierre is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his daughter, Falsifie, was born. Married before 1111: N? N? Died: after 1120 Pierre was Châtelain circa 1120 (Ibid.) N?9 N? Married before 1111: Pierre, Châtelain de Moncontour,, son of Bertrand, Châtelain de Moncontour and N? N? 400. Guillaume III, Count9 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Abbott, Page 458.). AKA: Guillaume V, Count d'angoulême. Also Known As: Guillaume III "Taillefer" (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). AKA: Guillaume III, Seigneur de Montausier (Abbott, Page 469.). Born: circa 1065 at Aquitaine, France, son of Fouques, Count d'angoulême and Condohe Végena. Married in 1086: Vitapont, Dame de Benauges,, daughter of Amanieu, Sire de Benauges and N? N? Died: on 6 Apr 1120 at France While other sources indicate that Guillaume III died 6-Apr-1120, Lord Mountbatten [Via Robert Carver] shows he died 6-Apr-1122 (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry.") Vitapont, Dame9 de Benauges (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Abbott, Page 311.). Married Name: d'angoulême. AKA: Vitapoy, Dame de Saint-Macaire ( Born: before 1074 at France, daughter of Amanieu, Sire de Benauges and N? N?, Vitapont is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Wulgrin II was born. Roderick Stuart's Royalty for Commoners has her birth year at 1086 which makes her all of three years of age when her son Wulgrin was born (1089). Stuart confused Vitapont's date of marriage with her date of birth. Married in 1086: Guillaume III, Count d'angoulême,, son of Fouques, Count d'angoulême and Condohe Végena. Died: after Roger9 de Montgommery (Stuart, Page 238.) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, Posting in Subject "Peverell", 22 July 1994 at 00:54 Hours.). Also Known As: Roger "Le Poitevin." AKA: Roger, Vicomte d'exmes. AKA: Roger, Earl of Arundel. AKA: Roger, Comte de La Marche. AKA: Roger III, Count of Lancaster. Note -: Roger III was the Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury as well as Viscomte of Exemes and Lord of Lancaster. A companion of William The Bastard (The Conqueror as the British would have it), Roger was exiled from England by Henry I in Born: circa 1054 at Wales, son of Roger, Seigneur de Montgommery and Mabile, Comtesse de Bellême. Married before 1082 at France: Almodis de La Marche,, daughter of Audebert II, Comte de La Marche and Ponce N? (Almodis was Roger's second wife). Died: in 1123 at France Roger Le Poitevin is burried at Grestain (Stuart, Page 238.) Almodis9 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 36, 55.). Married Name: de Montgommery. AKA: Adélaïde de Breteuil. Born: before 1068 at Breteuil, Haute Marche, France, daughter of Audebert II, Comte de La Marche and Ponce N?, Almodis is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Ponce was born. Married before 1082 at France: Roger de Montgommery,, son of Roger, Seigneur de Montgommery and Mabile, Comtesse de Bellême (Almodis was Roger's second wife). Died: in 1116 ( Boson I, Vicomte9 de Turenne (André Roux: Scrolls, 80, 125.) (Abbott, Page 438.). Born: circa 1050 at Guyenne, France, son of Guillaume, Vicomte de Turenne and Mathilde N? (Stuart, Page 114.). Married before 1074 at France: Gerberge de Terrasson,, daughter of Pierre, Comtor de Terrasson and N? N? (Gerberge was Boson I's second wife). Died: in 1091 at Jérusalem, Holy Land, Boson left for the Holy Land in 1076 on a

89 pilgrimage Gerberge9 de Terrasson (André Roux: Scrolls, 125.). Married Name: de Turenne. Born: circa 1055 at Terrasson, Guyenne, France, daughter of Pierre, Comtor de Terrasson and N? N? Married before 1074 at France: Boson I, Vicomte de Turenne,, son of Guillaume, Vicomte de Turenne and Mathilde N? (Gerberge was Boson I's second wife). Died: in 1103 at France Geoffroy II, Comte9 de Mortagne (André Roux: Scrolls, 198, 211.) (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). AKA: Geoffroy II, Count du Perche (Abbott, Page 138.). AKA: Geoffroy II, Seigneur de Mortagne ( Born: before 1051 at Mortagne-au-Perche, Normandie, France, son of Rotrou I, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Adélaïde de Domfront, Geoffroy II fought in the Norman Army at the Battle of Hastings 11 October 1066 and is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age at that time. Married before 1069: Béatrix de Roucy,, daughter of Hildouin, Comte d'arcissur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy. Died: in Oct 1100 He participated in the conquest of Englad (Ibid.) Béatrix9 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.) (Stuart, Page 195, Line ). Married Name: de Mortagne. AKA: Béatrix de Montdidier. Born: before 1054 at France, daughter of Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy, Béatrix is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Juhanne was born. Married before 1069: Geoffroy II, Comte de Mortagne,, son of Rotrou I, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Adélaïde de Domfront. Died: after Hughes, Seigneur9 d'amboise (Abbott, Page 158.). AKA: Hughes de Bazougers (Ibid.). Born: circa 1055 at Amboise, Indre-Et-Loire, Touraine, France, son of Sulpice, Seigneur d'amboise and Denise de Fougères. Married before 1104: Élisabeth de Souvigny,, daughter of Guillaume de Souvigny and Ermengarde de Bourbon. Died: on 24 Jul 1129 (Ibid.) Élisabeth9 de Souvigny. Born: circa 1085, daughter of Guillaume de Souvigny and Ermengarde de Bourbon. Married before 1104: Hughes, Seigneur d'amboise,, son of Sulpice, Seigneur d'amboise and Denise de Fougères Hervé II9 de Donzy (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 August 1994 at 01:59 Hours.). AKA: Hervé II, Seigneur de Donziais (Abbott, Page 186.). Born: before 1053 at France, son of Hervé de Donzy and Mathilde, Comtesse de Chalon. Married before 1093 at France: N? de La Ferté,, daughter of Hughes de La Ferté and N? N? Died: in N?9 de La Ferté (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 August 1994 at 01:59 Hours.). Married Name: de Donzy. Born: before 1078 at France, daughter of Hughes de La Ferté and N? N?, She is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age when she married Hervé II. Married before 1093 at France: Hervé II de Donzy,, son of Hervé de Donzy and Mathilde, Comtesse de Chalon Fouques, Count9 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ). AKA: Fouques, Count d'archiac. Also Known As: Foulques "Taillefer" (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). AKA: Fouques, Seigneur de Marcillac ( AKA: Fouques, Seigneur de Bouteville (Ibid.). Born: between 1025 and 1029, son of Geoffroy, Count d'angoulême and Pétronille, Dame d'archiac. Married circa 1062 at France: Condohe Végena,, daughter of Robert, Comte d'eu and Béatrice N? (Roderick Stuart in Royalty for Commoners confused Condohé's birth date with her date of marriage, and ascribes her the wrong father). Died: either 1087 or 1089 Seigneuries indicates he died in 1089, the French Web site indicates he died in 1087 (Abbott, Page 458.) ( Condohe9 Végena (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). Married Name: d'angoulême. AKA: Condoha d'eu. Born: before 1050 at Angoulême, Aquitaine, France, daughter of Robert, Comte d'eu and Béatrice N?, Condohe is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Guillaume III. André Roux's as well as Lord Mountbatten's [via Robert Carver] data indicate this Condohe was Condohe Végena, daughter of Ounorman. Other sources (including Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners", Line 8731) indicate she was Condohe of Angouleme, daughter of Robert, Comte d'eu. Stuart also has her date of birth at circa 1062 which would have made her all of 3 years of age by the time he asserts her son Guillaume was born (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). PaterAlter before 1050 Condohe Végena/Ounorman Végena (an unknown value). MaterAlter: before 1050 N? N?/Condohe Végena. Married circa 1062 at France: Fouques, Count d'angoulême,, son of Geoffroy, Count d'angoulême and Pétronille, Dame d'archiac (Roderick Stuart in Royalty for Commoners confused Condohé's birth date with her date of marriage, and ascribes her the wrong father) Amanieu, Sire9 de Benauges (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 311.). AKA: Amanieu, Sire de Saint-Mâcaire (Ibid.). AKA: Guillen Amanieu II d'albret. AKA: Guillen Amanieu II, Vicomte de Bezaume. Born: before 1056 at La Réole, Bezaume, Gascogne, France, son of Guillen Amanieu, Comte de Benauges and Amalvina, Vicomtesse de Bezaume, Amanjeu is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Vitapont was born. Married before 1074: N? N? Died: circa N?9 N? Married before 1074: Amanieu, Sire de Benauges,, son of Guillen Amanieu, Comte de Benauges and Amalvina, Vicomtesse de Bezaume Roger, Seigneur9 de Montgommery (André Roux: Scrolls, 36.) (Stuart, Page 237, Line ). AKA: Roger, Earl of Shrewsbury. AKA: Roger, Regent de Normandie. AKA: Roger, Earl of Shropshire. AKA: Roger, Earl of Arundel. AKA: Roger, Vicomte d'hiesmes ( Born: circa 1005 at Shrewbury, Shropshire, England, son of Hughes, Baron of Montgommery and Josseline de Bolbec. Note - between 1035 and 1094: In 1035, Roger was exiled to Paris because of treason to the Duke. Roger raised an enormous army and provided over 60 ships for William the Conqueror, then stayed behind to hold Normandie for William while the latter went off to conquer England. His loyalty was rewarded by William in the form of huge land grants in England and the Welsh March. Roger frequently spent extended periods of time in England to tend to these interests, and left his wife Mabel, behind in Normandie to oversee their Norman lands and properties. She even led forces into battle on his behalf and was involved in numerous political intrigues. Married between 1048 and 1055 at England: Mabile, Comtesse de Bellême,, daughter of Guillaume II Talvas, Comte de Bellême and Hildeburge = Haberge de Beaumont (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). Died: on 27 Jul 1094 at Shrewsbury, England, Roger was a monk

90 when he died and is buried at the Abbey of Saint Peter in Shrewbury Mabile, Comtesse9 de Bellême (André Roux: Scrolls, 36, 53.) (Stuart, Page 252, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Dorothy Clark in the Prodigy Interactive Personal Services Genealogy BB [Prodigy ID#DULW93A] under Subject "Talvas" on 7 January 1996 at 16:23 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 133.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). Married Name: de Montgommery. AKA: Mabile, Comtesse de Séez (Ibid.). AKA: Mabile, Dame d'alençon Alençon became a County upon its acquisition into the Montgommery family (Abbott, Page 224.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). Born: circa 1015 at Alençon, Orne, Maine, France, daughter of Guillaume II Talvas, Comte de Bellême and Hildeburge = Haberge de Beaumont. Married between 1048 and 1055 at England: Roger, Seigneur de Montgommery,, son of Hughes, Baron of Montgommery and Josseline de Bolbec (Ibid.). Note - circa 1065: Mabile was the heiress of Bellême and Alençon. She tended the lands of her family and her husband while he was off in England overseeing his lands deeded by William the Conqueror in rocognition of Roger's massive support. Mabile apparently bested someone in a property dispute and he sough revenge by having her assassinated with the help of some of Roger's disgruntled officers. The four officers, while pursued, were never found. Died: on 2 Dec 1082 at Château de Bures-sur-Dives, Normandie, France, Mabile met her end while her husband was away, while depriving a sub-tenant, Pantulf of Perai, of his lands. She was murdered in her bed by his friend, Hughes de La Roche-d'Inge [Abbott identifies him as Hughes de La Roche-d'Izéat], who cut off her head with a sword after his men had stormed the castle at Bures-dur-Dives Audebert II, Comte9 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 55.) (Abbott, Page 423.). Born: before 1029 at France, son of Bernard, Count de La Marche and Amélie de Montignac, Audebert II is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Matilde was born. Married before 1043: Ponce N? (Ponce was Audebert's second wife). Died: in Ponce9 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 55.). Married Name: de La Marche. Born: before 1029 at France Ponce is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Matilde was born. Married before 1043: Audebert II, Comte de La Marche,, son of Bernard, Count de La Marche and Amélie de Montignac (Ponce was Audebert's second wife). Died: after 1076 Ponce was alive in the year Guillaume, Vicomte9 de Turenne (André Roux: Scrolls, 125.) (Abbott, Page 432.). AKA: Guillaume de Comborn. Born: circa 996 at Blois, Loir-etCher, Orléanais, France, son of Ebles I, Vicomte de Comborn and Béatrix de Normandie, Guillaume was alive in the year 1000 (Stuart, Page 114.). Married in 1030: Mathilde N? Died: circa 1040 Guillaume was the Vicomte de Turenne in the year 1040 (Abbott, Page 438.) Mathilde9 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 125.). Married Name: de Turenne. Married in 1030: Guillaume, Vicomte de Turenne,, son of Ebles I, Vicomte de Comborn and Béatrix de Normandie. Born: before 1035 Mathilde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Boson I was born Pierre, Comtor9 de Terrasson (Ibid.). Born: before 1040 at Terrasson, Guyenne, France Pierre is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Gerberge was born. Married before 1055: N? N? 427. N?9 N? Married before 1055: Pierre, Comtor de Terrasson Rotrou I, Vicomte9 de Châteaudun (André Roux: Scrolls, 167.) (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). AKA: Rotrou, Comte du Perche (Abbott, Page 138.). AKA: Rotrou I, Seigneur de Nogent-le-Rotrou (Abbott, Page 137.). AKA: Rotrou, Comte de Dunois (Abbott, Page 102.). AKA: Rotrocus, Comte de Mortagne-au-Perche (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 262.). Born: before 1005 at Châteaudun, Orléanais, France, son of Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Élizabeth=Hélvise de Carbon, Rotrou I was alive in the year Married before 1041: Adélaïde de Domfront,, daughter of Ghérin = Warin, Lord de Mortagne-au-Perche and Mélisende, Vicomtesse de Châteaudun. Died: in 1074 at Mortagne-au-Perche, Normandie, France (Abbott, Page 102.) Adélaïde9 de Domfront (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). AKA: Adeliz de Bellême. Married Name: de Châteaudun. Born: before 1026 at France, daughter of Ghérin = Warin, Lord de Mortagne-au-Perche and Mélisende, Vicomtesse de Châteaudun. Married before 1041: Rotrou I, Vicomte de Châteaudun,, son of Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Élizabeth=Hélvise de Carbon Hildouin, Comte9 d'arcis-sur-aube (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 198, 254.) (Stuart, Page 195, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Hildouin IV, Comte de Montdidier (Stuart, Page 195, Line ). AKA: Hildouin IV, Seigneur de Raméru. Born: circa 1010 at France, son of Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier and Lesseline N? AKA: Hildouin IV, Comte de Roucy Comte de Roucy by marriage (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). Married in 1031: Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy,, daughter of Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims and Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut (Adèle brought Roucy to the Count of Montdidier as dowry, enriching his land holdings). Occupation: between 1061 and 1068 Hildouin IV was also the Count de Montdidier (Picardie, France) Seigeur de Raméru in 1061 then Count de Raméru in 1063, and obtained Roucy in dowry from his marriage to Adélaïde. Died: between 1063 and 1068 E.S. [via Paul Theroff] suggests that Hildouin died in Adélaïde=Alice, Countess9 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 198, 254.) (Stuart, Page 128, Line ). AKA: Isabelle de Roucy. AKA: Adélaïde de Reims. AKA: Alix de Châtillon (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). Born: circa 1014 at Roucy, Champagne, France, daughter of Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims and Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut. Married in 1031: Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube,, son of Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier and Lesseline N? (Adèle brought Roucy to the Count of Montdidier as dowry, enriching his land holdings). Died: between 1062 and 1063.

91 Henri I, King of France Henri I, King9 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Hallam, Page 73.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (von Redlich, Page 125.). AKA: Henry I, Comte de Paris. AKA: Henry I, Duke de Bourgogne (Abbott, Page 198.). Born: on 4 May 1008 at Reims, France, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence. Note - between 1031 and 1060 at France: King: Until about 1044, Henri I was preoccupied with Odo II, Count of Blois, who was trying to make good his own claim to the Kingdom of Burgundy, and the nobles of the Ile-de-France. In disputes with his younger brother Robert goaded by the malicious hatred of his mother Constance for Henri, Henri managed to keep his crown thanks to the help of Robert Le Diable, Duke of Normandy. Henry pardoned his brother, and gave him the Duchy of Bourgogne, thus forming the first Capetian House of Bourgogne. In 1033, Henry concluded an alliance with the Emperor Conrad II, but the Count of Blois took the side of Odo, the King's youngest brother who had been left landless. They, in turn, rallied a coalitions of nobles in opposition to Henry. In 1034, after savage fighting, Odo of Blois submitted thanks to the vigorous actions of Robert "Le Magnifique", but the war broke out soon afterwards. In July, 1034, Constance died. In 1037 Odo of Blois died while fighting in Lorraine, and his lands were divided between his two sons, Theobald I who took Blois and Stephen who was given Troyes and Meaux. The King was victorious against them, and Eudes (Henri's brother) was captured and incarcerated in Orléans in 1039; Stephen defeated and his ally, the Count of Vermandois was imprisoned. The Comte de Blois would lose Touraine to the Comte d'anjou, Henri's ally. The King took control of Sens together with the abbeys of Saint-Père at Châlons, and Saint-Médard at Soissons. In 1043, Emperor Henri III of Germany and King Henri I of France meet in Ivois to arrange a lasting peace (shortly after Henry III married Agnès de Bourgogne). By 1046, while relations between the Emperor and the King of France soured -- the Emperor apparently still miffed at Henri I's having fomented a revolt against the imperial crown in 1044 by the lords of Franche-Comté and of Bourgogne, Guillaume, the young Duke de Normandie, requests the royal assistance of the King to quell a rebellion by the lords of lower Bourgogne led by Renouf, Vicomte de Bessin and Gui, son of the Comte de Bourgogne, titular fief of Brionne. In 1047 at Val-ès-Dunes, just South of Caen, William fighting at the King's side is victorious and erects the Chapel de Sainte-Paix near Caen to commemorate the occasion. Gui de Brionne would require 3 more years of fighting to tame. In 1050, Henry I fought against Geoffrey Martel of Anjou with the help of William, Duke de Normandie. In Northern France, he was therefore able to contain the threats from Blois-Champagne and to profit from the involvement of Normandy and Anjou against one another. He consolidated his power within the royal principality, but his broader schemes, particularly for regaining Lorraine were not so successful. Married before 1033: Mathilde, Princess of Germany,, daughter of Conrad II, King of Germany and Gisèle de Souabe (Mathilde was Henri I's first of three wives). Married in 1043: Mathilda de Saxe,, daughter of Ludwig von Braunschweig and Gertrude von Egisheim (Hallam, Page 72.). Married on 19 May 1051 at For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims, Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Anne, Queen de France,, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden (According to Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners": After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King de France marries Anne de Russie, daughter of the Grand-Duke de Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. However, von Redlich's "Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants" claims that Henri I and Anne were married circa 29 January 1044 [id est, immediately after Henri I's second wife died). Died: on 4 Aug 1060 at Vitry-en-Brie, France, at age 52 Some French history text indicate that Henri I died in Vitry-aux-Loges. Henri I is buried at Saint Denis. Buried: on 24 Aug Anne, Queen9 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ) (von Redlich, Page 63.). AKA: Anne de Russie. AKA: Anna=Agnès Jaroslawna. Married Name: de Valois. AKA: Anne de Kiev. Born: in 1036 at Kiev, Ukraine, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden. Married on 19 May 1051 at For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims, Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Henri I, King de France,, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence (According to Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners": After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King de France marries Anne de Russie, daughter of the Grand-Duke de Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. However, von Redlich's "Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants" claims that Henri I and Anne were married circa 29 January 1044 [id est, immediately after Henri I's second wife died). Married circa 1061 at France: Raoul III, Comte de Valois,, son of Raoul II, Count de Crépy and Adèle de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (Anne was Raoul III's third wife and he her second husband as she was the widow of Henri I when she married Raoul. When Henri I died on 4 August 1060, Anne, 36 years of age, was still considered quite lovely. It is said that she had herself whisked off by Raoul Comte de Crépy and de Valois, as he in turn, repudiated his wife, Haquenez. She complains to Pope Alexander II, who would excommunicate Raoul). Died: between 1076 and 1089 at France Anna is buried at the Abbey of Villiers in La Ferté-Alais on the Essonne, 19-km from Corbeil, in the Seine & Oise Department, France Florent I, Count9 de Hollande (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.). Born: before 1036, son of Dietrich III, Count of West Friesland and Orthelendis von der Nordmark, Florent I is presumed to have been at least 14 years of age when he married Gertrude. Married in 1050: Gertrude de Saxe,, daughter of

92 Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Elica von Schweinfürt (Gertrude was Florent I's first wife). Died: on 28 Jun 1061 at Hannert Florent I was killed Gertrude9 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 118.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Married Name: de Flandre. Married Name: de Hollande. Born: circa 1030, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Elica von Schweinfürt. Married in 1050: Florent I, Count de Hollande,, son of Dietrich III, Count of West Friesland and Orthelendis von der Nordmark (Gertrude was Florent I's first wife). Married in 1063 at Belgium: Robert I, Count de Flandre,, son of Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre and Adèle=Alix, Princess de France. Died: on 4 Aug Amédie=Amédé II, Count9 de Maurienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 174, 187.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ). AKA: Amédie II, Seigneur du Valais. AKA: Amédeus II, Margrave de Suse. AKA: Amédéo II, Seigneur de Piedmont. AKA: Amédé II, Seigneur de Chablais. AKA: Amédé II, Count de Savoie (Abbott, Page 644.). Born: circa 1046 at Maurienne, Savoie, France, son of Odon dit Amé, Comte de Savoie and Adélaïde, Countess de Turin. Married between 1065 and 1070 at France: Jeanne=Johanna de Genève,, daughter of Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count de Genève and Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge de Bourgogne (Though not certain, the marriage of Amadeus II with Jeanne is viewed as very likely). Died: on 26 Jan Jeanne=Johanna9 de Genève (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 174, 187.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ). Married Name: de Maurienne. Born: before 1040 at Genève, Savoie, France, daughter of Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count de Genève and Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge de Bourgogne. Married between 1065 and 1070 at France: Amédie=Amédé II, Count de Maurienne,, son of Odon dit Amé, Comte de Savoie and Adélaïde, Countess de Turin (Though not certain, the marriage of Amadeus II with Jeanne is viewed as very likely). Died: circa Guillaume I, Comte9 de Vienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.) (Stuart, Page 73, Line ). Also Known As: Guillaume "Tête Hardie." AKA: Guillaume, Comte de Mâcon (Abbott, Page 213.). AKA: Guillaume, Count de Bourgogne (Abbott, Page 600.). Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Grand" (Abbott, Page 506.). Born: circa 1024 at Vienne, Isère, France, son of Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne and Adélise=Judith de Normandie. Married in 1049 at France: Étiennette de Barcelone,, daughter of Raymond II, Count de Barcelone and Sancha de Navarre (Guillaume's wife was Stephanie of Barcelone who is probably the same person as Stephanie of Longwy). Died: on 12 Nov 1087 (Stuart, Page 73.) Étiennette9 de Barcelone (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.). Married Name: de Vienne. AKA: Étienette de Longwy. AKA: Stephanie de Longwy. PaterAlter circa 1035 Étiennette de Barcelone/Adalbert III, Count de Longwy (an unknown value). MaterAlter: circa 1035 Clémence de Foix/Étiennette de Barcelone. Born: circa 1035, daughter of Raymond II, Count de Barcelone and Sancha de Navarre, Étiennette's parentage may be in dispute with sources referenced in Roderick Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" showing her to be the daughter of Adalbert III, Comte de Longwy by Clémence de Foix. Married in 1049 at France: Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne,, son of Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne and Adélise=Judith de Normandie (Guillaume's wife was Stephanie of Barcelone who is probably the same person as Stephanie of Longwy). Died: after Josselin I, Seigneur9 de Courtenay (André Roux: Scrolls, 120, 147, 182.) (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). AKA: Joscelin, Sire de Château Renard. Born: circa 1034 at Orléanais, France, son of Albon, Châtelain de Château Renard and N? de Courtenay. Married circa 1054 at France: Hildegarde d'anjou,, daughter of Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count de Gâtinais and Ermengarde d'anjou (Hildegarde was Josselin I's first wife) (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 2., Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed.). Died: after Married between 1066 and 1068 at France: Élizabeth de Montlhéry,, daughter of Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Sainte Hodierne de Gometz (Élizabeth was Josselin I's second wife). Died: circa Élizabeth9 de Montlhéry (André Roux: Scrolls, 120, 182.) (Stuart, Page 178, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). Married Name: de Saint-Valéry. Married Name: de Courtenay. Born: circa 1040 at Montlhéry, Ile-de-France, France, daughter of Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry and Sainte Hodierne de Gometz. Married between 1066 and 1068 at France: Josselin I, Seigneur de Courtenay,, son of Albon, Châtelain de Château Renard and N? de Courtenay (Élizabeth was Josselin I's second wife). Died: after 1069 at France Élizabeth was alive in the year Renaud II, Count9 de Nevers (André Roux: Scrolls, 117, 196.) (Stuart, Page 169, Line ) (Abbott, Page 183.). AKA: Renaud II, Count d'auxerre. Born: circa 1046 at Nivernais, France, son of Guillaume I, Count de Nevers and Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre. Married before 1073: Ide de Forez,, daughter of Artaud IV, Comte de Forez and Ide Raimonde de Forez (Ide was Renaud II's first wife). Divorced Ide de Forez: before Married before 1087: Agnès de Beaugency,, daughter of Lancelin=Landry II, Seigneur de Beaugency and Alberge N? (Agnès was Renaud II's second wife). Died: on 5 Aug Ide9 de Forez (André Roux: Scrolls, 120.) (Stuart, Page 226, Line ). AKA: Ide Raimonde de Lyon. Married Name: de Nevers. Married Name: d'albon. Died: at France. Born: before 1058, daughter of Artaud IV, Comte de Forez and Ide Raimonde de Forez, Ide is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Ermengarde was born. Married before 1073: Renaud II, Count de Nevers,, son of Guillaume I, Count de Nevers and Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre (Ide was Renaud II's first wife). Note - between 1078 and 1079: Ide was the heiress of the Countship de la Forez. Divorced Renaud II, Count de Nevers: before Married circa 1091 at France: Guigues-Raymond, Count d'albon,, son of Guigues VII, Count d'albon and Agnès de Barcelone (Guigues-Raymond was Ide's second husband) Éverard9 du Donjon (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). Born: before 1070 at Seine-et-Oise, France Éverard is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Frédéric was born. Married before 1085: N? N? Died: after 1085 Éverard was alive in the year 1083, and is presumed to have been alive at the time his son Frédéric was born N?9 N? Married before 1085: Éverard du Donjon.

93 484. Henri II, Count9 de Louvain (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 217, 253.) (Stuart, Page 49, Line ). AKA: Henri II de Lambert. AKA: Henri II, Count de Brabant. Born: circa 1020 at Belgium, son of Lambert II dit Baudry, Count de Louvain and Ode de Lorraine. Married before 1060: Adèle=Alix de Turinge,, daughter of Eberhard, Count de Béthune and N? N? Died: between 1078 and 1079 Henri II was alive in the year He is buried at Nivelles (Stuart, Page 49.) Adèle=Alix9 de Turinge (André Roux: Scrolls, 217, 253.) (Stuart, Page 269, Line ). Married Name: de Louvain. AKA: Adélaïde de Béthune (Ibid.). Born: before 1045 at France, daughter of Eberhard, Count de Béthune and N? N?, Adèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Godefroy was born. Married before 1060: Henri II, Count de Louvain,, son of Lambert II dit Baudry, Count de Louvain and Ode de Lorraine. Died: after 1086 She was alive in the year 1086 (André Roux: Scrolls.) Otto II, Comte9 de Chiny (Stuart, Page 47, Line ). Born: in 1070, son of Arnulf II, Comte de Chiny and Adèle de Raméru ( Married before 1082: Adélaïde de Namur,, daughter of Albert III, Count de Namur and Ide=Relinde de Saxe (Adélaïde was Otto II's second wife). Died: on 28 Mar 1125 Otto II died a monk Adélaïde9 de Namur (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). Married Name: de Chiny. Born: circa 1068 at Belgium, daughter of Albert III, Count de Namur and Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Married before 1082: Otto II, Comte de Chiny,, son of Arnulf II, Comte de Chiny and Adèle de Raméru (Adélaïde was Otto II's second wife). Died: in Richard, Seigneur9 de Bienfaite (Paul Theroff, posts, 17 June 1995 at 20:56 Hours.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., David Dowell posting on the Genealogy BB of the Prodigy Interactive Personal Service under Subject "Antrobus" on 7 January 1996 at 22:23 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 582.). AKA: Richard de Tonbridge (von Redlich, Page 165.). AKA: Richard, Seigneur de Clare. AKA: Richard, Seigneur de Clere (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 582.). AKA: Richard I, Comte de Brionne. Born: in 1035 at Normandie, France, son of Gilbert, Count de Brionne and Gunnora d'aunon. Married circa 1054 at England: Rohèse Giffard,, daughter of Walter, Seigneur de Longueville and Agnès Ermentrude or Amicie Fleitel. Occupation: before 1090 Richard also was Seigneur d'orbec, Regent of England, and Lord of Tonbridge. Died: in 1090 at Huntingdonshire, England Rohèse9 Giffard (Paul Theroff, posts, 17 June 1995 at 20:56 Hours.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., David Dowell posting on the Genealogy BB of the Prodigy Interactive Personal Service under Subject "Antrobus" on 7 January 1996 at 22:23 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 582.) (Ibid.). Married Name: de Bienfaite. AKA: Rohèse de Bolbec. Born: before 1004 at Longueville, Normandie, France, daughter of Walter, Seigneur de Longueville and Agnès Ermentrude or Amicie Fleitel. Married before 1019: Eudes, Comte de Dammartin,, son of Manasses, Count de Dammartin and Constance, Princesse de France. Married Name: de Dammartin. Married circa 1054 at England: Richard, Seigneur de Bienfaite,, son of Gilbert, Count de Brionne and Gunnora d'aunon Hugues I, Comte9 de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (André Roux: Scrolls, 140, 198.) (Stuart, Page 242, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). AKA: Hughes I, Seigneur de Creil. AKA: Hughes, Count de Mouchy The Château of Mouchy or Monchy [Oise] was held by Hughes. His daughter Richilde took it to Dreux II de Mello (Abbott, Page 50.). AKA: Hughes, Seigneur de Luzarches The Seigneurie de Luzarches was held by Hughes, Comte de Clermont. It was divided, one half to his son, the other half to his daughter (Abbott, Page 43.). Born: before 1030 at France, son of Renaud, Comte de Clermont-enBeauvaisis and Ermengarde de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Hughes is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Adélise was born. Married before 1042: Marguerite de Roucy,, daughter of Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy. Died: in Marguerite9 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 140, 198.) (Stuart, Page 242, Line ) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.) (Ibid.). AKA: Marguerite de Montdidier. Married Name: de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Born: in 1031, daughter of Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy. Married before 1042: Hugues I, Comte de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,, son of Renaud, Comte de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Ermengarde de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis.

94 500. Roger, Seigneur9 de Beaumont-le-Roger (Paul Theroff, posts, 6 July 1994 at 23:10 Hours.) (von Redlich, Page 125.). AKA: Roger, Seigneur de Pont-Audemer. Also Known As: Roger "à la Barbe" (Abbott, Page 238.). AKA: Roger "Le Viel" (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, van Houts, Elisabeth.: Chapter 6: "Wace as Historian", Page 119.). Born: circa 1022 at Eure, Normandie, France, son of Honfroy, Seigneur de Vielles and Albérée de La Haie (Stuart, Page 161, Line ). Married before 1046: Adeline de Meulan-sur-Seine,, daughter of Valéran III, Count de Meulan-sur-Seine and Oda de Conteville. Died: on 29 Nov Adeline9 de Meulan-sur-Seine (Paul Theroff, posts, 6 July 1994 at 23:10 Hours.) (von Redlich, Page 125.). Married Name: de Beaumont. Born: circa 1020 at Melun, France, daughter of Valéran III, Count de Meulan-sur-Seine and Oda de Conteville (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Gary Murray [Prodigy ID#SJJA18A] posted in Topic "Royal/Noble/Heraldry", Subject: "de La Haie", on 6 June 1998 at 19:56 Hours.). Married before 1046: Roger, Seigneur de Beaumont-le-Roger,, son of Honfroy, Seigneur de Vielles and Albérée de La Haie. Died: on 8 Apr Hughes, Count9 de Vermandois (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 112.) (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). AKA: Hughes, Count de Paris. AKA: Hughes, Count de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. AKA: Hughes, Count de Valois. AKA: Hughes Magnus de Crépy. AKA: Hughes Magnus, Duke de Bourgogne. AKA: Hughes Magnus, Marquis d'orléans. AKA: Hughes Magnus, Count d'amiens. Also Known As: Hughes "Le Grand." AKA: Hughes, Comte d'amiens. Born: in 1057 at Ile-de-France, France, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne, Queen de France. Married in 1077: Adèle, Countess de Vermandois,, daughter of Herbert IV, Count de Vermandois and Adèle, Countess de Crépy (Hughes was Adèle's first husband). Note - before 1101: Hughes was a leader in the First Crusade. Died: on 18 Oct 1101 at Tarsus, Cilicia, Asia Minor, Hughes is buried in Saint-Paul-de-Tarse Adèle, Countess9 de Vermandois (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 112.) (Stuart, Page 175, Line ; Page 196, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 23 April 1994 at 15:57 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Pages ). AKA: Adélaïde, Dame de Saint-Quentin (Abbott, Page 127.). AKA: Adélaïde, Countess de Valois (Abbott, Pages 57.). Married Name: de Clermont-enBeauvaisis. Born: circa 1062, daughter of Herbert IV, Count de Vermandois and Adèle, Countess de Crépy. Married in 1077: Hughes, Count de Vermandois,, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne, Queen de France (Hughes was Adèle's first husband). Married in 1103 at France: Renaud II, Count de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,, son of Hugues I, Comte de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Marguerite de Roucy (Adèle was Renaud II's first wife). Died: in 1124 at Meulan, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France, Adèle was alive in the year 1118 (Abbott, Pages 57.) Murcha, King of9 Leinster (O'Hart, Page 556, #111.). AKA: "Muirchu." AKA: Murchadh Mac Murrough (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Pages ). Born: before 1041 at Leinster, Ireland, son of Diarmuid, King of Leinster and Darbhforgal O'Brien, Murcha was born before his brother Glunairn who was slain in 1071 by the men of Meath at Donlah. He is assumed to have been at least 15 years of age when he fought against the Ui-Laeghaire (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Pages ). AKA: Murchad, King of Leinster (Moody, New History of Ireland, page 134.). Note - between 1056 and 1070: According to O'Donovan, Murchadh, Lord of Leinster in 1056, made a treacherous trepidation upon the Ui-Laeghaire of Teamhair, but the Lord of Teamhair overtook him and made a slaughter of his people. Murchadh slew Maelmordha, grandson of Faelan through treachery and guile. In 1059, he slew Conghalach Ua Riagain, royal heir of Teamhair. He also slew Gillacaeimhghin, son of Gillacomhgaill and royal heir of Leinster. He lost a battle to Conchobhair Ua Maeleachlainn, Lord of Meath. In 1069, he led an army into Meath, where he burned where he burned territories and churches. According to O'Hart, Murcha, a quo MacMuirchu or MacMorough was the eldest son of Diarmuid. From this Murcha, rather than his son Murcha, the Clan Morochoe is so called -- which has been anglicised O'Moroghoe and modernized O'Murphy, Murrough and Murphy. Murcha was the 50th. Christian King of Leinster. He invaded the Isle of Man in 1070 (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Pages ). Married before 1065: N? N? Died: in 1070 at Ath-cliath, Ireland, Murchadh died precisely on Sunday, the Festival of Mary, in Winter. The death of this Murchadh is entered in the Annals of Clonmacnoise under the year 1069: "Murrogh, son of King Dermott, King of the Danes in Ireland and Lynster, under his father died (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Pages ) N?9 N? Married before 1065: Murcha, King of Leinster,, son of Diarmuid, King of Leinster and Darbhforgal O'Brien Gillacomghall, Lord of the9 Ui-Muirceartaigh (O'Hart, Vol. 1, Page 763, #115.). AKA: Gillacomhall O'Toole. AKA: Gillacomghall Baccach (Ibid.). Born: circa 1055 at Leinster, Ireland, son of Duncuan O'Toole and N? N? Married before 1084: N? N? Died: in 1119 Gillacomghall was slain N?9 N? Married before 1084: Gillacomghall, Lord of the Ui-Muirceartaigh,, son of Duncuan O'Toole and N? N? 510. Donoch Mór9 O'Byrne. Born: before 1074 at Leinster, Ireland, son of Donoch O'Byrne and N? N? Married before 1093: N? N? 511. N?9 N? Married before 1093: Donoch Mór O'Byrne,, son of Donoch O'Byrne and N? N? th Generation Wadric, Seigneur10 d'avesnes (André Roux: Scrolls, 208.) (Stuart, Page 32, Line ). AKA: Wédric II, Seigneur de Condé ( AKA: Wédric II, Seigneur de Leuze (Ibid.). AKA: Wédric II, Seigneur d'avesnes (Ibid.). Born: before 1039 at Avesnes, Flandre, France, son of Wédric I, Lord d'avesnes and N. de Chièvres, Wadric is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Ade was born. Married before 1053: N? N? 515. N?10 N? Married before 1053: Wadric, Seigneur d'avesnes,, son of Wédric I, Lord d'avesnes and N. de Chièvres. Married Name: d'avesnes Ingelbert II10 van Peteghem. Born: before 1025 at Belgium Ingelbert II is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son Alard I was born. Married before 1042: Glismode N? Died: circa Glismode10 N? Married Name: van Peteghem. Born: before Married before 1042: Ingelbert II van Peteghem Albert=Adalbert I, Count10 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 197, 217.) (Stuart, Page 274, Line ). Born: before 980 at Belgium, son of Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde de Lorraine, Albert I is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when he married

95 Ermengarde. Married in 990: Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine,, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Died: in Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude10 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 197, 217.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). Born: between 0970 and 0975, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Married in 990: Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur,, son of Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde de Lorraine. Died: in Gozelon I, Duke10 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.) (Stuart, Page 79, Line ). AKA: Gozelon I, Margrave of Antwerp. AKA: Gozelon I, Count de Verdun. Born: circa 967, son of Godfrey, Count de Verdun and Mahaut=Mathilda de Saxe. Married before 994: N? N? Died: on 19 Apr N?10 N? Married before 994: Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Godfrey, Count de Verdun and Mahaut=Mathilda de Saxe Bernard I, Duke10 de Saxe (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). AKA: Benno Billung. Born: circa 940, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Married circa 990: Hildegarde von Stade,, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Died: on 9 Feb 1011 at Corivey Bernard I is buried at Michaeliski in Luxembourg Hildegarde10 von Stade (Stuart, Page 215, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 6 July 18:40 Hours.). Married Name: de Saxe. Born: between 0974 and 0976, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Married circa 990: Bernard I, Duke de Saxe,, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Died: on 3 Oct 1011 Hildegarde is buried at Michaeliski in Luxemburg Harold II, King of10 Norway (Stuart, Page 151, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 31 July 1994 at 20:40 Hours.). AKA: Harold Eiriksson. Also Known As: Harold "Greypelt." Born: in 914 at Norway, son of Eric I, King of Norway and Gunhild of Denmark. Note - between 0960 and 0965 at Norway: Harold II was King of Norway ( ). Married before 970: N? N? Died: in 970 Harold II was killed. Some sources indicate he died in N?10 N? Married before 970: Harold II, King of Norway,, son of Eric I, King of Norway and Gunhild of Denmark Waléran I, Count10 d'arlon (Stuart, Page 44, Line ). Also Known As: Waléran "Le Vieux." AKA: Valéran I, Comte de Limbourg ( Born: before 1018, son of Konrad, Count d'arlon and N? N?, Waléran I is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when he died. Married before 1024: Adélaïde de Lorraine,, daughter of Dietrich I, Duke de Lorraine and Richilde de Metz. Died: before Died: in 1052 (Ibid.) Adélaïde10 de Lorraine (Stuart, Page 227, Line ). Married Name: d'arlon. Born: before 995 at Haute Lorraine, France, daughter of Dietrich I, Duke de Lorraine and Richilde de Metz. Married before 1024: Waléran I, Count d'arlon,, son of Konrad, Count d'arlon and N? N? Died: after Frédéric II, Duke10 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 41, Line ). AKA: Frédérick II, Lord von Saarbrücken. AKA: Frédérick II, Count de Moselgau. AKA: Frédérick II, Margrave of Antwerp. Born: in 1003, son of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg ( Married before 1034: Gerberge de Boulogne,, daughter of Eustache I, Comte de Boulogne and Mahaut=Mathilde de Louvain. Note - between 1046 and 1065: Frédéric was made Duke of Lower Lorraine in 1046 (Ibid.). Married before 1064: Ide=Relinde de Saxe,, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Bertrade, Princess of Norway (He was Ide's first husband). Died: on 18 May Gerberge10 de Boulogne (Stuart, Page 42, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.). Married Name: de Lorraine. Born: before 1017, daughter of Eustache I, Comte de Boulogne and Mahaut=Mathilde de Louvain, Gerberge is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time her daughter Judith was born. Married before 1034: Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg. Died: in 1049 ( Hartwig II10 von Botenstein (Stuart, Page 31, Line ). AKA: Hartwig II, Pfalzgrave de Bavière. Born: before 1000, son of Aribo I, Pfalzgrave de Bavière and Adèle de Bavière. Married before 1026: Frideruna de Bavière,, daughter of Reting II, Count de Bavière and Glismode de Saxe. Died: on 24 Nov Frideruna10 de Bavière (Stuart, Page 101, Line ). Married Name: von Botenstein. Born: before 994, daughter of Reting II, Count de Bavière and Glismode de Saxe. Married before 1026: Hartwig II von Botenstein,, son of Aribo I, Pfalzgrave de Bavière and Adèle de Bavière Otto III10 von Schweinfürt (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Otto III, Margrave in the Nordgau. Born: circa 1000, son of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg. Occupation: between 1034 and 1048 Otto III was the Margrave in the Nordgau in 1034 and Duke of Swabia in Married in 1035: Matylda of Poland,, daughter of Boleslaw I, King of Poland and Oda of Meissen. Married in 1036: Ermengarde de Turin,, daughter of Ulrich=Manfredo II, Marquis de Turin and Berthe d'este (Ermengarde was Otto III's second wife). AKA: Otto III, Duke de Souabe ( Died: on 28 Sep Matylda of10 Poland (Paul Theroff, posts, post under Subject "Poland & Silesia" on 29 July 1994 at 22:40 Hours.). Married Name: von Schweinfürt. Born: between 1019 and 1025, daughter of Boleslaw I, King of Poland and Oda of Meissen, Matylda is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Otto. Married in 1035: Otto III von Schweinfürt,, son of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg. Died: in Bouchard III, Seigneur10 de Montmorency (André Roux: Scrolls, 184.) (Stuart, Page 21, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 26 April 18:47 Hours.). Born: before 1015 at Ile-de-France, France, son of Bouchard II, Seigneur de Montmorency and Helvide de Basset. Note - between 1022 and 1024: Bouchard III was Seigneur Married before 1057 at France: Adélise de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,, daughter of Hugues I, Comte de

96 Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Marguerite de Roucy. Died: in 1060 Bouchard III was alive in the year 1022 (Abbott, Page 49.) Adélise10 de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (Stuart, Page 21, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 23 April 15:57 Hours.). Married Name: de Clare. Married Name: de Montmorency. AKA: Adèline de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Born: before 1043, daughter of Hugues I, Comte de Clermont-enBeauvaisis and Marguerite de Roucy. Married before 1057 at France: Bouchard III, Seigneur de Montmorency,, son of Bouchard II, Seigneur de Montmorency and Helvide de Basset. Married before 1080: Gilbert, Seigneur de Clare,, son of Richard, Seigneur de Bienfaite and Rohèse Giffard. MaterAlter: before 1100 Alice de Clare/Adélise de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Died: after Guillaume dit Busac, Count10 d'eu (André Roux: Scrolls, 195, 255.) (Stuart, Page 163, Line ). AKA: Guillaume, Count d'exmes. AKA: Guillaume, Count de Soissons. AKA: Guillaume, Count de Troyes. Born: circa 1022, son of Guillaume, Count d'exmes and Lezcéline d'harcourt. Married in 1058: Adélaïde, Countess de Soissons,, daughter of Renaud = Rainald II, Count de Soissons and Adélaïde=Aélis de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls.). Died: in 1077 Guillaume was alive in the year Adélaïde, Countess10 de Soissons (André Roux: Scrolls, 195, 255.) (Stuart, Page 142, Line ). Married Name: d'eu. AKA: Adélaïde, Comtesse de Troyes. Born: circa 1025, daughter of Renaud = Rainald II, Count de Soissons and Adélaïde=Aélis de Roucy (, Personal Research. References with "FHL" numbers refer to the microfilm number availble from the Family Home Library headquartered in Salt Lake City, with local branches. in no series (n.p.: n.pub., n.d.), Estimated date.). Married in 1058: Guillaume dit Busac, Count d'eu,, son of Guillaume, Count d'exmes and Lezcéline d'harcourt (André Roux: Scrolls.). Died: on 18 Sep Yves I/II, Count10 de Beaumont-sur-Oise (André Roux: Scrolls, 239.). AKA: Yves III, Count de Bellemontensis (Stuart, Page 199, Line ). AKA: Yves III de Val d'oise (Abbott, Page 31.). Born: before 1015 at Beaumont, Beaumont, Beaumont-sur-Oise, France, son of Yves II de Bellemontensis and N? N?, Yves I was alive in the year 1028 and is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son, Eudes, was born. Married before 1029 at France: Emma (--?--),, daughter of Geoffroy I, Duke de Bretagne and Havoise de Normandie. AKA: Yves II, Seigneur de Conflans. Died: on 22 May 1059 Yves I was alive in the year Emma10 (--?--) (Stuart, Page 199, Line ) ( 7 December 2008.) (Ibid.). Married Name: de Beaumont-sur-Oise. AKA: Emma Lupus de Bretagne (Ibid.). Born: before 1015 at France, daughter of Geoffroy I, Duke de Bretagne and Havoise de Normandie, Emma was alive in the year 1039, and is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Yves II was born. Married before 1029 at France: Yves I/II, Count de Beaumont-sur-Oise,, son of Yves II de Bellemontensis and N? N? 558. Hughes, Count10 de Gournay (Stuart, Page 199, Line ). AKA: Hughes II, Seigneur de Gournay ( 7 December 2008.). Born: before 1040 at France, son of Hughes I, Seigneur de Gournay and N? N?, Hughes is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Adélaïde was born. Married before 1054: N? N? 559. N?10 N? (Ibid., 7 December 2008.). Married before 1054: Hughes, Count de Gournay,, son of Hughes I, Seigneur de Gournay and N? N? 576. Baudouin VI10 de Flandre (André Roux: Scrolls, 115, 118.) (Stuart, Page 53, Line ). AKA: Baudouin I, Count de Hainaut (Stuart, Page 53.). AKA: Baldwin, Margrave of Antwerp. Also Known As: Baudouin "Le Bon" (Abbott, Page 292.). Born: circa 1030, son of Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre and Adèle=Alix, Princess de France. Married in 1055: Rothilde=Richilde, Comtesse de Hainaut,, daughter of Rainier V/VI, Count de Hainaut and

97 Mahaut d'ardenne (Baudouin VI was Rothilde's second husband). Died: on 17 Jul Rothilde=Richilde, Comtesse10 de Hainaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 115, 118.) (Stuart, Page 53, Line ) (Abbott, Page 559.). AKA: Richilde von Egisheim (Stuart, Page 53.). Married Name: de Flandre. Born: between 1016 and 1036 at France, daughter of Rainier V/VI, Count de Hainaut and Mahaut d'ardenne, Rothilde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Roger, was born. Some sources indicate that Richilde was the daughter of Hermann, Comte von Egisheim and widow of Comte Hermmann de Hainaut, hence daughter-in-law of Rainier de Hainaut and therefore dowager Comtesse. Married before 1050: Hermann von Egisheim (Hermann was Rothilde's first husband) (von Redlich, Page 277.). Married in 1055: Baudouin VI de Flandre,, son of Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre and Adèle=Alix, Princess de France (Baudouin VI was Rothilde's second husband). Died: on 15 Mar Henri II, Count10 de Louvain (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 217, 253.) (Stuart, Page 49, Line ). AKA: Henri II de Lambert. AKA: Henri II, Count de Brabant. Born: circa 1020 at Belgium, son of Lambert II dit Baudry, Count de Louvain and Ode de Lorraine. Married before 1060: Adèle=Alix de Turinge,, daughter of Eberhard, Count de Béthune and N? N? Died: between 1078 and 1079 Henri II was alive in the year He is buried at Nivelles (Stuart, Page 49.) Adèle=Alix10 de Turinge (André Roux: Scrolls, 217, 253.) (Stuart, Page 269, Line ). Married Name: de Louvain. AKA: Adélaïde de Béthune (Ibid.). Born: before 1045 at France, daughter of Eberhard, Count de Béthune and N? N?, Adèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Godefroy was born. Married before 1060: Henri II, Count de Louvain,, son of Lambert II dit Baudry, Count de Louvain and Ode de Lorraine. Died: after 1086 She was alive in the year 1086 (André Roux: Scrolls.) Dietrich Heinrich, Count 10 de Velue (Stuart, Page 87, Line ). AKA: Dietrich Flamens. Born: before 1038 at France, son of Gérard II, Count de Teisterbant and N? N?, Dietrich is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Gérard I was born. Married before 1053: N? N? Note - before 1075: Dietrich was a captive at Bouillon. Died: between 1075 and 1092 Dietrich is buried at the Abbey of Saint Hubert in the Ardennes, France. Sources disagree as to the year of death with some claiming Heinrich died in 1075 while others indicate it was in N?10 N? Married before 1053: Dietrich Heinrich, Count de Velue,, son of Gérard II, Count de Teisterbant and N? N? 582. Guillaume V, Comte10 de Poitou (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 87, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). AKA: Guillaume dit Pierre, Comte de Longwy. AKA: Guillaume VII, Duke d'aquitaine (Abbott, Page 303.). Also Known As: Guillaume "l'aigret." Born: circa 1023 at Longwy, Lorraine, France, son of Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou and Agnès, Princess de Lombardie. Married before 1040: Ermesinde de Longwy,, daughter of Adalbert III, Count de Longwy and Clémence de Foix. Died: in 1058 (Abbott, Page 402.) Ermesinde10 de Longwy (Stuart, Page 80, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). Married Name: de Poitou. Born: before 1025, daughter of Adalbert III, Count de Longwy and Clémence de Foix, Ermesinde is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Guillaume V. Married before 1040: Guillaume V, Comte de Poitou,, son of Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou and Agnès, Princess de Lombardie. Died: after Albert II, Count10 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). Born: circa 1000 at Belgium, son of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Married before 1030: Relinde de Lorraine,, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N? Died: in 1037 Albert II was killed. Some sources indicate that Albert II died between 1063 and Relinde10 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.). Married Name: de Namur. AKA: Regelinde, Countess de Châtenois. Born: circa 994, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N? Married before 1030: Albert II, Count de Namur,, son of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Died: on 1 Feb Bernard II, Duke10 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Born: circa 995, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Married between 1019 and 1020: Bertrade, Princess of Norway,, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married in

98 1020: Elica von Schweinfürt,, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg ( Died: on 29 Jun Bertrade, Princess of10 Norway (Stuart, Page 151, Line ). Married Name: de Saxe. Born: before 970, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married between 1019 and 1020: Bernard II, Duke de Saxe,, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Died: after 1030 Bertrade was alive in the year Gilbert I, Count10 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 3-32.). AKA: Gilbert I, Count de Salins. AKA: Gilbert I, Count de Longwy. AKA: Giselbert II, Comte von Salm ( Born: circa 1005, son of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg. Married before 1040: N? N? Died: on 14 Aug N?10 N? Married before 1040: Gilbert I, Count de Luxembourg,, son of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg Guillaume V, Comte10 de Poitou (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 87, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). AKA: Guillaume dit Pierre, Comte de Longwy. AKA: Guillaume VII, Duke d'aquitaine (Abbott, Page 303.). Also Known As: Guillaume "l'aigret." Born: circa 1023 at Longwy, Lorraine, France, son of Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou and Agnès, Princess de Lombardie. Married before 1040: Ermesinde de Longwy,, daughter of Adalbert III, Count de Longwy and Clémence de Foix. Died: in 1058 (Abbott, Page 402.) Ermesinde10 de Longwy (Stuart, Page 80, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). Married Name: de Poitou. Born: before 1025, daughter of Adalbert III, Count de Longwy and Clémence de Foix, Ermesinde is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Guillaume V. Married before 1040: Guillaume V, Comte de Poitou,, son of Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou and Agnès, Princess de Lombardie. Died: after Gérard III, Count10 d'alsace (André Roux: Scrolls, 169, 193.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ). AKA: Gérard, Marquis de Lorraine. AKA: Gérard, Count de Lorraine. AKA: Gérard, Duke de Lorraine Gérard was Duke of Upper Lorraine. AKA: Gerhard, Count de Metz. Born: before 985, son of Adalbert II, Duke de Lorraine and Judith=Jutta N?, Gérard is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Adalbert III was born. Married before 1000: Gisèle de Metz (Roderick Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" cites the marriage as before 979, but he also cites the marriage of Adalbert II and his wife Judith, parents of Gérard, as before 979). Died: in Gisèle10 de Metz (André Roux: Scrolls, 169, 193.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ). Married Name: d'alsace. Born: before 985 Gisèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Adalbert III was born. Married before 1000: Gérard III, Count d'alsace,, son of Adalbert II, Duke de Lorraine and Judith=Jutta N? (Roderick Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" cites the marriage as before 979, but he also cites the marriage of Adalbert II and his wife Judith, parents of Gérard, as before 979) Albert=Adalbert I, Count10 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 197, 217.) (Stuart, Page 274, Line ). Born: before 980 at Belgium, son of Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde de Lorraine, Albert I is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when he married Ermengarde. Married in 990: Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine,, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Died: in Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude10 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 197, 217.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). Born: between 0970 and 0975, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Married in 990: Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur,, son of Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde de Lorraine. Died: in Baudouin V, Comte10 de Flandre (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 118.) (Stuart, Page 103, Line ). AKA: Baudouin, Regent de France. Also Known As: Baudouin "Le Pieux" (von Redlich, Page 183.). Also Known As: Baudouin "Le Débonnaire" (Abbott, Page 292.). AKA: Baudouin V de Lille (Stuart, Page 103.). Born: circa 1013 at Flandre, Belgium, son of Baudouin IV, Count de Flandre and Ogive = Cunégonde de Luxembourg. Married in 1028 at France: Adèle=Alix, Princess de France,, daughter of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence (Baudouin V was Adèle's second husband). Note - between 1060 and 1067 at France: Baudouin V was the Regent of France from 1060 to Died: on 1 Sep 1067 at Lille, Nord, Flandre, France Adèle=Alix, Princess10 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 118.) (Stuart, Page 102, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Ear Roberts "Capet" posted on 4 October 1995 at 14:33 hours.). AKA: Adélaïde, Countess de Contenance. Married Name: de Normandie. Married Name: de Flandre. Born: in 1009, daughter of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence, Some sources indicate that Adèle=Alix was born in Married in Jan 1027 at France: Richard III, Duke de Normandie,, son of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Married in 1028 at France: Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre,, son of Baudouin IV, Count de Flandre and Ogive = Cunégonde de Luxembourg (Baudouin V was Adèle's second husband). Died: on 8 Jan 1079 at Messina, Messina, Sicily, Some sources indicate that Adèle=Alix died in Bernard II, Duke10 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Born: circa 995, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Married between 1019 and 1020: Bertrade, Princess of Norway,, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married in 1020: Elica von Schweinfürt,, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg ( Died: on 29 Jun Elica10 von Schweinfürt (Stuart, Page 198, Line ). Married Name: Eilika de Saxe (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). MaterAlter: Ide=Relinde de Saxe/Elica von Schweinfürt. Born: before 1010, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg, Elica is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Bernard II. Married in 1020: Bernard II, Duke de Saxe,, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade ( Died: after Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count10 de Gâtinais (André Roux: Scrolls, 147.) (Stuart, Page 37, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 10 July 1994 at 00:34

99 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 39.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 257.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages 257, 264.). AKA: Geoffroy II de Château-Landon. AKA: Albéric "Le Bref", Comte de Château-Landon (Abbott, Page 39.). Born: circa 1004 at Château-Landon, Champagne, France, son of Hugo, Sire du Perche and Béatrice de Mâcon, The parentage of Geoffroy II may be in question. Stuart takes the information of others and shows Geoffroi II as son of Geoffroy III. Settipani cites numerous other works, including a Charter in Paris of 26 May 1026 that show Geoffroy II/IV son of Hugues du Perche [via Beatrix's second marriage] as follows: "in comitatu Vuastinensi, Gosfredo, comiti Landonensi castri... Albericum, illius supradicti Gosfredi filium et heredem, et insuper, faventibus fratibus ipsius Alberici,filiis Hugonis Pertice, silicet Gosfredo et Letoldo" (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). PaterAlter circa 1004 Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count de Gâtinais/Geoffroy III, Count de Gâtinais (an unknown value) (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 1., Citing NEHGR 99:34-37.). Married in 1035: Ermengarde d'anjou,, daughter of Foulques III, Count d'anjou and Hildegarde de Metz. AKA: Gausfred, Comte de Gâtinais (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 232.). Died: on 11 Apr 1046 (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Pages 2, 4 16:10 Hrs], Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.") Ermengarde10 d'anjou (André Roux: Scrolls, 147.) (Stuart, Page 69, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 10 July 1994 at 00:34 Hours.). Married Name: Blanche de Bourgogne. Born: either 1010 or 1018 at France, daughter of Foulques III, Count d'anjou and Hildegarde de Metz, Stuart indicates Ermengarde was born in 1018, but Settipani shows she was born in 1010 (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 265.). Married in 1035: Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count de Gâtinais,, son of Hugo, Sire du Perche and Béatrice de Mâcon. Married in 1048: Robert, Duke de Bourgogne,, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence. Died: on 21 Mar 1076 at Fleury-sur-Ouche, Normandie, France, Ermengarde was murdered and some sources indicate it was on 18 March 1076 (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 4 16:10 Hrs], Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.") Simon I, Seigneur10 de Montfort (André Roux: Scrolls, 168.) (Stuart, Page 68, Line 90-29; Page 125, Line ). AKA: Simon I, Seigneur de Montfort-l'Amaury. Born: circa 1026 at France, son of Amaury II, Seigneur de Montfort and Bertrade de Gometz. Married circa 1055 at France: Isabeau de Broyes,, daughter of Hughes dit Bardoul, Seigneur de Broyes and N? N? (Isabeau was Simon I's first wife. Isabeau's dowry brought the Châtellenie of Nogent to her husband, Simon I) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). Married before 1060: Agnès d'évreux,, daughter of Richard, Comte d'évreux and Adélaïde de Barcelone (Agnès was Simon I's fifth wife, and he was her third husband). Died: in 1087 Simon I is buried at Épernon, France Agnès10 d'évreux (André Roux: Scrolls, 168, 242.) (Stuart, Page 125, Line ). Married Name: de Montfort. Born: circa 1030 at Évreux, Normandie, France, daughter of Richard, Comte d'évreux and Adélaïde de Barcelone. Married before 1060: Simon I, Seigneur de Montfort,, son of Amaury II, Seigneur de Montfort and Bertrade de Gometz (Agnès was Simon I's fifth wife, and he was her third husband) Jean, Seigneur10 de La Flèche (André Roux: Scrolls, 196, 241.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). AKA: Jean, Lord de Beaugency. AKA: Jean, Comte du Maine (Abbott, Page 130.). Born: before 1050 at La Flèche, Sarthe, Anjou, France, son of Lancelin I, Seigneur de Beaugency and Paule I du Maine, André Roux's data supports the notion that Lancelin married Paule I du Maine who became Jean's mother. Married before 1067 at France: Paule II du Maine,, daughter of Hughes V, Count du Maine and Gersende de Mayenne. Died: in 1097 Jean is buried at Saint-Aubin-d'Angers, Anjou, France Paule II10 du Maine (André Roux: Scrolls, 196, 241.). Married Name: de La Flèche. Born: before 1053 at France, daughter of Hughes V, Count du Maine and Gersende de Mayenne, Paule is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Hélie was born. Some sources indicate that the Paule du Maine who married Jean, Seigneur de La Flèche was the daughter of Herbert I "Éveille-Chiens", Count du Maine. That assertion is inconsistent with André Roux's data which has Paule II as the granddaughter of Paule I du Maine. Consistent with Turton's "Plantagenet Ancestry", André Roux has Paule I as wife of Lancelin I, Seigneur de Beaugency, daughter of Herbert I, and mother of Jean I de Beaugency, Seigneur de La Flèche who married Paule II. Paule II then would be the granddaughter-daughter of Paule I's sister, and she in turn married Paule II's son Jean. Paule II would have to be younger than Jean. Roderic Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" does not ackowledge the existence of two Paule du Maine and asserts that they are one in the same person and that Turton therefore made an error. Married before 1067 at France: Jean, Seigneur de La Flèche,, son of Lancelin I, Seigneur de Beaugency and Paule I du Maine Gervais II, Seigneur10 de Château-du-Loir (André Roux: Scrolls, 53, 256.) (Stuart, Page 248, Line ) (Abbott, Page 134.). Born: before 1052 at Château du Loir, Sarthe, Maine, France, son of Robert, Seigneur de Château-du-Loir and Élizabeth N?, Gervais is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Mathilde was born. Married before 1069: Aremburge N?,, daughter of N? N? and Mathilde N? Died: circa Aremburge10 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 53, 256.). Married Name: de Château-du-Loir. Born: before 1055, daughter of N? N? and Mathilde N?, Aremburge=Eremburge is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Mathilde was born. Married before 1069: Gervais II, Seigneur de Château-du-Loir,, son of Robert, Seigneur de Château-du-Loir and Élizabeth N? 608. Eudes II, Count10 de Blois (André Roux: Scrolls, 121, 122, 128.) (Stuart, Page 97, Line ) (Hallam, Page 73.). AKA: Eudes, Châtelain de Beauvais (Abbott, Pages ). AKA: Eudes II, Count de Champagne. Also Known As: Eudes "Le Grand." Also Known As: Eudes "Le Champenois." AKA: Eudes II, Comte de Troyes. AKA: Eudes II, Count de Chartres. AKA: Eudes II, Count de Tours. AKA: Eudes II, Comte de Sancerre. Born: before 971 at Champagne, France, son of Eudes I, Count de Blois and Princess Berthe de Bourgogne, Eudes II is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Étienne I was born. Married circa 984: Mathilde de Normandie,, daughter of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec. Note - between 1015 and 1037: Eudes II was Count de Blois in 1015, and Count de Champagne in Helped by the strong intermittent attachment of Robert Le Pieux King of France to his mother Berthe de la Haute Bourgogne, Eudes II began to assemble a conglomeration of lands, later setting his sights on the Kingdom of Burgundy. In 1004, he added the Champagne lands around Reims and Provins to Blois, Tours, Chartres and Vendôme. In 1031, his support for Constance, widow of Robert Le Pieux was bought when she handed him half of Sens. He became a staunch agressor against King Henry I. Eudes II ceded the Countship of Beauvais to the bishop and the regalian rights thenceforth remained with the bishops, being as elsewhere, gradually

100 taken over by the King. In 1037, while fighting in Lorraine, he was killed, and his lands were divided among his two sons: Theobald I who took Blois, and Stephen (Étienne) who was given Troyes and Meaux. The two sons now also took the part of Odo, King Henry's youngest brother who had been left landless, against the King himself. The King was victorious: Odo was captured, Stephen defeated and his ally, the Count of Vermandois was imprisoned. Married in 1020: Ermengarde d'auvergne,, daughter of Robert II, Count d'auvergne and Hermengarde de Provence (Ermengarde was Eudes II's second wife). Died: on 15 Nov 1037 (Stuart, Page 97.) Ermengarde10 d'auvergne (André Roux: Scrolls, 121, 128.). Married Name: de Blois. MaterAlter: circa 986 Étienne I, Count de Meaux/Ermengarde d'auvergne. Born: circa 1006, daughter of Robert II, Count d'auvergne and Hermengarde de Provence. Married in 1020: Eudes II, Count de Blois,, son of Eudes I, Count de Blois and Princess Berthe de Bourgogne (Ermengarde was Eudes II's second wife). Died: circa 1042 Ermengarde was alive in the year Herbert I, Count10 du Maine (André Roux: Scrolls, 241.) (Stuart, Page 249, Line ) (Abbott, Page 130.). Also Known As: Herbert "ÉveilleChiens." Born: circa 978 at France, son of Hughes III, Count du Maine and N? de Guiscard (André Roux: Scrolls.). Married before 1010: N? N? Note in 1016: Herbert "Wake Dog", successor of Hugh III was obliged to fight against Odo of Blois at Pontlevoy in 1016 on behalf of his overlord, Fulk IV of Anjou (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Keats-Rohan, Katharine S.B.: Chapter 10: " 'Un vassal sans histoire'?: Count Hugh II (c.940/ ) and the Origins of Angevin Overlordship in Maine", Page 192.). Died: on 13 Apr N?10 N? Married before 1010: Herbert I, Count du Maine,, son of Hughes III, Count du Maine and N? de Guiscard Robert II, Count10 d'exmes (André Roux: Scrolls, 149.) (Stuart, Page 67, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:26 Hours.). Also Known As: Robert "Le Diable." AKA: Robert I, Duke de Normandie. Also Known As: Robert "Le Magnifique" (Abbott, Page 219.). Born: circa 1000 at Normandie, France, son of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Significant-Other: Arlette de Mortain between 1026 and 1027 at Rouen, France, - Duke Robert "Le Magnifique", only recently Duke of Normandy, met Arletta, normand daughter of a humble resident of Falaise. If one is to believe the calumnious English legend, the Duke noticed her as she was dancing in a public square of Rouen. Note - between 1028 and 1035: Duke of Normandie ( ), Robert II was poisoned during an elegant pilgrimage to the Holy Land. While making preparations in January, 1035, Robert presented his son, through his concubine Arletta, William as heir. Gilbert de Brionne would be charged to look after the child who was only 8 years of age. Died: on 2 Jul 1035 at Nicée, Bithynia, Holy Land, Turkey, Robert II, Duke de Normandie, died after having asked his followers to support his son. However, the Summer saw local wars burst throughout the Duchy Arlette10 de Mortain (André Roux: Scrolls, 132, 149.) (Stuart, Page 67, Line ) (Internet, as of 1 November 1998.). Married Name: de Conteville. Married Name: d'exmes. AKA: Harlette = Herleva de Falaise (Internet, as of 1 November 1998.). Note - circa 1003: In two notes, G.H. White, who used Marx's Edition of the "Gesta" containing the correct Latin text of Orderic, denied this interpretation. According to him, there is no evidence for Freeman's testimony that Herleva's father was a tanner, and he concludes: 'As pollinctores were the people who prepared corpses for burial, this [William being called a skinner or furrier] is obscure... Notwithstanding White's arguments, the two recent biographers of the Conqueror, D.C. Douglas and M. de Bouard, preferred the tanner story. What makes the assessment of Orderic's interpolation even more complicated is the fact that the mockery must have occurred in French and not in Latin. The inhabitants of Alençon, like Duke William, spoke French. The event most probably was preserved by memory and oral tradition and was not rendered into Latin until the beginning of the 12th. Century. Then Orderic faced the task of choosing the appropriate Latin equivalents of the spoken French words which are now lost. Trying to recontruct the reality of the mockery at Alençon as well as finding an explanation for the use of pollinctor, it is worth looking at the French adaptations of the "Gesta" written in the second half of the 12th. Century. How did Wace and Benoit translate this passage in their "Roman de Rou" [ ], and the "Chronique des ducs de Normandie" [ ]. Unfortunately, both poets skillfully avoided the word pollinctor and do not mention the beating of the pelts and furs. Instead, they elaborately digress on Duke William being called parmentier [Wace] and peletier [Benoit], each therefore offering a different translation of pelliciarius. It is clear from their text that they consider such a person involved in the trade of pelts, skins and furs. But which trade? Parmentier, used by Wace, means skinner, furrier or tanner; a more rare meaning is tailor; and yet, A. Holden, the most recent Editor of the "Roman de Rou", thinks that tailor is the correct rendering here. To explain the discrepancy between the original Latin of Orderic and Wace's adaptation, Holden suggests that Wace might record another tradition of the Alençon insult than the one written down by Orderic. Benoit leaves no doubt whatsoever as to his meaning peletier. For him, a pelliciarius is a tailor. He even embroiders this interpretation by referring to the tailor's needle and thread. But he did not wholly understand the Latin or the ridicule. According to his "Chronique", the inhabitants of Alençon, while insulting the Duke, beat the lower and upper parts of their backs and not pelts or furs. This is a misinterpretation of the Latin where the word "renones" [pelts or furs] is confused with "renes" [loins, backs]. It may be clear that neither Wace nor Benoit were familiar with the word "pollinctor" and that they did not understand the nature of the mockery. They hung on to the fact that the Duke was insulted by the reference to his grandfather's trade, which for Wace was that of a skinner or furrier, and for Benoit that of a tailor. Although neither of the two poets is very helpful for the meaning of the word "pollinctor", Wace's account might give a clue as to the original French of the Joke which the Duke found so offensive. The French for skin, according to Wace, is "la pel". In the masculin "le pel" the word means stake, pallisade, or wall. Bearing in mind, it is conceivable that the defenders of Alençon were making a pun by shouting "the walls, the walls" to the Duke [the pelterer]. But more probably, the pelts or skins did not refer to animals, but to human corpses. "Pellis" in Latin, and "la pel" in old French, can both indicate animal as well as human skin. I suggest that the mockery was insulting because Duke William's grandfather had been a pollinctor in the only known sense of the word, that is, a person who prepares corpses for burial, an undertaker or even an embalmer. As such, the father of Herleva naturally would have dealt with skins, not however with those of animals, but of human beings. The people of Alençon could not possibly have referred to this profession by beating human corpses or skins, so they therefore used pelts. In French, they shouted 'Pelterer' and Orderic translated this as pelliciarius, thereby preserving the double meaning. He still knew the nature of the insults and the real occupation of Herleva's father; whereas, half a century later, neither Wace nor Benoit seem to have been aware of the real facts. Our knowledge of persons who laid out bodies in medieval Normandy is extremely limited. See also note for Fulbert's Occupation (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Michael Welch [Prodigy ID# XZRB52A] in Subject "Herleva de Falaise" on 23 March 1996 at 00:39 Hours.). Born: circa 1003 at Falaise, Calvados, Normandie, France, daughter of Fulbert de Falaise and Dode N?, Michael Welch cites an article "The Origins of Herleva, Mother of William the Conqueror": There is a persistent tradition in Anglo-Norman historiography that William the Conqueror's mother Herleva, was the daughter of Fulbert, a tanner from Falaise. This tanner story emerged in the second half of the Twelfth Century as a result of a misinterpretation of Latin used to describe Herleva's background. The earliest substantial information about Herleva derives from Orderic Vitalis in his interpolated version of "Gesta Normannorum Ducum" written He refers to her several times, but these passages are difficult to interpret. In a lively but enigmatic description of the Seige of Alençon in , William of Jumièges the original author of

101 the "Gesta" [ ] writes that Duke William was insulted by its inhabitants and that he ordered that his mockers should have their hands and feet cut off. The nature of the offense is not stated by the ducal chronicler. Forty years later, Orderic Vitalis proved to be less fastidious. According to his interpolation, the first part of which occurs in the margin of his autographed manuscript, thirty-two of the mockers were crippled. For the people of Alençon beat pelts and furs in order to insult the Duke and despisingly called him "pelliciarus [pelterer] because his maternal parentes [parents or kinsman] had been Pollinctores. Pelliciarius means "pelterer" - a person who is involved in the trade of pelts, skins and furs. The parentes are commonly interpreted as parents and therefore this sentence is supposed to contain a reference to Herleva's father. This is very likely, although we must allow the possibility that kinsmen, and thus Herleva's family, in a wider sense is meant. The greatest difficulty, however, lies in the translation and interpretation of the word "pollinctor". In classical Latin, pollinctor is a person who prepares a corpse for burial. The word is not uncommon in the Middle Ages and all examples indicate the same sense as in classical Latin. Orderic Vitalis used it a second time in his description of William the Conqueror's burial in the "Historia Ecclesiastica", where pollinctores are said to have laid the king's corpse. In the Alençon context, however, at first sight the word seems to make no sense at all. The more than thirty manuscripts of the "Gesta" containing Orderic's passage give the word pollinctor correctly. So it looks as if all scribes recognized it, and even if they did not know the meaning, they copied it without making mistakes. The first variant reading emerged in the 17th. Century, when William Camden [1602] edited the "Gesta". Both give pelliciarii instead of pollinctores, although as far as I know, there is no manuscript evidence for this reading. As a result of these editions, historians thence assumed that Duke William had been insulted by being called a tanner -- the translation given for pelliciarius by, among others, E.A. Freeman - in consequence of the fact that his maternal grandfather had been a member of that profession (Ibid.). Significant-Other: Robert II, Count d'exmes between 1026 and 1027 at Rouen, France, - Duke Robert "Le Magnifique", only recently Duke of Normandy, met Arletta, normand daughter of a humble resident of Falaise. If one is to believe the calumnious English legend, the Duke noticed her as she was dancing in a public square of Rouen. Married circa 1028 at Normandie, France: Herluin=Herlevin, Vicomte de Conteville,, son of Jean de Conteville and N? N? Died: after 1040 at Mortain, Normandie, France Baudouin V, Comte10 de Flandre (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 118.) (Stuart, Page 103, Line ). AKA: Baudouin, Regent de France. Also Known As: Baudouin "Le Pieux" (von Redlich, Page 183.). Also Known As: Baudouin "Le Débonnaire" (Abbott, Page 292.). AKA: Baudouin V de Lille (Stuart, Page 103.). Born: circa 1013 at Flandre, Belgium, son of Baudouin IV, Count de Flandre and Ogive = Cunégonde de Luxembourg. Married in 1028 at France: Adèle=Alix, Princess de France,, daughter of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence (Baudouin V was Adèle's second husband). Note - between 1060 and 1067 at France: Baudouin V was the Regent of France from 1060 to Died: on 1 Sep 1067 at Lille, Nord, Flandre, France Adèle=Alix, Princess10 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 118.) (Stuart, Page 102, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Ear Roberts "Capet" posted on 4 October 1995 at 14:33 hours.). AKA: Adélaïde, Countess de Contenance. Married Name: de Normandie. Married Name: de Flandre. Born: in 1009, daughter of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence, Some sources indicate that Adèle=Alix was born in Married in Jan 1027 at France: Richard III, Duke de Normandie,, son of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Married in 1028 at France: Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre,, son of Baudouin IV, Count de Flandre and Ogive = Cunégonde de Luxembourg (Baudouin V was Adèle's second husband). Died: on 8 Jan 1079 at Messina, Messina, Sicily, Some sources indicate that Adèle=Alix died in Siegfried, Count10 von Sponheim (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Siegfried, Count de Levanthal Levanthal in the Pusterthal. AKA: Siegdried de Carinthie. Born: before 1013, son of N. von Sponheim and N. von Pusterthal, Siegfried is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when he married Richgard. Married before 1023: Richgard, Countess von Lavant,, daughter of Engelbert, Count von Lavant and Luitgard d'istrie. Occupation: before 1065 Siegfried was Count of Carinthia zu Sonnesburg and Margrave of the Hungarian March. Died: on 5 Jul 1065 at Bulgaria Siegfried died on his return from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and may have been a crusader Richgard, Countess10 von Lavant (Stuart, Page 95, Line ). Married Name: von Sponheim. AKA: Richgard von Nordtal. AKA: Richgard von Inntal. Born: before 1013, daughter of Engelbert, Count von Lavant and Luitgard d'istrie, Richgard is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Siegfried. Married before 1023: Siegfried, Count von Sponheim,, son of N. von Sponheim and N. von Pusterthal. Note - in 1039: Richgard was the heiress of the Countship of Lavant Bernhard10 von Flinsbach (Stuart, Page 167, Line ). Born: before 1025 Bernhard is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Hedwig was born. Married before 1040: Cécilia N? 619. Cécilia10 N? (Ibid.). Married Name: von Flinsbach. Born: before 1025 Cécilia is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Hedwig was born. Married before 1040: Bernhard von Flinsbach N.10 von Augstgau (Stuart, Page 94, Line ). Born: before 1057, son of Diepold I, Count von Augstgau and N? N?, He is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Ulrich was born. Married before 1072: N? N? 621. N?10 N? Married before 1072: N. von Augstgau,, son of Diepold I, Count von Augstgau and N? N? 622. Heinrich I, Count10 von Lechsgemuend (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). Born: before 1055, son of Kuno I von Fratenhausen and Mathilde von Achalm, Heinrich I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Heinrich II, was born. Married before 1072: Irmgard von Rott,, daughter of Kuno von Rott and Uta von Diessen. Died: in 1078 Heinrich I was killed in action (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.) Irmgard10 von Rott (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). Married Name: von Lechsgemuend. Born: before 1058, daughter of Kuno von Rott and Uta von Diessen, Irmgard is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when her husband, Heinrich I, was born. Married before 1072: Heinrich I, Count von Lechsgemuend,, son of Kuno I von Fratenhausen and Mathilde von Achalm.

102 Henri I, King of France Henri I, King10 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Hallam, Page 73.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (von Redlich, Page 125.). AKA: Henry I, Comte de Paris. AKA: Henry I, Duke de Bourgogne (Abbott, Page 198.). Born: on 4 May 1008 at Reims, France, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence. Note - between 1031 and 1060 at France: King: Until about 1044, Henri I was preoccupied with Odo II, Count of Blois, who was trying to make good his own claim to the Kingdom of Burgundy, and the nobles of the Ile-de-France. In disputes with his younger brother Robert goaded by the malicious hatred of his mother Constance for Henri, Henri managed to keep his crown thanks to the help of Robert Le Diable, Duke of Normandy. Henry pardoned his brother, and gave him the Duchy of Bourgogne, thus forming the first Capetian House of Bourgogne. In 1033, Henry concluded an alliance with the Emperor Conrad II, but the Count of Blois took the side of Odo, the King's youngest brother who had been left landless. They, in turn, rallied a coalitions of nobles in opposition to Henry. In 1034, after savage fighting, Odo of Blois submitted thanks to the vigorous actions of Robert "Le Magnifique", but the war broke out soon afterwards. In July, 1034, Constance died. In 1037 Odo of Blois died while fighting in Lorraine, and his lands were divided between his two sons, Theobald I who took Blois and Stephen who was given Troyes and Meaux. The King was victorious against them, and Eudes (Henri's brother) was captured and incarcerated in Orléans in 1039; Stephen defeated and his ally, the Count of Vermandois was imprisoned. The Comte de Blois would lose Touraine to the Comte d'anjou, Henri's ally. The King took control of Sens together with the abbeys of Saint-Père at Châlons, and Saint-Médard at Soissons. In 1043, Emperor Henri III of Germany and King Henri I of France meet in Ivois to arrange a lasting peace (shortly after Henry III married Agnès de Bourgogne). By 1046, while relations between the Emperor and the King of France soured -- the Emperor apparently still miffed at Henri I's having fomented a revolt against the imperial crown in 1044 by the lords of Franche-Comté and of Bourgogne, Guillaume, the young Duke de Normandie, requests the royal assistance of the King to quell a rebellion by the lords of lower Bourgogne led by Renouf, Vicomte de Bessin and Gui, son of the Comte de Bourgogne, titular fief of Brionne. In 1047 at Val-ès-Dunes, just South of Caen, William fighting at the King's side is victorious and erects the Chapel de Sainte-Paix near Caen to commemorate the occasion. Gui de Brionne would require 3 more years of fighting to tame. In 1050, Henry I fought against Geoffrey Martel of Anjou with the help of William, Duke de Normandie. In Northern France, he was therefore able to contain the threats from Blois-Champagne and to profit from the involvement of Normandy and Anjou against one another. He consolidated his power within the royal principality, but his broader schemes, particularly for regaining Lorraine were not so successful. Married before 1033: Mathilde, Princess of Germany,, daughter of Conrad II, King of Germany and Gisèle de Souabe (Mathilde was Henri I's first of three wives). Married in 1043: Mathilda de Saxe,, daughter of Ludwig von Braunschweig and Gertrude von Egisheim (Hallam, Page 72.). Married on 19 May 1051 at For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims, Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Anne, Queen de France,, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden (According to Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners": After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King de France marries Anne de Russie, daughter of the Grand-Duke de Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. However, von Redlich's "Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants" claims that Henri I and Anne were married circa 29 January 1044 [id est, immediately after Henri I's second wife died). Died: on 4 Aug 1060 at Vitry-en-Brie, France, at age 52 Some French history text indicate that Henri I died in Vitry-aux-Loges. Henri I is buried at Saint Denis. Buried: on 24 Aug Anne, Queen10 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ) (von Redlich, Page 63.). AKA: Anne de Russie. AKA: Anna=Agnès Jaroslawna. Married Name: de Valois. AKA: Anne de Kiev. Born: in 1036 at Kiev, Ukraine, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden. Married on 19 May 1051 at For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims, Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Henri I, King de France,, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence (According to Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners": After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King de France marries Anne de Russie, daughter of the Grand-Duke de Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. However, von Redlich's "Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants" claims that Henri I and Anne were married circa 29 January 1044 [id est, immediately after Henri I's second wife died). Married circa 1061 at France: Raoul III, Comte de Valois,, son of Raoul II, Count de Crépy and Adèle de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (Anne was Raoul III's third wife and he her second husband as she was the widow of Henri I when she married Raoul. When Henri I died on 4 August 1060, Anne, 36 years of age, was still considered quite lovely. It is said that she had herself whisked off by Raoul Comte de Crépy and de Valois, as he in turn, repudiated his wife, Haquenez. She complains to Pope Alexander II, who would excommunicate Raoul). Died: between 1076 and 1089 at France Anna is buried at the Abbey of Villiers in La Ferté-Alais on the Essonne, 19-km from Corbeil, in the Seine & Oise Department, France Florent I, Count10 de Hollande (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.). Born: before 1036, son of Dietrich III, Count of West Friesland and Orthelendis von der Nordmark, Florent I is presumed to have been at least 14 years of age when he married Gertrude. Married in 1050: Gertrude de Saxe,, daughter of

103 Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Elica von Schweinfürt (Gertrude was Florent I's first wife). Died: on 28 Jun 1061 at Hannert Florent I was killed Gertrude10 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 118.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Married Name: de Flandre. Married Name: de Hollande. Born: circa 1030, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Elica von Schweinfürt. Married in 1050: Florent I, Count de Hollande,, son of Dietrich III, Count of West Friesland and Orthelendis von der Nordmark (Gertrude was Florent I's first wife). Married in 1063 at Belgium: Robert I, Count de Flandre,, son of Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre and Adèle=Alix, Princess de France. Died: on 4 Aug Amédie=Amédé II, Count10 de Maurienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 174, 187.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ). AKA: Amédie II, Seigneur du Valais. AKA: Amédeus II, Margrave de Suse. AKA: Amédéo II, Seigneur de Piedmont. AKA: Amédé II, Seigneur de Chablais. AKA: Amédé II, Count de Savoie (Abbott, Page 644.). Born: circa 1046 at Maurienne, Savoie, France, son of Odon dit Amé, Comte de Savoie and Adélaïde, Countess de Turin. Married between 1065 and 1070 at France: Jeanne=Johanna de Genève,, daughter of Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count de Genève and Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge de Bourgogne (Though not certain, the marriage of Amadeus II with Jeanne is viewed as very likely). Died: on 26 Jan Jeanne=Johanna10 de Genève (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 174, 187.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ). Married Name: de Maurienne. Born: before 1040 at Genève, Savoie, France, daughter of Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count de Genève and Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge de Bourgogne. Married between 1065 and 1070 at France: Amédie=Amédé II, Count de Maurienne,, son of Odon dit Amé, Comte de Savoie and Adélaïde, Countess de Turin (Though not certain, the marriage of Amadeus II with Jeanne is viewed as very likely). Died: circa Guillaume I, Comte10 de Vienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.) (Stuart, Page 73, Line ). Also Known As: Guillaume "Tête Hardie." AKA: Guillaume, Comte de Mâcon (Abbott, Page 213.). AKA: Guillaume, Count de Bourgogne (Abbott, Page 600.). Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Grand" (Abbott, Page 506.). Born: circa 1024 at Vienne, Isère, France, son of Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne and Adélise=Judith de Normandie. Married in 1049 at France: Étiennette de Barcelone,, daughter of Raymond II, Count de Barcelone and Sancha de Navarre (Guillaume's wife was Stephanie of Barcelone who is probably the same person as Stephanie of Longwy). Died: on 12 Nov 1087 (Stuart, Page 73.) Étiennette10 de Barcelone (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.). Married Name: de Vienne. AKA: Étienette de Longwy. AKA: Stephanie de Longwy. PaterAlter circa 1035 Étiennette de Barcelone/Adalbert III, Count de Longwy (an unknown value). MaterAlter: circa 1035 Clémence de Foix/Étiennette de Barcelone. Born: circa 1035, daughter of Raymond II, Count de Barcelone and Sancha de Navarre, Étiennette's parentage may be in dispute with sources referenced in Roderick Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" showing her to be the daughter of Adalbert III, Comte de Longwy by Clémence de Foix. Married in 1049 at France: Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne,, son of Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne and Adélise=Judith de Normandie (Guillaume's wife was Stephanie of Barcelone who is probably the same person as Stephanie of Longwy). Died: after Guillaume VI dit Guy, Comte10 de Poitou (Stuart, Page 66, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 402.) (Stuart.) (Stuart, Page 117.). AKA: Geoffroy, Comte de Poitiers. AKA: Guillaume VIII, Duke d'aquitaine (Abbott, Page 303.). Born: circa 1024, son of Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou and Agnès, Princess de Lombardie (Stuart, Page 66.). Married circa 1044 at France: Anne de Périgord,, daughter of Audebert II, Count de Périgord and N? N? (Anne was Guillaume VI/VIII's first wife). Repudiated: Anne de Périgord in Married circa 1059 at France: Matilde de La Marche,, daughter of Audebert II, Comte de La Marche and Ponce N? (Matilde was Guillaume VI/VIII's second wife). Repudiated: Matilde de La Marche in 1068 at France. Married in 1068: Hildegarde de Bourgogne,, daughter of Robert, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermengarde d'anjou. Died: on 25 Sep 1086 (Stuart, Page 66.) Hildegarde10 de Bourgogne (Stuart, Page 113, Line ) (Stuart, Page 113. ). Married Name: de Poitou. Born: in 1050 at Bourgogne, France, daughter of Robert, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermengarde d'anjou. Married in 1068: Guillaume VI dit Guy, Comte de Poitou,, son of Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou and Agnès, Princess de Lombardie. MaterAlter: between 1068 and 1072 Agnès de Poitou/Hildegarde de Bourgogne. Died: after 1104 (Ibid.) Guillaume IV, Count10 de Toulouse (André Roux: Scrolls, 85, 132.) (Stuart, Page 261, Line ) (Abbott, Page 371.). AKA: Guillaume, Count de Périgord. AKA: Guillaume IV, Count de Carcassonne. AKA: Guillaume IV, Count de Rodez. AKA: Guillaume IV, Duke de Narbonne. AKA: Guillaume IV, Count d'albi. AKA: Guillaume IV, Count de Dijon. Born: circa 1044 at Languedoc, France, son of Pons II Guillaume, Count de Toulouse and Almodis de La Marche. Married before 1067: Matilda N? Married circa 1071 at France: Emmé de Mortain,, daughter of Robert, Count de Mortain and Matilda=Maud de Montgommery. Died: either 1088 or 1093 According to Stuart, Guillaume IV died at the Battle of Huesca in According to Abbott Guillaume IV died in 1088 (Stuart, Page 261, Line ) (Abbott, Page 371.) Emmé10 de Mortain (André Roux: Scrolls, 85, 132.). Married Name: de Toulouse. Born: circa 1058, daughter of Robert, Count de Mortain and Matilda=Maud de Montgommery (Stuart, Page 117, Line ). Married circa 1071 at France: Guillaume IV, Count de Toulouse,, son of Pons II Guillaume, Count de Toulouse and Almodis de La Marche. Died: after 1080 Emmé was alive in the year Boson II, Vicomte10 de Châtellerault (Stuart, Page 218, Line ) (Abbott, Page 408.). Born: circa 1036 at Châtellerault, Vienne, France, son of Hughes I, Vicomte de Châtellerault and Gerberge, Vicomtesse de La Rochefoucauld. Married in 1075 at France: Éléonore de Thouars,, daughter of Aimery IV, Vicomte de Thouars and Aurengarde de Mauléon. Died: either 1100 or 1101 Stuart shows Boson II died in 1100, but Abbott shows he died in Éléonore10 de Thouars (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 June 1995 at 03:10 Hours.). Married Name: de Châtellerault. Born: circa 1050 at France, daughter of Aimery IV, Vicomte de Thouars and Aurengarde de Mauléon. Married in 1075 at France: Boson II, Vicomte de Châtellerault,, son of Hughes I, Vicomte de Châtellerault and Gerberge, Vicomtesse de La Rochefoucauld. Died: in Barthélémy Borrel, Seigneur10 de l'isle-bouchard (Stuart, Page 116, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 01 October 1994 at 21:21 Hours.). Born: before 1060 at France, son of Archambaud dit Borel de l'isle-bouchard and Agnès, Dame de l'isle-bouchard, Barthélémy is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Dangerose was born. Married before 1074: N? N? 639. N?10 N? Married before 1074: Barthélémy Borrel, Seigneur de l'isle-bouchard,, son of Archambaud dit Borel de l'isle-bouchard and Agnès, Dame de l'isle-bouchard.

104 640. Hughes, Seigneur10 de Boves (Stuart, Page 22, Line ). Born: before 1001 at France Hughes is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son Dreux was born. Married before 1018: N? N? 641. N?10 N? Married Name: de Boves. Married before 1018: Hughes, Seigneur de Boves Aubri, Seigneur10 de Coucy (Stuart, Page 22, Line ). Born: before 1002 at France Aubri is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Adèle was born. Married before 1019: Mathilde N? Died: on 15 Nov 1037 at Bar-le-Duc, Meuse, Lorraine, France, Aubri was killed at the Battle of Bar-le-Duc Mathilde10 N? (Ibid.). Married Name: de Coucy. Born: before 1003 at France Mathilde is presumed to have been at least 16 years of age by the time her daughter, Adèle, was born. Married before 1019: Aubri, Seigneur de Coucy Liétaud, Seigneur10 de Marle (Stuart, Page 4, Line 6-33.). Born: before 995 at France, son of Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne and N. de Poitiers. Married before 1039: N? N? 645. N?10 N? Married before 1039: Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle,, son of Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne and N. de Poitiers Milon I10 de Monteleherico (Stuart, Page 178, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). AKA: Milon I, Seigneur de La Ferté-sur-Oucy. Born: before 991 Milon I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Gui I, was born. André Roux's data skips this generation. Married before 1009 at France: N?, Dame de Montlhéry,, daughter of Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry and N?, Dame de Montlhéry. Died: after 1057 Milon I was alive in the years 1034 and N?, Dame10 de Montlhéry (Stuart, Page 178, Line ). Married Name: de Monteleherico. AKA: N?, Dame de Chèvreuse. Born: before 994 at Montlhéry, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France, daughter of Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry and N?, Dame de Montlhéry, She is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Gui I, was born. André Roux's data skips this generation. Married before 1009 at France: Milon I de Monteleherico. Died: after Guillaume10 de Gometz (Stuart, Page 68, Line ). AKA: Guyllaume I, Seigneur de Bures. Born: before 996 Guillaume is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Bertrade was born. Married before 1011: N? N? 651. N?10 N? Married before 1011: Guillaume de Gometz Landry, Sire10 de Beaugency (André Roux: Scrolls, 196.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 4-33.). Born: before 989 at Beaugency, Orléanais, France Landry was alive in the year 1000 and is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Lancelin I [provided that pedigree is correct], was born. Married before 1006: N? N? 657. N?10 N? Married before 1006: Landry, Sire de Beaugency Herbert I, Count10 du Maine (André Roux: Scrolls, 241.) (Stuart, Page 249, Line ) (Abbott, Page 130.). Also Known As: Herbert "ÉveilleChiens." Born: circa 978 at France, son of Hughes III, Count du Maine and N? de Guiscard (André Roux: Scrolls.). Married before 1010: N? N? Note in 1016: Herbert "Wake Dog", successor of Hugh III was obliged to fight against Odo of Blois at Pontlevoy in 1016 on behalf of his overlord, Fulk IV of Anjou (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Keats-Rohan, Katharine S.B.: Chapter 10: " 'Un vassal sans histoire'?: Count Hugh II (c.940/ ) and the Origins of Angevin Overlordship in Maine", Page 192.). Died: on 13 Apr N?10 N? Married before 1010: Herbert I, Count du Maine,, son of Hughes III, Count du Maine and N? de Guiscard. Robert II, King of France.

105 Robert II is excommunicated Robert II, King10 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 80, 114.) (Hallam, Page 71.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Castelot, Tome I, Pages ; Tome II, Page 490.). Also Known As: Robert "Le Pieux." AKA: Robert II, Duke de Bourgogne Arms: "Bandé d'or et d'azur à six pièces à la bordure de gueules" (Abbott, Page 198.). Born: between 27 Mar 970 and 972 at Orléans, Loiret, Orléanais, France, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers, Some sources indicate that Robert II was born in the year 972 while other indicate the date 27 March 970 which would make his birth some three months after his father, Hughes Capet's, marriage to his mother, Adélaïde. Married before 984 at France: Constance de Provence,, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Married in 989: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy,, daughter of Bérenger II, King of Italy and Willa d'arles (It is considered a strange idea on the part of Hughes that his young son should marry a woman who was some 32-years [some say she was even 37 years] older than Robert. In 988, she had become the widow of Arnoul II de Flandre. She is quite pretty but has "troubling" black eyes, but most importantly, she brings as dowry Montreuil-sur-Mer. This will allow the capetian sovereigns to have access to the French Channel). Repudiated: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy in 992 at France Robert II repudiated his wife because she was "an old woman", but he would keep the dowry of Montreuil-sur-Mer. Note - between 0996 and 1031: Robert II became King of France upon the death of his father on 24 October 996. In 1000, Angers is destroyed by fire. When the King's Uncle, Henri, Duke of Burgundy died without heir in Married in 997 at Tours, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne,, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France (Robert had made Berthe, the beautiful widow of the Count of Anjou, his mistress in 996. But because it was better to sin a little bit than to sin a lot, he married her as King. They are related in the third degree, and Robert is the godfather of one of Berthe's children. This spiritual relationship makes the marriage incestuous in the eyes of the Church. In 998, the Council, called by then Pope Gregory V, stipulates that Robert should leave Berthe forever, and do penance for 7 years in accordance with the laws of the Church. In the midst of the deliberations, Gregory V dies and is replaced by Pope Sylvester II who is none other than the Monk, Gerbert, ancient mentor of the King. However, while the pronouncement of an anathema is lifted, the excommunication is maintained. In 1001, Robert concedes. Two years later, in 1003, he marries Constance. That same year on 7 February 1003, the old Queen Suzanne died). Repudiated: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne between 1001 and Died: on 20 Jul 1031 at Meulun, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-deFrance, France, Robert II is buried at Saint Denis Constance10 de Provence (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 114.) (Hallam, Page 73.) (Stuart, Page 236, Line ). Married Name: de France. AKA: Constance d'arles. AKA: Constance de Toulouse. Note -: Constance was an imperious and unscrupulous woman who polarized the French court into two factions: one favoring herself and the Angevin faction, the other Bertha and her sons. Soon after the death of Robert Le Pieux in 1031, Constance seized on behalf of her son and favorite Robert the towns and castles of Senlis, Sens, Béthisy, Dammartin, Le Puiset, Melun and Poissy. She bought the support of Odo II of Blois by handing over half of Sens to him. Henry, the designated and crowned heir to the throne fled for assistance to Robert the Magnificent, Duke of Normandy, and obtained help from Gulk de Nerra as well. Thus, Henry was able to regain Poissy, Le Puiset, and Constance surrendered to him. Her first cousin, Fulk Nerra had Hugues, Count de Beauvais (one of Bertha's sons) assassinated in In 1010, the King tried to divorce Constance, but was dissuaded from this by Pope Sergius IV. Born: before 970 at Anjou, France, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou. Married before 984 at France: Robert II, King de France,, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Died: on 25 Jul 1032 at Meulan, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France (Stuart, Page 236.). Buried: on 28 Jul Yaroslav, Grand Duke of10 Kiev (Augé, Tome I, Page 965.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ). AKA: Yaroslav Vladimirowitsch. AKA: Yaroslaw, Grand Duke of Russia. AKA: Jaroslaw, Great Prince of Kiev. Also Known As: Jaroslaw "The Wise." Born: in 980 at Kiev, Ukraine, son of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and Rognieda de Polotsk. Note - between 1015 and 1054: Yaroslav was the Grand Duke of Russia from 1015 to He took lands back from Poland which the Poles had previously conquered from Russia. He fought frequently with his brothers. Married in Feb 1019 at Russia: Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden,, daughter of Olaf III, King of Sweden and Astrid, Princess of the Obotrites. PaterAlter circa 1025 Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev/Agatha von Braunschweig (an unknown value) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Young [Prodigy ID# GCAW73D] under Subject "Edward the Exile" on the Genealogy Bulletin Board of the Prodigy Interactive Services, on 27 December 1996 at 11:41 hours, citing athe current quarter's issue of the New England Historic & Genealogic Register.). Died: on 20 Feb 1053 at Kiev, Ukraine, Some sources indicate that Yaroslav died in 20 February He is buried in the cemetary of Saint Sophia which he built, in Russia. His demise marked the end of Norse rule of Kiev Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of10 Sweden (Stuart, Page 177, Line ). Married Name: Kiev. Born: circa 1001 at Uppsala, Sweden, daughter of Olaf III, King of Sweden and Astrid, Princess of the Obotrites. Married in Feb 1019 at Russia: Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev,, son of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and Rognieda de Polotsk. MaterAlter: circa 1025 Agatha von Braunschweig/Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Young [Prodigy ID# GCAW73D] under Subject "Edward the Exile" on the Genealogy Bulletin Board of the Prodigy Interactive Services, on 27 December 1996 at 11:41 hours, citing athe current quarter's issue of the New England Historic & Genealogic Register.). Died: on 10 Feb 1050 at Kiev, Ukraine Othon, Comte10 de Vermandois (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Stuart, Page 175, Line ). AKA: Eudes, Comte de Vermandois. AKA: Othon, Seigneur de Saint-Quentin (Abbott, Page 127.). Born: circa 1000, son of Héribert III, Count de Vermandois and Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine. Note in 1010: Othon was the Count de Vermandois in Married before 1032: Pavie N? Died: on 25 May 1045.

106 669. Pavie10 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Stuart, Page 175, Line ). Married Name: de Vermandois. Born: before 1017 Pavie is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Herbert V was born. Married before 1032: Othon, Comte de Vermandois,, son of Héribert III, Count de Vermandois and Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine Raoul III, Comte10 de Valois (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 15 September 1994 at 00:16 Hours.). Also Known As: Raoul "Le Grand." AKA: Raoul, Count de Crépy. AKA: Raoul III, Count de Vitry. AKA: Raoul III, Count d'amiens. AKA: Raoul III, Count du Vexin. Born: in 1025, son of Raoul II, Count de Crépy and Adèle de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Married before 1041 at France: Alix de Bar-sur-Aube,, daughter of Nocher III, Count de Bar-sur-Aube and N? N? (Alix was Raoul III's first wife). Married before 1059: Haquenez N? (Haquenez was Raoul III's second wife). Married circa 1061 at France: Anne, Queen de France,, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden (Anne was Raoul III's third wife and he her second husband as she was the widow of Henri I when she married Raoul. When Henri I died on 4 August 1060, Anne, 36 years of age, was still considered quite lovely. It is said that she had herself whisked off by Raoul Comte de Crépy and de Valois, as he in turn, repudiated his wife, Haquenez. She complains to Pope Alexander II, who would excommunicate Raoul). Repudiated: Haquenez N? in Died: on 23 Feb 1074 at Péronne, Somme, Picardie, France, Raoul III was buried at Crépy, France 8 Sep Alix10 de Bar-sur-Aube (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Stuart, Page 82, Line ). Married Name: de Valois. AKA: Adèle de Bar. Born: before 1028, daughter of Nocher III, Count de Bar-sur-Aube and N? N?, Alix is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Adèle was born. Married before 1041 at France: Raoul III, Comte de Valois,, son of Raoul II, Count de Crépy and Adèle de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (Alix was Raoul III's first wife). Died: in Robert II, King of France. Robert II is excommunicated Robert II, King de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 80, 114.) (Hallam, Page 71.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Castelot, Tome I, Pages ; Tome II, Page 490.). Also Known As: Robert "Le Pieux." AKA: Robert II, Duke de Bourgogne Arms: "Bandé d'or et d'azur à six pièces à la bordure de gueules" (Abbott, Page 198.). Born: between 27 Mar 970 and 972 at Orléans, Loiret, Orléanais, France, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers, Some sources indicate that Robert II was born in the year 972 while other indicate the date 27 March 970 which would make his birth some three months after his father, Hughes Capet's, marriage to his mother, Adélaïde. Married before 984 at France: Constance de Provence,, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Married in 989: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy,, daughter of Bérenger II, King of Italy and Willa d'arles (It is considered a strange idea on the part of Hughes that his young son should marry a woman who was some 32-years [some say she was even 37 years] older than Robert. In 988, she had become the widow of Arnoul II de Flandre. She is quite pretty but has "troubling" black eyes, but most importantly, she brings as dowry Montreuil-sur-Mer. This will allow the capetian sovereigns to have access to the French Channel). Repudiated: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy in 992 at France Robert II repudiated his wife because she was "an old woman", but he would keep the dowry of Montreuil-sur-Mer. Note - between 0996 and 1031: Robert II became King of France upon the death of his father on 24 October 996. In 1000, Angers is destroyed by fire. When the King's Uncle, Henri, Duke of Burgundy died without heir in Married in 997 at Tours, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne,, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France (Robert had made Berthe, the beautiful widow of the Count of Anjou, his mistress in 996. But because it was better to sin a little bit than to sin a lot, he married her as King. They are related in the third degree, and Robert is the godfather of one of Berthe's children. This spiritual relationship makes the marriage incestuous in the eyes of the Church. In 998, the Council, called by then Pope Gregory V, stipulates that Robert should leave Berthe forever, and do penance for 7 years in accordance with the laws of the Church. In the midst of the deliberations, Gregory V dies and is replaced by Pope

107 Sylvester II who is none other than the Monk, Gerbert, ancient mentor of the King. However, while the pronouncement of an anathema is lifted, the excommunication is maintained. In 1001, Robert concedes. Two years later, in 1003, he marries Constance. That same year on 7 February 1003, the old Queen Suzanne died). Repudiated: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne between 1001 and Died: on 20 Jul 1031 at Meulun, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-deFrance, France, Robert II is buried at Saint Denis Constance10 de Provence (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 114.) (Hallam, Page 73.) (Stuart, Page 236, Line ). Married Name: de France. AKA: Constance d'arles. AKA: Constance de Toulouse. Note -: Constance was an imperious and unscrupulous woman who polarized the French court into two factions: one favoring herself and the Angevin faction, the other Bertha and her sons. Soon after the death of Robert Le Pieux in 1031, Constance seized on behalf of her son and favorite Robert the towns and castles of Senlis, Sens, Béthisy, Dammartin, Le Puiset, Melun and Poissy. She bought the support of Odo II of Blois by handing over half of Sens to him. Henry, the designated and crowned heir to the throne fled for assistance to Robert the Magnificent, Duke of Normandy, and obtained help from Gulk de Nerra as well. Thus, Henry was able to regain Poissy, Le Puiset, and Constance surrendered to him. Her first cousin, Fulk Nerra had Hugues, Count de Beauvais (one of Bertha's sons) assassinated in In 1010, the King tried to divorce Constance, but was dissuaded from this by Pope Sergius IV. Born: before 970 at Anjou, France, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou. Married before 984 at France: Robert II, King de France,, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Died: on 25 Jul 1032 at Meulan, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France (Stuart, Page 236.). Buried: on 28 Jul Yaroslav, Grand Duke of10 Kiev (Augé, Tome I, Page 965.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ). AKA: Yaroslav Vladimirowitsch. AKA: Yaroslaw, Grand Duke of Russia. AKA: Jaroslaw, Great Prince of Kiev. Also Known As: Jaroslaw "The Wise." Born: in 980 at Kiev, Ukraine, son of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and Rognieda de Polotsk. Note - between 1015 and 1054: Yaroslav was the Grand Duke of Russia from 1015 to He took lands back from Poland which the Poles had previously conquered from Russia. He fought frequently with his brothers. Married in Feb 1019 at Russia: Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden,, daughter of Olaf III, King of Sweden and Astrid, Princess of the Obotrites. PaterAlter circa 1025 Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev/Agatha von Braunschweig (an unknown value) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Young [Prodigy ID# GCAW73D] under Subject "Edward the Exile" on the Genealogy Bulletin Board of the Prodigy Interactive Services, on 27 December 1996 at 11:41 hours, citing athe current quarter's issue of the New England Historic & Genealogic Register.). Died: on 20 Feb 1053 at Kiev, Ukraine, Some sources indicate that Yaroslav died in 20 February He is buried in the cemetary of Saint Sophia which he built, in Russia. His demise marked the end of Norse rule of Kiev Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of10 Sweden (Stuart, Page 177, Line ). Married Name: Kiev. Born: circa 1001 at Uppsala, Sweden, daughter of Olaf III, King of Sweden and Astrid, Princess of the Obotrites. Married in Feb 1019 at Russia: Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev,, son of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and Rognieda de Polotsk. MaterAlter: circa 1025 Agatha von Braunschweig/Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Young [Prodigy ID# GCAW73D] under Subject "Edward the Exile" on the Genealogy Bulletin Board of the Prodigy Interactive Services, on 27 December 1996 at 11:41 hours, citing athe current quarter's issue of the New England Historic & Genealogic Register.). Died: on 10 Feb 1050 at Kiev, Ukraine Dietrich III, Count of10 West Friesland (Stuart, Page 222, Line ). AKA: Dietrich Hierosolymita. Born: before 993 at Holland, son of Arnulf I, Count of West Friesland and Luitgarde de Luxembourg. Married before 1029: Orthelendis von der Nordmark,, daughter of Bernhard I, Margrave von Nordmark and N. Vladimirowitscha. Died: on 27 May Orthelendis10 von der Nordmark (Ibid.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). Married Name: West Friesland. Born: before 1014 at Thuringia, daughter of Bernhard I, Margrave von Nordmark and N. Vladimirowitscha, Orthelendis is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Dietrich IV, was born. Married before 1029: Dietrich III, Count of West Friesland,, son of Arnulf I, Count of West Friesland and Luitgarde de Luxembourg. Died: in Bernard II, Duke10 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Born: circa 995, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Married between 1019 and 1020: Bertrade, Princess of Norway,, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married in 1020: Elica von Schweinfürt,, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg ( Died: on 29 Jun Elica10 von Schweinfürt (Stuart, Page 198, Line ). Married Name: Eilika de Saxe (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). MaterAlter: Ide=Relinde de Saxe/Elica von Schweinfürt. Born: before 1010, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg, Elica is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Bernard II. Married in 1020: Bernard II, Duke de Saxe,, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade ( Died: after Odon dit Amé, Comte10 de Savoie (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.) (Stuart, Page 132, Line ) (Abbott, Page 644.). AKA: Otto I, Comte de Maurienne. AKA: Odo, Margrave de Suse. AKA: Odo, Comte de Chablais. AKA: Odo, Margrave de Turin. Born: circa 1020 at France, son of Humbert, Comte de Savoie and Ancilie du Valais. Married in 1046: Adélaïde, Countess de Turin,, daughter of Ulrich=Manfredo II, Marquis de Turin and Berthe d'este (Odon was Adèlaïde's third husband). Died: on 1 Mar 1060 at Thonon, Chablais, Haute-Savoie, France Adélaïde, Countess10 de Turin (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ). Married Name: de Savoie. AKA: Alix, Marquise de Suse. Married Name: de Souabe. Married Name: de Montferrat. Born: in 1015, daughter of Ulrich=Manfredo II, Marquis de Turin and Berthe d'este ( Married before 1025: Hermann IV, Duke de Souabe,, son of Ernst I, Margrave of Austria and Gisèle de Souabe (Hermann IV was Adélaïde's first husband. Roderick Stuart's Royalty for Commoners reverses Adèlaïde's marriage order and places Hermann IV as her first husband which in turn creates date conflicts). Married before 19 Jan 1042: Henri, Marquis de Montferrat,, son of Guillaume I, Margrave de Ligurie and Wada N? (Henri was Adélaïde's

108 second husband). Married in 1046: Odon dit Amé, Comte de Savoie,, son of Humbert, Comte de Savoie and Ancilie du Valais (Odon was Adèlaïde's third husband). Died: on 19 Oct Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count10 de Genève (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 174.) (Abbott, Page 648.). Born: before 1016, son of Aimoin I, Count de Genève and Berthe de Flandre, Gérard I was alive in the year 1034, and is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age when his son, Gerold II, was born. According to Abbott, Gerold who died in 1041, was the son of another Gerold. Married before 1032: Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge de Bourgogne,, daughter of N. de Genève and Mathilde de Bourgogne (E.S. indicates that Gisèle was Gérold's first wife although Stuart shows her as second wife). Married before 1041: Thetberge=Berthe=Gisèle de Reheinfelden. Died: in 1041 According to André Roux, Gerold was alive in the year 1034 (Abbott, Page 648.) Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge10 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 174.) (Stuart, Page 133, Line ). Married Name: de Genève. Born: before 1019, daughter of N. de Genève and Mathilde de Bourgogne, Gisèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Gérold II was born. Married before 1032: Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count de Genève,, son of Aimoin I, Count de Genève and Berthe de Flandre (E.S. indicates that Gisèle was Gérold's first wife although Stuart shows her as second wife) Renaud I, Comte10 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 149.) (Abbott, Pages ). AKA: Raymond de Mâcon (Abbott, Page 213.). Born: in 990 at France, son of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims. Married before 1 Sep 1016: Adélise=Judith de Normandie,, daughter of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Died: on 3 Sep 1057 at France Adélise=Judith10 de Normandie (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 149.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:28 Hours.). Married Name: de Bourgogne. Born: circa 1002 at Normandie, France, daughter of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Married before 1 Sep 1016: Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne,, son of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims. Died: after 1 Jul 1037 (Stuart, Page 135.) Raymond II, Count10 de Barcelone (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.). Born: before 1020 at Spain Raymond II is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Étiennette was born. Married before 1035: Sancha de Navarre Sancha10 de Navarre (Ibid.). Married Name: de Barcelone. Born: before 1020 at Spain Sanche=Sancha is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Étiennette was born. Married before 1035: Raymond II, Count de Barcelone Guillaume dit Busac, Count10 d'eu (André Roux: Scrolls, 195, 255.) (Stuart, Page 163, Line ). AKA: Guillaume, Count d'exmes. AKA: Guillaume, Count de Soissons. AKA: Guillaume, Count de Troyes. Born: circa 1022, son of Guillaume, Count d'exmes and Lezcéline d'harcourt. Married in 1058: Adélaïde, Countess de Soissons,, daughter of Renaud = Rainald II, Count de Soissons and Adélaïde=Aélis de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls.). Died: in 1077 Guillaume was alive in the year Adélaïde, Countess10 de Soissons (André Roux: Scrolls, 195, 255.) (Stuart, Page 142, Line ). Married Name: d'eu. AKA: Adélaïde, Comtesse de Troyes. Born: circa 1025, daughter of Renaud = Rainald II, Count de Soissons and Adélaïde=Aélis de Roucy (, Personal Research. References, Estimated date.). Married in 1058: Guillaume dit Busac, Count d'eu,, son of Guillaume, Count d'exmes and Lezcéline d'harcourt (André Roux: Scrolls.). Died: on 18 Sep Manassès II, Count10 de Rethel (Stuart, Page 106, Line ). Born: before 1026, son of Manassès I, Count de Rethel and Judith de Roucy, Manasses II was alive in the year Married before 1042: Judith N? Died: in 1081 at France Manasses II became Count circa 1048.

109 709. Judith10 N? (Ibid.). Married Name: de Rethel. Born: before 1028 Judith is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Hughes I was born. Married before 1042: Manassès II, Count de Rethel,, son of Manassès I, Count de Rethel and Judith de Roucy. Died: in 1081 Judith was alive in the year Guy I, Seigneur10 de Montlhéry (André Roux: Scrolls, 182.) (Stuart, Page 178, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Chèvreuse. AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Châteaufort. AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Bray. AKA: Gui, Châtelain de Rochefort-enYvelines. AKA: Guy, Seigneur de Mantes In 1087, Mantes was burned by William teh Conqueror but he was wounded in an accident and soon after died. At this time, Mantes had a seigneur in Guy de Montlhéry, but King Louis VI claimed Mantes in his capacity as Count de Vexin (Abbott, Page 44.). PaterAlter circa 1009 Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry/Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry (an unknown value). Born: circa 1009 at Montlhéry, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France, son of Milon I de Monteleherico and N?, Dame de Montlhéry, Guy I founded the Abbey de Longpont. Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" inserts an extra generation [which André Roux's data does not show] and alleges that Gui I was the son of Milon I de La Ferté-sur-Ourcy and N. Dame de Montlhéry daughter of Thibault. E.S. [via Paul Theroff] also indicates that Guy I's father was Milon whom it views as the progenitor of the Montlhéry family. Abbott shows Thibaut as father of Guy (Abbott, Page 48.). MaterAlter: circa 1009 N?, Dame de Montlhéry/Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry. Married before 1035 at France: Sainte Hodierne de Gometz,, daughter of Guillaume de Gometz and N? N? Died: in 1095 at Longpont, Aisne, Ile-de-France, France, Guy I died a monk at the Abbey of Longpont where he is buried Sainte Hodierne10 de Gometz (Stuart, Page 4, Line 5-32, Page 178, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 182.). AKA: Hodierne, Dame de la Fertésur-Oucy. AKA: Hodierne, Dame de La Ferté-Alais (Abbott, Page 104.). Married Name: de Montlhéry. AKA: Hodierne, Dame de Bures (Ibid.). AKA: Hodierne, Dame de Gometz (Ibid.). Born: before 1020 at France, daughter of Guillaume de Gometz and N? N?, Sainte Hodierne is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Milon I was born. Married before 1035 at France: Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry,, son of Milon I de Monteleherico and N?, Dame de Montlhéry Albert II, Count10 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). Born: circa 1000 at Belgium, son of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Married before 1030: Relinde de Lorraine,, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N? Died: in 1037 Albert II was killed. Some sources indicate that Albert II died between 1063 and Relinde10 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.). Married Name: de Namur. AKA: Regelinde, Countess de Châtenois. Born: circa 994, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N? Married before 1030: Albert II, Count de Namur,, son of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Died: on 1 Feb Bernard II, Duke10 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Born: circa 995, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Married between 1019 and 1020: Bertrade, Princess of Norway,, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married in 1020: Elica von Schweinfürt,, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg ( Died: on 29 Jun Bertrade, Princess of10 Norway (Stuart, Page 151, Line ). Married Name: de Saxe. Born: before 970, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married between 1019 and 1020: Bernard II, Duke de Saxe,, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Died: after 1030 Bertrade was alive in the year Gilbert I, Count10 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 3-32.). AKA: Gilbert I, Count de Salins. AKA: Gilbert I, Count de Longwy. AKA: Giselbert II, Comte von Salm ( Born: circa 1005, son of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg. Married before 1040: N? N? Died: on 14 Aug N?10 N? Married before 1040: Gilbert I, Count de Luxembourg,, son of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg Guillaume V, Comte10 de Poitou (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 87, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). AKA: Guillaume dit Pierre, Comte de Longwy. AKA: Guillaume VII, Duke d'aquitaine (Abbott, Page 303.). Also Known As: Guillaume "l'aigret." Born: circa 1023 at Longwy, Lorraine, France, son of Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou and Agnès, Princess de Lombardie. Married before 1040: Ermesinde de Longwy,, daughter of Adalbert III, Count de Longwy and Clémence de Foix. Died: in 1058 (Abbott, Page 402.) Ermesinde10 de Longwy (Stuart, Page 80, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). Married Name: de Poitou. Born: before 1025, daughter of Adalbert III, Count de Longwy and Clémence de Foix, Ermesinde is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Guillaume V. Married before 1040: Guillaume V, Comte de Poitou,, son of Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou and Agnès, Princess de Lombardie. Died: after Louis II, Comte10 de Montbéliard (André Roux: Scrolls, 205.) (Stuart, Page 109, Line ) (Abbott, Page 640.). AKA: Louis II, Seigneur de Saint-Michel. AKA: Louis II, Count de Bar-le-Duc. AKA: Louis II, Seigneur d'aimance. AKA: Louis I, Comte de Mousson (Abbott, Page 545.). Born: in 1019 at France, son of Richwin=Richuris, Count de Scarpone and Hildegarde von Egisheim. Married in 1037: Sophie, Countess de Bar-le-Duc,, daughter of Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine and Mathilde de Souabe ( Died: either 1070 or 1073 at France (Abbott, Page 640.).

110 729. Sophie, Countess10 de Bar-le-Duc (André Roux: Scrolls, 205.) (Stuart, Page 183, Line ) (Abbott, Page 545.). Married Name: de Montbéliard. Note -: Sophie was the heiress of Bar-le-Duc. Born: in 1018, daughter of Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine and Mathilde de Souabe. Married in 1037: Louis II, Comte de Montbéliard,, son of Richwin=Richuris, Count de Scarpone and Hildegarde von Egisheim ( Died: on 21 Jan Guillaume I, Comte10 de Vienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.) (Stuart, Page 73, Line ). Also Known As: Guillaume "Tête Hardie." AKA: Guillaume, Comte de Mâcon (Abbott, Page 213.). AKA: Guillaume, Count de Bourgogne (Abbott, Page 600.). Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Grand" (Abbott, Page 506.). Born: circa 1024 at Vienne, Isère, France, son of Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne and Adélise=Judith de Normandie. Married in 1049 at France: Étiennette de Barcelone,, daughter of Raymond II, Count de Barcelone and Sancha de Navarre (Guillaume's wife was Stephanie of Barcelone who is probably the same person as Stephanie of Longwy). Died: on 12 Nov 1087 (Stuart, Page 73.) Étiennette10 de Barcelone (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.). Married Name: de Vienne. AKA: Étienette de Longwy. AKA: Stephanie de Longwy. PaterAlter circa 1035 Étiennette de Barcelone/Adalbert III, Count de Longwy (an unknown value). MaterAlter: circa 1035 Clémence de Foix/Étiennette de Barcelone. Born: circa 1035, daughter of Raymond II, Count de Barcelone and Sancha de Navarre, Étiennette's parentage may be in dispute with sources referenced in Roderick Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" showing her to be the daughter of Adalbert III, Comte de Longwy by Clémence de Foix. Married in 1049 at France: Guillaume I, Comte de Vienne,, son of Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne and Adélise=Judith de Normandie (Guillaume's wife was Stephanie of Barcelone who is probably the same person as Stephanie of Longwy). Died: after Gérard IV, Count10 d'alsace (André Roux: Scrolls, 169, 193.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ). AKA: Gérard, Count de Châtenois. AKA: Gérard IV, Duke de Lorraine Gérard IV became the Duke of the Haute Lorraine in 1048 (Abbott, Page 541.). Born: before 1026, son of Gérard III, Count d'alsace and Gisèle de Metz, Gérard IV was born before Béatrix. Married before 1056: Hadvis=Hadwige de Namur,, daughter of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Died: on 14 Apr 1070 at Remiremont, Vosges, Lorraine, France Hadvis=Hadwige10 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 169, 193, 197.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ). Married Name: d'alsace. Born: before 1010, daughter of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Married before 1056: Gérard IV, Count d'alsace,, son of Gérard III, Count d'alsace and Gisèle de Metz. Died: between 1075 and 1080 Gary Murray's sources indicate Hedwig died 28 January 1067 (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Gary Murray [Prodigy ID# SJJA18A] under Subject "de Lorraine", 31 October 1997 at 14:29 Hours.) Gerhard III, Count10 von Egisheim (Stuart, Page 182, Line ). Born: before 1038, son of Gerhard II, Count d'alsace and Berthe=Berta N? Married before 1059: Pétronille = Richarde de Verdun,, daughter of Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine and Mathilde de Souabe. Died: in Pétronille = Richarde10 de Verdun (Ibid.) ( (Ibid.). Married Name: von Egisheim. Born: before 1026, daughter of Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine and Mathilde de Souabe. Married before 1059: Gerhard III, Count von Egisheim,, son of Gerhard II, Count d'alsace and Berthe=Berta N? 736. Hughes dit Bardoul, Seigneur10 de Broyes (André Roux: Scrolls, 203.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 July 1995 at 01:16 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-desBois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). AKA: Hughes I, Seigneur de Beaufort (Ibid.). AKA: Hughes I, Seigneur de Pithiviers (Ibid.). Born: before 1018 at Champagne, France, son of Isembart de Broyes and N?, Dame de Beaufort, Hughes was alive in the year 1028, and is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his son, Haderic, was born. Married before 1037: N? N? AKA: Hughes I, Seigneur de Nogent (Ibid.). Died: after 1058 Hughes was alive in the year N?10 N? Married Name: de Broyes. Married before 1037: Hughes dit Bardoul, Seigneur de Broyes,, son of Isembart de Broyes and N?, Dame de Beaufort Raoul III, Comte10 de Valois (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 15 September 1994 at 00:16 Hours.). Also Known As: Raoul "Le Grand." AKA: Raoul, Count de Crépy. AKA: Raoul III, Count de Vitry. AKA: Raoul III, Count d'amiens. AKA: Raoul III, Count du Vexin. Born: in 1025, son of Raoul II, Count de Crépy and Adèle de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Married before 1041 at France: Alix de Bar-sur-Aube,, daughter of Nocher III, Count de Bar-sur-Aube and N? N? (Alix was Raoul III's first wife). Married before 1059: Haquenez N? (Haquenez was Raoul III's second wife). Married circa 1061 at France: Anne, Queen de France,, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden (Anne was Raoul III's third wife and he her second husband as she was the widow of Henri I when she married Raoul. When Henri I died on 4 August 1060, Anne, 36 years

111 of age, was still considered quite lovely. It is said that she had herself whisked off by Raoul Comte de Crépy and de Valois, as he in turn, repudiated his wife, Haquenez. She complains to Pope Alexander II, who would excommunicate Raoul). Repudiated: Haquenez N? in Died: on 23 Feb 1074 at Péronne, Somme, Picardie, France, Raoul III was buried at Crépy, France 8 Sep Alix10 de Bar-sur-Aube (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Stuart, Page 82, Line ). Married Name: de Valois. AKA: Adèle de Bar. Born: before 1028, daughter of Nocher III, Count de Bar-sur-Aube and N? N?, Alix is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Adèle was born. Married before 1041 at France: Raoul III, Comte de Valois,, son of Raoul II, Count de Crépy and Adèle de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (Alix was Raoul III's first wife). Died: in Guy I, Seigneur10 de Montlhéry (André Roux: Scrolls, 182.) (Stuart, Page 178, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Chèvreuse. AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Châteaufort. AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Bray. AKA: Gui, Châtelain de Rochefort-enYvelines. AKA: Guy, Seigneur de Mantes In 1087, Mantes was burned by William teh Conqueror but he was wounded in an accident and soon after died. At this time, Mantes had a seigneur in Guy de Montlhéry, but King Louis VI claimed Mantes in his capacity as Count de Vexin (Abbott, Page 44.). PaterAlter circa 1009 Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry/Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry (an unknown value). Born: circa 1009 at Montlhéry, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France, son of Milon I de Monteleherico and N?, Dame de Montlhéry, Guy I founded the Abbey de Longpont. Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" inserts an extra generation [which André Roux's data does not show] and alleges that Gui I was the son of Milon I de La Ferté-sur-Ourcy and N. Dame de Montlhéry daughter of Thibault. E.S. [via Paul Theroff] also indicates that Guy I's father was Milon whom it views as the progenitor of the Montlhéry family. Abbott shows Thibaut as father of Guy (Abbott, Page 48.). MaterAlter: circa 1009 N?, Dame de Montlhéry/Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry. Married before 1035 at France: Sainte Hodierne de Gometz,, daughter of Guillaume de Gometz and N? N? Died: in 1095 at Longpont, Aisne, Ile-de-France, France, Guy I died a monk at the Abbey of Longpont where he is buried Sainte Hodierne10 de Gometz (Stuart, Page 4, Line 5-32, Page 178, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 182.). AKA: Hodierne, Dame de la Fertésur-Oucy. AKA: Hodierne, Dame de La Ferté-Alais (Abbott, Page 104.). Married Name: de Montlhéry. AKA: Hodierne, Dame de Bures (Ibid.). AKA: Hodierne, Dame de Gometz (Ibid.). Born: before 1020 at France, daughter of Guillaume de Gometz and N? N?, Sainte Hodierne is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Milon I was born. Married before 1035 at France: Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry,, son of Milon I de Monteleherico and N?, Dame de Montlhéry Guillaume dit Busac, Count10 d'eu (André Roux: Scrolls, 195, 255.) (Stuart, Page 163, Line ). AKA: Guillaume, Count d'exmes. AKA: Guillaume, Count de Soissons. AKA: Guillaume, Count de Troyes. Born: circa 1022, son of Guillaume, Count d'exmes and Lezcéline d'harcourt. Married in 1058: Adélaïde, Countess de Soissons,, daughter of Renaud = Rainald II, Count de Soissons and Adélaïde=Aélis de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls.). Died: in 1077 Guillaume was alive in the year Adélaïde, Countess10 de Soissons (André Roux: Scrolls, 195, 255.) (Stuart, Page 142, Line ). Married Name: d'eu. AKA: Adélaïde, Comtesse de Troyes. Born: circa 1025, daughter of Renaud = Rainald II, Count de Soissons and Adélaïde=Aélis de Roucy (, Personal Research. References, Estimated date.). Married in 1058: Guillaume dit Busac, Count d'eu,, son of Guillaume, Count d'exmes and Lezcéline d'harcourt (André Roux: Scrolls.). Died: on 18 Sep Engelbert IV, Count10 de Brienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 143.) (Stuart, Page 266, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 02 October 1994 at 20:48 Hours.). Born: before 1002 at France, son of Engelbert III, Count de Brienne and Mainfrède=Windesmode de Salins. Married before 1022: Pétronille, Comtesse de Joigny. Died: after 1055 at Brienne, Aube, Champagne, France, According to most sources, Engelbert IV was alive in the year Abbott shows Engilbert IV died in 1035 (Abbott, Pages 66.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI

112 (1771), Page 198.) Pétronille, Comtesse10 de Joigny (Stuart, Page 266, Line Dates from this source are wrong for this generationand have been corrected.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 198.). Married Name: de Brienne. Born: before 1008 Pétronille is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Gauthier I was born. Married before 1022: Engelbert IV, Count de Brienne,, son of Engelbert III, Count de Brienne and Mainfrède=Windesmode de Salins. This Coat of Arms is associated with the Comtes de Bar-sur-Seine 746. Renaud I, Comte10 de Bar-sur-Seine (Ibid.). AKA: Renaud I, Count de Tonnerre (André Roux: Scrolls, 143, 199. ) (Stuart, Page 188, Line ) (Abbott, Page 86.). AKA: Renaud I, Seigneur de Polisz. AKA: Renaud I, Seigneur d'avisoy. Born: circa 980 at Bourgogne, France, son of Milon II/IV, Count de Tonnerre and Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine. Married before 1025 at France: Ervide N? Died: on 16 Jul Ervide10 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 199.) (Stuart, Page 188, Line ). Married Name: de Tonnerre. Born: before 1011 Ervide is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Eustache was born. Ervide was the sister of Ardvin, Bishop of Noyen. Married before 1025 at France: Renaud I, Comte de Bar-sur-Seine,, son of Milon II/IV, Count de Tonnerre and Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine Hildouin, Comte10 d'arcis-sur-aube (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 198, 254.) (Stuart, Page 195, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Hildouin IV, Comte de Montdidier (Stuart, Page 195, Line ). AKA: Hildouin IV, Seigneur de Raméru. Born: circa 1010 at France, son of Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier and Lesseline N? AKA: Hildouin IV, Comte de Roucy Comte de Roucy by marriage (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). Married in 1031: Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy,, daughter of Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims and Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut (Adèle brought Roucy to the Count of Montdidier as dowry, enriching his land holdings). Occupation: between 1061 and 1068 Hildouin IV was also the Count de Montdidier (Picardie, France) Seigeur de Raméru in 1061 then Count de Raméru in 1063, and obtained Roucy in dowry from his marriage to Adélaïde. Died: between 1063 and 1068 E.S. [via Paul Theroff] suggests that Hildouin died in Adélaïde=Alice, Countess10 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 198, 254.) (Stuart, Page 128, Line ). AKA: Isabelle de Roucy. AKA: Adélaïde de Reims. AKA: Alix de Châtillon (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). Born: circa 1014 at Roucy, Champagne, France, daughter of Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims and Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut. Married in 1031: Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube,, son of Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier and Lesseline N? (Adèle brought Roucy to the Count of Montdidier as dowry, enriching his land holdings). Died: between 1062 and Geoffroy I10 de Joinville (Paul Theroff, posts, ed message, 6-Dec-96 at 22:16 hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 199.). Born: before 1017, son of Étienne de Joinville and Adèle, Countess de Joigny, Geoffroy I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Hildouin, was born. André Roux skips this generation and traces the parentage of Geoffroy directly to Étienne by Adèle, Comtesse de Joigny, while E.S. shows Geoffroy's mother to be N? de Brienne (Paul Theroff, posts, ed message, 6-Dec-96 at 22:16 hours.). MaterAlter: before 1017 N? de Brienne/Geoffroy I de Joinville. Married before 1034: Blanche de Reynel (Ibid.). Died: circa 1080 (Ibid.). PaterAlter before 1101 Geoffroy I de Joinville/Roger, Sire de Joinville (an unknown value) (Ibid.) Blanche10 de Reynel. Married Name: de Joinville. Born: before 1020 Blanche is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Hildouin, was born. Married before 1034: Geoffroy I de Joinville,, son of Étienne de Joinville and Adèle, Countess de Joigny (Ibid.) Josselin I, Seigneur10 de Courtenay (André Roux: Scrolls, 120, 147, 182.) (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). AKA: Joscelin, Sire de Château Renard. Born: circa 1034 at Orléanais, France, son of Albon, Châtelain de Château Renard and N? de Courtenay. Married circa 1054 at France: Hildegarde d'anjou,, daughter of Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count de Gâtinais and Ermengarde d'anjou (Hildegarde was Josselin I's first wife) (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 2., Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed.). Died: after Married between 1066 and 1068 at France: Élizabeth de Montlhéry,, daughter of Guy I, Seigneur de

113 Montlhéry and Sainte Hodierne de Gometz (Élizabeth was Josselin I's second wife). Died: circa Hildegarde10 d'anjou (André Roux: Scrolls, 120, 147.) (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). Married Name: de Courtenay. AKA: Hildegarde de Château-Landon. AKA: Hildegarde de Gâtinais. Born: in 1035, daughter of Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count de Gâtinais and Ermengarde d'anjou. Married circa 1054 at France: Josselin I, Seigneur de Courtenay,, son of Albon, Châtelain de Château Renard and N? de Courtenay (Hildegarde was Josselin I's first wife) (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 2., Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed.). Died: after Guichard II, Seigneur10 de Beaujeu (André Roux: Scrolls, 103.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 12 May 1995 at 03:00 Hours.). Born: between 0968 and 0975 at France, son of Guichard I, Seigneur de Beaujeu and Adélaïde=Ricoaire N?, Guichard II was alive in the year 1030 (M. Lainé (Pub), Archives Généalogiques et Historiques, Tome Cinquème (Volume 5), MDCCCXXXVI (1836), De Damas, Page 14.). Married before 1014 at France: Ricoaire de Salornay. Died: in 1080 According to E.S. [via Paul Theroff], Guichard II died after March, In 1040, Guichard II had undertaken a voyage to the Holy Land (Abbott, Page 575.) (M. Lainé (Pub), Archives Généalogiques et Historiques, Tome Cinquème (Volume 5), MDCCCXXXVI (1836), De Damas, Page 14.) Ricoaire10 de Salornay. Married Name: de Beaujeu. Born: before 1000 Ricoaire is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Damalce=Dalmas, was born. Married before 1014 at France: Guichard II, Seigneur de Beaujeu,, son of Guichard I, Seigneur de Beaujeu and Adélaïde=Ricoaire N? 758. Guillaume II, Vicomte10 de Thiern (André Roux: Scrolls, 98, 172.) (Abbott, Page 455.). Born: before 1060 at Thiers, Puy-de-Dôme, Auvergne, France, son of Étienne II, Vicomte de Thiern and Blanche N? Died: after 1060 Guillaume II was alive in the year Married before 1079: Adélaïs, Comtesse de Chalon-sur-Saône,, daughter of Thibaud, Count de Chalon and Hermentrude N? 759. Adélaïs, Comtesse10 de Chalon-sur-Saône (André Roux: Scrolls, 98.) (Abbott, Page 207.). Married Name: de Thiern. Born: before 1035 at France, daughter of Thibaud, Count de Chalon and Hermentrude N?, Adélaïs is the older sister of Mathilde. Married before 1079: Guillaume II, Vicomte de Thiern,, son of Étienne II, Vicomte de Thiern and Blanche N? Died: after 1088 Adélaïs was alive in the year Renaud II, Count10 de Nevers (André Roux: Scrolls, 117, 196.) (Stuart, Page 169, Line ) (Abbott, Page 183.). AKA: Renaud II, Count d'auxerre. Born: circa 1046 at Nivernais, France, son of Guillaume I, Count de Nevers and Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre. Married before 1073: Ide de Forez,, daughter of Artaud IV, Comte de Forez and Ide Raimonde de Forez (Ide was Renaud II's first wife). Divorced Ide de Forez: before Married before 1087: Agnès de Beaugency,, daughter of Lancelin=Landry II, Seigneur de Beaugency and Alberge N? (Agnès was Renaud II's second wife). Died: on 5 Aug Agnès10 de Beaugency (André Roux: Scrolls, 117, 196.). Married Name: de Nevers. Born: before 1074, daughter of Lancelin=Landry II, Seigneur de Beaugency and Alberge N?, Agnès is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Guillaume II was born. Married before 1087: Renaud II, Count de Nevers,, son of Guillaume I, Count de Nevers and Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre (Agnès was Renaud II's second wife) Hughes V10 de Lusignan (André Roux: Scrolls, 55, 84.) (Paul Theroff, posts, "Lusignan", Posted on 11 February 1994 at 09:05 Hours.). Also Known As: Hughes "Le Pieux." Born: before 1025, son of Hughes IV, Lord de Lusignan and Aldiarde de Thouars. Married before 1040: Almodis de La Marche,, daughter of Bernard, Count de La Marche and Amélie de Montignac (Hughes V was Almodis' first husband). Died: on 8 Oct 1060 at Lusignan, Vienne, Poitou, France, Hughes V was killed in action Almodis10 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 55, 86.) (Stuart, Page 233, Line ). Married Name: de Toulouse. Married Name: de Lusignan. Married Name: de Barcelone. Born: circa 990, daughter of Bernard, Count de La Marche and Amélie de Montignac. Married before 1040: Hughes V de Lusignan,, son of Hughes IV, Lord de Lusignan and Aldiarde de Thouars (Hughes V was Almodis' first husband). Married between 1044 and 1045 at France: Pons II Guillaume, Count de Toulouse,, son of Guillaume III, Count de Toulouse and Emmé de Forcalquier (Pons III was Almodis' third husband). Divorced Pons II Guillaume, Count de Toulouse: before Married in 1053: Raymond-Bérenger I, Count de Barcelone,, son of Bérenger-Raymond, Count de Barcelone and Sancha, de Gascogne (Raymond Bérenger was Almodis' fourth husband. Almodis was RaymondBérenger's second wife). Died: on 16 Oct 1071 at Spain Almodis was murdered by her step-son Pierre-Raymond de Barcelone (Stuart, Page 233, Line ) Aimery IV, Vicomte10 de Thouars (André Roux: Scrolls, 141.) (Stuart, Page 116, Line ) (Abbott, Page 418.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, van Houts, Elisabeth.: Chapter 6: "Wace as Historian", Page 131.). AKA: Aimery IV, Seigneur de Tiffauges (Abbott, Page 419.). Born: circa 1024 at Deux Sèvres, Poitou, France, son of Geoffroy II, Vicomte de Thouars and Ainor=Éléonore N? Married before 1036 at France: Aurengarde de Mauléon. Note - on 14 Oct 1066: Aimery IV was a companion of Guillaume Le Bâtard (William the Conqueror), and he fought at the Battle of Hastings in Duke William's army. Married before 1088 at France: Améline N? (Améline was Aimery IV's third wife). Died: in 1093 Aimery IV was murdered and is buried at the Chapel de Saint-Nicholas-de-la-Chaise Aurengarde10 de Mauléon (André Roux: Scrolls, 141.) (Stuart, Page 116, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 June 1995 at 03:10 Hours.). Married Name: de Thouars. Born: before 1022 at France Aurengarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Aimery, was born. Married before 1036 at France: Aimery IV, Vicomte de Thouars,, son of Geoffroy II, Vicomte de Thouars and Ainor=Éléonore N? Died: after 1069 Ameline was alive in the year Bertrand, Châtelain10 de Moncontour (Abbott, Page 415.). Born: before 1070 at Moncontour, Vienne, Poitou, France, son of Robert, Châtelain de Moncontour and N? N?, Bertrand became Châtelain and is presumed to have been at least 17 years of age by that time. Married before 1093: N? N? Died: after 1100 (Ibid.) N?10 N? Married before 1093: Bertrand, Châtelain de Moncontour,, son of Robert, Châtelain de Moncontour and N? N?

114 800. Fouques, Count10 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ). AKA: Fouques, Count d'archiac. Also Known As: Foulques "Taillefer" (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). AKA: Fouques, Seigneur de Marcillac ( AKA: Fouques, Seigneur de Bouteville (Ibid.). Born: between 1025 and 1029, son of Geoffroy, Count d'angoulême and Pétronille, Dame d'archiac. Married circa 1062 at France: Condohe Végena,, daughter of Robert, Comte d'eu and Béatrice N? (Roderick Stuart in Royalty for Commoners confused Condohé's birth date with her date of marriage, and ascribes her the wrong father). Died: either 1087 or 1089 Seigneuries indicates he died in 1089, the French Web site indicates he died in 1087 (Abbott, Page 458.) ( Condohe10 Végena (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). Married Name: d'angoulême. AKA: Condoha d'eu. Born: before 1050 at Angoulême, Aquitaine, France, daughter of Robert, Comte d'eu and Béatrice N?, Condohe is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Guillaume III. André Roux's as well as Lord Mountbatten's [via Robert Carver] data indicate this Condohe was Condohe Végena, daughter of Ounorman. Other sources (including Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners", Line 8731) indicate she was Condohe of Angouleme, daughter of Robert, Comte d'eu. Stuart also has her date of birth at circa 1062 which would have made her all of 3 years of age by the time he asserts her son Guillaume was born (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). PaterAlter before 1050 Condohe Végena/Ounorman Végena (an unknown value). MaterAlter: before 1050 N? N?/Condohe Végena. Married circa 1062 at France: Fouques, Count d'angoulême,, son of Geoffroy, Count d'angoulême and Pétronille, Dame d'archiac (Roderick Stuart in Royalty for Commoners confused Condohé's birth date with her date of marriage, and ascribes her the wrong father) Amanieu, Sire10 de Benauges (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 311.). AKA: Amanieu, Sire de Saint-Mâcaire (Ibid.). AKA: Guillen Amanieu II d'albret. AKA: Guillen Amanieu II, Vicomte de Bezaume. Born: before 1056 at La Réole, Bezaume, Gascogne, France, son of Guillen Amanieu, Comte de Benauges and Amalvina, Vicomtesse de Bezaume, Amanjeu is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Vitapont was born. Married before 1074: N? N? Died: circa N?10 N? Married before 1074: Amanieu, Sire de Benauges,, son of Guillen Amanieu, Comte de Benauges and Amalvina, Vicomtesse de Bezaume Roger, Seigneur10 de Montgommery (André Roux: Scrolls, 36.) (Stuart, Page 237, Line ). AKA: Roger, Earl of Shrewsbury. AKA: Roger, Regent de Normandie. AKA: Roger, Earl of Shropshire. AKA: Roger, Earl of Arundel. AKA: Roger, Vicomte d'hiesmes ( Born: circa 1005 at Shrewbury, Shropshire, England, son of Hughes, Baron of Montgommery and Josseline de Bolbec. Note - between 1035 and 1094: In 1035, Roger was exiled to Paris because of treason to the Duke. Roger raised an enormous army and provided over 60 ships for William the Conqueror, then stayed behind to hold Normandie for William while the latter went off to conquer England. His loyalty was rewarded by William in the form of huge land grants in England and the Welsh March. Roger frequently spent extended periods of time in England to tend to these interests, and left his wife Mabel, behind in Normandie to oversee their Norman lands and properties. She even led forces into battle on his behalf and was involved in numerous political intrigues. Married between 1048 and 1055 at England: Mabile, Comtesse de Bellême,, daughter of Guillaume II Talvas, Comte de Bellême and Hildeburge = Haberge de Beaumont (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). Died: on 27 Jul 1094 at Shrewsbury, England, Roger was a monk when he died and is buried at the Abbey of Saint Peter in Shrewbury Mabile, Comtesse10 de Bellême (André Roux: Scrolls, 36, 53.) (Stuart, Page 252, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Dorothy Clark in the Prodigy Interactive Personal Services Genealogy BB [Prodigy ID#DULW93A] under Subject "Talvas" on 7 January 1996 at 16:23 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 133.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). Married Name: de Montgommery. AKA: Mabile, Comtesse de Séez (Ibid.). AKA: Mabile, Dame d'alençon Alençon became a County upon its acquisition into the Montgommery family (Abbott, Page 224.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). Born: circa 1015 at Alençon, Orne, Maine, France, daughter of Guillaume II Talvas, Comte de Bellême and Hildeburge = Haberge de Beaumont. Married between 1048 and 1055 at England: Roger, Seigneur de Montgommery,, son of Hughes, Baron of Montgommery and Josseline de Bolbec (Ibid.). Note - circa 1065: Mabile was the heiress of Bellême and Alençon. She tended the lands of her family and her husband while he was off in England overseeing his lands deeded by William the Conqueror in rocognition of Roger's massive support. Mabile apparently bested someone in a property dispute and he sough revenge by having her assassinated with the help of some of Roger's disgruntled officers. The four officers, while pursued, were never found. Died: on 2 Dec 1082 at Château de Bures-sur-Dives, Normandie, France, Mabile met her end while her husband was away, while depriving a sub-tenant, Pantulf of Perai, of his lands. She was murdered in her bed by his friend, Hughes de La Roche-d'Inge [Abbott identifies him as Hughes de La Roche-d'Izéat], who cut off her head with a sword after his men had stormed the castle at Bures-dur-Dives Audebert II, Comte10 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 55.) (Abbott, Page 423.). Born: before 1029 at France, son of Bernard, Count de La Marche and Amélie de Montignac, Audebert II is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Matilde was born. Married before 1043: Ponce N? (Ponce was Audebert's second wife). Died: in Ponce10 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 55.). Married Name: de La Marche. Born: before 1029 at France Ponce is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Matilde was born. Married before 1043: Audebert II, Comte de La Marche,, son of Bernard, Count de La Marche and Amélie de Montignac (Ponce was Audebert's second wife). Died: after 1076 Ponce was alive in the year Guillaume, Vicomte10 de Turenne (André Roux: Scrolls, 125.) (Abbott, Page 432.). AKA: Guillaume de Comborn. Born: circa 996 at Blois, Loir-etCher, Orléanais, France, son of Ebles I, Vicomte de Comborn and Béatrix de Normandie, Guillaume was alive in the year 1000 (Stuart, Page 114.). Married in 1030: Mathilde N? Died: circa 1040 Guillaume was the Vicomte de Turenne in the year 1040 (Abbott, Page 438.) Mathilde10 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 125.). Married Name: de Turenne. Married in 1030: Guillaume, Vicomte de Turenne,, son of Ebles I, Vicomte de Comborn and Béatrix de Normandie. Born: before 1035 Mathilde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Boson I was born.

115 810. Pierre, Comtor10 de Terrasson (Ibid.). Born: before 1040 at Terrasson, Guyenne, France Pierre is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Gerberge was born. Married before 1055: N? N? 811. N?10 N? Married before 1055: Pierre, Comtor de Terrasson Rotrou I, Vicomte10 de Châteaudun (André Roux: Scrolls, 167.) (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). AKA: Rotrou, Comte du Perche (Abbott, Page 138.). AKA: Rotrou I, Seigneur de Nogent-le-Rotrou (Abbott, Page 137.). AKA: Rotrou, Comte de Dunois (Abbott, Page 102.). AKA: Rotrocus, Comte de Mortagne-au-Perche (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 262.). Born: before 1005 at Châteaudun, Orléanais, France, son of Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Élizabeth=Hélvise de Carbon, Rotrou I was alive in the year Married before 1041: Adélaïde de Domfront,, daughter of Ghérin = Warin, Lord de Mortagne-au-Perche and Mélisende, Vicomtesse de Châteaudun. Died: in 1074 at Mortagne-au-Perche, Normandie, France (Abbott, Page 102.) Adélaïde10 de Domfront (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). AKA: Adeliz de Bellême. Married Name: de Châteaudun. Born: before 1026 at France, daughter of Ghérin = Warin, Lord de Mortagne-au-Perche and Mélisende, Vicomtesse de Châteaudun. Married before 1041: Rotrou I, Vicomte de Châteaudun,, son of Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Élizabeth=Hélvise de Carbon Hildouin, Comte10 d'arcis-sur-aube (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 198, 254.) (Stuart, Page 195, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Hildouin IV, Comte de Montdidier (Stuart, Page 195, Line ). AKA: Hildouin IV, Seigneur de Raméru. Born: circa 1010 at France, son of Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier and Lesseline N? AKA: Hildouin IV, Comte de Roucy Comte de Roucy by marriage (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). Married in 1031: Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy,, daughter of Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims and Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut (Adèle brought Roucy to the Count of Montdidier as dowry, enriching his land holdings). Occupation: between 1061 and 1068 Hildouin IV was also the Count de Montdidier (Picardie, France) Seigeur de Raméru in 1061 then Count de Raméru in 1063, and obtained Roucy in dowry from his marriage to Adélaïde. Died: between 1063 and 1068 E.S. [via Paul Theroff] suggests that Hildouin died in Adélaïde=Alice, Countess10 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 198, 254.) (Stuart, Page 128, Line ). AKA: Isabelle de Roucy. AKA: Adélaïde de Reims. AKA: Alix de Châtillon (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). Born: circa 1014 at Roucy, Champagne, France, daughter of Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims and Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut. Married in 1031: Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube,, son of Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier and Lesseline N? (Adèle brought Roucy to the Count of Montdidier as dowry, enriching his land holdings). Died: between 1062 and Sulpice, Seigneur10 d'amboise. AKA: Sulpice de Bazougers (Abbott, Page 158.). AKA: Sulpice d'amboise. Born: circa 1030, son of Lisois, Seigneur de Bazougers and Hersende, Dame d'amboise. Born: before 1064 at Amboise, Indre-Et-Loire, Touraine, France, son of Lisois, Seigneur de Bazougers and Hersende, Dame d'amboise. Died: in Married before 1079: Denise de Fougères Denise10 de Fougères. Married before 1079: Sulpice, Seigneur d'amboise,, son of Lisois, Seigneur de Bazougers and Hersende, Dame d'amboise Guillaume10 de Souvigny. Born: circa Married circa 1082: Ermengarde de Bourbon,, daughter of Archambaud IV, Sire de Bourbon and Béliarde N? 819. Ermengarde10 de Bourbon (Paul Theroff, posts, 10 September 1994 at 17:48 Hours.). Married Name: d'anjou. AKA: Hermengarde de Bourbon. Married Name: de Souvigny. Born: before 1056 at France, daughter of Archambaud IV, Sire de Bourbon and Béliarde N? Married in 1070: Fouques IV, Count d'anjou,, son of Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count de Gâtinais and Ermengarde d'anjou (Ermengarde was Fouques IV's second wife). Divorced Fouques IV, Count d'anjou: between 1073 and 1076 ( Married circa 1082: Guillaume de Souvigny. Died: before Hervé10 de Donzy (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 August 1994 at 01:59 Hours.). AKA: Hervé, Seigneur de Donziais (Abbott, Page 186.). Born: before 1035 at France, son of Geoffroy I, Count de Semur and Mahaut de Chalon, Hervé is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when he died. Married before 1051 at France: Mathilde, Comtesse de Chalon,, daughter of Thibaud, Count de Chalon and Hermentrude N? (Hervé married his niece!). Died: in Mathilde, Comtesse10 de Chalon (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 August 1994 at 01:59 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 207.). Married Name: de Donzy. Born: before 1036 at France, daughter of Thibaud, Count de Chalon and Hermentrude N?, Mathilde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Renaud was born. Married before 1051 at France: Hervé de Donzy,, son of Geoffroy I, Count de Semur and Mahaut de Chalon (Hervé married his niece!) Hughes10 de La Ferté (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 August 1994 at 01:59 Hours.). Also Known As: Hughes "Le Blanc." Born: before 1058 at France Hughes is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his daughter was born. Married before 1077 at France: N? N? 823. N?10 N? Married before 1077 at France: Hughes de La Ferté Geoffroy, Count10 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 64, Line ). Also Known As: Geoffroy "Taillefer" (Abbott, Page 458.). AKA: Geoffroy, Seigneur de Montausier The seigneurie of Montausier [Charente Maritime, Saintonge, France] was held by the Counts of Angoulême. In the Eleventh Century, it was given to a cadet and following return to the comital domain, it was again given in the Twelfth Century to a cadet who established a line of descent (Abbott, Page 469.). Born: circa 1010 at Aquitaine, France, son of Guillaume II/IV, Count d'angoulême and GerbergeErmengardis d'anjou. Married between 1020 and 1025 at Saintonge, France: Pétronille, Dame d'archiac,, daughter of Mainard, Seigneur d'archiac and Hildegarde N? (Pétronille was Geoffroy's first wife) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). Occupation: in 1032 Geoffroy I was Count in the year Died: in Dec 1048.

116 833. Pétronille, Dame10 d'archiac (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 64, Line ). Married Name: d'angoulême. Note -: Pétronille is the heiress of Bouteville, France. AKA: Pétronille, Dame de Bouteville ( Born: before 1010 at Saintonge, France, daughter of Mainard, Seigneur d'archiac and Hildegarde N?, Pétronille is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Geoffroy I. Married between 1020 and 1025 at Saintonge, France: Geoffroy, Count d'angoulême,, son of Guillaume II/IV, Count d'angoulême and Gerberge-Ermengardis d'anjou (Pétronille was Geoffroy's first wife) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). Died: after 1048 Pétronille was alive in the year Robert, Comte10 d'eu (Paul Theroff, posts, 21 July 1994 at 09:18 hours.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ). AKA: Robert de Mortain. Born: before 1028 at France, son of Guillaume, Count d'exmes and Lezcéline d'harcourt, Robert is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Armand, was born. Married before 1045 at France: Béatrice N? Married between 1070 and 1079: Matilda de Sicile,, daughter of Roger I, Count de Sicile and Judith d'évreux (Robert was Matilda's first husband and she was his second wife). Repudiated: Matilda de Sicile before 1080 at France. Died: between 1089 and 1093 Robert was tenant-in-chief of many counties in England (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, van Houts, Elisabeth.: Chapter 6: "Wace as Historian", Page 122.) Béatrice10 N? (Paul Theroff, posts, 16 July 1994 at 01:59 Hours.). Married Name: d'eu. Born: before 1031 at France Béatrice is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Armand, was born. Married before 1045 at France: Robert, Comte d'eu,, son of Guillaume, Count d'exmes and Lezcéline d'harcourt. Died: circa 1085 at France Béatrice is buried in La Trèport Guillen Amanieu, Comte10 de Benauges (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Guillen Amanieu d'albret. Born: before 1038 at Gironde, Gascogne, France Guillen Amanieu is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Amanjeu, was born. Married before 1055: Amalvina, Vicomtesse de Bezaume,, daughter of Rodolphe dit Artaud, Vicomte de Bezaume and N? N? 837. Amalvina, Vicomtesse10 de Bezaume (Ibid.) (Abbott, Page 312.). Married Name: de Benauges. Born: before 1026 at La Réole, Bezaume, Gascogne, France, daughter of Rodolphe dit Artaud, Vicomte de Bezaume and N? N? Married before 1055: Guillen Amanieu, Comte de Benauges Hughes, Baron of10 Montgommery (André Roux: Scrolls, 36.) (Abbott, Page 236.). Born: before 990 at England, son of Roger I, Lord of Montgommery and N? N? Married before 1005: Josseline de Bolbec,, daughter of Osbern, Lord de Bolbec and Aveline, Lady of Wevier. Note between 1023 and 1027: Hughes was the Viscomte of Exemes (Hiemes), and an advocate of Traorn Abbey in He signed a charter in He held the barony of Montgomery together with his son, Roger. Died: between 1027 and 1049 at England Josseline10 de Bolbec (André Roux: Scrolls, 36.). Married Name: Montgommery. Born: before 995, daughter of Osbern, Lord de Bolbec and Aveline, Lady of Wevier. Married before 1005: Hughes, Baron of Montgommery,, son of Roger I, Lord of Montgommery and N? N? 842. Guillaume II Talvas, Comte10 de Bellême (André Roux: Scrolls, 53.) (Abbott, Page 133.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). AKA: Guillaume II Talvas, Seigneur d'alençon Guillaume II was chassed off his lands by his son for his extreme cruelty (Abbott, Page 224.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). Born: before 990, son of Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count de Bellême and Mathilde, Dame de Condé-sur-Noireau. Married before 1014 at France: Hildeburge = Haberge de Beaumont,, daughter of Arnoul N? and N? N? (Hildeburge was Guillaume II's first wife). Married before 1055 at France: Haberga de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe,, daughter of Raoul V, Vicomte du Maine and Emmé, Dame du Lude (Haberga was the widow of Tesselin, Sire de Montevrault, when she married Guillaume II). Died: circa 1064 at France (Abbott, Page 133.) Hildeburge = Haberge10 de Beaumont (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Paul Theroff, posts, Posting in Subject "Beaumont" on 6 March 1994 at 20:11 Hours.) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, Posting in Subject "Peverell", 22 July 1994 at 00:54 Hours.). Married Name: de Bellême. Born: before 1000 at France, daughter of Arnoul N? and N? N?, Hildeburge is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Mabile was born. Hildeburge died from strangulation upon the orders of her husband ( Married before 1014 at France: Guillaume II Talvas, Comte de Bellême,, son of Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count de Bellême and Mathilde, Dame de Condé-sur-Noireau (Hildeburge was Guillaume II's first wife) Bernard, Count10 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 55.) (Abbott, Page 423.). AKA: Bernard, Count de Périgord. Born: before 975, son of Audebert I, Count de La Marche and Almodis de Limoges, Bernard is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Almodie was born. Married before 990 at Poitou, France: Amélie de Montignac,, daughter of Gérard de Montignac and Nonia=Noña de Granol. Died: in Amélie10 de Montignac (André Roux: Scrolls, 55.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Teresa Smith [KFDD12B] note posted 30 May 1995 at 21:30 Hours.) (Stuart, Page 233.). Married Name: de La Marche. Born: before 975 at France, daughter of Gérard de Montignac and Nonia=Noña de Granol, Amélie is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Almodis was born. Married before 990 at Poitou, France: Bernard, Count de La Marche,, son of Audebert I, Count de La Marche and Almodis de Limoges. Died: between 1053 and Ebles I, Vicomte10 de Comborn (André Roux: Scrolls, 125, 149.) (Stuart, Page 114, Line ) (Abbott, Page 432.). AKA: Ebles, Vicomte de Ventadour (Abbott, Page 438, 439.). AKA: Ebles, Vicomte de Turenne (Abbott, Page 438.). Born: circa 954 at Blois, Loir-et-Cher, Orléanais, France, son of Archambaud I, Vicomte de Comborn and Sulpicie de Turenne. Married circa 995: Béatrix de Normandie,, daughter of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec (Béatrix was Ebles I's first wife). Divorced Béatrix de Normandie: before Married before 1029 at France: Pétronille N? (Pétronille was Ebles I's second wife and they had no issue). Died: in Béatrix10 de Normandie (André Roux: Scrolls, 125, 136, 149.). Married Name: de Comborn. Born: before 985 at France, daughter of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec, Béatrix is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Guillaume, was born. Married circa 995: Ebles I, Vicomte de Comborn,, son of Archambaud I, Vicomte de Comborn and Sulpicie de Turenne (Béatrix was Ebles I's first wife). Divorced Ebles I, Vicomte de Comborn: before Died: on 18 Jan 1035.

117 856. Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte10 de Châteaudun (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 185, Line ) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 264.). AKA: Geoffroy III, Comte de Dunois (Abbott, Page 102.). AKA: Geoffroy III, Comte du Perche (Abbott, Page 138.). AKA: Geoffoi I, Seigneur de Nogent-le-Rotrou (André Roux: Scrolls.). AKA: Geoffroy I, Seigneur de Mortagne ( AKA: Geoffroy I, Seigneur d'illiers (Ibid.). AKA: Geoffroy I, Seigneur de Gallardon (Ibid.). MaterAlter: before 990 Hildegarde de Blois/Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). Born: before 990 at Châteaudun, Orléanais, France, son of Gausfred = Geoffroi III, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Melisindis, Dame de Nogent-le-Rotrou, Geoffroi is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Rotrou was born. The parentage of Geoffroi II [per Stuart] / III [per Sattipani is in dispute. Stuart shows him as the son of Hughes I by Hildegarde de Blois, whereas Settipani shows him to be the son of Geoffroi II by Melisendis. PaterAlter before 990 Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun/Hughes I, Vicomte de Châteaudun (an unknown value) (Ibid.). Married before 1005: Élizabeth=Hélvise de Carbon,, daughter of Fouques, Count de Carbon and N? N? Note - circa 1033 at Perche, Maine, France: Geoffroy rebuilt the Château de Mortagne. Died: in 1039 Geoffroi I was alive in the year 1031, and was assassinated in 1039 (Abbott, Page 102.) Élizabeth=Hélvise10 de Carbon (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). AKA: Hélvise de Mortagne Roderick Stuart in his Royalty for Commoners erroneously calls Mortagne "Montagne." Married Name: Helvidis de Châteaudun (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 262.). Born: before 900, daughter of Fouques, Count de Carbon and N? N?, Élizabeth is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Rotrou I was born. Married before 1005: Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun,, son of Gausfred = Geoffroi III, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Melisindis, Dame de Nogent-le-Rotrou Ghérin = Warin, Lord10 de Mortagne-au-Perche (Stuart, Page 185, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 211.). AKA: Guérin de Bellême. AKA: Warin, Seigneur de Domfront. AKA: Yves, Seigneur d'alençon (Abbott, Page 224.). AKA: Guarin, Seigneur de Mortagne-au-Perche ( Born: before 1011 at Mortagne-au-Perche, Normandie, France, son of Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count de Bellême and Mathilde, Dame de Condé-sur-Noireau, Guérin is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Adélaïde was born. Married before 1026: Mélisende, Vicomtesse de Châteaudun,, daughter of Hughes I, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Hildegarde de Blois. Died: either 1028 or 1068 Warin was killed (Abbott, Page 224.) ( Mélisende, Vicomtesse10 de Châteaudun (André Roux: Scrolls, 211.) ( Married Name: de Mortagne-au-Perche. Born: before 1006 at France, daughter of Hughes I, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Hildegarde de Blois, Mélisende is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when she died. Married before 1026: Ghérin = Warin, Lord de Mortagne-au-Perche,, son of Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count de Bellême and Mathilde, Dame de Condé-sur-Noireau. Died: in Hildouin III, Comte10 de Montdidier (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.) (Stuart, Page 195, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Hildouin III, Seigneur de Raméru. Also Known As: Hildouin "Comes." Born: circa 980 at Picardie, France, son of Hildouin II, Count de Montdidier and N? de Dammartin. Married before 1010: Lesseline N? Died: after 1037 Hildouin III was alive in the years Lesseline10 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.). Married Name: de Montdidier. Born: before 995 at France Lesseline is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Hildouin IV was born. Married before 1010: Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier,, son of Hildouin II, Count de Montdidier and N? de Dammartin.

118 862. Ebles I, Vidâme10 de Reims (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 254.) (Stuart, Page 127, Line ). AKA: Ebles I, Comte de Reims. AKA: Ebles, Comte de Roucy. Born: circa 988 at Reims, Champagne, France, son of Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne and N. de Poitiers. Married before 1014: Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut,, daughter of Raynier V, Count de Hainaut and Hadwige Capet, Princesse de France. Divorced Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut: on 11 May Occupation: before 1053 at France Ebles I was the Vidâme and Count of Reims and Count of Roucy. Died: on 11 May Adélaïde=Béatrix10 de Hainaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 254.) (Stuart, Page 119, Line ). Married Name: de Reims. Born: circa 997 at Netherlands, Pays Bas, daughter of Raynier V, Count de Hainaut and Hadwige Capet, Princesse de France. Married before 1014: Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims,, son of Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne and N. de Poitiers. Divorced Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims: on 11 May Married circa 1035: Manasses, Vicomte de Reims. Died: after 1035 Adélaïde was alive in the year Robert II, King of France. Robert II is excommunicated Robert II, King10 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 80, 114.) (Hallam, Page 71.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Castelot, Tome I, Pages ; Tome II, Page 490.). Also Known As: Robert "Le Pieux." AKA: Robert II, Duke de Bourgogne Arms: "Bandé d'or et d'azur à six pièces à la bordure de gueules" (Abbott, Page 198.). Born: between 27 Mar 970 and 972 at Orléans, Loiret, Orléanais, France, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers, Some sources indicate that Robert II was born in the year 972 while other indicate the date 27 March 970 which would make his birth some three months after his father, Hughes Capet's, marriage to his mother, Adélaïde. Married before 984 at France: Constance de Provence,, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Married in 989: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy,, daughter of Bérenger II, King of Italy and Willa d'arles (It is considered a strange idea on the part of Hughes that his young son should marry a woman who was

119 some 32-years [some say she was even 37 years] older than Robert. In 988, she had become the widow of Arnoul II de Flandre. She is quite pretty but has "troubling" black eyes, but most importantly, she brings as dowry Montreuil-sur-Mer. This will allow the capetian sovereigns to have access to the French Channel). Repudiated: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy in 992 at France Robert II repudiated his wife because she was "an old woman", but he would keep the dowry of Montreuil-sur-Mer. Note - between 0996 and 1031: Robert II became King of France upon the death of his father on 24 October 996. In 1000, Angers is destroyed by fire. When the King's Uncle, Henri, Duke of Burgundy died without heir in Married in 997 at Tours, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne,, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France (Robert had made Berthe, the beautiful widow of the Count of Anjou, his mistress in 996. But because it was better to sin a little bit than to sin a lot, he married her as King. They are related in the third degree, and Robert is the godfather of one of Berthe's children. This spiritual relationship makes the marriage incestuous in the eyes of the Church. In 998, the Council, called by then Pope Gregory V, stipulates that Robert should leave Berthe forever, and do penance for 7 years in accordance with the laws of the Church. In the midst of the deliberations, Gregory V dies and is replaced by Pope Sylvester II who is none other than the Monk, Gerbert, ancient mentor of the King. However, while the pronouncement of an anathema is lifted, the excommunication is maintained. In 1001, Robert concedes. Two years later, in 1003, he marries Constance. That same year on 7 February 1003, the old Queen Suzanne died). Repudiated: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne between 1001 and Died: on 20 Jul 1031 at Meulun, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-deFrance, France, Robert II is buried at Saint Denis Constance10 de Provence (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 114.) (Hallam, Page 73.) (Stuart, Page 236, Line ). Married Name: de France. AKA: Constance d'arles. AKA: Constance de Toulouse. Note -: Constance was an imperious and unscrupulous woman who polarized the French court into two factions: one favoring herself and the Angevin faction, the other Bertha and her sons. Soon after the death of Robert Le Pieux in 1031, Constance seized on behalf of her son and favorite Robert the towns and castles of Senlis, Sens, Béthisy, Dammartin, Le Puiset, Melun and Poissy. She bought the support of Odo II of Blois by handing over half of Sens to him. Henry, the designated and crowned heir to the throne fled for assistance to Robert the Magnificent, Duke of Normandy, and obtained help from Gulk de Nerra as well. Thus, Henry was able to regain Poissy, Le Puiset, and Constance surrendered to him. Her first cousin, Fulk Nerra had Hugues, Count de Beauvais (one of Bertha's sons) assassinated in In 1010, the King tried to divorce Constance, but was dissuaded from this by Pope Sergius IV. Born: before 970 at Anjou, France, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou. Married before 984 at France: Robert II, King de France,, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Died: on 25 Jul 1032 at Meulan, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France (Stuart, Page 236.). Buried: on 28 Jul Yaroslav, Grand Duke of10 Kiev (Augé, Tome I, Page 965.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ). AKA: Yaroslav Vladimirowitsch. AKA: Yaroslaw, Grand Duke of Russia. AKA: Jaroslaw, Great Prince of Kiev. Also Known As: Jaroslaw "The Wise." Born: in 980 at Kiev, Ukraine, son of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and Rognieda de Polotsk. Note - between 1015 and 1054: Yaroslav was the Grand Duke of Russia from 1015 to He took lands back from Poland which the Poles had previously conquered from Russia. He fought frequently with his brothers. Married in Feb 1019 at Russia: Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden,, daughter of Olaf III, King of Sweden and Astrid, Princess of the Obotrites. PaterAlter circa 1025 Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev/Agatha von Braunschweig (an unknown value) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Young [Prodigy ID# GCAW73D] under Subject "Edward the Exile" on the Genealogy Bulletin Board of the Prodigy Interactive Services, on 27 December 1996 at 11:41 hours, citing athe current quarter's issue of the New England Historic & Genealogic Register.). Died: on 20 Feb 1053 at Kiev, Ukraine, Some sources indicate that Yaroslav died in 20 February He is buried in the cemetary of Saint Sophia which he built, in Russia. His demise marked the end of Norse rule of Kiev Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of10 Sweden (Stuart, Page 177, Line ). Married Name: Kiev. Born: circa 1001 at Uppsala, Sweden, daughter of Olaf III, King of Sweden and Astrid, Princess of the Obotrites. Married in Feb 1019 at Russia: Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev,, son of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and Rognieda de Polotsk. MaterAlter: circa 1025 Agatha von Braunschweig/Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Young [Prodigy ID# GCAW73D] under Subject "Edward the Exile" on the Genealogy Bulletin Board of the Prodigy Interactive Services, on 27 December 1996 at 11:41 hours, citing athe current quarter's issue of the New England Historic & Genealogic Register.). Died: on 10 Feb 1050 at Kiev, Ukraine Dietrich III, Count of10 West Friesland (Stuart, Page 222, Line ). AKA: Dietrich Hierosolymita. Born: before 993 at Holland, son of Arnulf I, Count of West Friesland and Luitgarde de Luxembourg. Married before 1029: Orthelendis von der Nordmark,, daughter of Bernhard I, Margrave von Nordmark and N. Vladimirowitscha. Died: on 27 May Orthelendis10 von der Nordmark (Ibid.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). Married Name: West Friesland. Born: before 1014 at Thuringia, daughter of Bernhard I, Margrave von Nordmark and N. Vladimirowitscha, Orthelendis is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Dietrich IV, was born. Married before 1029: Dietrich III, Count of West Friesland,, son of Arnulf I, Count of West Friesland and Luitgarde de Luxembourg. Died: in Bernard II, Duke10 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Born: circa 995, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Married between 1019 and 1020: Bertrade, Princess of Norway,, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married in 1020: Elica von Schweinfürt,, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg ( Died: on 29 Jun Elica10 von Schweinfürt (Stuart, Page 198, Line ). Married Name: Eilika de Saxe (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). MaterAlter: Ide=Relinde de Saxe/Elica von Schweinfürt. Born: before 1010, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg, Elica is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Bernard II. Married in 1020: Bernard II, Duke de Saxe,, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade ( Died: after Odon dit Amé, Comte10 de Savoie (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.) (Stuart, Page 132, Line ) (Abbott, Page 644.). AKA: Otto I, Comte de

120 Maurienne. AKA: Odo, Margrave de Suse. AKA: Odo, Comte de Chablais. AKA: Odo, Margrave de Turin. Born: circa 1020 at France, son of Humbert, Comte de Savoie and Ancilie du Valais. Married in 1046: Adélaïde, Countess de Turin,, daughter of Ulrich=Manfredo II, Marquis de Turin and Berthe d'este (Odon was Adèlaïde's third husband). Died: on 1 Mar 1060 at Thonon, Chablais, Haute-Savoie, France Adélaïde, Countess10 de Turin (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ). Married Name: de Savoie. AKA: Alix, Marquise de Suse. Married Name: de Souabe. Married Name: de Montferrat. Born: in 1015, daughter of Ulrich=Manfredo II, Marquis de Turin and Berthe d'este ( Married before 1025: Hermann IV, Duke de Souabe,, son of Ernst I, Margrave of Austria and Gisèle de Souabe (Hermann IV was Adélaïde's first husband. Roderick Stuart's Royalty for Commoners reverses Adèlaïde's marriage order and places Hermann IV as her first husband which in turn creates date conflicts). Married before 19 Jan 1042: Henri, Marquis de Montferrat,, son of Guillaume I, Margrave de Ligurie and Wada N? (Henri was Adélaïde's second husband). Married in 1046: Odon dit Amé, Comte de Savoie,, son of Humbert, Comte de Savoie and Ancilie du Valais (Odon was Adèlaïde's third husband). Died: on 19 Oct Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count10 de Genève (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 174.) (Abbott, Page 648.). Born: before 1016, son of Aimoin I, Count de Genève and Berthe de Flandre, Gérard I was alive in the year 1034, and is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age when his son, Gerold II, was born. According to Abbott, Gerold who died in 1041, was the son of another Gerold. Married before 1032: Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge de Bourgogne,, daughter of N. de Genève and Mathilde de Bourgogne (E.S. indicates that Gisèle was Gérold's first wife although Stuart shows her as second wife). Married before 1041: Thetberge=Berthe=Gisèle de Reheinfelden. Died: in 1041 According to André Roux, Gerold was alive in the year 1034 (Abbott, Page 648.) Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge10 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 174.) (Stuart, Page 133, Line ). Married Name: de Genève. Born: before 1019, daughter of N. de Genève and Mathilde de Bourgogne, Gisèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Gérold II was born. Married before 1032: Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count de Genève,, son of Aimoin I, Count de Genève and Berthe de Flandre (E.S. indicates that Gisèle was Gérold's first wife although Stuart shows her as second wife) Renaud I, Comte10 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 149.) (Abbott, Pages ). AKA: Raymond de Mâcon (Abbott, Page 213.). Born: in 990 at France, son of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims. Married before 1 Sep 1016: Adélise=Judith de Normandie,, daughter of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Died: on 3 Sep 1057 at France Adélise=Judith10 de Normandie (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 149.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:28 Hours.). Married Name: de Bourgogne. Born: circa 1002 at Normandie, France, daughter of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Married before 1 Sep 1016: Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne,, son of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims. Died: after 1 Jul 1037 (Stuart, Page 135.) Raymond II, Count10 de Barcelone (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.). Born: before 1020 at Spain Raymond II is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Étiennette was born. Married before 1035: Sancha de Navarre Sancha10 de Navarre (Ibid.). Married Name: de Barcelone. Born: before 1020 at Spain Sanche=Sancha is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Étiennette was born. Married before 1035: Raymond II, Count de Barcelone Albon, Châtelain10 de Château Renard (André Roux: Scrolls, 120.) (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). Note -: Albon fortified the Château de Courtenay. AKA: Athon, Seigneur de Courtenay (Abbott, Page 97; 100.). Born: circa 985 at Orléanais, France, son of Castillon Renaud de Château Renard and N? N? Married circa 1030: N? de Courtenay. Died: after 1030 Albon was alive in the year 1010, when he fortified the Château de Courtenay and is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age at that time N?10 de Courtenay (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). Married Name: de Château Renard. Born: circa 1000 at Loiret, Orléanais, France. Married circa 1030: Albon, Châtelain de Château Renard,, son of Castillon Renaud de Château Renard and N? N? 882. Guy I, Seigneur10 de Montlhéry (André Roux: Scrolls, 182.) (Stuart, Page 178, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Chèvreuse. AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Châteaufort. AKA: Gui I, Seigneur de Bray. AKA: Gui, Châtelain de Rochefort-enYvelines. AKA: Guy, Seigneur de Mantes In 1087, Mantes was burned by William teh Conqueror but he was wounded in an accident and soon after died. At this time, Mantes had a seigneur in Guy de Montlhéry, but King Louis VI claimed Mantes in his capacity as Count de Vexin (Abbott, Page 44.). PaterAlter circa 1009 Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry/Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry (an unknown value). Born: circa 1009 at Montlhéry, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France, son of Milon I de Monteleherico and N?, Dame de Montlhéry, Guy I founded the Abbey de Longpont. Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" inserts an extra generation [which André Roux's data does not show] and alleges that Gui I was the son of Milon I de La Ferté-sur-Ourcy and N. Dame de Montlhéry daughter of Thibault. E.S. [via Paul Theroff] also indicates that Guy I's father was Milon whom it views as the progenitor of the Montlhéry family. Abbott shows Thibaut as father of Guy (Abbott, Page 48.). MaterAlter: circa 1009 N?, Dame de Montlhéry/Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry. Married before 1035 at France: Sainte Hodierne de Gometz,, daughter of Guillaume de Gometz and N? N? Died: in 1095 at Longpont, Aisne, Ile-de-France, France, Guy I died a monk at the Abbey of Longpont where he is buried Sainte Hodierne10 de Gometz (Stuart, Page 4, Line 5-32, Page 178, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 182.). AKA: Hodierne, Dame de la Fertésur-Oucy. AKA: Hodierne, Dame de La Ferté-Alais (Abbott, Page 104.). Married Name: de Montlhéry. AKA: Hodierne, Dame de Bures (Ibid.). AKA: Hodierne, Dame de Gometz (Ibid.). Born: before 1020 at France, daughter of Guillaume de Gometz and N? N?, Sainte Hodierne is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Milon I was born. Married before 1035 at France: Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry,, son of Milon I de Monteleherico and N?, Dame de Montlhéry Guillaume I, Count10 de Nevers (André Roux: Scrolls, 117, 199.) (Stuart, Page 169, Line ) (Abbott, Page 183.). AKA: Guillaume, Count d'auxerre (Abbott, Page 202.). AKA: Guillaume I, Count de Tonnerre. Born: circa 1030 at Nivernais, France, son of Renaud I, Count de Nevers and Hadwige=Adèle, Princess de France, Guillaume I was alive in the year Married in 1045 at France: Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre,, daughter of Renaud I, Comte de Bar-sur-Seine and Ervide N? Married before 1085: Matilda N? Died: on 20 Jun 1100 at France Guillaume I is buried in Saint Étienne. André Roux and Stuart disagree with Abbott's placement of the demise of Guillaume I in 1097.

121 885. Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess10 de Tonnerre (André Roux: Scrolls, 117, 199.) (Stuart, Page 188, Line ). Married Name: de Nevers. Born: before 1036, daughter of Renaud I, Comte de Bar-sur-Seine and Ervide N?, Ermengarde was alive in the year Abbott has Guillaume de Nevers' wife as Marguerite de Tonnerre, daughter of Milon II (Abbott, Page 86.). PaterAlter before 1036 Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre/Milon II/IV, Count de Tonnerre (an unknown value) (Ibid.). MaterAlter: before 1036 Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine/Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre (Ibid.). Married in 1045 at France: Guillaume I, Count de Nevers,, son of Renaud I, Count de Nevers and Hadwige=Adèle, Princess de France. Died: after 1090 Ermengarde was alive in the years 1063 and Artaud IV, Comte10 de Forez (Stuart, Page 226, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 120.). AKA: Artaud II, Count de Lyon (Abbott, Page 573.). Born: before 1043 at France, son of Géraud II, Count de Forez and Adélaïde N?, Artaud IV is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Ide was born. Married before 1057 at France: Ide Raimonde de Forez. Note - in 1058 at France: Artaud IV lost the countship of Lyon to the Archbishop of Lyon in the year Died: between 1078 and Ide Raimonde10 de Forez (Stuart, Page 226, Line ). Born: before 1043 at Provence, France Ide Raimonde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Ide was born. She was a descendant of Comte Geilin and Raimonde. Married before 1057 at France: Artaud IV, Comte de Forez,, son of Géraud II, Count de Forez and Adélaïde N? 968. Lambert II dit Baudry, Count 10 de Louvain (André Roux: Scrolls, 217, 253.) (Stuart, Page 49, Line ). AKA: Lambert II, Count de Bruxelles. Born: circa 990, son of Lambert I, Count de Louvain and Gerberge de Lorraine. Married before 1020: Ode de Lorraine,, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N? Died: circa 21 Sep 1062 Lambert II is buried at Nivelles, France Ode10 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 217, 253.) (Stuart, Page 79, Line ). Married Name: de Louvain. Born: before 1005 at Lorraine, France, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N?, Ode is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Henri II was born. Married before 1020: Lambert II dit Baudry, Count de Louvain,, son of Lambert I, Count de Louvain and Gerberge de Lorraine. Died: on 23 Oct Eberhard, Count10 de Béthune (Stuart, Page 269, Line ). Born: before 1018, son of Godizo, Count de Béthune and Berthe=Bave N? Married before 1045: N? N? 971. N?10 N? Married before 1045: Eberhard, Count de Béthune,, son of Godizo, Count de Béthune and Berthe=Bave N? 972. Arnulf II, Comte10 de Chiny (Stuart, Page 47, Line ). AKA: Arnulf II, Comte d'ivoix. Born: before 1047, son of Louis II, Comte de Chiny and Sophie de Verdun, Arnulf II is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Otto II, was born. Married before 1064: Adèle de Raméru,, daughter of Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy. Note - between 1068 and 1097: Arnulf II found the Abbey of Orval in Belgium in 1097; the Paies Priory in 1068; and the Priory of Chiny in He was an opponent of Godfrey de Bouillon. Died: on 16 Apr 1106 Arnulf II died a monk of Saint-Hubert Adèle10 de Raméru (Stuart, Page 48, Line ). Married Name: de Chiny. AKA: Adèle de Montdidier. Born: before 1048, daughter of Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy, Adèle is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when she died. Married before 1064: Arnulf II, Comte de Chiny,, son of Louis II, Comte de Chiny and Sophie de Verdun. Died: between 1068 and Albert III, Count10 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 197.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). Born: circa 1030 at Belgium, son of Albert II, Count de Namur and Relinde de Lorraine. Married between 1065 and 1066: Ide=Relinde de Saxe,, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Bertrade, Princess of Norway (Albert III was Ide's second husband). PaterAlter before 1083 Albert III, Count de Namur/Ide de Namur (an unknown value). Died: in Ide=Relinde10 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113, 197.) (Stuart, Page 151, Line ). AKA: Ide de Laroche Ide was the heiress of Laroche. Married Name: de Namur. MaterAlter: Elica von Schweinfürt/Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Born: before 1052, daughter of Bernard II, Duke de Saxe and Bertrade, Princess of Norway, Ide is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Godefroy was born. Some sources indicate that Elica von Scheinfurt was Ide's mother. Married before 1064: Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg (He was Ide's first husband). Married between 1065 and 1066: Albert III, Count de Namur,, son of Albert II, Count de Namur and Relinde de Lorraine (Albert III was Ide's second husband). MaterAlter: before 1083 Ide de Namur/Ide=Relinde de Saxe. Died: on 31 Jul Gilbert, Count10 de Brionne (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 582.). AKA: Gilbert, Count d'eu. AKA: Gilbert Crispin. AKA: Gilbert de Crespin (André Roux: Scrolls, 248.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:26 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 582.). Born: circa 970 at BecCrespin, Normandie, France, son of Godefroy, Count d'eu and N? N?, Gilbert was alive in 970 (Ibid.). Married before 1018: Gunnora d'aunon,, daughter of Fulk d'aunon and N? N? Married before 1040: Constance d'eu,, daughter of Guillaume, Comte d'eu and Béatrice de Goz. Died: in 1040 Gilbert was alive in the year 1034 and was murdered in Gunnora10 d'aunon (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Carver [Prodigy ID# MVRS13F] under Subject "Royal Intermarriages", 9 April 1996 at 21:23 Hours and citing Turton "The Plantagenet Ancestry", Pg. 134.). Married Name: de Crespin. AKA: Gonnor d'aunou (André Roux: Scrolls, 248.). AKA: Gunnora de Centeville. Born: before 1004, daughter of Fulk d'aunon and N? N?, Gunnora is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter, Hesilia, was born. Married before 1018: Gilbert, Count de Brionne,, son of Godefroy, Count d'eu and N? N? 994. Walter, Seigneur10 de Longueville (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., David Dowell posting on the Genealogy BB of the Prodigy Interactive Personal Service under Subject "Antrobus" on 7 January 1996 at 22:23 Hours.). Born: before 990 at Longueville, Normandie, France, son of Osbern, Lord de Bolbec and Aveline, Lady of Wevier. Married before 1003 at Normandie, France: Agnès Ermentrude or Amicie Fleitel,, daughter of Gérard Flaitel and N? N? Died: between 1085 and 1102 at France.

122 995. Agnès Ermentrude or Amicie10 Fleitel (Ibid.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 582.). Married Name: de Longueville. Married before 1003 at Normandie, France: Walter, Seigneur de Longueville,, son of Osbern, Lord de Bolbec and Aveline, Lady of Wevier. Born: circa 1014 at Longueville, Normandie, France, daughter of Gérard Flaitel and N? N? 996. Renaud, Comte10 de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (André Roux: Scrolls, 140.) (Stuart, Page 242, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Renaud I, Count de Breteuil. Born: before 1015 at France, son of Hugh, Maitre du Palais de France and N? N?, Renaud is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when he became the Chamberlain of France. Married before 1029 at France: Ermengarde de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,, daughter of Baudouin II, Count de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and N? N? Occupation: between 1049 and 1098 Renaud was the Grand Chamberlain de France ( ). Died: circa 1098 at France Ermengarde10 de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (Stuart, Page 242, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). Born: before 1015, daughter of Baudouin II, Count de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and N? N?, Ermengarde is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Renaud. Married before 1029 at France: Renaud, Comte de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,, son of Hugh, Maitre du Palais de France and N? N? 998. Hildouin, Comte10 d'arcis-sur-aube (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 198, 254.) (Stuart, Page 195, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Hildouin IV, Comte de Montdidier (Stuart, Page 195, Line ). AKA: Hildouin IV, Seigneur de Raméru. Born: circa 1010 at France, son of Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier and Lesseline N? AKA: Hildouin IV, Comte de Roucy Comte de Roucy by marriage (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). Married in 1031: Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy,, daughter of Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims and Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut (Adèle brought Roucy to the Count of Montdidier as dowry, enriching his land holdings). Occupation: between 1061 and 1068 Hildouin IV was also the Count de Montdidier (Picardie, France) Seigeur de Raméru in 1061 then Count de Raméru in 1063, and obtained Roucy in dowry from his marriage to Adélaïde. Died: between 1063 and 1068 E.S. [via Paul Theroff] suggests that Hildouin died in Adélaïde=Alice, Countess10 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 198, 254.) (Stuart, Page 128, Line ). AKA: Isabelle de Roucy. AKA: Adélaïde de Reims. AKA: Alix de Châtillon (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). Born: circa 1014 at Roucy, Champagne, France, daughter of Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims and Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut. Married in 1031: Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube,, son of Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier and Lesseline N? (Adèle brought Roucy to the Count of Montdidier as dowry, enriching his land holdings). Died: between 1062 and Honfroy, Seigneur10 de Vielles (Paul Theroff, posts, Personal Communication, 14 October 1995 at 20:04 Hours.) (Stuart, Page 79, Line ). AKA: Omfroy, Seigneur de Pont-Audemer (Abbott, Page 238.). AKA: Omfroy, Seigneur de Beaumont-le-Roger Omfroy acquired the fiefs of Beaumont and Vielles in exchange for the aid he accorded to the Abbey of Bernay (Abbott, Page 226.). Born: circa 980 at Normandie, France, son of Touroude, Seigneur de Pont-Audemer and Eva=Weve=Duceline de Crépon (Stuart, Page 79, Line ). Married before 1021: Albérée de La Haie. Died: on 28 Sep 1044 (Ibid.) Albérée10 de La Haie (Paul Theroff, posts, Personal Communication, 14 October 1995 at 20:04 Hours.) (Stuart, Page 161, Line ). Married Name: de Vieilles. Born: circa 984 at Pont-Audemer, Normandie, France. Married before 1021: Honfroy, Seigneur de Vielles,, son of Touroude, Seigneur de Pont-Audemer and Eva=Weve=Duceline de Crépon. Died: on 20 Sep 1045 (Stuart, Page 79, Line ) Valéran III, Count10 de Meulan-sur-Seine. Born: circa 990 at Normandie, France, son of Hughes I, Count de Meulan-sur-Seine and N? de Vexin. Married before 1014: Oda de Conteville,, daughter of Jean de Conteville and N? N? Died: on 8 Dec Oda10 de Conteville (Stuart, Page 140, Line ). Married Name: de Meulan. Born: circa 994 at France, daughter of Jean de Conteville and N? N? Married before 1014: Valéran III, Count de Meulan-sur-Seine,, son of Hughes I, Count de Meulan-sur-Seine and N? de Vexin. Henri I, King of France.

123 1004. Henri I, King10 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Hallam, Page 73.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (von Redlich, Page 125.). AKA: Henry I, Comte de Paris. AKA: Henry I, Duke de Bourgogne (Abbott, Page 198.). Born: on 4 May 1008 at Reims, France, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence. Note - between 1031 and 1060 at France: King: Until about 1044, Henri I was preoccupied with Odo II, Count of Blois, who was trying to make good his own claim to the Kingdom of Burgundy, and the nobles of the Ile-de-France. In disputes with his younger brother Robert goaded by the malicious hatred of his mother Constance for Henri, Henri managed to keep his crown thanks to the help of Robert Le Diable, Duke of Normandy. Henry pardoned his brother, and gave him the Duchy of Bourgogne, thus forming the first Capetian House of Bourgogne. In 1033, Henry concluded an alliance with the Emperor Conrad II, but the Count of Blois took the side of Odo, the King's youngest brother who had been left landless. They, in turn, rallied a coalitions of nobles in opposition to Henry. In 1034, after savage fighting, Odo of Blois submitted thanks to the vigorous actions of Robert "Le Magnifique", but the war broke out soon afterwards. In July, 1034, Constance died. In 1037 Odo of Blois died while fighting in Lorraine, and his lands were divided between his two sons, Theobald I who took Blois and Stephen who was given Troyes and Meaux. The King was victorious against them, and Eudes (Henri's brother) was captured and incarcerated in Orléans in 1039; Stephen defeated and his ally, the Count of Vermandois was imprisoned. The Comte de Blois would lose Touraine to the Comte d'anjou, Henri's ally. The King took control of Sens together with the abbeys of Saint-Père at Châlons, and Saint-Médard at Soissons. In 1043, Emperor Henri III of Germany and King Henri I of France meet in Ivois to arrange a lasting peace (shortly after Henry III married Agnès de Bourgogne). By 1046, while relations between the Emperor and the King of France soured -- the Emperor apparently still miffed at Henri I's having fomented a revolt against the imperial crown in 1044 by the lords of Franche-Comté and of Bourgogne, Guillaume, the young Duke de Normandie, requests the royal assistance of the King to quell a rebellion by the lords of lower Bourgogne led by Renouf, Vicomte de Bessin and Gui, son of the Comte de Bourgogne, titular fief of Brionne. In 1047 at Val-ès-Dunes, just South of Caen, William fighting at the King's side is victorious and erects the Chapel de Sainte-Paix near Caen to commemorate the occasion. Gui de Brionne would require 3 more years of fighting to tame. In 1050, Henry I fought against Geoffrey Martel of Anjou with the help of William, Duke de Normandie. In Northern France, he was therefore able to contain the threats from Blois-Champagne and to profit from the involvement of Normandy and Anjou against one another. He consolidated his power within the royal principality, but his broader schemes, particularly for regaining Lorraine were not so successful. Married before 1033: Mathilde, Princess of Germany,, daughter of Conrad II, King of Germany and Gisèle de Souabe (Mathilde was Henri I's first of three wives). Married in 1043: Mathilda de Saxe,, daughter of Ludwig von Braunschweig and Gertrude von Egisheim (Hallam, Page 72.). Married on 19 May 1051 at For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims, Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Anne, Queen de France,, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden (According to Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners": After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King de France marries Anne de Russie, daughter of the Grand-Duke de Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. However, von Redlich's "Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants" claims that Henri I and Anne were married circa 29 January 1044 [id est, immediately after Henri I's second wife died). Died: on 4 Aug 1060 at Vitry-en-Brie, France, at age 52 Some French history text indicate that Henri I died in Vitry-aux-Loges. Henri I is buried at Saint Denis. Buried: on 24 Aug Anne, Queen10 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ) (von Redlich, Page 63.). AKA: Anne de Russie. AKA: Anna=Agnès Jaroslawna. Married Name: de Valois. AKA: Anne de Kiev. Born: in 1036 at Kiev, Ukraine, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden. Married on 19 May 1051 at For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims, Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Henri I, King de France,, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence (According to Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners": After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King de France marries Anne de Russie, daughter of the Grand-Duke de Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. However, von Redlich's "Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants" claims that Henri I and Anne were married circa 29 January 1044 [id est, immediately after Henri I's second wife died). Married circa 1061 at France: Raoul III, Comte de Valois,, son of Raoul II, Count de Crépy and Adèle de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (Anne was Raoul III's third wife and he her second husband as she was the widow of Henri I when she married Raoul. When Henri I died on 4 August 1060, Anne, 36 years of age, was still considered quite lovely. It is said that she had herself whisked off by Raoul Comte de Crépy and de Valois, as he in turn, repudiated his wife, Haquenez. She complains to Pope Alexander II, who would excommunicate Raoul). Died: between 1076 and 1089 at France Anna is buried at the Abbey of Villiers in La Ferté-Alais on the Essonne, 19-km from Corbeil, in the Seine & Oise Department, France Herbert IV, Count10 de Vermandois (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Stuart, Page 175, Line ). AKA: Herbert IV, Seigneur de Saint-Quentin (Abbott, Page 127.). AKA: Herbert, Count de Vexin. AKA: Héribert IV, Count de Valois. Born: circa 1032 at France, son of Othon, Comte de Vermandois and Pavie N? Married before 1060: N? N? (She was Herbert IV's first wife). Married before 1062: Adèle, Countess de Crépy,, daughter of Raoul III, Comte de Valois and Alix de Bar-sur-Aube (Adèle was Herbert IV's second wife). Died: circa Adèle, Countess10 de Crépy (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Stuart, Page 196, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 15 September 1994 at 00:16 Hours.). AKA: Adèle de Vexin. Married Name: de Vermandois. AKA: Adèle, Countess de Valois (Abbott, Pages 56.). Born: before 1043, daughter of Raoul III, Comte de Valois and Alix de Bar-sur-Aube, Adèle was alive in the year Married before 1062: Herbert IV, Count de Vermandois,, son of Othon, Comte de Vermandois and Pavie N? (Adèle was Herbert IV's second wife). Note - in 1074 at France: Adèle became the heiress of the countship of Valois when her brother Simon became a monk, and her father redistributed the lands. Died: in 1118 Adèle was alive in the year Diarmuid, King of10 Leinster (O'Hart, Page 555, #110.). AKA: Diarmaid, King of Leath-Mogha-Nuadhat (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Pages ). AKA: Diarmaid=Diarmait Mac Máel-na-mBó (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Page 862.) (Moody, New History of Ireland, page 134.). AKA: Diarmaid, King of Ireland (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Page 862.). Born: before 1006 at Leinster, Ireland, son of Donoch, King of Leinster and N? N?, Diarmuid was the second son of Donoch Maol-na-mBo. Married before 1040: Darbhforgal O'Brien,, daughter of Donogh O'Brien and Driella of Kent (The abduction of Dearvorgal by Dermod MacMurrogh, King of Leinster, was the ostensible occasion of the invasion of Ireland by King Henry II of England) (O'Hart, Vol. I, Page 748, #112.). AKA: Diarmuid, King of Ireland Diarmait was high king from 1042 to 1072 according to the "New History" (Moody, New History of Ireland, page 134.). Note - between 1053 and 1072 at Ireland: According to O'Donovan, Diarmaid went into Meath in 1053 carrying off captives and spoils to avenge the abduction of Mor, daughter of Conghalach Ua Conchobhair. Later that year, he led an army into Breagha and Meath, and burned from the Slaine to West Meath, both churches and territories. In 1054, with Gillaphadraig, Lord of Osraighe and some foreigners, Diarmaid led an army into Munster and burned Dun-tri-liag [the Fort of the Three Pillar Stones, now Duntryleague, about 3 miles North-West of the village of Galbally, in the barony of Coshlea, County Limerick]. In 1056, Diarmaid plundered Munster and burned Dun-mic-Ninguir [County Limerick], Oenach-Tete [Oenach-Urmhumhan, anglicized Nenagh, in County Tipperary], and Dun-Furudhrain. In 1058, he won the Battle of Sliabh-Crot [Mount Grud, parish of Killardry, Barony of Clanwilliam, County Tipperary] over Donnchadh, son of Brian Boru and killing Cairbre Ua-Lighda, airchinneach of Imleach-Ibhair. In 1061, Diarmaid proceeded into Munster about Allhallowtide and made a bloody slaughter of the Munstermen at Cnamh-choill [East of the town of Tipperary] and set the plain of Munster

124 to the torch. In 1067, he led the great army of Leath-chuinn into Connaught to fight Aedh Ua Conchobhair. According to O'Hart, Diarmuid was the 47th. Christian King of Leinster and the 177th. Milesian Monarch of Ireland. Historians do not assign years to his reign, although in 1064 he had utterly defeated and banished King Doncha, son of King Brian Boru (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Pages ). Died: on 23 Feb 1072 at Odhba, Ireland, Diarmuid was slain at Odhbha near Navan, on Tuesday, the seventh of the Ides of February, by Conchobhar O'Maelleachlainn, King of Meath (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Pages ) Darbhforgal10 O'Brien (O'Hart, Page 556, #110.). AKA: Dearbhforghaill of Munster (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Pages ). Married Name: Leinster. AKA: Dearvorgal, Princess of Munster (O'Hart, Vol. I, Page 748, #112.). Born: before 1026 at Ireland, daughter of Donogh O'Brien and Driella of Kent, Darbhforgal is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Murcha, was born. She was the Grand-daughter of King Brian Boromha, the 175th. Milesian Monarch of Ireland. Married before 1040: Diarmuid, King of Leinster,, son of Donoch, King of Leinster and N? N? (The abduction of Dearvorgal by Dermod MacMurrogh, King of Leinster, was the ostensible occasion of the invasion of Ireland by King Henry II of England) (O'Hart, Vol. I, Page 748, #112.). Married before 1060: Tiernan, Lord of West Brefney,, son of Uailarg, Lord of West Brefney and N? N? (Ibid.). Married Name: West Brefney. Died: in 1080 (O'Donovan, Vol. 2, Pages ) Duncuan10 O'Toole (O'Hart, Vol. 1, Page 763, #114.). AKA: Duncuan Baccach (Ibid.). Born: before 1035 at Leinster, Ireland, son of Gillacaemghin O'Toole and N? N? Married before 1054: N? N? Died: after 1075 In 1075, Duncuan slew Doncadh and Gillacemghin, sons of Angaire Ua Lorcain, or the Ui Doncadh. In 1076 his people were slain by the Ui Lorcain, and sisxty-three of their heads were carried to a hill south of Castledermot (Ibid.) N?10 N? Married before 1054: Duncuan O'Toole,, son of Gillacaemghin O'Toole and N? N? Donoch10 O'Byrne (O'Hart, Vol. 1, Page 613, #112.). AKA: Donoch na Soighead "soighead" or "saighead" Irish for "a dart", "an arrow"; Latin "sagitta" (Ibid.). Born: before 1046 at Leinster, Ireland, son of Braen, King of Leinster and N? N? Married before 1070: N? N? N?10 N? Married before 1070: Donoch O'Byrne,, son of Braen, King of Leinster and N? N? th Generation Wédric I, Lord11 d'avesnes (Stuart, Page 32, Line ). Born: before 1020 at Carthage, Tunisia Wédric I is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his son Wadric was born. Married before 1039 at France: N. de Chièvres N.11 de Chièvres (Ibid.). Married Name: d'avesnes. Born: before 1025 at France She is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Wadric was born. Married before 1039 at France: Wédric I, Lord d'avesnes Ratbode=Robert I, Count11 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.) (Stuart, Page 274, Line ). AKA: Robert I, Count de Lomme. Born: before 946 at Belgium, son of Bérenger, Count de Namur and N? de Hainaut, Ratbode was alive in the year 946. Married before 979: Ermengarde de Lorraine,, daughter of Otto, Count de Lorraine and N? N? Died: in Ermengarde11 de Lorraine (Ibid.). Married Name: de Namur. Born: before 965, daughter of Otto, Count de Lorraine and N? N?, Ermengarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Adalbert I was born. Married before 979: Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur,, son

125 of Bérenger, Count de Namur and N? de Hainaut Charles, Prince11 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 191, 193, 217.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ) (Castelot, Tome 1, Page 387.). AKA: Charles de Laon. AKA: Charles I, Duke de Lorraine. Born: in 953 at Laon, Ile-de-France, France, son of Louis IV, King de France and Gerberge de Saxe, Some sources assert that this Charles was born in the year 943. Married before 970: Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne,, daughter of Godefroy, Count d'ardenne and N? N? Note - in 977: Charles became the Duke of the Basse-Lorraine [Lower Lorraine] in 977. Died: on 21 May 992 Some sources assert that this Charles died in the year Bonne=Adélaïde11 d'ardenne (André Roux: Scrolls, 191, 217.). Born: before 955, daughter of Godefroy, Count d'ardenne and N? N?, Bonne is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Ermengarde was born. Married before 970: Charles, Prince de France,, son of Louis IV, King de France and Gerberge de Saxe Godfrey, Count11 de Verdun (Stuart, Page 79, Line ). AKA: Godfrey, Marquis of Antwerp. AKA: Gottfried, Marquis d'eenam. AKA: Gottfried, Count von Bidgau. AKA: Gottfried, Count von Methingau. AKA: Godefroid "Le Vieux" ( Born: circa 930 at Belgium, son of Gozelin, Count de Bigdau and Uda de Metz. Married in 963: Mahaut=Mathilda de Saxe,, daughter of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg (Mahaut was Godfrey's second wife and the widow of Baudouin III when she married Godfrey) ( Died: after 3 Sep Mahaut=Mathilda11 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 118.) (Stuart, Page 79, Line ). Married Name: de Verdun. AKA: Mathilda Billung. Born: before 946, daughter of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg, Mahaut is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Arnoul II was born. Married in 961: Baudouin III, Count de Flandre,, son of Arnoul I, Count de Flandre and Adèle=Alix de Vermandois. Married in 963: Godfrey, Count de Verdun,, son of Gozelin, Count de Bigdau and Uda de Metz (Mahaut was Godfrey's second wife and the widow of Baudouin III when she married Godfrey) ( Died: on 25 May Hermann, Duke11 de Saxe (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). AKA: Hermann von Billung. Born: circa 905, son of Billung, Count de Saxe and Fréderunda N? Married before 939: Hildegarde von Westerburg. Died: on 27 Mar Hildegarde11 von Westerburg (Ibid.). Married Name: de Saxe. Born: before 925 Hildegarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Bernard, was born. Married before 939: Hermann, Duke de Saxe,, son of Billung, Count de Saxe and Fréderunda N? Henry11 von Stade (Stuart, Page 215, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 6 July 18:40 Hours.). AKA: Henry I, Count von Heiangau. Born: before 929, son of Lothar II, Count von Stade and Swanhilde N? Married before 973: Judith von der Wetterau,, daughter of Udo, Count von der Wetterau and N? N? (Judith was Henry's first wife). Married circa 974: Hildegarde von Rheinhausen,, daughter of Elli I, Count von Rheinhausen and N? N? Died: on 11 May 976 Henry is buried at the Monastery of Heeringen Hildegarde11 von Rheinhausen (Stuart, Page 215, Line ). Married Name: von Stade. Born: before 959, daughter of Elli I, Count von Rheinhausen and N? N?, Hkldegarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Hildegarde was born. Married circa 974: Henry von Stade,, son of Lothar II, Count von Stade and Swanhilde N? Eric I, King of11 Norway (Stuart, Page 151, Line ). AKA: Eric I, Jarl of Northumberland. Also Known As: Eric "Blood Axe." Born: circa 895 at Norway, son of Harold I, King of Norway and Raganhild, Princess of Jutland. Married before 920 at Norway: Gunhild of Denmark,, daughter of Gorm, King of Denmark and Thyra Danebord. Note - between 0930 and 0954 at Norway: Eric I was the King of Norway from 930 to 954. Died: in 954 Eric I was murdered Gunhild of11 Denmark (Ibid.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 31 July 1994 at 16:47 Hours.). Married Name: Gunhild of Norway. Born: before 905 at Denmark, daughter of Gorm, King of Denmark and Thyra Danebord, Gunhild is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Ragnvald was born. Married before 920 at Norway: Eric I, King of Norway,, son of Harold I, King of Norway and Raganhild, Princess of Jutland. Died: after Konrad, Count11 d'arlon (Stuart, Page 44, Line ). Born: before 1000, son of Udo, Count de Meinfelt and N? N?, Konrad is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son Waléran I was born. Married before 1018: N? N? N?11 N? Married before 1018: Konrad, Count d'arlon,, son of Udo, Count de Meinfelt and N? N? Dietrich I, Duke11 de Lorraine (Stuart, Page 227, Line ). Born: in 965 at Haute-Lorraine, France, son of Frédérick, Dux de La Haute Lotharingie and Béatrice de France. AKA: Thierry, Comte de Bar-le-Duc (Abbott, Page 545.) ( Married before 992: Richilde de Metz,, daughter of Folmar, Count de Metz and Berta N? Died: in 1026 (Abbott, Page 545.) Richilde11 de Metz (Stuart, Page 239, Line ). Married Name: de Lorraine. Born: before 980, daughter of Folmar, Count de Metz and Berta N?, Richilde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Frédéric II was born. Married before 992: Dietrich I, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Frédérick, Dux de La Haute Lotharingie and Béatrice de France. Died: circa Frédéric I, Count11 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 200.) (Stuart, Page 247.). AKA: Frédéric I, comte de Moselgau ( Born: circa 965, son of Sigefroy, Count de Luxembourg and Hedvige d'alsace. Married between 0985 and 0995: Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg,, daughter of Heribert, Count von Gleiberg and Ermentrude von Avalgau. Died: on 6 Oct 1019.

126 1077. Ermentrude, Countess11 von Gleiberg (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 246, Line ). Married Name: de Luxembourg. AKA: Irmentrude Konradiner. Born: before 975, daughter of Heribert, Count von Gleiberg and Ermentrude von Avalgau, Ermentrude is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Frédérick I. Married between 0985 and 0995: Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg,, son of Sigefroy, Count de Luxembourg and Hedvige d'alsace Eustache I, Comte11 de Boulogne (Stuart, Page 178, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 206, 253.). AKA: Eustache I, Baron de Flandre. Also Known As: Eustache "à l'oeil" (Abbott, Page 113.). Born: circa 1000 at Boulogne, Artois, France, son of Baudouin=Ernicule II, Count de Boulogne and Adèle de Ghent. Married before 1016: Mahaut=Mathilde de Louvain,, daughter of Lambert I, Count de Louvain and Gerberge de Lorraine. Occupation: in 1038 Eustache I was named as Baron de Flandre in a Charter of Died: in 1049 (Ibid.) Mahaut=Mathilde11 de Louvain (André Roux: Scrolls, 206, 253. ) (Stuart, Page 89, Line ). Married Name: de Boulogne. Born: before 1004 at Louvain, Leeuven, Brabant, Belgium, daughter of Lambert I, Count de Louvain and Gerberge de Lorraine, Mahaut is presumed to have been born before her father remarried. Married before 1016: Eustache I, Comte de Boulogne,, son of Baudouin=Ernicule II, Count de Boulogne and Adèle de Ghent. Died: after 1040 Mahaut was alive in the year Aribo I, Pfalzgrave11 de Bavière (Stuart, Page 31, Line ). Born: before 940 at Bavaria, son of Hartwick, Walpot de Carinthie and N? N?, Aribo I was alive in the year 940. Married before 1000: Adèle de Bavière,, daughter of Hartwig I, Pfalzgrave de Bavière and N? N? (Aribo I was Adèle's first husband, and after he died she married Engelbert III, Count in the Chiemgau). Died: on 13 Nov Adèle11 de Bavière (Stuart, Page 31, Line ). Married Name: von Chiemgau. Born: before 968, daughter of Hartwig I, Pfalzgrave de Bavière and N? N?, Adèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter was born. Married before 983: Engelbert III, Count von Chiemgau,, son of Sieghard IV, Count von Salzburggau and Willa de Bavière. Married before 1000: Aribo I, Pfalzgrave de Bavière,, son of Hartwick, Walpot de Carinthie and N? N? (Aribo I was Adèle's first husband, and after he died she married Engelbert III, Count in the Chiemgau). Died: after 1020 Adèle was alive in the year Reting II, Count11 de Bavière (Stuart, Page 100, Line ). Born: before 974 at Bavaria, son of Boto II de Bavière and N? N?, Reting II is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when he died. Married before 993: Glismode de Saxe,, daughter of Immed II, Count de Saxe and Adèle, Countess d'hamalant (Reting II was Glismode's first husband, and she was his first wife). Died: before Glismode11 de Saxe (Stuart, Page 249, Line ). Married Name: de Bavière. Married Name: de Friuli. Born: before 974, daughter of Immed II, Count de Saxe and Adèle, Countess d'hamalant, Glismode is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when she married Ozi I, her second husband. Married before 993: Reting II, Count de Bavière,, son of Boto II de Bavière and N? N? (Reting II was Glismode's first husband, and she was his first wife). Married before 994: Ozi I, Count de Friuli (Ozi I was Glismode's second husband). Died: after 995 Glismode founded the Monastery if Ozziah in Friuli after Heinrich11 von Schweinfürt (Stuart, Page 197, Line ). AKA: Henry, Margrave in the Nordgau. Born: either 0950 or 0975, son of Berthold I, Margrave von Nordgau and Eiliswintha von Walbeck, Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" shows Henry born in 975, whereas E.S. [via Paul Theroff] shows Henry born in 950 (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). Married before 1000: Gerberge von Henneberg,, daughter of Otto II of Tullfeld and N? N? Died: on 18 Sep Gerberge11 von Henneberg (Stuart, Page 78, Line ). Married Name: von Schweinfürt. AKA: Gerberge de Gleiberg ( Born: before 993, daughter of Otto II of Tullfeld and N? N?, Gerberge is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Henry. Married before 1000: Heinrich von Schweinfürt,, son of Berthold I, Margrave von Nordgau and Eiliswintha von Walbeck. Died: after Boleslaw I, King of11 Poland (Stuart, Page 263, Line ) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:49 Hours.). AKA: Boleslaw, Grand Prince of Poland. Also Known As: Boleslaw "The Brave." Also Known As: Boleslaw "Chrobry." Born: in 967 at Poznan, Poland, son of Mieszko I, Grand Duke of Poland and Dobrawa of Bohemia. Married in 984: Princess N? of Meissen,, daughter of Rikdag, Margrave of Meissen and N? N? Divorced Princess N? of Meissen: between 0984 and Married in 985: N? of Hungary,, daughter of Geza, Great Prince of Hungary and Sarolta von Siebenbuergen (Internet, by Paul Theroff at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/genfiles/arpad.txt on 25 May 1997.). Married in 987: Emnilde of Silicia,, daughter of Dobromir, Prince of West Silicia and N? N? (Emnilde was Boleslaw I's third wife). Divorced N? of Hungary: in 987. Note - between 0992 and 1025: Boleslaw I was King ( ). He recaptured Cracow in 999 and Moravia in Poland became a Kingdom in 1024, and Boleslaw I was its first King. Significant-Other: Princess Predslawa of Kiev before Predslawa was Boleslaw I's mistress. Married in 1018: Oda of Meissen,, daughter of Ekkehard, Margrave of Meissen and N? N? (Oda was Boleslaw I's fourth wife). Died: on 17 Jul Oda of11 Meissen (Paul Theroff, posts, 15 July 1994 at 01:05 Hours.). Married Name: Poland. MaterAlter: circa 990 Mieszko II Lambert, King of Poland/Oda of Meissen. Born: before 1000, daughter of Ekkehard, Margrave of Meissen and N? N?, Oda is presumed to have been at least 17 years of age when she married Boleslav I. Married in 1018: Boleslaw I, King of Poland,, son of Mieszko I, Grand Duke of Poland and Dobrawa of Bohemia (Oda was Boleslaw I's fourth wife) Bouchard II, Seigneur11 de Montmorency (André Roux: Scrolls, 184.) (Stuart, Page 21, Line ). Also Known As: Bouchard "Le Barbu." Born: before 981 at Montmorency, Ile de France, France, son of Bouchard I, Baron de Montmorency and Hildegarde de Blois, Bouchard II was alive in the year 998. Married before 1020: Helvide de Basset (Helvide was the widow of Hughes de Basset when she married Bouchard II). Died: in 1020 (Abbott, Page 49.) Helvide11 de Basset (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 26 April 18:47 Hours.). AKA: Idelinde, Dame de Château-Basset. AKA: Helvide Basset. Married Name: de Montmorency. Born: before 1004 at France Helvide is presumed to have been at least 16 years of age by the time her son Bouchard III was born. Married before 1020: Bouchard II, Seigneur de Montmorency,, son of Bouchard I, Baron de Montmorency and Hildegarde de Blois (Helvide was the widow of Hughes de Basset when she married Bouchard II).

127 1106. Hugues I, Comte11 de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (André Roux: Scrolls, 140, 198.) (Stuart, Page 242, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). AKA: Hughes I, Seigneur de Creil. AKA: Hughes, Count de Mouchy The Château of Mouchy or Monchy [Oise] was held by Hughes. His daughter Richilde took it to Dreux II de Mello (Abbott, Page 50.). AKA: Hughes, Seigneur de Luzarches The Seigneurie de Luzarches was held by Hughes, Comte de Clermont. It was divided, one half to his son, the other half to his daughter (Abbott, Page 43.). Born: before 1030 at France, son of Renaud, Comte de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Ermengarde de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Hughes is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Adélise was born. Married before 1042: Marguerite de Roucy,, daughter of Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy. Died: in Marguerite11 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 140, 198.) (Stuart, Page 242, Line ) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.) (Ibid.). AKA: Marguerite de Montdidier. Married Name: de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Born: in 1031, daughter of Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube and Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy. Married before 1042: Hugues I, Comte de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,, son of Renaud, Comte de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Ermengarde de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis Guillaume, Count11 d'exmes (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 195, 265.) (Stuart, Page 163, Line ). AKA: Guillaume, Count d'eu. Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Bâtard." Note -: Guillaume was the first Count d'exmes then also Count d'eu, he was the only bastard son of Richard I, Duke of Normandy, and therefore also known as Guillaume, Le Bâtard de Normandie. He was alive in the year 998 A.D. Born Illeg.: between 0965 and 0982 at France -, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec, - Guillaume was alive in the year Married before 1027 at France: Lezcéline d'harcourt,, daughter of Turchetil, Seigneur de Turqueville and Ancéline de Montfort-sur-Risle. Died: on 26 Jan Lezcéline11 d'harcourt (Ibid.) (André Roux: Scrolls, 265.). Married Name: d'exmes. AKA: Lezcéline de Turqueville From her father's side, Lezcéline was also known as Lezcéline de Turqueville. AKA: Lasceline de Tourville. Born: before 1013 at France, daughter of Turchetil, Seigneur de Turqueville and Ancéline de Montfort-sur-Risle, Lezcéline is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Robert, was born. Married before 1027 at France: Guillaume, Count d'exmes,, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec. Died: in 1058 at France Lezcéline died a nun and is buried at the Abbey de Saint Pierre-sur-Dives Renaud = Rainald II, Count 11 de Soissons (André Roux: Scrolls, 255.) (Stuart, Page 141, Line ) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 225.). AKA: Renaud, Vicomte de Troyes. Born: before 1002 at France, son of Guy, Count de Vermandois and Adélaïs, Countess de Soissons, Renaud is presumed to have been born berfore his mother remarried. Married before 1042: Adélaïde=Aélis de Roucy. Died: in 1057 (Abbott, Pages 55.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 225.) Adélaïde=Aélis11 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 255.) (Stuart, Page 141, Line ). Married Name: de Soissons (André Roux: Scrolls.). Born: before 1028 Aélis is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Adélaïde was born. Married before 1042: Renaud = Rainald II, Count de Soissons,, son of Guy, Count de Vermandois and Adélaïs, Countess de Soissons Yves II11 de Bellemontensis (Stuart, Page 199, Line ). AKA: Yves II de Val d'oise (Abbott, Page 31.). Born: circa 995 at France, son of Yves de Beaumont-sur-Oise and Gisèle de Chèvreuse. Married before 1014: N? N? (Yves II was in Saint Léonor-de-Beaumont in the year 1029). AKA: Yves I, Comte de Beaumont-sur-Oise ( Died: on 12 Apr 1036 (Abbott, Page 31.) N?11 N? Born: before 998. Married before 1014: Yves II de Bellemontensis,, son of Yves de Beaumont-sur-Oise and Gisèle de Chèvreuse (Yves II was in Saint Léonor-de-Beaumont in the year 1029) Geoffroy I, Duke11 de Bretagne (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 166.) (Stuart, Page 13, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:08 Hours.). AKA: Geoffroy, Comte de Rennes (Abbott, Page 272.). Born: circa 980 at France, son of Conan I, Duke de Bretagne and Ermengarde d'anjou. Occupation: in 992 Geoffroy I became the Count of Brittany (Bretagne) in the year 992 A.D. Married in 996: Havoise de Normandie,, daughter of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec (Some sources indicate that Havoise and Geoffroy I were married in 999; however, that would be inconsistent with the date of birth (997) which other sources ascribe to their son Alain). Died: on 20 Nov Havoise11 de Normandie (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 168.) (Stuart, Page 13, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, "9th/10th Centy.Kings" Posted on 22 February 1994 at 23:37 Hours.). Married Name: de Bretagne. Born: before 986, daughter of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec, Havoise is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Geoffroy. Married in 996: Geoffroy I, Duke de Bretagne,, son of Conan I, Duke de Bretagne and Ermengarde d'anjou (Some sources indicate that Havoise and Geoffroy I were married in 999; however, that would be inconsistent with the date of birth (997) which other sources ascribe to their son Alain). Died: on 21 Feb Hughes I, Seigneur11 de Gournay ( 7 December 2008.). Born: before 1033, son of Renaud, Seigneur de Gournay and Albérade N?, Hughes I is presumed to have been at least 20 years old by the time his son, Hughes II, was born. Married before 1052: N? N? N?11 N? Married before 1052: Hughes I, Seigneur de Gournay,, son of Renaud, Seigneur de Gournay and Albérade N? Married Name: de Gournay Baudouin V, Comte11 de Flandre (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 118.) (Stuart, Page 103, Line ). AKA: Baudouin, Regent de France. Also Known As: Baudouin "Le Pieux" (von Redlich, Page 183.). Also Known As: Baudouin "Le Débonnaire" (Abbott, Page 292.). AKA: Baudouin V de Lille (Stuart, Page 103.). Born: circa 1013 at Flandre, Belgium, son of Baudouin IV, Count de Flandre and Ogive = Cunégonde de Luxembourg. Married in 1028 at France: Adèle=Alix, Princess de France,, daughter of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence (Baudouin V was Adèle's second husband). Note - between 1060 and 1067 at France: Baudouin V was the Regent of France from 1060 to Died: on 1 Sep 1067 at Lille, Nord, Flandre, France.

128 1153. Adèle=Alix, Princess11 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 118.) (Stuart, Page 102, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Ear Roberts "Capet" posted on 4 October 1995 at 14:33 hours.). AKA: Adélaïde, Countess de Contenance. Married Name: de Normandie. Married Name: de Flandre. Born: in 1009, daughter of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence, Some sources indicate that Adèle=Alix was born in Married in Jan 1027 at France: Richard III, Duke de Normandie,, son of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Married in 1028 at France: Baudouin V, Comte de Flandre,, son of Baudouin IV, Count de Flandre and Ogive = Cunégonde de Luxembourg (Baudouin V was Adèle's second husband). Died: on 8 Jan 1079 at Messina, Messina, Sicily, Some sources indicate that Adèle=Alix died in Rainier V/VI, Count11 de Hainaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 115.). Born: before 1000 at Belgium, son of Raynier V, Count de Hainaut and Hadwige Capet, Princesse de France, Rainier VI is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age when he married Mathilde. Married in 1015: Mahaut d'ardenne,, daughter of Herman d'ardenne and Mathilde de Dabo. Died: after 1039 Rainier VI was alive in the year Mahaut11 d'ardenne (Ibid.). Married Name: de Hainaut. Born: before 1005, daughter of Herman d'ardenne and Mathilde de Dabo, Mahaut is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Rainier VI. Married in 1015: Rainier V/VI, Count de Hainaut,, son of Raynier V, Count de Hainaut and Hadwige Capet, Princesse de France Lambert II dit Baudry, Count11 de Louvain (André Roux: Scrolls, 217, 253.) (Stuart, Page 49, Line ). AKA: Lambert II, Count de Bruxelles. Born: circa 990, son of Lambert I, Count de Louvain and Gerberge de Lorraine. Married before 1020: Ode de Lorraine,, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N? Died: circa 21 Sep 1062 Lambert II is buried at Nivelles, France Ode11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 217, 253.) (Stuart, Page 79, Line ). Married Name: de Louvain. Born: before 1005 at Lorraine, France, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N?, Ode is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Henri II was born. Married before 1020: Lambert II dit Baudry, Count de Louvain,, son of Lambert I, Count de Louvain and Gerberge de Lorraine. Died: on 23 Oct Eberhard, Count11 de Béthune (Stuart, Page 269, Line ). Born: before 1018, son of Godizo, Count de Béthune and Berthe=Bave N? Married before 1045: N? N? N?11 N? Married before 1045: Eberhard, Count de Béthune,, son of Godizo, Count de Béthune and Berthe=Bave N? Gérard II, Count11 de Teisterbant (Stuart, Page 87, Line ). AKA: Gérard=Dietrich Flamens. AKA: Gerhard II von Wassenburg. Born: before 1023 at Lorraine, France, son of Gerhard I von Wassenburg and N? N?, Gérard was alive in the year 1033, and is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Dietrich was born. Married before 1038: N? N? Occupation: before 1060 Gérard was a vassal of the Bishop of Utrech. Died: in 1082 Gérard was alive in the year N?11 N? Married before 1038: Gérard II, Count de Teisterbant,, son of Gerhard I von Wassenburg and N? N? Guillaume III, Comte11 de Poitou (Stuart, Page 66, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.) (Abbott, Pages 303, 402.). Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Grand." AKA: Guillaume V, Duke d'aquitaine. Born: circa 969, son of Guillaume IV, Duke d'aquitaine and Emma de Blois (Stuart.). Married circa 997: Almodis=Adèle de Gévaudan,, daughter of Étienne, Comte de Gévaudan and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou (Almodis was Guillaume III/V's first wife). Married in 1011: Sanche de Gascogne,, daughter of Garcia I, Count de Castile and Sancha Abba de Ribagorza (Sanche was Guillaume III's second wife). Married in 1019: Agnès, Princess de Lombardie,, daughter of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims (Guillaume's marriage to Agnès was his third). Died: on 31 Jan 1030 Guillaume died a monk (Stuart.) Agnès, Princess11 de Lombardie (Stuart, Page 117, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). AKA: Agnès de Bourgogne. Married Name: d'anjou. Born: circa 995 at Lombardie, Italy, daughter of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims (Stuart, Page 117.). Married in 1019: Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou,, son of Guillaume IV, Duke d'aquitaine and Emma de Blois (Guillaume's marriage to Agnès was his third). Married in 1032 at France: Geoffroi II, Count d'anjou,, son of Foulques III, Count d'anjou and Hildegarde de Metz (Geoffroi II was Agnès' second husband). Died: on 10 Nov 1068 at Italy (Stuart, Page 117.) Adalbert III, Count11 de Longwy (Stuart, Page 80, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, "de Lorraine", 10 July 1995 at 13:24 Hours.). AKA: Adalbert III, Duke de Lorraine Adalbert III was Duke of Upper Lorraine, (Abbott, Page 541.). Born: circa 1000 at France, son of Gérard III, Count d'alsace and Gisèle de Metz. Married before 1024: Clémence de Foix,, daughter of Bernard I, Count de Foix and Gersinde de Bigorre. PaterAlter circa 1035 Adalbert III, Count de Longwy/Étiennette de Barcelone (an unknown value). Died: in 1048 at Thuin, Hainaut, Belgium Clémence11 de Foix (Stuart, Page 80, Line ). Married Name: de Longwy. Born: before 1010, daughter of Bernard I, Count de Foix and Gersinde de Bigorre, Clémence is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her dauther, Ermessinde, was born. Married before 1024: Adalbert III, Count de Longwy,, son of Gérard III, Count d'alsace and Gisèle de Metz. MaterAlter: circa 1035 Étiennette de Barcelone/Clémence de Foix Albert=Adalbert I, Count 11 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 197, 217.) (Stuart, Page 274, Line ). Born: before 980 at Belgium, son of Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde de Lorraine, Albert I is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when he married Ermengarde. Married in 990: Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine,, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Died: in Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 197, 217.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). Born: between 0970 and 0975, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Married in 990: Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur,, son of Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde de Lorraine. Died: in Gozelon I, Duke11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.) (Stuart, Page 79, Line ). AKA: Gozelon I, Margrave of Antwerp. AKA: Gozelon I, Count de Verdun. Born: circa 967, son of Godfrey, Count de Verdun and Mahaut=Mathilda de Saxe. Married before 994: N? N? Died: on 19 Apr

129 N?11 N? Married before 994: Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Godfrey, Count de Verdun and Mahaut=Mathilda de Saxe Bernard I, Duke11 de Saxe (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). AKA: Benno Billung. Born: circa 940, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Married circa 990: Hildegarde von Stade,, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Died: on 9 Feb 1011 at Corivey Bernard I is buried at Michaeliski in Luxembourg Hildegarde11 von Stade (Stuart, Page 215, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 6 July 18:40 Hours.). Married Name: de Saxe. Born: between 0974 and 0976, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Married circa 990: Bernard I, Duke de Saxe,, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Died: on 3 Oct 1011 Hildegarde is buried at Michaeliski in Luxemburg Harold II, King of11 Norway (Stuart, Page 151, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 31 July 1994 at 20:40 Hours.). AKA: Harold Eiriksson. Also Known As: Harold "Greypelt." Born: in 914 at Norway, son of Eric I, King of Norway and Gunhild of Denmark. Note - between 0960 and 0965 at Norway: Harold II was King of Norway ( ). Married before 970: N? N? Died: in 970 Harold II was killed. Some sources indicate he died in N?11 N? Married before 970: Harold II, King of Norway,, son of Eric I, King of Norway and Gunhild of Denmark Frédéric I, Count11 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 200.) (Stuart, Page 247.). AKA: Frédéric I, comte de Moselgau ( Born: circa 965, son of Sigefroy, Count de Luxembourg and Hedvige d'alsace. Married between 0985 and 0995: Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg,, daughter of Heribert, Count von Gleiberg and Ermentrude von Avalgau. Died: on 6 Oct Ermentrude, Countess11 von Gleiberg (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 246, Line ). Married Name: de Luxembourg. AKA: Irmentrude Konradiner. Born: before 975, daughter of Heribert, Count von Gleiberg and Ermentrude von Avalgau, Ermentrude is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Frédérick I. Married between 0985 and 0995: Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg,, son of Sigefroy, Count de Luxembourg and Hedvige d'alsace Guillaume III, Comte11 de Poitou (Stuart, Page 66, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.) (Abbott, Pages 303, 402.). Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Grand." AKA: Guillaume V, Duke d'aquitaine. Born: circa 969, son of Guillaume IV, Duke d'aquitaine and Emma de Blois (Stuart.). Married circa 997: Almodis=Adèle de Gévaudan,, daughter of Étienne, Comte de Gévaudan and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou (Almodis was Guillaume III/V's first wife). Married in 1011: Sanche de Gascogne,, daughter of Garcia I, Count de Castile and Sancha Abba de Ribagorza (Sanche was Guillaume III's second wife). Married in 1019: Agnès, Princess de Lombardie,, daughter of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims (Guillaume's marriage to Agnès was his third). Died: on 31 Jan 1030 Guillaume died a monk (Stuart.) Agnès, Princess11 de Lombardie (Stuart, Page 117, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). AKA: Agnès de Bourgogne. Married Name: d'anjou. Born: circa 995 at Lombardie, Italy, daughter of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims (Stuart, Page 117.). Married in 1019: Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou,, son of Guillaume IV, Duke d'aquitaine and Emma de Blois (Guillaume's marriage to Agnès was his third). Married in 1032 at France: Geoffroi II, Count d'anjou,, son of Foulques III, Count d'anjou and Hildegarde de Metz (Geoffroi II was Agnès' second husband). Died: on 10 Nov 1068 at Italy (Stuart, Page 117.) Adalbert III, Count11 de Longwy (Stuart, Page 80, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, "de Lorraine", 10 July 1995 at 13:24 Hours.). AKA: Adalbert III, Duke de Lorraine Adalbert III was Duke of Upper Lorraine, (Abbott, Page 541.). Born: circa 1000 at France, son of Gérard III, Count d'alsace and Gisèle de Metz. Married before 1024: Clémence de Foix,, daughter of Bernard I, Count de Foix and Gersinde de Bigorre. PaterAlter circa 1035 Adalbert III, Count de Longwy/Étiennette de Barcelone (an unknown value). Died: in 1048 at Thuin, Hainaut, Belgium Clémence11 de Foix (Stuart, Page 80, Line ). Married Name: de Longwy. Born: before 1010, daughter of Bernard I, Count de Foix and Gersinde de Bigorre, Clémence is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her dauther, Ermessinde, was born. Married before 1024: Adalbert III, Count de Longwy,, son of Gérard III, Count d'alsace and Gisèle de Metz. MaterAlter: circa 1035 Étiennette de Barcelone/Clémence de Foix Adalbert II, Duke11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 169, 193.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ). AKA: Adelbert II, Count d'alsace. AKA: Adalbert II, Count de Saargau. AKA: Adalbert, Marquis d'alsace Adalbert was Margrave (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Gary Murray [Prodigy ID# SJJA18A] under Subject "de Lorraine", 31 October 1997 at 14:29 Hours.). AKA: Adelbert II, Count de Metz Adelbert was Comte de Metz (Ibid.). Born: before 969, son of Éberard=Richard, Count d'alsace and N? N?, Adelbert II was alive in the year 974, and is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when he married Judith. Married before 979: Judith=Jutta N? Note - in 1005: Adelbert II was a Count in the Saargau, Alsace, France (Ibid.). Died: in 1033 at Bouzonville, Moselle, Lorraine, France, Adelbert II died on his return from Jerusalem where he was involved in the crusades Judith=Jutta11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 169.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ). Married Name: de Lorraine. Born: before 969 Judith is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Adalbert II. Married before 979: Adalbert II, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Éberard=Richard, Count d'alsace and N? N? Died: after 1032 Judith was alive in the year 1032, and is buried in Bouzonville Ratbode=Robert I, Count11 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.) (Stuart, Page 274, Line ). AKA: Robert I, Count de Lomme. Born: before 946 at Belgium, son of Bérenger, Count de Namur and N? de Hainaut, Ratbode was alive in the year 946. Married before 979: Ermengarde de Lorraine,, daughter of Otto, Count de Lorraine and N? N? Died: in Ermengarde11 de Lorraine (Ibid.). Married Name: de Namur. Born: before 965, daughter of Otto, Count de Lorraine and N? N?, Ermengarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Adalbert I was born. Married before 979: Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur,, son of Bérenger, Count de Namur and N? de Hainaut.

130 1190. Charles, Prince11 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 191, 193, 217.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ) (Castelot, Tome 1, Page 387.). AKA: Charles de Laon. AKA: Charles I, Duke de Lorraine. Born: in 953 at Laon, Ile-de-France, France, son of Louis IV, King de France and Gerberge de Saxe, Some sources assert that this Charles was born in the year 943. Married before 970: Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne,, daughter of Godefroy, Count d'ardenne and N? N? Note - in 977: Charles became the Duke of the Basse-Lorraine [Lower Lorraine] in 977. Died: on 21 May 992 Some sources assert that this Charles died in the year Bonne=Adélaïde11 d'ardenne (André Roux: Scrolls, 191, 217.). Born: before 955, daughter of Godefroy, Count d'ardenne and N? N?, Bonne is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Ermengarde was born. Married before 970: Charles, Prince de France,, son of Louis IV, King de France and Gerberge de Saxe Baudouin IV, Count11 de Flandre (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 200.) (Abbott, Page 292.). AKA: Baudouin IV de Lille. AKA: Baldwin IV, Count de Valenciennes Baudouin IV was created Comte de Valenciennes in 1007 (von Redlich, Page 235.). Also Known As: Baudouin "Le Barbu" (von Redlich, Page 183.). AKA: Baudouin IV, Comte d'artois. Born: circa 980 at Flandre, Belgium, son of Arnoul II, Count de Flandre and Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy. Married between 1005 and 1012: Ogive = Cunégonde de Luxembourg,, daughter of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg (Ogive was Baudouin IV's first wife). Married after 1013: Éléonore de Normandie,, daughter of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne (Éléonore was Baudouin IV's second wife. While earlier sources indicate that Baudouin IV and Éléonore were married, the 1980's edition of E.S. dropped her, and also changed Judith's parentage, and indicates that no daughter of Richard II de Normandie married Baudouin IV. By extension, it may also be that Baudouin IV did not marry twice). PaterAlter in 1028 Baudouin IV, Count de Flandre/Judith de Normandie (an unknown value). Died: on 30 May Ogive = Cunégonde11 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 200.) (Stuart, Page 247, Line ). Married Name: de Flandre. Born: circa 995 at Luxembourg, daughter of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg. Married between 1005 and 1012: Baudouin IV, Count de Flandre,, son of Arnoul II, Count de Flandre and Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy (Ogive was Baudouin IV's first wife). Died: on 21 Feb Robert II, King of France. Robert II is excommunicated Robert II, King11 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 80, 114.) (Hallam, Page 71.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Castelot, Tome I, Pages ; Tome II, Page 490.). Also Known As: Robert "Le Pieux." AKA: Robert II, Duke de Bourgogne Arms: "Bandé d'or et d'azur à six pièces à la bordure de gueules" (Abbott, Page 198.). Born: between 27 Mar 970 and 972 at Orléans, Loiret, Orléanais, France, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers, Some sources indicate that Robert II was born in the year 972 while other indicate the date 27 March 970 which would make his birth some three months after his father, Hughes Capet's, marriage to his mother, Adélaïde. Married before 984 at France: Constance de Provence,, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Married in 989: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy,, daughter of Bérenger II, King of Italy and Willa d'arles (It is considered a strange idea on the part of Hughes that his young son should marry a woman who was some 32-years [some say she was even 37 years] older than Robert. In 988, she had become the widow of Arnoul II de Flandre. She is quite pretty but has "troubling" black eyes, but most importantly, she brings as dowry Montreuil-sur-Mer. This will allow the capetian sovereigns to have access to the French Channel). Repudiated: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy in 992 at France Robert II repudiated his wife because she was "an old woman", but he would keep the dowry of Montreuil-sur-Mer. Note - between 0996 and 1031: Robert II became King of France upon the death of his father on 24

131 October 996. In 1000, Angers is destroyed by fire. When the King's Uncle, Henri, Duke of Burgundy died without heir in Married in 997 at Tours, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne,, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France (Robert had made Berthe, the beautiful widow of the Count of Anjou, his mistress in 996. But because it was better to sin a little bit than to sin a lot, he married her as King. They are related in the third degree, and Robert is the godfather of one of Berthe's children. This spiritual relationship makes the marriage incestuous in the eyes of the Church. In 998, the Council, called by then Pope Gregory V, stipulates that Robert should leave Berthe forever, and do penance for 7 years in accordance with the laws of the Church. In the midst of the deliberations, Gregory V dies and is replaced by Pope Sylvester II who is none other than the Monk, Gerbert, ancient mentor of the King. However, while the pronouncement of an anathema is lifted, the excommunication is maintained. In 1001, Robert concedes. Two years later, in 1003, he marries Constance. That same year on 7 February 1003, the old Queen Suzanne died). Repudiated: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne between 1001 and Died: on 20 Jul 1031 at Meulun, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-deFrance, France, Robert II is buried at Saint Denis Constance11 de Provence (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 114.) (Hallam, Page 73.) (Stuart, Page 236, Line ). Married Name: de France. AKA: Constance d'arles. AKA: Constance de Toulouse. Note -: Constance was an imperious and unscrupulous woman who polarized the French court into two factions: one favoring herself and the Angevin faction, the other Bertha and her sons. Soon after the death of Robert Le Pieux in 1031, Constance seized on behalf of her son and favorite Robert the towns and castles of Senlis, Sens, Béthisy, Dammartin, Le Puiset, Melun and Poissy. She bought the support of Odo II of Blois by handing over half of Sens to him. Henry, the designated and crowned heir to the throne fled for assistance to Robert the Magnificent, Duke of Normandy, and obtained help from Gulk de Nerra as well. Thus, Henry was able to regain Poissy, Le Puiset, and Constance surrendered to him. Her first cousin, Fulk Nerra had Hugues, Count de Beauvais (one of Bertha's sons) assassinated in In 1010, the King tried to divorce Constance, but was dissuaded from this by Pope Sergius IV. Born: before 970 at Anjou, France, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou. Married before 984 at France: Robert II, King de France,, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Died: on 25 Jul 1032 at Meulan, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France (Stuart, Page 236.). Buried: on 28 Jul Bernard I, Duke11 de Saxe (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). AKA: Benno Billung. Born: circa 940, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Married circa 990: Hildegarde von Stade,, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Died: on 9 Feb 1011 at Corivey Bernard I is buried at Michaeliski in Luxembourg Hildegarde11 von Stade (Stuart, Page 215, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 6 July 18:40 Hours.). Married Name: de Saxe. Born: between 0974 and 0976, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Married circa 990: Bernard I, Duke de Saxe,, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Died: on 3 Oct 1011 Hildegarde is buried at Michaeliski in Luxemburg Heinrich11 von Schweinfürt (Stuart, Page 197, Line ). AKA: Henry, Margrave in the Nordgau. Born: either 0950 or 0975, son of Berthold I, Margrave von Nordgau and Eiliswintha von Walbeck, Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" shows Henry born in 975, whereas E.S. [via Paul Theroff] shows Henry born in 950 (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). Married before 1000: Gerberge von Henneberg,, daughter of Otto II of Tullfeld and N? N? Died: on 18 Sep Gerberge11 von Henneberg (Stuart, Page 78, Line ). Married Name: von Schweinfürt. AKA: Gerberge de Gleiberg ( Born: before 993, daughter of Otto II of Tullfeld and N? N?, Gerberge is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Henry. Married before 1000: Heinrich von Schweinfürt,, son of Berthold I, Margrave von Nordgau and Eiliswintha von Walbeck. Died: after Hugo, Sire11 du Perche (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 264.). Born: circa 970, son of Albert, Sire du Perche and N? de Châteaudun (Ibid.). Married before 1000: Béatrice de Mâcon,, daughter of Albéric=Aubri II, Count de Mâcon and Ermentrude de Reims (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). Died: before 1026 (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 264.) Béatrice11 de Mâcon (Stuart, Page 70.). Married Name: du Perche (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). Born: between 0960 and 0974 at Mâcon, Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France, daughter of Albéric=Aubri II, Count de Mâcon and Ermentrude de Reims, According to Stuart, Béatrice was born circa 974. According to Settipani, she was born between 960 and 965. Mâcon was the Capital of ancient Mâconnais (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 244.). Married before 985: Geoffroy III, Count de Gâtinais,, son of Albéric, Count de Gâtinais and N? N? Married before 1000: Hugo, Sire du Perche,, son of Albert, Sire du Perche and N? de Châteaudun (KeatsRohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). Married Name: Beatrix, Comtesse de Gâtinais (Beatrix became Countess du Gâtinais upon the death [without issue] of her son [by her first marriage] Albéric c The County of Gâtinais then passed from Albéric's mother to his step-brothers [Beatrix's sons by her second marriage], Leotald and Gausfred) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages 257, 264.). Died: between 1026 and 1043 (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 244.) Foulques III, Count11 d'anjou (André Roux: Scrolls, 139, 147.) (Stuart, Page 69, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 10 July 1994 at 00:34 Hours.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 265.). AKA: Foulques III Nera. Also Known As: Foulques "Le Noir." AKA: Foulques "Le Jérosolimitain" ( Born: in 972 at France, son of Geoffroy I = Gausfred, Count d'anjou and Adélaïs de Vermandois (Ibid.). Note - between 0987 and 1040: Fouques Nera obtained Saumur and already owning lands in Touraine, he conquered a large part of that province. He was an unscrupulous warrior. Four times he went on pilgrimages to Jerusalem. He built numerous châteaux and appointed to them his châtelains. Foulques III became a crusader and settled in the Holy

132 Land. Sometime after 30 December 987, Fouques Nera was granted the overlordship of Maine (Abbott, Page 144.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Keats-Rohan, Katharine S.B.: Chapter 10: " 'Un vassal sans histoire'?: Count Hugh II (c.940/ ) and the Origins of Angevin Overlordship in Maine", Page 204.). Married in 989: Élizabeth=Adèle, Countess de Vendôme,, daughter of Bouchard I, Count de Vendôme and Élizabeth N? (Élizabeth was Foulques III's first wife) ( (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 253.). Married in 1000: Hildegarde de Metz (Hildegarde was Foulques III's second wife) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages 253, 265.). AKA: Foulques III, Comte de Tours ( AKA: Foulques III, Comte du Maine (Ibid.). Died: on 21 Jun 1040 at Jérusalem, Palestine, Holy Land Hildegarde11 de Metz (Stuart, Page 69, Line ) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Phil Currie, "Delano, Sarah", posted on 29 October 1995 at 01:16 Hours.). Married Name: d'anjou. AKA: Hildegardis de Lorraine (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages 253, 265.). Born: circa 985 at France (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 254.). Married in 1000: Foulques III, Count d'anjou,, son of Geoffroy I = Gausfred, Count d'anjou and Adélaïs de Vermandois (Hildegarde was Foulques III's second wife) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages 253, 265.). Died: on 1 Apr 1046 at Jérusalem, Palestine, Holy Land (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 4 16:10 Hrs], Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.") Amaury II, Seigneur11 de Montfort (André Roux: Scrolls, 168.) (Stuart, Page 68, Line ). AKA: Amaury II, Seigneur d'épernon (Abbott, Page 39.). Born: before 1011 at Montfort-l'Amaury, Toulousain, Languedoc, France, son of Guillaume, Count de Hainaut and N., Dame de Montfort, Amaury II is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Simon I was born. Married before 1026: Bertrade de Gometz,, daughter of Guillaume de Gometz and N? N? Died: in 1063 at Eure & Loir, France (Ibid.) Bertrade11 de Gometz (André Roux: Scrolls, 168.) (Stuart, Page 68, Line ). Married Name: de Montfort. Born: before 1011 at France, daughter of Guillaume de Gometz and N? N?, Bertrade is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Simon I was born. Married before 1026: Amaury II, Seigneur de Montfort,, son of Guillaume, Count de Hainaut and N., Dame de Montfort Richard, Comte11 d'évreux (André Roux: Scrolls, 242.) (Stuart, Page 125, Line ) (Abbott, Page 230.). Born: in 986 at Rouen, Bray, Normandie, France, son of Robert, Comte de Normandie and Ila d'herlève, Rouen was the Capital city of ancient Normandie. Married before 1030: Adélaïde de Barcelone,, daughter of Raymond I dit Borel III, Count de Barcelone and Ermessinde de Carcassonne (Adélaïde was the widow of Roger de Toeni when she married Richard). Died: in Adélaïde11 de Barcelone (Stuart, Page 125, Line ). Married Name: d'évreux. Married Name: de Toeny. Born: circa 1004, daughter of Raymond I dit Borel III, Count de Barcelone and Ermessinde de Carcassonne. Married before 1029 at France: Roger I de Toeny,, son of Rodulf II de Tosny and N? N? (Roger was Adélaïde's first husband). Married before 1030: Richard, Comte d'évreux,, son of Robert, Comte de Normandie and Ila d'herlève (Adélaïde was the widow of Roger de Toeni when she married Richard). Died: in Lancelin I, Seigneur 11 de Beaugency (André Roux: Scrolls, 196.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ; Page 3, Line 4-32.). AKA: Lancelin I, Seigneur de La Flèche Lancelin I was Lord of La Flèche in Anjou, France. Born: before 1007 at Beaugency, Orléanais, France, son of Landry, Sire de Beaugency and N? N?, Lancelin was alive in the years 1033 and He is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son Lancelin II was born. The parentage of Lancelin I is uncertain. Married before 1024 at France: Paule I du Maine,, daughter of Herbert I, Count du Maine and N? N? (There is some uncertainty about the marriage of Lancelin I. Roderick Stuart in his Royalty for Commoners misinterpretes his own reference Turton who suggests Lancelin I did marry Paule du Maine but that Paule was the Godmother of Paule du Maine who married Jean, Lancelin's son. The two Paule are not the same person as Roderick Stuart assumes Turton meant. Other sources question whether Paule I was ever married to Lancelin I or had any children from him). Died: between 1051 and 1060 at France Paule I11 du Maine (André Roux: Scrolls, 196, 241.) (Stuart, Page 31, Line ). Married Name: de Beaugency. Born: before 1010 at France, daughter of Herbert I, Count du Maine and N? N?, Paule is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Lancelin II was born if Lancelin II was her son. Married before 1024 at France: Lancelin I, Seigneur de Beaugency,, son of Landry, Sire de Beaugency and N? N? (There is some uncertainty about the marriage of Lancelin I. Roderick Stuart in his Royalty for Commoners misinterpretes his own reference Turton who suggests Lancelin I did marry Paule du Maine but that Paule was the Godmother of Paule du Maine who married Jean, Lancelin's son. The two Paule are not the same person as Roderick Stuart assumes Turton meant. Other sources question whether Paule I was ever married to Lancelin I or had any children from him).

133 1210. Hughes V, Count11 du Maine (André Roux: Scrolls, 241.) (Abbott, Page 130.). AKA: Hughes d'este. Born: between 1038 and 1049 at France, son of Azon, Marquis de Ligurie and Gersende, Comtesse du Maine, Hughes V is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Paule II was born. If André Roux's data concerning the parentage of Paule I and Paule II du Maine are correct, then Hughes V is unlikely to have been born before 1048, since in that year his mother was repudiated by her first husband, and in turn is therefore unlikely to have married her second husband, Hughes V's father Azon, before Married before 1052 at France: Gersende de Mayenne. Married before 1064: Berthe de Blois,, daughter of Eudes II, Count de Blois and Ermengarde d'auvergne (There are indications that the Hughes, Count du Maine who married Berthe de Blois is not this Hughes V. André Roux's data indicate Hughes V's wife and Paule II's mother as unknown). Note - between 1090 and 1093: According to André Roux, Hughes V sold the Countship of the Maine to his cousin Hélie de La Flêche; but Abbott indicates Hughes abdicated the County in 1090 (Abbott, Page 130.). Died: after Gersende11 de Mayenne (Paul Theroff, posts, 19 August 1994 at 15:59 Hours.). Married Name: du Maine. Born: before 1049 at France Gersende is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Paule II was born. Married before 1052 at France: Hughes V, Count du Maine,, son of Azon, Marquis de Ligurie and Gersende, Comtesse du Maine Robert, Seigneur11 de Château-du-Loir (André Roux: Scrolls, 53, 256.) (Stuart, Page 248, Line ). AKA: Robert Brochard (Abbott, Page 134.). Born: before 1034 at Château du Loir, Sarthe, Maine, France, son of Hamelin=Haimon, Seigneur de Château-du-Loir and Hildegarde=Hildeburges de Bellême, Robert is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Gervais, was born. Married before 1051 at France: Élizabeth N? Élizabeth11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 53.) (Stuart, Page 248, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). Married Name: de Château-du-loir. Born: before 1037 Élizabeth is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Gervais was born. Married before 1051 at France: Robert, Seigneur de Château-du-Loir,, son of Hamelin=Haimon, Seigneur de Château-du-Loir and Hildegarde=Hildeburges de Bellême. Died: circa 1095 Élizabeth was alive in the year N?11 N? Married before 1055: Mathilde N? Mathilde11 N? Born: before 1035 Mathilde is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time her dauther, Aremburge, was born. Married before 1055: N? N? Eudes I, Count11 de Blois (André Roux: Scrolls, 122, 191.) (Data from Encyclopedia entry.) (Stuart, Page 97, Line ). AKA: Eudes, Count de Chartres. AKA: Eudes, Count de Châteaudun. AKA: Eudes I, Count de Beauvais. AKA: Eudes I, Count de Meaux. AKA: Eudes, Count de Tours. AKA: Eudes, Comte de Troyes. Note -: Eudes I was the Count de Blois, Tours, Châteaudun and Chartres, which he inherited from his father. Upon the death of his uncle, Herbert "Le Vieux", Count de Vermandois, he got the county of Omois, together with control over the county of Reims and the Abbey of Saint-Médard at Soissons. Born: circa 950 at Marmoutier, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France, son of Thibaut, Count de Blois and Leutgarde de Vermandois. Married before 969: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne,, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France. Died: on 12 Mar 996 at Marmoutier, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France Princess Berthe11 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 122, 191.). AKA: Berthe de Bourgogne. Married Name: de France. Married Name: Comtesse Berthe de Blois. Born: between 0957 and 0961, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France, Berthe is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age by the time her son Eudes II was born. Married before 969: Eudes I, Count de Blois,, son of Thibaut, Count de Blois and Leutgarde de Vermandois. Married in 997 at Tours, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France: Robert II, King de France,, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers (Robert had made Berthe, the beautiful widow of the Count of Anjou, his mistress in 996. But because it was

134 better to sin a little bit than to sin a lot, he married her as King. They are related in the third degree, and Robert is the godfather of one of Berthe's children. This spiritual relationship makes the marriage incestuous in the eyes of the Church. In 998, the Council, called by then Pope Gregory V, stipulates that Robert should leave Berthe forever, and do penance for 7 years in accordance with the laws of the Church. In the midst of the deliberations, Gregory V dies and is replaced by Pope Sylvester II who is none other than the Monk, Gerbert, ancient mentor of the King. However, while the pronouncement of an anathema is lifted, the excommunication is maintained. In 1001, Robert concedes. Two years later, in 1003, he marries Constance. That same year on 7 February 1003, the old Queen Suzanne died). Note - between 0997 and 0999: Berthe was Robert Le Pieux's cousin, and the timely death of Odo I, allowed him to pursue marriage with her even though he was also godfather of one of her children. The ceremony was performed by Archambaud, Archbishop of Tours, and caused Pope Grogory V to convene the synod of Pavia which condemned the union and also later, in 998, to convene a general council of the Church which pronounced an anathema against Robert. Repudiated: Robert II, King de France between 1001 and Died: circa Robert II, Count11 d'auvergne (André Roux: Scrolls, 114, 122, 128.) (Abbott, Page 442.). Born: before 974 at Lorvano, son of Gui I, Count d'auvergne and Ingelberge=Aucelende N?, Abbott indicates that Robert was the son of Guillaume and nephew of Gui, rather than Gui's son. If he is correct, then the descendancy line are Vicomtes d'auvergne rather than Comtes. MaterAlter: before 974 Humberge de Brioude/Robert II, Count d'auvergne. PaterAlter before 974 Robert II, Count d'auvergne/guillaume VI (IV), Vicomte d'auvergne (an unknown value). Married before 992 at France: Hermengarde de Provence,, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou. Died: in 1032 Stuart shows Robert II died before 1032, but Abbott asserts Robert II died in 1032 (Stuart, Page 93.) (Abbott, Page 442.) Hermengarde11 de Provence (André Roux: Scrolls, 114, 122, 128.). Married Name: d'auvergne. AKA: Ermengarde d'arles. Born: in 984, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou. Married before 992 at France: Robert II, Count d'auvergne,, son of Gui I, Count d'auvergne and Ingelberge=Aucelende N? Died: after 1010 Hermengarde was alive in the year Hughes III, Count11 du Maine (André Roux: Scrolls, 241.) (Stuart, Page 249, Line ) (Abbott, Page 130.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Keats-Rohan, Katharine S.B.: Chapter 10: " 'Un vassal sans histoire'?: Count Hugh II (c.940/ ) and the Origins of Angevin Overlordship in Maine", Page 192.). Born: circa 932 at France, son of Hughes II, Count du Maine and N? de Vermandois, Hughes III was alive in the year 967. Married before 977: N? de Guiscard. Died: between 1015 and 1016 Hugh III was allied with Odon II of Blois against Richard of Normandy shortly before his death in 1015 or 1016 (Ibid.) N?11 de Guiscard. Born: circa 942. Married before 977: Hughes III, Count du Maine,, son of Hughes II, Count du Maine and N? de Vermandois. Married Name: du Maine Richard II, Duke11 de Normandie (Stuart, Page 67, Line 89-32; Page 134, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 168.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:26 Hours.). Also Known As: Richard "Le Bon" (Abbott, Page 219.). Born Illeg.: circa 958 at Normandie, France, -, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec, -. Married circa 1000: Judith de Bretagne,, daughter of Conan I, Duke de Bretagne and Ermengarde d'anjou. Married in 1017: Estrid of Denmark,, daughter of Svend I, King of England and Gunhild of Poland (Richard was Estrid's first husband). Repudiated: Estrid of Denmark circa Married between 1020 and 1027: Poppa N? (Poppa was Richard II's third wife). Died: on 28 Aug 1027 at Fécamp, Seine-Inférieure, Normandie, France Judith11 de Bretagne (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 168.) (Stuart, Page 125, Line ; Page 135, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:10 Hours.). Married Name: de Normandie. AKA: Judith de Rennes. Born: in 982 at Rennes, Bretagne, France, daughter of Conan I, Duke de Bretagne and Ermengarde d'anjou. Married circa 1000: Richard II, Duke de Normandie,, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec. Died: on 16 Jun Fulbert11 de Falaise (Stuart, Page 67, Line ). Occupation: See information under Arlette's Birth. Fulbert was possibly mistakenly thought of as a tanner rather than a mortician. According to a post by Michael Welch [Prodigy ID# XZRB52A] appearing on the Genealogy Bulleting Board for Royal/Noble/Heraldry issues of the Prodigy Interactive Services under Subject "Herleva de Falaise", on 23 March 1996 at 01:36 Hours], Orderic in his Historia Ecclesiastica, the knight Herluin prepared the burial of William the Conqueror. He brought persons "pollinctores" to lay out the corpse of the King, and bearers "vispillionwa", and paid them himself for the work they did. The elaborate 11th-Century description of the procedure followed in case of death in a monatery, given by Lanfranc in his monastic rule states the chamberlain was one of the persons in charge of burials. This is precisely the office Herleva's father obtained at the ducal court. Again, we owe this information to Orderic. In Book VII of the "Gesta", he writes that Duke William was the son of Duke Robert's concubine, Arlette, who was the daughter of Fulbert, Chamberlain of the Duke. The words "Fulberti Cubicularii ducis filia natus" are written on an erasure in his autographed manuscript. The original text cannot be reconstructed. Bearing in mind that the first part of the Alençon interpolation occurs in the first part of the same manuscript, it seems as if Orderic obtained frech information about Harlette's origins after he had finished most of the writing of the "Gesta". It is very likely that Duke Robert appointed Fulbert, Arlette's father, as his Chamberlain, after the birth of his son, William. No contemporary evidence of Fulbert's position in the ducal household, however, survives. The name of Duke William's birthplace, Falaise, is also mentioned by Orderic, for the first time. As Douglas pointed out, Robert must have met Arlette while involved in defending the place against his brother, Duke Richard III [ ]. We may conclude that all information about Arlette's origins derives from Orderic Vitalis who wrote more than eighty years after Duke Robert met his concubine at Falaise. In that town, William was born. Hi mother Arlette was the daughter of Fulbert who, as a pollinctor, had laid out corpses for burial and who might therefore have been an embalmer. At an unknown date, after William's birth, Fulbert became ducal Chamberlain. The story that he was peltere, tanner, or tailor was stated in the works of Wace and of Benoit in the second half of the 12th. Century. This tradition was enhanced by the influence of the two 17th. Century Editions of the "Gesta". This was written by Elisabeth M.C. van Houts at Girton College, Cambridge and appeared in the "English Historical Review" in April, 1986 (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Michael Welch [Prodigy ID# XZRB52A] in Subject "Herleva de Falaise" on 23 March 1996 at 00:39 Hours.). Born: before 988 Fulbert is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Arlette was born. Married before 1003: Dode N? (Dode=Doda was a concubine) Dode11 N? (Stuart, Page 67, Line ). Married Name: de Falaise. Born: before 988 Dode is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Arlette was born. Married before 1003: Fulbert de Falaise (Dode=Doda was a concubine). Died: after 1003.

135 1228. Baudouin IV, Count11 de Flandre (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 200.) (Abbott, Page 292.). AKA: Baudouin IV de Lille. AKA: Baldwin IV, Count de Valenciennes Baudouin IV was created Comte de Valenciennes in 1007 (von Redlich, Page 235.). Also Known As: Baudouin "Le Barbu" (von Redlich, Page 183.). AKA: Baudouin IV, Comte d'artois. Born: circa 980 at Flandre, Belgium, son of Arnoul II, Count de Flandre and Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy. Married between 1005 and 1012: Ogive = Cunégonde de Luxembourg,, daughter of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg (Ogive was Baudouin IV's first wife). Married after 1013: Éléonore de Normandie,, daughter of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne (Éléonore was Baudouin IV's second wife. While earlier sources indicate that Baudouin IV and Éléonore were married, the 1980's edition of E.S. dropped her, and also changed Judith's parentage, and indicates that no daughter of Richard II de Normandie married Baudouin IV. By extension, it may also be that Baudouin IV did not marry twice). PaterAlter in 1028 Baudouin IV, Count de Flandre/Judith de Normandie (an unknown value). Died: on 30 May Ogive = Cunégonde11 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 200.) (Stuart, Page 247, Line ). Married Name: de Flandre. Born: circa 995 at Luxembourg, daughter of Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg and Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg. Married between 1005 and 1012: Baudouin IV, Count de Flandre,, son of Arnoul II, Count de Flandre and Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy (Ogive was Baudouin IV's first wife). Died: on 21 Feb Robert II, King of France. Robert II is excommunicated Robert II, King11 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 80, 114.) (Hallam, Page 71.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Castelot, Tome I, Pages ; Tome II, Page 490.). Also Known As: Robert "Le Pieux." AKA: Robert II, Duke de Bourgogne Arms: "Bandé d'or et d'azur à six pièces à la bordure de gueules" (Abbott, Page 198.). Born: between 27 Mar 970 and 972 at Orléans, Loiret, Orléanais, France, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers, Some sources indicate that Robert II was born in the year 972 while other indicate the date 27 March 970 which would make his birth some three months after his father, Hughes Capet's, marriage to his mother, Adélaïde. Married before 984 at France: Constance de Provence,, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Married in 989: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy,, daughter of Bérenger II, King of Italy and Willa d'arles (It is considered a strange idea on the part of Hughes that his young son should marry a woman who was some 32-years [some say she was even 37 years] older than Robert. In 988, she had become the widow of Arnoul II de Flandre. She is quite pretty but has "troubling" black eyes, but most importantly, she brings as dowry Montreuil-sur-Mer. This will allow the capetian sovereigns to have access to the French Channel). Repudiated: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy in 992 at France Robert II repudiated his wife because she was "an old woman", but he would keep the dowry of Montreuil-sur-Mer. Note - between 0996 and 1031: Robert II became King of France upon the death of his father on 24 October 996. In 1000, Angers is destroyed by fire. When the King's Uncle, Henri, Duke of Burgundy died without heir in Married in 997 at Tours, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne,, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France (Robert had made Berthe, the beautiful widow of the Count of Anjou, his mistress in 996. But because it was better to sin a little bit than to sin a lot, he married her as King. They are related in the third degree, and Robert is the godfather of one of Berthe's children. This spiritual relationship makes the marriage incestuous in the eyes of the Church. In 998, the Council, called by then Pope Gregory V, stipulates that Robert should leave Berthe forever, and do penance for 7 years in accordance with the laws of the Church. In the midst of the deliberations, Gregory V dies and is replaced by Pope Sylvester II who is none other than the Monk, Gerbert, ancient mentor of the King. However, while the pronouncement of an anathema is lifted, the excommunication is maintained. In 1001, Robert concedes. Two years later, in 1003, he marries Constance. That same year on 7 February 1003, the old Queen Suzanne died). Repudiated: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne between 1001 and Died: on 20 Jul 1031 at Meulun, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-deFrance, France, Robert II is buried at Saint Denis.

136 1231. Constance11 de Provence (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 114.) (Hallam, Page 73.) (Stuart, Page 236, Line ). Married Name: de France. AKA: Constance d'arles. AKA: Constance de Toulouse. Note -: Constance was an imperious and unscrupulous woman who polarized the French court into two factions: one favoring herself and the Angevin faction, the other Bertha and her sons. Soon after the death of Robert Le Pieux in 1031, Constance seized on behalf of her son and favorite Robert the towns and castles of Senlis, Sens, Béthisy, Dammartin, Le Puiset, Melun and Poissy. She bought the support of Odo II of Blois by handing over half of Sens to him. Henry, the designated and crowned heir to the throne fled for assistance to Robert the Magnificent, Duke of Normandy, and obtained help from Gulk de Nerra as well. Thus, Henry was able to regain Poissy, Le Puiset, and Constance surrendered to him. Her first cousin, Fulk Nerra had Hugues, Count de Beauvais (one of Bertha's sons) assassinated in In 1010, the King tried to divorce Constance, but was dissuaded from this by Pope Sergius IV. Born: before 970 at Anjou, France, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou. Married before 984 at France: Robert II, King de France,, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Died: on 25 Jul 1032 at Meulan, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France (Stuart, Page 236.). Buried: on 28 Jul N.11 von Sponheim. Born: before 1037 at Germany He is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Stephen was born. Married before 1052: N. von Pusterthal N.11 von Pusterthal. Born: before 1037 She is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Stephen was born. Married before 1052: N. von Sponheim Engelbert, Count11 von Lavant (Stuart, Page 95, Line ). AKA: Engelbert, Count in the Pusterthal Engelbert was Count in Inntal and Nordtal. Born: before 998, son of Frédérick I, Count von Pusterthal and N. von Chiemgau, Engelbert is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Richgard was born. Married before 1013: Luitgard d'istrie,, daughter of Wérigand=Wezzelin, Count d'istrie and Wilibirg von Ebersburg. Died: in Luitgard11 d'istrie (Stuart, Page 96, Line ). Married Name: von Lavant. Born: before 998, daughter of Wérigand=Wezzelin, Count d'istrie and Wilibirg von Ebersburg, Luitgard is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Richgard was born. Married before 1013: Engelbert, Count von Lavant,, son of Frédérick I, Count von Pusterthal and N. von Chiemgau. Died: after Diepold I, Count11 von Augstgau (Stuart, Page 94, Line ). Born: before 1033, son of Rapoto II, Count von Traungau and N? N?, Diepold I is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son was born. Married before 1047: N? N? N?11 N? Married before 1047: Diepold I, Count von Augstgau,, son of Rapoto II, Count von Traungau and N? N? Married Name: von Augstgau Kuno I11 von Fratenhausen. AKA: Kuno von Lechsgemuend (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). AKA: Cuno, Comte de Harbourg ( AKA: Cuno, Comte vom Lechsgemünd (Ibid.). Born: before 1037, son of Heinrich I, Count von Schweinfürt and N. von Altdorf, Kuno I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Heinrich I, was born. Married before 1054: Mathilde von Achalm,, daughter of Rudolph, Count von Achalm and Adelheid von Wulfingen Mathilde11 von Achalm (Stuart, Page 157, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). Married Name: von Fratenhausen. Born: before 1040, daughter of Rudolph, Count von Achalm and Adelheid von Wulfingen, Mathilde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Heinrich I, was born. Married before 1054: Kuno I von Fratenhausen,, son of Heinrich I, Count von Schweinfürt and N. von Altdorf Kuno11 von Rott (Stuart, Page 31, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Kuno, Pfalzgrave de Bavière. AKA: Kuno, Count Palatine von Rott (Ibid.). Born: before 1040, son of Poppo III, Count von Rot and Hazaga de Karnten, Kuno is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter, Irmgard, was born. Married between 1050 and 1057: Uta von Diessen,, daughter of Frédérick II, Count von Diessen and Ermengarde von Gilching (Uta was the widow of Abalrech von Formbach when she married Kuno). Note - before 1086: Kuno was the founder of Roth Monastery. Died: in Uta11 von Diessen (Stuart, Page 31, Line ). Married Name: von Rot. Born: before 1040, daughter of Frédérick II, Count von Diessen and Ermengarde von Gilching, Uta is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Ermengarde was born. Married between 1050 and 1057: Kuno von Rott,, son of Poppo III, Count von Rot and Hazaga de Karnten (Uta was the widow of Abalrech von Formbach when she married Kuno). Died: in 1086.

137 Robert II, King of France. Robert II is excommunicated Robert II, King11 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 80, 114.) (Hallam, Page 71.) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Castelot, Tome I, Pages ; Tome II, Page 490.). Also Known As: Robert "Le Pieux." AKA: Robert II, Duke de Bourgogne Arms: "Bandé d'or et d'azur à six pièces à la bordure de gueules" (Abbott, Page 198.). Born: between 27 Mar 970 and 972 at Orléans, Loiret, Orléanais, France, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers, Some sources indicate that Robert II was born in the year 972 while other indicate the date 27 March 970 which would make his birth some three months after his father, Hughes Capet's, marriage to his mother, Adélaïde. Married before 984 at France: Constance de Provence,, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Married in 989: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy,, daughter of Bérenger II, King of Italy and Willa d'arles (It is considered a strange idea on the part of Hughes that his young son should marry a woman who was some 32-years [some say she was even 37 years] older than Robert. In 988, she had become the widow of Arnoul II de Flandre. She is quite pretty but has "troubling" black eyes, but most importantly, she brings as dowry Montreuil-sur-Mer. This will allow the capetian sovereigns to have access to the French Channel). Repudiated: Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy in 992 at France Robert II repudiated his wife because she was "an old woman", but he would keep the dowry of Montreuil-sur-Mer. Note - between 0996 and 1031: Robert II became King of France upon the death of his father on 24 October 996. In 1000, Angers is destroyed by fire. When the King's Uncle, Henri, Duke of Burgundy died without heir in Married in 997 at Tours, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne,, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France (Robert had made Berthe, the beautiful widow of the Count of Anjou, his mistress in 996. But because it was better to sin a little bit than to sin a lot, he married her as King. They are related in the third degree, and Robert is the godfather of one of Berthe's children. This spiritual relationship makes the marriage incestuous in the eyes of the Church. In 998, the Council, called by then Pope Gregory V, stipulates that Robert should leave Berthe forever, and do penance for 7 years in accordance with the laws of the Church. In the midst of the deliberations, Gregory V dies and is replaced by Pope Sylvester II who is none other than the Monk, Gerbert, ancient mentor of the King. However, while the pronouncement of an anathema is lifted, the excommunication is maintained. In 1001, Robert concedes. Two years later, in 1003, he marries Constance. That same year on 7 February 1003, the old Queen Suzanne died). Repudiated: Princess Berthe de Bourgogne between 1001 and Died: on 20 Jul 1031 at Meulun, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-deFrance, France, Robert II is buried at Saint Denis Constance11 de Provence (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 114.) (Hallam, Page 73.) (Stuart, Page 236, Line ). Married Name: de France. AKA: Constance d'arles. AKA: Constance de Toulouse. Note -: Constance was an imperious and unscrupulous woman who polarized the French court into two factions: one favoring herself and the Angevin faction, the other Bertha and her sons. Soon after the death of Robert Le Pieux in 1031, Constance seized on behalf of her son and favorite Robert the towns and castles of Senlis, Sens, Béthisy, Dammartin, Le Puiset, Melun and Poissy. She bought the support of Odo II of Blois by handing over half of Sens to him. Henry, the designated and crowned heir to the throne fled for assistance to Robert the Magnificent, Duke of Normandy, and obtained help from Gulk de Nerra as well. Thus, Henry was able to regain Poissy, Le Puiset, and Constance surrendered to him. Her first cousin, Fulk Nerra had Hugues, Count de Beauvais (one of Bertha's sons) assassinated in In 1010, the King tried to divorce Constance, but was dissuaded from this by Pope Sergius IV. Born: before 970 at Anjou, France, daughter of Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou. Married before 984 at France: Robert II, King de France,, son of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers (Constance was Robert II's third wife. Constance would immediately satisfy Robert's needs for a male heir by giving him four boys, but her cruelty [when Constance spotted one of her mentors accused of heresy opn his way to the pyre to be burned alive, she stepped up to him and pierced one of his eyes with the pin of her corsage] and Southern ways would alienated and antagonize the Court. The couple remained married beyond 1010, after Robert had been persuaded by Pope Sergius IV not to divorce Constance, but continued to quarrel until Robert's death. Hughes, their eldest son, was crowned in 1017, but died in The next son, Henry, was Robert's choice, but Constance favored their third son, Robert and fomented rebellions in his favor). Died: on 25 Jul 1032 at Meulan, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France (Stuart, Page 236.). Buried: on 28 Jul 1032.

138 1250. Yaroslav, Grand Duke of11 Kiev (Augé, Tome I, Page 965.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ). AKA: Yaroslav Vladimirowitsch. AKA: Yaroslaw, Grand Duke of Russia. AKA: Jaroslaw, Great Prince of Kiev. Also Known As: Jaroslaw "The Wise." Born: in 980 at Kiev, Ukraine, son of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and Rognieda de Polotsk. Note - between 1015 and 1054: Yaroslav was the Grand Duke of Russia from 1015 to He took lands back from Poland which the Poles had previously conquered from Russia. He fought frequently with his brothers. Married in Feb 1019 at Russia: Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden,, daughter of Olaf III, King of Sweden and Astrid, Princess of the Obotrites. PaterAlter circa 1025 Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev/Agatha von Braunschweig (an unknown value) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Young [Prodigy ID# GCAW73D] under Subject "Edward the Exile" on the Genealogy Bulletin Board of the Prodigy Interactive Services, on 27 December 1996 at 11:41 hours, citing athe current quarter's issue of the New England Historic & Genealogic Register.). Died: on 20 Feb 1053 at Kiev, Ukraine, Some sources indicate that Yaroslav died in 20 February He is buried in the cemetary of Saint Sophia which he built, in Russia. His demise marked the end of Norse rule of Kiev Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of11 Sweden (Stuart, Page 177, Line ). Married Name: Kiev. Born: circa 1001 at Uppsala, Sweden, daughter of Olaf III, King of Sweden and Astrid, Princess of the Obotrites. Married in Feb 1019 at Russia: Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev,, son of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and Rognieda de Polotsk. MaterAlter: circa 1025 Agatha von Braunschweig/Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Young [Prodigy ID# GCAW73D] under Subject "Edward the Exile" on the Genealogy Bulletin Board of the Prodigy Interactive Services, on 27 December 1996 at 11:41 hours, citing athe current quarter's issue of the New England Historic & Genealogic Register.). Died: on 10 Feb 1050 at Kiev, Ukraine Dietrich III, Count of11 West Friesland (Stuart, Page 222, Line ). AKA: Dietrich Hierosolymita. Born: before 993 at Holland, son of Arnulf I, Count of West Friesland and Luitgarde de Luxembourg. Married before 1029: Orthelendis von der Nordmark,, daughter of Bernhard I, Margrave von Nordmark and N. Vladimirowitscha. Died: on 27 May Orthelendis11 von der Nordmark (Ibid.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). Married Name: West Friesland. Born: before 1014 at Thuringia, daughter of Bernhard I, Margrave von Nordmark and N. Vladimirowitscha, Orthelendis is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Dietrich IV, was born. Married before 1029: Dietrich III, Count of West Friesland,, son of Arnulf I, Count of West Friesland and Luitgarde de Luxembourg. Died: in Bernard II, Duke11 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Born: circa 995, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Married between 1019 and 1020: Bertrade, Princess of Norway,, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married in 1020: Elica von Schweinfürt,, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg ( Died: on 29 Jun Elica11 von Schweinfürt (Stuart, Page 198, Line ). Married Name: Eilika de Saxe (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). MaterAlter: Ide=Relinde de Saxe/Elica von Schweinfürt. Born: before 1010, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg, Elica is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Bernard II. Married in 1020: Bernard II, Duke de Saxe,, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade ( Died: after Odon dit Amé, Comte11 de Savoie (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.) (Stuart, Page 132, Line ) (Abbott, Page 644.). AKA: Otto I, Comte de Maurienne. AKA: Odo, Margrave de Suse. AKA: Odo, Comte de Chablais. AKA: Odo, Margrave de Turin. Born: circa 1020 at France, son of Humbert, Comte de Savoie and Ancilie du Valais. Married in 1046: Adélaïde, Countess de Turin,, daughter of Ulrich=Manfredo II, Marquis de Turin and Berthe d'este (Odon was Adèlaïde's third husband). Died: on 1 Mar 1060 at Thonon, Chablais, Haute-Savoie, France Adélaïde, Countess11 de Turin (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.) (Stuart, Page 71, Line ). Married Name: de Savoie. AKA: Alix, Marquise de Suse. Married Name: de Souabe. Married Name: de Montferrat. Born: in 1015, daughter of Ulrich=Manfredo II, Marquis de Turin and Berthe d'este ( Married before 1025: Hermann IV, Duke de Souabe,, son of Ernst I, Margrave of Austria and Gisèle de Souabe (Hermann IV was Adélaïde's first husband. Roderick Stuart's Royalty for Commoners reverses Adèlaïde's marriage order and places Hermann IV as her first husband which in turn creates date conflicts). Married before 19 Jan 1042: Henri, Marquis de Montferrat,, son of Guillaume I, Margrave de Ligurie and Wada N? (Henri was Adélaïde's second husband). Married in 1046: Odon dit Amé, Comte de Savoie,, son of Humbert, Comte de Savoie and Ancilie du Valais (Odon was Adèlaïde's third husband). Died: on 19 Oct Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count11 de Genève (André Roux: Scrolls, 119, 174.) (Abbott, Page 648.). Born: before 1016, son of Aimoin I, Count de Genève and Berthe de Flandre, Gérard I was alive in the year 1034, and is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age when his son, Gerold II, was born. According to Abbott, Gerold who died in 1041, was the son of another Gerold. Married before 1032: Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge de Bourgogne,, daughter of N. de Genève and Mathilde de Bourgogne (E.S. indicates that Gisèle was Gérold's first wife although Stuart shows her as second wife). Married before 1041: Thetberge=Berthe=Gisèle de Reheinfelden. Died: in 1041 According to André Roux, Gerold was alive in the year 1034 (Abbott, Page 648.) Gisèle=Berthe=Thiburge11 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 174.) (Stuart, Page 133, Line ). Married Name: de Genève. Born: before 1019, daughter of N. de Genève and Mathilde de Bourgogne, Gisèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Gérold II was born. Married before 1032: Gérard=Gérold I/II, Count de Genève,, son of Aimoin I, Count de Genève and Berthe de Flandre (E.S. indicates that Gisèle was Gérold's first wife although Stuart shows her as second wife) Renaud I, Comte11 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 149.) (Abbott, Pages ). AKA: Raymond de Mâcon (Abbott, Page 213.). Born: in 990 at France, son of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims. Married before 1 Sep 1016: Adélise=Judith de Normandie,, daughter of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Died: on 3 Sep 1057 at France Adélise=Judith11 de Normandie (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 149.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:28 Hours.). Married Name: de Bourgogne. Born: circa 1002 at Normandie, France, daughter of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Married before 1 Sep 1016:

139 Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne,, son of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims. Died: after 1 Jul 1037 (Stuart, Page 135.) Raymond II, Count11 de Barcelone (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.). Born: before 1020 at Spain Raymond II is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Étiennette was born. Married before 1035: Sancha de Navarre Sancha11 de Navarre (Ibid.). Married Name: de Barcelone. Born: before 1020 at Spain Sanche=Sancha is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Étiennette was born. Married before 1035: Raymond II, Count de Barcelone Guillaume III, Comte11 de Poitou (Stuart, Page 66, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.) (Abbott, Pages 303, 402.). Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Grand." AKA: Guillaume V, Duke d'aquitaine. Born: circa 969, son of Guillaume IV, Duke d'aquitaine and Emma de Blois (Stuart.). Married circa 997: Almodis=Adèle de Gévaudan,, daughter of Étienne, Comte de Gévaudan and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou (Almodis was Guillaume III/V's first wife). Married in 1011: Sanche de Gascogne,, daughter of Garcia I, Count de Castile and Sancha Abba de Ribagorza (Sanche was Guillaume III's second wife). Married in 1019: Agnès, Princess de Lombardie,, daughter of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims (Guillaume's marriage to Agnès was his third). Died: on 31 Jan 1030 Guillaume died a monk (Stuart.) Agnès, Princess11 de Lombardie (Stuart, Page 117, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). AKA: Agnès de Bourgogne. Married Name: d'anjou. Born: circa 995 at Lombardie, Italy, daughter of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims (Stuart, Page 117.). Married in 1019: Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou,, son of Guillaume IV, Duke d'aquitaine and Emma de Blois (Guillaume's marriage to Agnès was his third). Married in 1032 at France: Geoffroi II, Count d'anjou,, son of Foulques III, Count d'anjou and Hildegarde de Metz (Geoffroi II was Agnès' second husband). Died: on 10 Nov 1068 at Italy (Stuart, Page 117.) Robert, Duke11 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 116.) (Stuart, Page 113, Line ) (Castelot, Tome 2, Page 490.) (Abbott, Page 198.). Also Known As: Robert "Le Vieux." AKA: Robert, Prince de France. Born: in 1011 at France, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence. Married in 1033: Hélie de Semur,, daughter of Dalmace, Sire de Semur and Aremburge de Vergy (Robert and Hélie were alive together in the year Robert was alive in the year 1043). Repudiated: Hélie de Semur in Married in 1048: Ermengarde d'anjou,, daughter of Foulques III, Count d'anjou and Hildegarde de Metz. Died: on 21 Mar 1076 at Fleury-sur-Ouche, Normandie, France Ermengarde11 d'anjou (André Roux: Scrolls, 147.) (Stuart, Page 69, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 10 July 1994 at 00:34 Hours.). Married Name: Blanche de Bourgogne. Born: either 1010 or 1018 at France, daughter of Foulques III, Count d'anjou and Hildegarde de Metz, Stuart indicates Ermengarde was born in 1018, but Settipani shows she was born in 1010 (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 265.). Married in 1035: Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count de Gâtinais,, son of Hugo, Sire du Perche and Béatrice de Mâcon. Married in 1048: Robert, Duke de Bourgogne,, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence. Died: on 21 Mar 1076 at Fleury-sur-Ouche, Normandie, France, Ermengarde was murdered and some sources indicate it was on 18 March 1076 (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 4 16:10 Hrs], Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.") Pons II Guillaume, Count11 de Toulouse (André Roux: Scrolls, 55, 85.) (Stuart, Page 261, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 2 May 1994 at 14:37 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 371.). AKA: Pons II, Count de Dijon. AKA: Pons II, Count d'albi. Born: circa 990 at Languedoc, France, son of Guillaume III, Count de Toulouse and Emmé de Forcalquier. Married before 1037 at France: Marjorie N? (Marjorie was Pons II Guillaume's first wife). Married between 1044 and 1045 at France: Almodis de La Marche,, daughter of Bernard, Count de La Marche and Amélie de Montignac (Pons III was Almodis' third husband). Divorced Almodis de La Marche: before Died: in 1060 Pons III is buried at the Abbey de Saint-Sernin, in Toulouse, Languedoc, France Almodis11 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 55, 86.) (Stuart, Page 233, Line ). Married Name: de Toulouse. Married Name: de Lusignan. Married Name: de Barcelone. Born: circa 990, daughter of Bernard, Count de La Marche and Amélie de Montignac. Married before 1040: Hughes V de Lusignan,, son of Hughes IV, Lord de Lusignan and Aldiarde de Thouars (Hughes V was Almodis' first husband). Married between 1044 and 1045 at France: Pons II Guillaume, Count de Toulouse,, son of Guillaume III, Count de Toulouse and Emmé de Forcalquier (Pons III was Almodis' third husband). Divorced Pons II Guillaume, Count de Toulouse: before Married in 1053: Raymond-Bérenger I, Count de Barcelone,, son of Bérenger-Raymond, Count de Barcelone and Sancha, de Gascogne (Raymond Bérenger was Almodis' fourth husband. Almodis was RaymondBérenger's second wife). Died: on 16 Oct 1071 at Spain Almodis was murdered by her step-son Pierre-Raymond de Barcelone (Stuart, Page 233, Line ) Robert, Count11 de Mortain (André Roux: Scrolls, 36, 132.) (Stuart, Page 117, Line ). AKA: Robert, Count de Cornouailles (André Roux: Scrolls, 132.). AKA: Robert, Earl of Cornwall (Stuart, Page 117, Line ). Born: between 1040 and 1043 at Normandie, France, son of Herluin=Herlevin, Vicomte de Conteville and Arlette de Mortain, Robert is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Emmé was born. Married before 1058 at England: Matilda=Maud de Montgommery,, daughter of Roger, Seigneur de Montgommery and Mabile, Comtesse de Bellême (Matilda was Robert's first wife). Married between 1085 and 1090: Almodis N? (Almodis was Robert's second wife. They had no issue). Died: circa 1090 Robert is buried in Grestain Matilda=Maud11 de Montgommery (André Roux: Scrolls, 36, 132.). Married Name: de Cornouailles. Married Name: de Mortain. Married Name: Maud of Cornwall. Born: before 1043, daughter of Roger, Seigneur de Montgommery and Mabile, Comtesse de Bellême, Matilda is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Emmé was born. Married before 1058 at England: Robert, Count de Mortain,, son of Herluin=Herlevin, Vicomte de Conteville and Arlette de Mortain (Matilda was Robert's first wife). Died: circa Hughes I, Vicomte11 de Châtellerault (Stuart, Page 218, Line ) (Abbott, Page 408.). Born: before 1010 at France, son of Boson I, Vicomte de Châtellerault and Amélie N?, Hughes I was alive in the year Married before 1035: Gerberge, Vicomtesse de La Rochefoucauld,, daughter of Foucaud I, Sire de la Roche and Jarsande=Gersinde N? Died: after 1070 According to Stuart, Hughes I was alive in the year Abbott, however stipulates that Hughes died in Gerberge, Vicomtesse11 de La Rochefoucauld (Stuart, Page 218, Line ). Married Name: de Châtellerault. Born: before 1021, daughter of

140 Foucaud I, Sire de la Roche and Jarsande=Gersinde N?, Gerberge is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Boson II was born. Married before 1035: Hughes I, Vicomte de Châtellerault,, son of Boson I, Vicomte de Châtellerault and Amélie N? Aimery IV, Vicomte11 de Thouars (André Roux: Scrolls, 141.) (Stuart, Page 116, Line ) (Abbott, Page 418.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, van Houts, Elisabeth.: Chapter 6: "Wace as Historian", Page 131.). AKA: Aimery IV, Seigneur de Tiffauges (Abbott, Page 419.). Born: circa 1024 at Deux Sèvres, Poitou, France, son of Geoffroy II, Vicomte de Thouars and Ainor=Éléonore N? Married before 1036 at France: Aurengarde de Mauléon. Note - on 14 Oct 1066: Aimery IV was a companion of Guillaume Le Bâtard (William the Conqueror), and he fought at the Battle of Hastings in Duke William's army. Married before 1088 at France: Améline N? (Améline was Aimery IV's third wife). Died: in 1093 Aimery IV was murdered and is buried at the Chapel de Saint-Nicholas-de-la-Chaise Aurengarde11 de Mauléon (André Roux: Scrolls, 141.) (Stuart, Page 116, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 June 1995 at 03:10 Hours.). Married Name: de Thouars. Born: before 1022 at France Aurengarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Aimery, was born. Married before 1036 at France: Aimery IV, Vicomte de Thouars,, son of Geoffroy II, Vicomte de Thouars and Ainor=Éléonore N? Died: after 1069 Ameline was alive in the year Archambaud dit Borel11 de l'isle-bouchard (Paul Theroff, posts, 01 October 1994 at 21:21 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 160.). Born: before 1040 at France Archambaud is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his son, Barthélémy, was born. Married before 1059 at France: Agnès, Dame de l'isle-bouchard,, daughter of Hughes de l'isle-bouchard and N? N? Occupation: before 1083 at France Archambaud was a knight. Died: circa Agnès, Dame11 de l'isle-bouchard (Paul Theroff, posts, 01 October 1994 at 21:21 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 160.). Born: before 1045 at France, daughter of Hughes de l'isle-bouchard and N? N?, Agnès is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Bathélémy, was born. Married before 1059 at France: Archambaud dit Borel de l'isle-bouchard Gervais, Count11 de Châtillon-sur-Marne (André Roux: Scrolls, 135.) (Stuart, Page 127, Line ). AKA: Gervais, Comte de Roucy. AKA: Giselbert, Vidâme de Reims. Born: circa 956 at France, son of Renaud, Count de Reims and Albérade=Aubrée de Lorraine. Married before 985 at France: N. de Poitiers. Died: circa 995 at Reims, Marne, France. Buried: before 1000 at Abbey de Saint-Rémi, Reims, Marne, France. PaterAlter before 1040 Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne/Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle (an unknown value) N.11 de Poitiers (Ibid.). Married Name: de Châtillon-sur-Marne. Born: before 970 She is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Judith was born. Married before 985 at France: Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne,, son of Renaud, Count de Reims and Albérade=Aubrée de Lorraine. MaterAlter: before 1040 Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle/N. de Poitiers Thibault, Seigneur 11 de Montlhéry (André Roux: Scrolls, 182.) (Stuart, Page 178, Line ). AKA: Thibaud, Seigneur de Chèvreuse. AKA: Thibaut Le Riche According to Abbott, Montlhéry was at first the capital of Hurepoix. In the Tenth Century, the Seigneurie was in the hand of Thibaut, probably of the family of Le Riche (Abbott, Page 48.). Born: circa 970 at France, son of Bouchard I, Baron de Montmorency and Hildegarde de Blois, Thibault's parentage, according to Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners", Ansaud II 'Le Riche' of Paris, Counselor of King Robert II, and who married Reitrude. In the year 1015, Thibault built the Château de Montlhéry. Thibault was the Grand Forrester of King Robert II of France. PaterAlter circa 970 Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry/Ansaud II de Paris (an unknown value). MaterAlter: circa 970 Reitrude N?/Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry. Married before 993 at France: N?, Dame de Montlhéry. PaterAlter circa 1009 Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry/Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry (an unknown value). Died: in 1031 at Montlhéry, Ile-de-France, France N?, Dame11 de Montlhéry. AKA: N?, Dame de Chèvreuse. Born: before 979 at France She is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her alleged daughter [N?] - a generation not shown in André Roux's data - was born. Married before 993 at France: Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry,, son of Bouchard I, Baron de Montmorency and Hildegarde de Blois. MaterAlter: circa 1009 Guy I, Seigneur de Montlhéry/N?, Dame de Montlhéry Hughes III, Count11 du Maine (André Roux: Scrolls, 241.) (Stuart, Page 249, Line ) (Abbott, Page 130.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Keats-Rohan, Katharine S.B.: Chapter 10: " 'Un vassal sans histoire'?: Count Hugh II (c.940/ ) and the Origins of Angevin Overlordship in Maine", Page 192.). Born: circa 932 at France, son of Hughes II, Count du Maine and N? de Vermandois, Hughes III was alive in the year 967. Married before 977: N? de Guiscard. Died: between 1015 and 1016 Hugh III was allied with Odon II of Blois against Richard of Normandy shortly before his death in 1015 or 1016 (Ibid.) N?11 de Guiscard. Born: circa 942. Married before 977: Hughes III, Count du Maine,, son of Hughes II, Count du Maine and N? de Vermandois. Married Name: du Maine Hughes II, King11 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Hallam, Pages ) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Castelot, Tome 1, Pages 415, 424.). AKA: Hughes Capet, Count de Paris. AKA: Hughes Capet, Count de Poitou. AKA: Hughes Capet, Count d'orléans. AKA: Hughes Capet, Comte d'auxerre (Abbott, Page 202.). AKA: Hughes Capet. Born: between 0939 and 0941, son of Hughes, dux Francorum and Hadwige, Princess de Saxe. Married in Jan 970 at France: Adélaïde de Poitiers,, daughter of Guillaume=William I, Comte d'aquitaine and Adèle de Normandie (Some sources indicate that Alice and Hughes were married in 968). Note - between 0987 and 0996 at France: Hughes became King crowned and anointed on 3 July 987 in Noyon. Hughes was the Chief of the Capetian Dynasty, and ruled as King from 987 to 996 with the support of Adalbéron, Archbishop of Reims, and of the ecclesiastical Feudal churchmen. In 970, he married Adélaïde de Poitiers, daughter of Guillaume III "Tête d'étoupe", Duke of Aquitaine. In the first month, hoping to secure the support of the Emperor Lothar, Hughes returns Verdun to him. On 25 December 987, he has his son, Robert, crowned King in the Cathedral of Sainte-Croix in Orléans, to rule over the peoples West from the Meuse to the Ocean. He then gets the idea in his head to have his son marry Suzanne known as Rosala, daughter of the ex-king of Italy Berenger II, and widow that very year of Arnould II, Comte de Flandre. She is however 32, some claim 35, years older than young Robert. Her dowry would bring to the Capetian House, Montreuil-sur-Mer and direct access to the Channel. He was victorious over the last Carolingiens, Charles de Lorraine, with the help of Arnoul, Bishop of Orléans, and was at the mercy of his vassals most notably the lords of Blois. His beginnings were very weak: Consider the dispute: While Adalbert, Comte de Périgord, laid siege to Tours, King Hughes and his son, Robert, would never dare to declare war on him, but they asked him "Who made you Count?", and Adalbert answered

141 "Who made you King?". Succinctly put, this summarizes Hughes' difficult situation. Upon the death of Théophano, Empress of Germany, one of Hughes most potent enemies, one who had supported Charles de Lorraine and the Archbishop Arnoul de Reims against Hughes, was eliminated in 992. However, Eudes de Chartres would take Melun. At this time, Hughes was in accord with Foulques Nerra, Comte d'anjou. Richard of Rouen also is called to the rescue and Melun is given back to its rightful owner, Bouchard de Vendôme. He had his son Robert canonized. The direct line of Hughes ruled for twelve succeeding generations following his death in 996 until Early kings associated their elder sons with the Throne during their lifetime. While the direct line appeared content to use the name Capet, once the direct line was broken, the cadet line preferred to use the more euphonious names of Valois and Bourbon they derived from their fiefs. Died: on 24 Oct 996 at Les Juifs, France, Les Juifs is near Chartres. Hughes is buried at Saint Denis Adélaïde11 de Poitiers (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 119, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). Married Name: de France (André Roux: Scrolls.). AKA: Alice de Poitou. AKA: Adélaïde d'aquitaine. Born: circa 950 at Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou, France, daughter of Guillaume=William I, Comte d'aquitaine and Adèle de Normandie, History would remember Adélaïde, the first capetian Queen of France, for her charity and piety. She was the founder of the Monastery de Saint-Frambault as well as of the Convent d'argenteuil. Married in Jan 970 at France: Hughes II, King de France,, son of Hughes, dux Francorum and Hadwige, Princess de Saxe (Some sources indicate that Alice and Hughes were married in 968). Died: between 1004 and Guillaume I/II, Count11 de Provence (André Roux: Scrolls, 114, 147.) (Stuart, Page 236, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 2 May 1994 at 14:37 Hours.) (Castelot, Tome 1, Page 419.) (Abbott, Page 606.). AKA: Guillaume II d'arles. Born: circa 955 at Anjou, France, son of Bozon II, Count d'arles and Folcoare=Constance de Toulouse. Occupation: in 968 Guillaume was the Count de Provence at Arles in the year 968, and the Marquis of Provence. Married before Apr 970: Arsinde de Comminges,, daughter of Arnold I, Comte de Comminges and Arsende, Countess de Carcassonne (Arsinde was Guillaume I/II's first wife). Married in 985 at France: Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou,, daughter of Fouques II, Count d'anjou and Gerberge, Comtesse de Gâtinais ("Regina, sese viduatam dolens..., Wilelmum Arelatensem [Wilhelm of Arles] adiit, eique nupsit") (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 248.). Occupation: between 0992 and 0994 at Avignon, Provence, France, Guillaume I/II was a priest in Avignon. Died: circa 994 at Avignon, France, Guillaume died a priest Adélaïs=Adèle11 d'anjou (André Roux: Scrolls, 85, 147.). Married Name: de France. Married Name: Blanche de Provence. Married Name: de Gévaudan. Married Name: de Toulouse (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). AKA: N? N? Born: circa 930 at France, daughter of Fouques II, Count d'anjou and Gerberge, Comtesse de Gâtinais, According to Stuart's Royalty for Commoners, this Adélaïde was known as "Blanche", where André Roux claims the daughter of Geoffroy [son of Fouques II] was Known as Blanche. Adélaïs is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age when she married Étienne (KeatsRohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 225.). Married before 946: Raimond de Toulouse,, son of Raymond III, Count de Toulouse and Garsinde de Gascogne ('Qui suscepti a regina id sibi videri optimum dixerunt Ludovico regi assciscendam conjugem Adelaidem, Ragemundi nuper defuncti ducis Gothorum olim uxorem." In an act of 1021, Adélaïde, Comtesse de Provence, previously and briefly Queen of France, acknowledges the existence of her son Willem III de Toulouse and his wife the Countess Emma. In addition, a Papal Bull from Pope Benoit VIII is addressed to Count Willem of Toulouse and his mother Adélaïde, as follows: "domno Willelmo comiti... et domno Hugoni comiti, domnoque Rainaldo comito filio... Willelmi... et... dignissimae domnae Adeleidi comitissae, cognomento Blanchae, nuruque ejus domnae Gerberge comitissae." - The Pope clearly specifies that the Countess Adelaide, known as Blanche has as stepdaughter Gerberge, daughter of Otto-Wilhelm from his first spouse Ermentrude of Mâcon. The Benedictin Monks of the 18th. Century upon which most works on the genealogy of the House of Toulouse are based, apparently dismissed the significance of these documents) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). Married before 955 at France: Étienne, Comte de Gévaudan,, son of Ermengaud, Count de Rouergue and Adélaïs=Alaïs de Toulouse (Étienne was Adélaïde's first husband) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 247.). Married in 982 at Brioude, Aquitaine, France: Louis V, King de France,, son of Lothaire, King de France and Emma, Princess of Italy (Adélaïde was the widow of Stephen (Étienne), Count of Gévaudun, when she married the young King Louis V, son of King Lothaire -- she being much older than he. Conjugal love between the couple was nil. After all, King Louis was still an adolescent and she was quite old and set in her ways. They refused to share a common bed. They even had different residences. Not surprisingly, Adélaïde bore Louis no children). Divorced Louis V, King de France: in 984 at France (When King Louis V's father felt that his son was having problems and also that he lacked the dignity expected of royalty, he came to Brioude to confer with him. They left Brioude together. The Queen, Adélaïde, feeling abandoned, sought support from Guillaume d'arles and married him. The divorce from Louis followed shortly). Divorced Louis V, King de France: in 984 ( Married in 985 at France: Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence,, son of Bozon II, Count d'arles and Folcoare=Constance de Toulouse ("Regina, sese viduatam dolens..., Wilelmum Arelatensem [Wilhelm of Arles] adiit, eique nupsit") (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 248.). Married in 1016: Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne,, son of Adelbert II, King de Lombardie and Gerberge=Garsinde de Chalon ( Married Name: de Bourgogne (Ibid.). Died: in 1026 (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 247.) (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 4 16:10 Hrs], Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.") Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of11 Kiev (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ) (Augé, Tome II, Page 1054.) (Paul Theroff, posts, "Byzantium", Posted on 09 October 1995 at 03:15 Hours, citing E.S., Band II, Tafel 128.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Carver, [Prodigy ID# MNDY85D], "Russian Royals" on 26 August 1995 at 11:58 Hours.) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:43 Hours.). AKA: Vladimir I, Prince of Russia. AKA: Vladimir I Swjatoslawitsch. AKA: Vladimir, Grand Prince of Novgorod. AKA: Vladimir, Grand Duke de Kiev. Born: circa 956 at Kiev, Ukraine, son of Swiatoslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev and Maloucha, the Slav. Married circa 976: Adlaga N? Married circa 977 at Kiev, Ukraine: Olava N? Married in 980: Rognieda de Polotsk,, daughter of Rogwolod, Prince de Polotsk and N? N? (Rognieda is thought to have been Vladimir's third wife but may have been his first). Married circa 981: N? N? (She was a Greek and the widow of his Vladimir's brother Téropolk when she married Saint Vladimir). Married before 983 at Kiev, Ukraine: Malfrida of Bohemia. Baptized: in 988 (Vladimir was baptized a Christian in the year 988, though he had many wives and concubines. The Russians were converted to Christianity as a people at that time. Prior to that, they tended to worship natural spirits). Married in 989: Anna, Princess of the East,, daughter of Romain II, Emperor of Constantinople and Théophano = Sophia Phokas (Saint Vladimir I, while continuing the Varangian practice of multiple spouses [married and otherwise], married Princess Anne, sister of Basil II, Eastern Emperor). Married between 1012 and 1017: N. von Ohningen,, daughter of Kuno, Count von Ohningen and Richilde,

142 Princess of Germany. Note - before 1015: Saint Vladimir reunited Russia, and his several sons re-divided the patrimony among themselves. The idea that "might makes right" kept the princes at war with each other, so it was agreed that the Rota system would be established. This was a ranking of the various principalities with Kiev at first being #1... at the death of the reigning Grand Prince, the then Prince of city-state #2 advanced to Kiev, the Prince of #3 city-state moved to city-state #2, and so forth... this never worked well. After more bloodshed, this as replaced by the Patrimonial Succession laws, thereby the sons of each princely father inherited his property and stayed there... well, they were supposed to do so. At any rate, this created the princely lines of Kiev, Novgorod, Chernigov, Yaroslav, Polotsk, Vladimir, Pereslovl, etc... A junior line of princes was founded by Andrew Bobulinsky [abbreviated version of his real name] and the juncture of the Moskva and Oka rivers. A KREML [fort] had been built there to control the commercial flow on the rivers... and with that foundation, the rise of Moscow and its line of princes began, based upon economic materialism. Died: on 15 Jul 1015 at Berestovoye, Kiev, Ukraine, Vladimir ruled from his seat in Kiev, where he had a brilliant court and laid the foundation for the Russian Empire. He embrassed the Christian faith. The Order of Saint Vladimir was created by Catherine II, Empress of Russia in 1782 to commemorate his memory, and was designed to reward civil or military servants. The Order has four classes and the ribbon is comprised of 3 vertical bands, 2 black with a red one in the middle. His Feast Day is 15 June. Vladimir is buried in the Church of Ti in Kiev Rognieda11 de Polotsk (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:43 Hours.). Married Name: Kiev. Born: circa 952 at Polotsk, Byelorussia, Russia, daughter of Rogwolod, Prince de Polotsk and N? N? Married in 980: Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev,, son of Swiatoslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev and Maloucha, the Slav (Rognieda is thought to have been Vladimir's third wife but may have been his first). Died: in MaterAlter: circa 1011 Dobronega Maria of Kiev/Rognieda de Polotsk Olaf III, King of11 Sweden (Stuart, Page 177, Line ) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:43 Hours.). Also Known As: Olaf "Skotkonung." Born: before 983, son of Erik, King of Sweden and Sigrid of Sweden, Olaf III is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Ingegerd was born. Other sources, posted by Leana Randall, indicate that Olaf III was born circa 950, which makes his mother's birthdate [alleged to be ca. 950, per Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners"] improbable. Married before 998: Astrid, Princess of the Obotrites,, daughter of Mieceslas III, Prince of the Obotrites and Sophia N? (Astride was Olaf III's second wife). Significant-Other: Endia of Mecklenburg before Died: in Astrid, Princess of the11 Obotrites (Stuart, Page 265, Line ) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:49 Hours.). Married Name: Astrid = Ingrid, Princess of Sweden. Born: circa 979 at Sweden, daughter of Mieceslas III, Prince of the Obotrites and Sophia N? Married before 998: Olaf III, King of Sweden,, son of Erik, King of Sweden and Sigrid of Sweden (Astride was Olaf III's second wife). Died: after Héribert III, Count11 de Vermandois (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Stuart, Page 175, Line ). AKA: Herbert III, Seigneur de Saint-Quentin (Abbott, Page 127.). Born: circa 955, son of Albert I=Adalbert, Count de Vermandois and Gerberge de Brabant. Married between 0997 and 1000 at France: Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine,, daughter of Renaud, Count de Bar-sur-Seine and N? N? (Herbert III was Ermengarde's second husband). Died: on 29 Aug Ermengarde11 de Bar-sur-Seine (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Stuart, Page 189, Line ). Married Name: de Vermandois. Married Name: de Tonnerre. Born: before 965, daughter of Renaud, Count de Bar-sur-Seine and N? N?, Ermengarde is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Milon II/IV. Married circa 975: Milon II/IV, Count de Tonnerre,, son of Milon I/III, Count de Tonnerre and Ingeltrude de Brienne. Married between 0997 and 1000 at France: Héribert III, Count de Vermandois,, son of Albert I=Adalbert, Count de Vermandois and Gerberge de Brabant (Herbert III was Ermengarde's second husband). Note - between 0998 and 1018: Ermengarde was the Heiress of Bar-sur-Seine. Died: after 1035 Ermengarde died a widow of Milo, Count de Tonnerre. MaterAlter: before 1036 Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre/Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine (Abbott, Page 86.) Raoul II, Count11 de Crépy (André Roux: Scrolls, 121.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 15 September 1994 at 00:16 Hours.). AKA: Raoul II, Count du Vexin (Stuart, Page 196, Line ). AKA: Raoul II, Seigneur de Crépy. AKA: Raoul II, Seigneur de Valois (Abbott, Pages 56.). AKA: Raoul IV, Count de Valois. Note -: When his son became a monk in 1077, some of his estates (Bar and Vitry) passed to Thibaud who had married his daughter. Born: before 994 at Vexin, Normandie, France, son of Gautier II, Count du Vexin and Adèle de Senlis, Raoul II is presumed to have been born before his father was 50 years of age. Married before 1025: Adèle de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,, daughter of Hildouin, Count de Breteuil and Emmeline de Châteaudun. Died: between 1040 and 1060 Some sources indicate that Raoul II died in 1040, others claim it was in Adèle11 de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (André Roux: Scrolls, 121.) (Stuart, Page 196, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 15 September 1994 at 00:16 Hours.). Married Name: de Valois. Married Name: de Crépy. AKA: Adélaïde de Breteuil (Stuart, Page 196, Line ). Married Name: de Vexin. Born: before 1010 at France, daughter of Hildouin, Count de Breteuil and Emmeline de Châteaudun, Adélaïde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Raoul III was born. Married before 1025: Raoul II, Count de Crépy,, son of Gautier II, Count du Vexin and Adèle de Senlis. Died: on 11 Sep Nocher III, Count11 de Bar-sur-Aube (Stuart, Page 82, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). Born: before 1008 at France, son of Nocher II, Count de Bar-sur-Aube and Aélis=Adélaïde, Comtesse de Soissons, Nocher III is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his daughter Alix was born. Married before 1028: N? N? Died: circa N?11 N? Married before 1028: Nocher III, Count de Bar-sur-Aube,, son of Nocher II, Count de Bar-sur-Aube and Aélis=Adélaïde, Comtesse de Soissons Hughes II, King11 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Hallam, Pages ) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Castelot, Tome 1, Pages 415, 424.). AKA: Hughes Capet, Count de Paris. AKA: Hughes Capet, Count de Poitou. AKA: Hughes Capet, Count d'orléans. AKA: Hughes Capet, Comte d'auxerre (Abbott, Page 202.). AKA: Hughes Capet. Born: between 0939 and 0941, son of Hughes, dux Francorum and Hadwige, Princess de Saxe. Married in Jan 970 at France: Adélaïde de Poitiers,, daughter of Guillaume=William I, Comte d'aquitaine and Adèle de Normandie (Some sources indicate that Alice and Hughes were married in 968). Note - between 0987 and 0996 at France: Hughes became King crowned and anointed on 3 July 987 in Noyon. Hughes was the Chief of the Capetian Dynasty, and ruled as King from 987 to 996 with the support of Adalbéron, Archbishop of Reims, and of the ecclesiastical Feudal churchmen. In 970, he married Adélaïde de Poitiers, daughter of Guillaume III "Tête d'étoupe", Duke of Aquitaine. In

143 the first month, hoping to secure the support of the Emperor Lothar, Hughes returns Verdun to him. On 25 December 987, he has his son, Robert, crowned King in the Cathedral of Sainte-Croix in Orléans, to rule over the peoples West from the Meuse to the Ocean. He then gets the idea in his head to have his son marry Suzanne known as Rosala, daughter of the ex-king of Italy Berenger II, and widow that very year of Arnould II, Comte de Flandre. She is however 32, some claim 35, years older than young Robert. Her dowry would bring to the Capetian House, Montreuil-sur-Mer and direct access to the Channel. He was victorious over the last Carolingiens, Charles de Lorraine, with the help of Arnoul, Bishop of Orléans, and was at the mercy of his vassals most notably the lords of Blois. His beginnings were very weak: Consider the dispute: While Adalbert, Comte de Périgord, laid siege to Tours, King Hughes and his son, Robert, would never dare to declare war on him, but they asked him "Who made you Count?", and Adalbert answered "Who made you King?". Succinctly put, this summarizes Hughes' difficult situation. Upon the death of Théophano, Empress of Germany, one of Hughes most potent enemies, one who had supported Charles de Lorraine and the Archbishop Arnoul de Reims against Hughes, was eliminated in 992. However, Eudes de Chartres would take Melun. At this time, Hughes was in accord with Foulques Nerra, Comte d'anjou. Richard of Rouen also is called to the rescue and Melun is given back to its rightful owner, Bouchard de Vendôme. He had his son Robert canonized. The direct line of Hughes ruled for twelve succeeding generations following his death in 996 until Early kings associated their elder sons with the Throne during their lifetime. While the direct line appeared content to use the name Capet, once the direct line was broken, the cadet line preferred to use the more euphonious names of Valois and Bourbon they derived from their fiefs. Died: on 24 Oct 996 at Les Juifs, France, Les Juifs is near Chartres. Hughes is buried at Saint Denis Adélaïde11 de Poitiers (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 119, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). Married Name: de France (André Roux: Scrolls.). AKA: Alice de Poitou. AKA: Adélaïde d'aquitaine. Born: circa 950 at Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou, France, daughter of Guillaume=William I, Comte d'aquitaine and Adèle de Normandie, History would remember Adélaïde, the first capetian Queen of France, for her charity and piety. She was the founder of the Monastery de Saint-Frambault as well as of the Convent d'argenteuil. Married in Jan 970 at France: Hughes II, King de France,, son of Hughes, dux Francorum and Hadwige, Princess de Saxe (Some sources indicate that Alice and Hughes were married in 968). Died: between 1004 and Guillaume I/II, Count11 de Provence (André Roux: Scrolls, 114, 147.) (Stuart, Page 236, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 2 May 1994 at 14:37 Hours.) (Castelot, Tome 1, Page 419.) (Abbott, Page 606.). AKA: Guillaume II d'arles. Born: circa 955 at Anjou, France, son of Bozon II, Count d'arles and Folcoare=Constance de Toulouse. Occupation: in 968 Guillaume was the Count de Provence at Arles in the year 968, and the Marquis of Provence. Married before Apr 970: Arsinde de Comminges,, daughter of Arnold I, Comte de Comminges and Arsende, Countess de Carcassonne (Arsinde was Guillaume I/II's first wife). Married in 985 at France: Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou,, daughter of Fouques II, Count d'anjou and Gerberge, Comtesse de Gâtinais ("Regina, sese viduatam dolens..., Wilelmum Arelatensem [Wilhelm of Arles] adiit, eique nupsit") (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 248.). Occupation: between 0992 and 0994 at Avignon, Provence, France, Guillaume I/II was a priest in Avignon. Died: circa 994 at Avignon, France, Guillaume died a priest Adélaïs=Adèle11 d'anjou (André Roux: Scrolls, 85, 147.). Married Name: de France. Married Name: Blanche de Provence. Married Name: de Gévaudan. Married Name: de Toulouse (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). AKA: N? N? Born: circa 930 at France, daughter of Fouques II, Count d'anjou and Gerberge, Comtesse de Gâtinais, According to Stuart's Royalty for Commoners, this Adélaïde was known as "Blanche", where André Roux claims the daughter of Geoffroy [son of Fouques II] was Known as Blanche. Adélaïs is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age when she married Étienne (KeatsRohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 225.). Married before 946: Raimond de Toulouse,, son of Raymond III, Count de Toulouse and Garsinde de Gascogne ('Qui suscepti a regina id sibi videri optimum dixerunt Ludovico regi assciscendam conjugem Adelaidem, Ragemundi nuper defuncti ducis Gothorum olim uxorem." In an act of 1021, Adélaïde, Comtesse de Provence, previously and briefly Queen of France, acknowledges the existence of her son Willem III de Toulouse and his wife the Countess Emma. In addition, a Papal Bull from Pope Benoit VIII is addressed to Count Willem of Toulouse and his mother Adélaïde, as follows: "domno Willelmo comiti... et domno Hugoni comiti, domnoque Rainaldo comito filio... Willelmi... et... dignissimae domnae Adeleidi comitissae, cognomento Blanchae, nuruque ejus domnae Gerberge comitissae." - The Pope clearly specifies that the Countess Adelaide, known as Blanche has as stepdaughter Gerberge, daughter of Otto-Wilhelm from his first spouse Ermentrude of Mâcon. The Benedictin Monks of the 18th. Century upon which most works on the genealogy of the House of Toulouse are based, apparently dismissed the significance of these documents) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). Married before 955 at France: Étienne, Comte de Gévaudan,, son of Ermengaud, Count de Rouergue and Adélaïs=Alaïs de Toulouse (Étienne was Adélaïde's first husband) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 247.). Married in 982 at Brioude, Aquitaine, France: Louis V, King de France,, son of Lothaire, King de France and Emma, Princess of Italy (Adélaïde was the widow of Stephen (Étienne), Count of Gévaudun, when she married the young King Louis V, son of King Lothaire -- she being much older than he. Conjugal love between the couple was nil. After all, King Louis was still an adolescent and she was quite old and set in her ways. They refused to share a common bed. They even had different residences. Not surprisingly, Adélaïde bore Louis no children). Divorced Louis V, King de France: in 984 at France (When King Louis V's father felt that his son was having problems and also that he lacked the dignity expected of royalty, he came to Brioude to confer with him. They left Brioude together. The Queen, Adélaïde, feeling abandoned, sought support from Guillaume d'arles and married him. The divorce from Louis followed shortly). Divorced Louis V, King de France: in 984 ( Married in 985 at France: Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence,, son of Bozon II, Count d'arles and Folcoare=Constance de Toulouse ("Regina, sese viduatam dolens..., Wilelmum Arelatensem [Wilhelm of Arles] adiit, eique nupsit") (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 248.). Married in 1016: Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne,, son of Adelbert II, King de Lombardie and Gerberge=Garsinde de Chalon ( Married Name: de Bourgogne (Ibid.). Died: in 1026 (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 247.) (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 4 16:10 Hrs], Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.") Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of11 Kiev (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ) (Augé, Tome II, Page 1054.) (Paul Theroff, posts, "Byzantium", Posted on 09 October 1995 at 03:15 Hours, citing E.S., Band II, Tafel 128.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Carver, [Prodigy ID# MNDY85D], "Russian Royals" on 26 August 1995 at 11:58 Hours.) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:43 Hours.). AKA: Vladimir I, Prince of Russia. AKA: Vladimir I Swjatoslawitsch. AKA: Vladimir, Grand Prince of Novgorod. AKA: Vladimir, Grand Duke de Kiev. Born: circa 956 at Kiev, Ukraine, son of Swiatoslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev and Maloucha, the Slav. Married circa 976: Adlaga N?

144 Married circa 977 at Kiev, Ukraine: Olava N? Married in 980: Rognieda de Polotsk,, daughter of Rogwolod, Prince de Polotsk and N? N? (Rognieda is thought to have been Vladimir's third wife but may have been his first). Married circa 981: N? N? (She was a Greek and the widow of his Vladimir's brother Téropolk when she married Saint Vladimir). Married before 983 at Kiev, Ukraine: Malfrida of Bohemia. Baptized: in 988 (Vladimir was baptized a Christian in the year 988, though he had many wives and concubines. The Russians were converted to Christianity as a people at that time. Prior to that, they tended to worship natural spirits). Married in 989: Anna, Princess of the East,, daughter of Romain II, Emperor of Constantinople and Théophano = Sophia Phokas (Saint Vladimir I, while continuing the Varangian practice of multiple spouses [married and otherwise], married Princess Anne, sister of Basil II, Eastern Emperor). Married between 1012 and 1017: N. von Ohningen,, daughter of Kuno, Count von Ohningen and Richilde, Princess of Germany. Note - before 1015: Saint Vladimir reunited Russia, and his several sons re-divided the patrimony among themselves. The idea that "might makes right" kept the princes at war with each other, so it was agreed that the Rota system would be established. This was a ranking of the various principalities with Kiev at first being #1... at the death of the reigning Grand Prince, the then Prince of city-state #2 advanced to Kiev, the Prince of #3 city-state moved to city-state #2, and so forth... this never worked well. After more bloodshed, this as replaced by the Patrimonial Succession laws, thereby the sons of each princely father inherited his property and stayed there... well, they were supposed to do so. At any rate, this created the princely lines of Kiev, Novgorod, Chernigov, Yaroslav, Polotsk, Vladimir, Pereslovl, etc... A junior line of princes was founded by Andrew Bobulinsky [abbreviated version of his real name] and the juncture of the Moskva and Oka rivers. A KREML [fort] had been built there to control the commercial flow on the rivers... and with that foundation, the rise of Moscow and its line of princes began, based upon economic materialism. Died: on 15 Jul 1015 at Berestovoye, Kiev, Ukraine, Vladimir ruled from his seat in Kiev, where he had a brilliant court and laid the foundation for the Russian Empire. He embrassed the Christian faith. The Order of Saint Vladimir was created by Catherine II, Empress of Russia in 1782 to commemorate his memory, and was designed to reward civil or military servants. The Order has four classes and the ribbon is comprised of 3 vertical bands, 2 black with a red one in the middle. His Feast Day is 15 June. Vladimir is buried in the Church of Ti in Kiev Rognieda11 de Polotsk (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:43 Hours.). Married Name: Kiev. Born: circa 952 at Polotsk, Byelorussia, Russia, daughter of Rogwolod, Prince de Polotsk and N? N? Married in 980: Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev,, son of Swiatoslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev and Maloucha, the Slav (Rognieda is thought to have been Vladimir's third wife but may have been his first). Died: in MaterAlter: circa 1011 Dobronega Maria of Kiev/Rognieda de Polotsk Olaf III, King of11 Sweden (Stuart, Page 177, Line ) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:43 Hours.). Also Known As: Olaf "Skotkonung." Born: before 983, son of Erik, King of Sweden and Sigrid of Sweden, Olaf III is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Ingegerd was born. Other sources, posted by Leana Randall, indicate that Olaf III was born circa 950, which makes his mother's birthdate [alleged to be ca. 950, per Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners"] improbable. Married before 998: Astrid, Princess of the Obotrites,, daughter of Mieceslas III, Prince of the Obotrites and Sophia N? (Astride was Olaf III's second wife). Significant-Other: Endia of Mecklenburg before Died: in Astrid, Princess of the11 Obotrites (Stuart, Page 265, Line ) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:49 Hours.). Married Name: Astrid = Ingrid, Princess of Sweden. Born: circa 979 at Sweden, daughter of Mieceslas III, Prince of the Obotrites and Sophia N? Married before 998: Olaf III, King of Sweden,, son of Erik, King of Sweden and Sigrid of Sweden (Astride was Olaf III's second wife). Died: after Arnulf I, Count of11 West Friesland (Stuart, Page 222, Line ). Born: between 0950 and 0970, son of Dietrich II, Count of West Friesland and Hildegarde de Flandre, Arnulf I is presumed to have been born after his mother was 15 years of age. Married before 979: Luitgarde de Luxembourg,, daughter of Sigefroy, Count de Luxembourg and Hedvige d'alsace. Died: on 18 Sep 993 Arnulf I was slain in action Luitgarde11 de Luxembourg (Stuart, Page 225, Line ). Married Name: West Friesland. Born: in 962, daughter of Sigefroy, Count de Luxembourg and Hedvige d'alsace ( Married before 979: Arnulf I, Count of West Friesland,, son of Dietrich II, Count of West Friesland and Hildegarde de Flandre. Died: on 14 May Bernhard I, Margrave11 von Nordmark (Stuart, Page 15, Line ). AKA: Bernard I, Count de Turinge. AKA: Bernard I, Count of North Thuringia. Born: before 985, son of Dietrich, Lord von Haldensleben and N? N? Married before 990: N. Vladimirowitscha,, daughter of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and N? N? Note - before 1018: Bernard I was the Margrave of the Saxon Nordmark. Died: circa N.11 Vladimirowitscha (Ibid.). Married Name: von Nordmark. Born: circa 982, daughter of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and N? N? Married before 990: Bernhard I, Margrave von Nordmark,, son of Dietrich, Lord von Haldensleben and N? N? Bernard I, Duke11 de Saxe (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). AKA: Benno Billung. Born: circa 940, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Married circa 990: Hildegarde von Stade,, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Died: on 9 Feb 1011 at Corivey Bernard I is buried at Michaeliski in Luxembourg Hildegarde11 von Stade (Stuart, Page 215, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 6 July 18:40 Hours.). Married Name: de Saxe. Born: between 0974 and 0976, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Married circa 990: Bernard I, Duke de Saxe,, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Died: on 3 Oct 1011 Hildegarde is buried at Michaeliski in Luxemburg Heinrich11 von Schweinfürt (Stuart, Page 197, Line ). AKA: Henry, Margrave in the Nordgau. Born: either 0950 or 0975, son of Berthold I, Margrave von Nordgau and Eiliswintha von Walbeck, Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" shows Henry born in 975, whereas E.S. [via Paul Theroff] shows Henry born in 950 (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). Married before 1000: Gerberge von Henneberg,, daughter of Otto II of Tullfeld and N? N? Died: on 18 Sep Gerberge11 von Henneberg (Stuart, Page 78, Line ). Married Name: von Schweinfürt. AKA: Gerberge de Gleiberg ( Born: before 993, daughter of Otto II of Tullfeld and N? N?, Gerberge is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Henry. Married before 1000: Heinrich von Schweinfürt,, son of Berthold I, Margrave von Nordgau and Eiliswintha von Walbeck. Died: after 1003.

145 1360. Humbert, Comte11 de Savoie (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.) (Stuart, Page 132, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, "Savoy" posted on 19 February 1994 at 04:30 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 644.). AKA: Humbert, Comte de Sermorens Humbert was Comte de Sermorens = Salmourenc in the Viennois in AKA: Humbert, Comte de Maurienne. Also Known As: Humbert "Aux Mains Blanches." AKA: Humbert, Comte de Noyon. MaterAlter: before 993 N? N?/Humbert, Comte de Savoie. Born: between 0993 and 0998 at France, son of Berthold=Bérold, Count de Savoie and Katharina, Palatine de Schiren, Roderick W. Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners", Page 132, Line , being somewhat self-contradictory, places Humbert's father as one Humbert=Umberto [son of Hugh, Comte de Vienne by Willa de Bourgogne] and Humbert's mother as N?. He also has Humbert's father dead c 976, which makes him a less than ideal father since Humbert was born in 998 [according to the same source]. Other sources indicate Humbert's father may have been one Bérold by Ermengarde, who as widow, became the wife of King Rodolf III de Bourgogne. Abbott shows Humbert "aux Blanches Mains" as the son of one Humbert, Comte de Savoie who died circa 994. MaterAlter: before 998 Ermengarde N?/Humbert, Comte de Savoie. PaterAlter before 998 Humbert, Comte de Savoie/Humbert=Umberto de Vienne (an unknown value). Note - between 1003 and 1035: Humbert was the Comte d'aoste in 1025 and Comte de Maurienne in 1027 [though some sources indicate it was in 1038 as a reward of helping King Conrad the Salic make goo dhis claim on Bourgogne], Comte de Sermorens in the Viennois in 1003, Comte de Noyon in He acquired Chablais in Married before 1015: Ancilie du Valais,, daughter of Anselm, Count du Valais and Adélaïde d'ortigen (Some sources indicate that Humbert's wife was Auxilia possibly von Lenzburg). Died: in Ancilie11 du Valais (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.). AKA: Auxilie de Noyen. Married Name: de Savoie. Born: before 1001 at France, daughter of Anselm, Count du Valais and Adélaïde d'ortigen, Ancilies is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Amadeus, was born. Married before 1015: Humbert, Comte de Savoie,, son of Berthold=Bérold, Count de Savoie and Katharina, Palatine de Schiren (Some sources indicate that Humbert's wife was Auxilia possibly von Lenzburg) Ulrich=Manfredo II, Marquis11 de Turin (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.) (Stuart, Page 225, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, "9th/10th Centy.Kings" posted on 18 February 1994 at 01:03 Hours.). AKA: Manfredo II, Marquis de Susa. Born: before 1000 at Italy, son of Manfredo I, Marquis de Turin and Prangarda di Canossa, Ulrich is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Adélaïde was born. Married before 1014: Berthe d'este,, daughter of Humbert=Oberto I, Count de Genoa and Railinda de Como. Died: on 23 Dec 1035 at Turin, Italy Berthe11 d'este (Stuart, Page 71, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). Married Name: de Turin. AKA: Berta degli Obertenghi. Born: before 1001 at Este, Liguria, Italy, daughter of Humbert=Oberto I, Count de Genoa and Railinda de Como, Berthe is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Adélaïde was born. Married before 1014: Ulrich=Manfredo II, Marquis de Turin,, son of Manfredo I, Marquis de Turin and Prangarda di Canossa. Died: on 29 Dec Aimoin I, Count11 de Genève (André Roux: Scrolls.). Born: before 998 at Savoie, France, son of Albert, Count de Genève and Eldegarde N?, Aimon I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age when his son, Gerold I, was born. Married before 1015: Berthe de Flandre. Died: after 1016 Aimoin I was alive in the year Berthe11 de Flandre. Married Name: de Genève. Born: before 1000 Berthe is presumed to have been at least 16 years of age by the time her son Gérold I was born. Married before 1015: Aimoin I, Count de Genève,, son of Albert, Count de Genève and Eldegarde N? N.11 de Genève. Born: before 1001 He is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Gisèle was born. Married before 1018: Mathilde de Bourgogne,, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France Mathilde11 de Bourgogne (Stuart, Page 133, Line ). Married Name: de Genève. Born: between 0956 and 0960, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France. Married before 1018: N. de Genève Otto-Guillaume, Duke11 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 98, 123.) (Abbott, Page 506.). AKA: Othon, Count de Nevers. AKA: Otton I, King de Lombardie. AKA: Othe Guillaume, Count de Mâcon (Abbott, Page 212.). Note -: Otton-Guillaume was Count and then Duke de Bourgogne. Adelbert, Duke of Lombardie married Gerberge, Countess of Dijon. Their son Otto-Guillaume was adopted by Henri, Duke of Burgundy who died in 1001/1002, and who is Gerberge's second husband and the Uncle to King Robert II de France. Born: between 0958 and 0959 at France, son of Adelbert II, King de Lombardie and Gerberge=Garsinde de Chalon. Married before 973: Ermentrude de Reims,, daughter of Renaud, Count de Reims and Albérade=Aubrée de Lorraine (Ermentrude was Otton's first wife). PaterAlter circa 991 Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne/Henri, Duke de Bourgogne Henri, Duke de Bourgogne, being without heir of his own, adopted Otto-Guillaume. Married in 1016: Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou,, daughter of Fouques II, Count d'anjou and Gerberge, Comtesse de Gâtinais ( Died: on 21 Oct 1026 at Pouilly-sur-Saône, France, Otton-Guillaume is buried in Dijon. Some sources indicate that Otto-Guillaume died on 15 October Ermentrude11 de Reims (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 193, 269.) (Stuart, Page 70, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls.). Married Name: Ermentrude, Countess de Mâcon. AKA: Ermentrude, Queen de Lombardie. Married Name: de Bourgogne. AKA: Ermengarde de Roucy (M. Lainé (Pub), Archives Généalogiques et Historiques, Tome Quatrième (Volume 4), MDCCCXXXIV (1834), De Villeneuve, Page 7.). Born: circa 938 at Reims, Marne, Champagne, France, daughter of Renaud, Count de Reims and Albérade=Aubrée de Lorraine, For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims rather than Reims. Married before 956: Albéric=Aubri II, Count de Mâcon,, son of Liétaud II, Count de Mâcon and Ermengarde de Vergy. Married before 973: Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne,, son of Adelbert II, King de Lombardie and Gerberge=Garsinde de Chalon (Ermentrude was Otton's first wife). Died: on 5 Mar 1005 Some sources indicate Ermentrude may have died in Richard II, Duke11 de Normandie (Stuart, Page 67, Line 89-32; Page 134, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 168.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:26 Hours.). Also Known As: Richard "Le Bon" (Abbott, Page 219.). Born Illeg.: circa 958 at Normandie, France, -, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec, -. Married circa 1000: Judith de Bretagne,, daughter of Conan I, Duke de Bretagne and Ermengarde d'anjou. Married in 1017: Estrid of Denmark,, daughter of Svend I, King of England and Gunhild of Poland (Richard was Estrid's first husband). Repudiated: Estrid of Denmark circa Married between 1020 and 1027: Poppa N? (Poppa was Richard II's third wife). Died: on 28 Aug 1027 at Fécamp, Seine-Inférieure, Normandie, France.

146 1371. Judith11 de Bretagne (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 168.) (Stuart, Page 125, Line ; Page 135, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:10 Hours.). Married Name: de Normandie. AKA: Judith de Rennes. Born: in 982 at Rennes, Bretagne, France, daughter of Conan I, Duke de Bretagne and Ermengarde d'anjou. Married circa 1000: Richard II, Duke de Normandie,, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec. Died: on 16 Jun Guillaume, Count11 d'exmes (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 195, 265.) (Stuart, Page 163, Line ). AKA: Guillaume, Count d'eu. Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Bâtard." Note -: Guillaume was the first Count d'exmes then also Count d'eu, he was the only bastard son of Richard I, Duke of Normandy, and therefore also known as Guillaume, Le Bâtard de Normandie. He was alive in the year 998 A.D. Born Illeg.: between 0965 and 0982 at France -, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec, - Guillaume was alive in the year Married before 1027 at France: Lezcéline d'harcourt,, daughter of Turchetil, Seigneur de Turqueville and Ancéline de Montfort-sur-Risle. Died: on 26 Jan Lezcéline11 d'harcourt (Ibid.) (André Roux: Scrolls, 265.). Married Name: d'exmes. AKA: Lezcéline de Turqueville From her father's side, Lezcéline was also known as Lezcéline de Turqueville. AKA: Lasceline de Tourville. Born: before 1013 at France, daughter of Turchetil, Seigneur de Turqueville and Ancéline de Montfort-sur-Risle, Lezcéline is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Robert, was born. Married before 1027 at France: Guillaume, Count d'exmes,, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec. Died: in 1058 at France Lezcéline died a nun and is buried at the Abbey de Saint Pierre-sur-Dives Renaud = Rainald II, Count 11 de Soissons (André Roux: Scrolls, 255.) (Stuart, Page 141, Line ) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 225.). AKA: Renaud, Vicomte de Troyes. Born: before 1002 at France, son of Guy, Count de Vermandois and Adélaïs, Countess de Soissons, Renaud is presumed to have been born berfore his mother remarried. Married before 1042: Adélaïde=Aélis de Roucy. Died: in 1057 (Abbott, Pages 55.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 225.) Adélaïde=Aélis11 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 255.) (Stuart, Page 141, Line ). Married Name: de Soissons (André Roux: Scrolls.). Born: before 1028 Aélis is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Adélaïde was born. Married before 1042: Renaud = Rainald II, Count de Soissons,, son of Guy, Count de Vermandois and Adélaïs, Countess de Soissons Manassès I, Count11 de Rethel (Stuart, Page 106, Line ). Note -: Manasses I allied himself with Charles, Duke of Lorraine against Hugh Capet. Born: before 974, son of Manassès, Comte de Rethel and N? N?, In the year 974, Manasses II is already said to have been an adherent of Charles de Lorraine and is presumed to have been born by then. Married before 1026: Judith de Roucy,, daughter of Gervais, Count de Châtillon-surMarne and N. de Poitiers (Judith is thought to be Manasses I' second wife, but if so, she bore him a son before he married his first wife). Married in 1026: Dada N? Died: circa 1066 (Abbott, Page 83.) Judith11 de Roucy (Stuart, Page 106, Line ). Married Name: de Rethel. Born: circa 985, daughter of Gervais, Count de Châtillon-surMarne and N. de Poitiers. Married before 1026: Manassès I, Count de Rethel,, son of Manassès, Comte de Rethel and N? N? (Judith is thought to be Manasses I' second wife, but if so, she bore him a son before he married his first wife) Milon I11 de Monteleherico (Stuart, Page 178, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). AKA: Milon I, Seigneur de La Ferté-sur-Oucy. Born: before 991 Milon I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Gui I, was born. André Roux's data skips this generation. Married before 1009 at France: N?, Dame de Montlhéry,, daughter of Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry and N?, Dame de Montlhéry. Died: after 1057 Milon I was alive in the years 1034 and N?, Dame11 de Montlhéry (Stuart, Page 178, Line ). Married Name: de Monteleherico. AKA: N?, Dame de Chèvreuse. Born: before 994 at Montlhéry, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France, daughter of Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry and N?, Dame de Montlhéry, She is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Gui I, was born. André Roux's data skips this generation. Married before 1009 at France: Milon I de Monteleherico. Died: after Guillaume11 de Gometz (Stuart, Page 68, Line ). AKA: Guyllaume I, Seigneur de Bures. Born: before 996 Guillaume is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Bertrade was born. Married before 1011: N? N? N?11 N? Married before 1011: Guillaume de Gometz Albert=Adalbert I, Count 11 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 197, 217.) (Stuart, Page 274, Line ). Born: before 980 at Belgium, son of Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde de Lorraine, Albert I is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when he married Ermengarde. Married in 990: Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine,, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Died: in Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 197, 217.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). Born: between 0970 and 0975, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Married in 990: Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur,, son of Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde de Lorraine. Died: in Gozelon I, Duke11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.) (Stuart, Page 79, Line ). AKA: Gozelon I, Margrave of Antwerp. AKA: Gozelon I, Count de Verdun. Born: circa 967, son of Godfrey, Count de Verdun and Mahaut=Mathilda de Saxe. Married before 994: N? N? Died: on 19 Apr N?11 N? Married before 994: Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Godfrey, Count de Verdun and Mahaut=Mathilda de Saxe Bernard I, Duke11 de Saxe (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). AKA: Benno Billung. Born: circa 940, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Married circa 990: Hildegarde von Stade,, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Died: on 9 Feb 1011 at Corivey Bernard I is buried at Michaeliski in Luxembourg.

147 1429. Hildegarde11 von Stade (Stuart, Page 215, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 6 July 18:40 Hours.). Married Name: de Saxe. Born: between 0974 and 0976, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Married circa 990: Bernard I, Duke de Saxe,, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Died: on 3 Oct 1011 Hildegarde is buried at Michaeliski in Luxemburg Harold II, King of11 Norway (Stuart, Page 151, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 31 July 1994 at 20:40 Hours.). AKA: Harold Eiriksson. Also Known As: Harold "Greypelt." Born: in 914 at Norway, son of Eric I, King of Norway and Gunhild of Denmark. Note - between 0960 and 0965 at Norway: Harold II was King of Norway ( ). Married before 970: N? N? Died: in 970 Harold II was killed. Some sources indicate he died in N?11 N? Married before 970: Harold II, King of Norway,, son of Eric I, King of Norway and Gunhild of Denmark Frédéric I, Count11 de Luxembourg (André Roux: Scrolls, 118, 200.) (Stuart, Page 247.). AKA: Frédéric I, comte de Moselgau ( Born: circa 965, son of Sigefroy, Count de Luxembourg and Hedvige d'alsace. Married between 0985 and 0995: Ermentrude, Countess von Gleiberg,, daughter of Heribert, Count von Gleiberg and Ermentrude von Avalgau. Died: on 6 Oct Ermentrude, Countess11 von Gleiberg (André Roux: Scrolls, 200.) (Stuart, Page 246, Line ). Married Name: de Luxembourg. AKA: Irmentrude Konradiner. Born: before 975, daughter of Heribert, Count von Gleiberg and Ermentrude von Avalgau, Ermentrude is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Frédérick I. Married between 0985 and 0995: Frédéric I, Count de Luxembourg,, son of Sigefroy, Count de Luxembourg and Hedvige d'alsace Guillaume III, Comte11 de Poitou (Stuart, Page 66, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.) (Abbott, Pages 303, 402.). Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Grand." AKA: Guillaume V, Duke d'aquitaine. Born: circa 969, son of Guillaume IV, Duke d'aquitaine and Emma de Blois (Stuart.). Married circa 997: Almodis=Adèle de Gévaudan,, daughter of Étienne, Comte de Gévaudan and Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou (Almodis was Guillaume III/V's first wife). Married in 1011: Sanche de Gascogne,, daughter of Garcia I, Count de Castile and Sancha Abba de Ribagorza (Sanche was Guillaume III's second wife). Married in 1019: Agnès, Princess de Lombardie,, daughter of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims (Guillaume's marriage to Agnès was his third). Died: on 31 Jan 1030 Guillaume died a monk (Stuart.) Agnès, Princess11 de Lombardie (Stuart, Page 117, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). AKA: Agnès de Bourgogne. Married Name: d'anjou. Born: circa 995 at Lombardie, Italy, daughter of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims (Stuart, Page 117.). Married in 1019: Guillaume III, Comte de Poitou,, son of Guillaume IV, Duke d'aquitaine and Emma de Blois (Guillaume's marriage to Agnès was his third). Married in 1032 at France: Geoffroi II, Count d'anjou,, son of Foulques III, Count d'anjou and Hildegarde de Metz (Geoffroi II was Agnès' second husband). Died: on 10 Nov 1068 at Italy (Stuart, Page 117.) Adalbert III, Count11 de Longwy (Stuart, Page 80, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, "de Lorraine", 10 July 1995 at 13:24 Hours.). AKA: Adalbert III, Duke de Lorraine Adalbert III was Duke of Upper Lorraine, (Abbott, Page 541.). Born: circa 1000 at France, son of Gérard III, Count d'alsace and Gisèle de Metz. Married before 1024: Clémence de Foix,, daughter of Bernard I, Count de Foix and Gersinde de Bigorre. PaterAlter circa 1035 Adalbert III, Count de Longwy/Étiennette de Barcelone (an unknown value). Died: in 1048 at Thuin, Hainaut, Belgium Clémence11 de Foix (Stuart, Page 80, Line ). Married Name: de Longwy. Born: before 1010, daughter of Bernard I, Count de Foix and Gersinde de Bigorre, Clémence is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her dauther, Ermessinde, was born. Married before 1024: Adalbert III, Count de Longwy,, son of Gérard III, Count d'alsace and Gisèle de Metz. MaterAlter: circa 1035 Étiennette de Barcelone/Clémence de Foix Richwin=Richuris, Count 11 de Scarpone (Stuart, Page 109, Line ). Born: before 1004, son of Louis I de Mousson and N? N?, Richwin was alive in the year 1019, and is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Louis II was born. Married before 1019: Hildegarde von Egisheim,, daughter of Hughes IV/VI, Count von Egisheim and Heilwig von Dagsburg. Died: after 1028 Richwin was alive in the year Hildegarde11 von Egisheim (Ibid.). Married Name: de Scarpone. Born: before 1004, daughter of Hughes IV/VI, Count von Egisheim and Heilwig von Dagsburg, Hildegarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Louis II was born. Married before 1019: Richwin=Richuris, Count de Scarpone,, son of Louis I de Mousson and N? N? Frédéric II, Duke11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 205.) (Stuart, Page 183, Line ). Born: in 995, son of Dietrich I, Duke de Lorraine and Richilde de Metz ( Married between 1012 and 1013: Mathilde de Souabe,, daughter of Hermann II, Duke de Souabe and Gerberge, Princess de Bourgogne. Died: between 1026 and 1033 According to E.S. [via Paul Theroff] Frédérick II died between 1026 and 1027, but Abbott lists him as dying in AKA: Frédéric II, Comte de Bar-le-Duc (Abbott, Page 545.) ( Mathilde11 de Souabe (André Roux: Scrolls, 205.) (Stuart, Page 183, Line ). Married Name: de Lorraine. Born: circa 988 at Swabia, daughter of Hermann II, Duke de Souabe and Gerberge, Princess de Bourgogne. Married between 1012 and 1013: Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Dietrich I, Duke de Lorraine and Richilde de Metz. Died: between 1031 and Renaud I, Comte11 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 149.) (Abbott, Pages ). AKA: Raymond de Mâcon (Abbott, Page 213.). Born: in 990 at France, son of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims. Married before 1 Sep 1016: Adélise=Judith de Normandie,, daughter of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Died: on 3 Sep 1057 at France Adélise=Judith11 de Normandie (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 149.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:28 Hours.). Married Name: de Bourgogne. Born: circa 1002 at Normandie, France, daughter of Richard II, Duke de Normandie and Judith de Bretagne. Married before 1 Sep 1016: Renaud I, Comte de Bourgogne,, son of Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne and Ermentrude de Reims. Died: after 1 Jul 1037 (Stuart, Page 135.).

148 1462. Raymond II, Count11 de Barcelone (André Roux: Scrolls, 123.). Born: before 1020 at Spain Raymond II is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Étiennette was born. Married before 1035: Sancha de Navarre Sancha11 de Navarre (Ibid.). Married Name: de Barcelone. Born: before 1020 at Spain Sanche=Sancha is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Étiennette was born. Married before 1035: Raymond II, Count de Barcelone Gérard III, Count11 d'alsace (André Roux: Scrolls, 169, 193.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ). AKA: Gérard, Marquis de Lorraine. AKA: Gérard, Count de Lorraine. AKA: Gérard, Duke de Lorraine Gérard was Duke of Upper Lorraine. AKA: Gerhard, Count de Metz. Born: before 985, son of Adalbert II, Duke de Lorraine and Judith=Jutta N?, Gérard is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Adalbert III was born. Married before 1000: Gisèle de Metz (Roderick Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" cites the marriage as before 979, but he also cites the marriage of Adalbert II and his wife Judith, parents of Gérard, as before 979). Died: in Gisèle11 de Metz (André Roux: Scrolls, 169, 193.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ). Married Name: d'alsace. Born: before 985 Gisèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Adalbert III was born. Married before 1000: Gérard III, Count d'alsace,, son of Adalbert II, Duke de Lorraine and Judith=Jutta N? (Roderick Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" cites the marriage as before 979, but he also cites the marriage of Adalbert II and his wife Judith, parents of Gérard, as before 979) Albert=Adalbert I, Count 11 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 197, 217.) (Stuart, Page 274, Line ). Born: before 980 at Belgium, son of Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde de Lorraine, Albert I is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when he married Ermengarde. Married in 990: Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine,, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Died: in Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 197, 217.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ). Born: between 0970 and 0975, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Married in 990: Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur,, son of Ratbode=Robert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde de Lorraine. Died: in Gerhard II, Count11 d'alsace (Stuart, Page 182, Line ). Born: before 986, son of Hughes V, Count d'alsace and N? N? Married before 1038: Berthe=Berta N? Died: in Berthe=Berta11 N? (Ibid.). Married Name: d'alsace. Born: before 1023 Berthe is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Gerhard III was born. Berthe was a niece of King Rudolph of Burgundy. Married before 1038: Gerhard II, Count d'alsace,, son of Hughes V, Count d'alsace and N? N? Frédéric II, Duke11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 205.) (Stuart, Page 183, Line ). Born: in 995, son of Dietrich I, Duke de Lorraine and Richilde de Metz ( Married between 1012 and 1013: Mathilde de Souabe,, daughter of Hermann II, Duke de Souabe and Gerberge, Princess de Bourgogne. Died: between 1026 and 1033 According to E.S. [via Paul Theroff] Frédérick II died between 1026 and 1027, but Abbott lists him as dying in AKA: Frédéric II, Comte de Bar-le-Duc (Abbott, Page 545.) ( Mathilde11 de Souabe (André Roux: Scrolls, 205.) (Stuart, Page 183, Line ). Married Name: de Lorraine. Born: circa 988 at Swabia, daughter of Hermann II, Duke de Souabe and Gerberge, Princess de Bourgogne. Married between 1012 and 1013: Frédéric II, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Dietrich I, Duke de Lorraine and Richilde de Metz. Died: between 1031 and Isembart11 de Broyes (André Roux: Scrolls, 203.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 July 1995 at 01:16 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). AKA: Isembart, Seigneur de Nogent (Abbott, Pages 69.). AKA: Isembart, Seigneur de Beaufort (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 277.). Born: before 988 at Champagne, France, son of Renard, Seigneur de Nogent and Alvise=Héloïse de Blois, Isembart is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his son, Isembart, was born. Married before 1007: N?, Dame de Beaufort. Died: after 1026 Isembart was alive in the year 1026 as he signed a Charter that year (Ibid.) N?, Dame11 de Beaufort (Abbott, Pages 69.). Married Name: de Broyes. Married before 1007: Isembart de Broyes,, son of Renard, Seigneur de Nogent and Alvise=Héloïse de Blois. Born: before 1012 She is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Hughes, was born Raoul II, Count11 de Crépy (André Roux: Scrolls, 121.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 15 September 1994 at 00:16 Hours.). AKA: Raoul II, Count du Vexin (Stuart, Page 196, Line ). AKA: Raoul II, Seigneur de Crépy. AKA: Raoul II, Seigneur de Valois (Abbott, Pages 56.). AKA: Raoul IV, Count de Valois. Note -: When his son became a monk in 1077, some of his estates (Bar and Vitry) passed to Thibaud who had married his daughter. Born: before 994 at Vexin, Normandie, France, son of Gautier II, Count du Vexin and Adèle de Senlis, Raoul II is presumed to have been born before his father was 50 years of age. Married before 1025: Adèle de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,, daughter of Hildouin, Count de Breteuil and Emmeline de Châteaudun. Died: between 1040 and 1060 Some sources indicate that Raoul II died in 1040, others claim it was in Adèle11 de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (André Roux: Scrolls, 121.) (Stuart, Page 196, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 15 September 1994 at 00:16 Hours.). Married Name: de Valois. Married Name: de Crépy. AKA: Adélaïde de Breteuil (Stuart, Page 196, Line ). Married Name: de Vexin. Born: before 1010 at France, daughter of Hildouin, Count de Breteuil and Emmeline de Châteaudun, Adélaïde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Raoul III was born. Married before 1025: Raoul II, Count de Crépy,, son of Gautier II, Count du Vexin and Adèle de Senlis. Died: on 11 Sep Nocher III, Count11 de Bar-sur-Aube (Stuart, Page 82, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). Born: before 1008 at France, son of Nocher II, Count de Bar-sur-Aube and Aélis=Adélaïde, Comtesse de Soissons, Nocher III is presumed to have been at least 20 years

149 of age by the time his daughter Alix was born. Married before 1028: N? N? Died: circa N?11 N? Married before 1028: Nocher III, Count de Bar-sur-Aube,, son of Nocher II, Count de Bar-sur-Aube and Aélis=Adélaïde, Comtesse de Soissons Milon I11 de Monteleherico (Stuart, Page 178, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). AKA: Milon I, Seigneur de La Ferté-sur-Oucy. Born: before 991 Milon I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Gui I, was born. André Roux's data skips this generation. Married before 1009 at France: N?, Dame de Montlhéry,, daughter of Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry and N?, Dame de Montlhéry. Died: after 1057 Milon I was alive in the years 1034 and N?, Dame11 de Montlhéry (Stuart, Page 178, Line ). Married Name: de Monteleherico. AKA: N?, Dame de Chèvreuse. Born: before 994 at Montlhéry, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France, daughter of Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry and N?, Dame de Montlhéry, She is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Gui I, was born. André Roux's data skips this generation. Married before 1009 at France: Milon I de Monteleherico. Died: after Guillaume11 de Gometz (Stuart, Page 68, Line ). AKA: Guyllaume I, Seigneur de Bures. Born: before 996 Guillaume is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Bertrade was born. Married before 1011: N? N? N?11 N? Married before 1011: Guillaume de Gometz Guillaume, Count11 d'exmes (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 195, 265.) (Stuart, Page 163, Line ). AKA: Guillaume, Count d'eu. Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Bâtard." Note -: Guillaume was the first Count d'exmes then also Count d'eu, he was the only bastard son of Richard I, Duke of Normandy, and therefore also known as Guillaume, Le Bâtard de Normandie. He was alive in the year 998 A.D. Born Illeg.: between 0965 and 0982 at France -, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec, - Guillaume was alive in the year Married before 1027 at France: Lezcéline d'harcourt,, daughter of Turchetil, Seigneur de Turqueville and Ancéline de Montfort-sur-Risle. Died: on 26 Jan Lezcéline11 d'harcourt (Ibid.) (André Roux: Scrolls, 265.). Married Name: d'exmes. AKA: Lezcéline de Turqueville From her father's side, Lezcéline was also known as Lezcéline de Turqueville. AKA: Lasceline de Tourville. Born: before 1013 at France, daughter of Turchetil, Seigneur de Turqueville and Ancéline de Montfort-sur-Risle, Lezcéline is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Robert, was born. Married before 1027 at France: Guillaume, Count d'exmes,, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec. Died: in 1058 at France Lezcéline died a nun and is buried at the Abbey de Saint Pierre-sur-Dives Renaud = Rainald II, Count 11 de Soissons (André Roux: Scrolls, 255.) (Stuart, Page 141, Line ) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 225.). AKA: Renaud, Vicomte de Troyes. Born: before 1002 at France, son of Guy, Count de Vermandois and Adélaïs, Countess de Soissons, Renaud is presumed to have been born berfore his mother remarried. Married before 1042: Adélaïde=Aélis de Roucy. Died: in 1057 (Abbott, Pages 55.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 225.) Adélaïde=Aélis11 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 255.) (Stuart, Page 141, Line ). Married Name: de Soissons (André Roux: Scrolls.). Born: before 1028 Aélis is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Adélaïde was born. Married before 1042: Renaud = Rainald II, Count de Soissons,, son of Guy, Count de Vermandois and Adélaïs, Countess de Soissons Engelbert III, Count11 de Brienne (André Roux: Scrolls, 143.) (Stuart, Page 266, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 02 October 1994 at 20:48 Hours.). AKA: Engilbert III, Comte de Joinville (Abbott, Page 78.). AKA: Engilbert I, Comte de Brienne (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 198.). Born: before 980 at Brienne, Aube, Champagne, France, son of Engelbert II, Count de Brienne and N? N? Married before 1001: Mainfrède=Windesmode de Salins,, daughter of Gui I, Count de Tonnerre and Adèle, Countess de Salins. Married before 1004: Alix de Sens (Alix was Engelbert III's second wife). Died: between 1004 and Mainfrède=Windesmode11 de Salins (André Roux: Scrolls, 143.) (Stuart, Page 266, Line ). Married Name: de Brienne. Born: before 950, daughter of Gui I, Count de Tonnerre and Adèle, Countess de Salins. Married before 1001: Engelbert III, Count de Brienne,, son of Engelbert II, Count de Brienne and N? N? Milon II/IV, Count11 de Tonnerre (André Roux: Scrolls, 199.) (Stuart, Page 187, Line ). PaterAlter circa 950 Milon II/IV, Count de Tonnerre/Gui II, Count de Tonnerre (an unknown value). MaterAlter: circa 950 Adèle N?/Milon II/IV, Count de Tonnerre. Born: circa 950, son of Milon I/III, Count de Tonnerre and Ingeltrude de Brienne, Milon II/IV's parentage is in dispute. André Roux lists Milo III and Ingeltrude de Brienne as Milo IV's parents, whereas Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" lists Gui II and Adèle as Milo IV's parents. Married circa 975: Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine,, daughter of Renaud, Count de Bar-sur-Seine and N? N? Died: between 0993 and PaterAlter before 1036 Milon II/IV, Count de Tonnerre/Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre (an unknown value) (Abbott, Page 86.) Ermengarde11 de Bar-sur-Seine (André Roux: Scrolls, 112.) (Stuart, Page 189, Line ). Married Name: de Vermandois. Married Name: de Tonnerre. Born: before 965, daughter of Renaud, Count de Bar-sur-Seine and N? N?, Ermengarde is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Milon II/IV. Married circa 975: Milon II/IV, Count de Tonnerre,, son of Milon I/III, Count de Tonnerre and Ingeltrude de Brienne. Married between 0997 and 1000 at France: Héribert III, Count de Vermandois,, son of Albert I=Adalbert, Count de Vermandois and Gerberge de Brabant (Herbert III was Ermengarde's second husband). Note - between 0998 and 1018: Ermengarde was the Heiress of Bar-sur-Seine. Died: after 1035 Ermengarde died a widow of Milo, Count de Tonnerre. MaterAlter: before 1036 Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre/Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine (Abbott, Page 86.) Hildouin III, Comte11 de Montdidier (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.) (Stuart, Page 195, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Hildouin III, Seigneur de Raméru. Also Known As: Hildouin "Comes." Born: circa 980 at Picardie, France, son of Hildouin II, Count de Montdidier and N? de Dammartin. Married before 1010: Lesseline N? Died: after 1037 Hildouin III was alive in the years

150 1497. Lesseline11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.). Married Name: de Montdidier. Born: before 995 at France Lesseline is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Hildouin IV was born. Married before 1010: Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier,, son of Hildouin II, Count de Montdidier and N? de Dammartin Ebles I, Vidâme11 de Reims (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 254.) (Stuart, Page 127, Line ). AKA: Ebles I, Comte de Reims. AKA: Ebles, Comte de Roucy. Born: circa 988 at Reims, Champagne, France, son of Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne and N. de Poitiers. Married before 1014: Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut,, daughter of Raynier V, Count de Hainaut and Hadwige Capet, Princesse de France. Divorced Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut: on 11 May Occupation: before 1053 at France Ebles I was the Vidâme and Count of Reims and Count of Roucy. Died: on 11 May Adélaïde=Béatrix11 de Hainaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 254.) (Stuart, Page 119, Line ). Married Name: de Reims. Born: circa 997 at Netherlands, Pays Bas, daughter of Raynier V, Count de Hainaut and Hadwige Capet, Princesse de France. Married before 1014: Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims,, son of Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne and N. de Poitiers. Divorced Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims: on 11 May Married circa 1035: Manasses, Vicomte de Reims. Died: after 1035 Adélaïde was alive in the year Étienne11 de Joinville (André Roux: Scrolls, 109.) (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at Uniform Resource Locator (URL) ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/genfiles/brienne.txt, 04 August 1996 at 03:20 hours.). Born: before 999 at Champagne, France Étienne is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Geoffroy I, was born (Ibid.). Married before 1016 at Champagne, France: Adèle, Countess de Joigny,, daughter of Fromond III, Count de Sens and Adélaïs de Joigny (André Roux: Scrolls, 109.). Married before 1016: N? de Brienne,, daughter of Engelbert III, Count de Brienne and Alix de Sens (The fief of Joinville was carried to Étienne by virtue of his marriage with Engilbert's daughter) (Abbott, Page 78.). Died: circa 1057 (Abbott, Page 79.). PaterAlter before 1067 Étienne de Joinville/Geoffroy II de Joinville (an unknown value) Adèle, Countess11 de Joigny (André Roux: Scrolls, 109.). Married Name: de Joinville. Born: before 1001 at France, daughter of Fromond III, Count de Sens and Adélaïs de Joigny, Adèle is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Geoffroy was born. Married before 1016 at Champagne, France: Étienne de Joinville (Ibid.). MaterAlter: before 1067 Geoffroy II de Joinville/Adèle, Countess de Joigny Albon, Châtelain11 de Château Renard (André Roux: Scrolls, 120.) (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). Note -: Albon fortified the Château de Courtenay. AKA: Athon, Seigneur de Courtenay (Abbott, Page 97; 100.). Born: circa 985 at Orléanais, France, son of Castillon Renaud de Château Renard and N? N? Married circa 1030: N? de Courtenay. Died: after 1030 Albon was alive in the year 1010, when he fortified the Château de Courtenay and is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age at that time N?11 de Courtenay (Stuart, Page 105, Line ). Married Name: de Château Renard. Born: circa 1000 at Loiret, Orléanais, France. Married circa 1030: Albon, Châtelain de Château Renard,, son of Castillon Renaud de Château Renard and N? N? Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count11 de Gâtinais (André Roux: Scrolls, 147.) (Stuart, Page 37, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 10 July 1994 at 00:34 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 39.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 257.) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages 257, 264.). AKA: Geoffroy II de Château-Landon. AKA: Albéric "Le Bref", Comte de Château-Landon (Abbott, Page 39.). Born: circa 1004 at Château-Landon, Champagne, France, son of Hugo, Sire du Perche and Béatrice de Mâcon, The parentage of Geoffroy II may be in question. Stuart takes the information of others and shows Geoffroi II as son of Geoffroy III. Settipani cites numerous other works, including a Charter in Paris of 26 May 1026 that show Geoffroy II/IV son of Hugues du Perche [via Beatrix's second marriage] as follows: "in comitatu Vuastinensi, Gosfredo, comiti Landonensi castri... Albericum, illius supradicti Gosfredi filium et heredem, et insuper, faventibus fratibus ipsius Alberici,filiis Hugonis Pertice, silicet Gosfredo et Letoldo" (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). PaterAlter circa 1004 Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count de Gâtinais/Geoffroy III, Count de Gâtinais (an unknown value) (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 1., Citing NEHGR 99:34-37.). Married in 1035: Ermengarde d'anjou,, daughter of Foulques III, Count d'anjou and Hildegarde de Metz. AKA: Gausfred, Comte de Gâtinais (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 232.). Died: on 11 Apr 1046 (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Pages 2, 4 16:10 Hrs], Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.") Ermengarde11 d'anjou (André Roux: Scrolls, 147.) (Stuart, Page 69, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 10 July 1994 at 00:34 Hours.). Married

151 Name: Blanche de Bourgogne. Born: either 1010 or 1018 at France, daughter of Foulques III, Count d'anjou and Hildegarde de Metz, Stuart indicates Ermengarde was born in 1018, but Settipani shows she was born in 1010 (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 265.). Married in 1035: Geoffroy IV Férréol, Count de Gâtinais,, son of Hugo, Sire du Perche and Béatrice de Mâcon. Married in 1048: Robert, Duke de Bourgogne,, son of Robert II, King de France and Constance de Provence. Died: on 21 Mar 1076 at Fleury-sur-Ouche, Normandie, France, Ermengarde was murdered and some sources indicate it was on 18 March 1076 (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 4 16:10 Hrs], Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.") Guichard I, Seigneur11 de Beaujeu (André Roux: Scrolls, 103.) (Abbott, Page 575.). Born: before 951 at France, son of Humbert I, Seigneur de Beaujeu and Hémelt = Helmest N?, Guichard I was alive and well in the year 1000 (??), and he is presumed to have been at least 16 years of age by the time he married Adélaïde. Married circa 967 at France: Adélaïde=Ricoaire N? (Ricoaire=Adélaïde was Guichard's first wife. In honor of this marriage, Guichard I gave to the religious community of Cluny the Church de Saint-Paul located in the Villa Laderniaco in Auvergne, according to a charter dated August of the thirtieth year of the reign of Conrad (967)) (M. Lainé (Pub), Archives Généalogiques et Historiques, Tome Cinquème (Volume 5), MDCCCXXXVI (1836), De Damas, Page 13.). Married circa 976: Adelmodis N?,, daughter of Béraud N? and Vandelmode N? (Adelmodis was Guichard I's second wife. In honor of her acceptance, he gave as a donation to the Abbaye de Cluny the dîmes of the parish of Saint-Georges for the repose of the souls of Béraud, her father, and Vandelmode, her mother, and her brothers Étienne and Humbert, according to a charter dated January of the twenty-second year off the reign of King Lothaire (976)) (M. Lainé (Pub), Archives Généalogiques et Historiques, Tome Cinquème (Volume 5), MDCCCXXXVI (1836), De Damas, Page 13.). Died: in 976 Guichard I must have died toward the end of that year because his second wife Adelmodis, his widow, had remarried in 977 to Chevalier Ansède du Cange (Ibid., Tome Cinquème (Volume 5), MDCCCXXXVI (1836), De Damas, Page 14.) Adélaïde=Ricoaire11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 103.) (M. Lainé (Pub), Archives Généalogiques et Historiques, Tome Cinquème (Volume 5), MDCCCXXXVI (1836), De Damas, Page 13.). Married Name: de Beaujeu. Born: before 952 Adélaïde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time she married Guichard I. Married circa 967 at France: Guichard I, Seigneur de Beaujeu,, son of Humbert I, Seigneur de Beaujeu and Hémelt = Helmest N? (Ricoaire=Adélaïde was Guichard's first wife. In honor of this marriage, Guichard I gave to the religious community of Cluny the Church de Saint-Paul located in the Villa Laderniaco in Auvergne, according to a charter dated August of the thirtieth year of the reign of Conrad (967)) (M. Lainé (Pub), Archives Généalogiques et Historiques, Tome Cinquème (Volume 5), MDCCCXXXVI (1836), De Damas, Page 13.) Étienne II, Vicomte11 de Thiern (André Roux: Scrolls, 172.) (Abbott, Page 455.). Born: before 1042 at Thiern, Puy-de-Dôme, Auvergne, France, son of Guillaume I, Vicomte de Thiern and Ponce N?, Étienne II is presumed to have been at least 18years of age by the time his son Guillaume II was born. Married before 1059: Blanche N? Died: after 1060 Étienne II was alive in the year Blanche11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 172.). Married Name: de Thiern. Born: before 1045 Blanche is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Guillaume II was born. Married before 1059: Étienne II, Vicomte de Thiern,, son of Guillaume I, Vicomte de Thiern and Ponce N? Thibaud, Count11 de Chalon (André Roux: Scrolls, 98.) (Abbott, Page 207.). Born: before 1015, son of Geoffroy I, Count de Semur and Mahaut de Chalon. Married before 1034 at France: Hermentrude N? Died: in 1065 André Roux indicates that Thibaud died in 1065, but Abbott claims it was in Hermentrude11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 98.). Married Name: de Chalon. Born: before 1019 at France Hermentrude is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Adélaïs was born. Married before 1034 at France: Thibaud, Count de Chalon,, son of Geoffroy I, Count de Semur and Mahaut de Chalon Guillaume I, Count11 de Nevers (André Roux: Scrolls, 117, 199.) (Stuart, Page 169, Line ) (Abbott, Page 183.). AKA: Guillaume, Count d'auxerre (Abbott, Page 202.). AKA: Guillaume I, Count de Tonnerre. Born: circa 1030 at Nivernais, France, son of Renaud I, Count de Nevers and Hadwige=Adèle, Princess de France, Guillaume I was alive in the year Married in 1045 at France: Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre,, daughter of Renaud I, Comte de Bar-sur-Seine and Ervide N? Married before 1085: Matilda N? Died: on 20 Jun 1100 at France Guillaume I is buried in Saint Étienne. André Roux and Stuart disagree with Abbott's placement of the demise of Guillaume I in Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess 11 de Tonnerre (André Roux: Scrolls, 117, 199.) (Stuart, Page 188, Line ). Married Name: de Nevers. Born: before 1036, daughter of Renaud I, Comte de Bar-sur-Seine and Ervide N?, Ermengarde was alive in the year Abbott has Guillaume de Nevers' wife as Marguerite de Tonnerre, daughter of Milon II (Abbott, Page 86.). PaterAlter before 1036 Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre/Milon II/IV, Count de Tonnerre (an unknown value) (Ibid.). MaterAlter: before 1036 Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine/Ermengarde = Marguerite, Countess de Tonnerre (Ibid.). Married in 1045 at France: Guillaume I, Count de Nevers,, son of Renaud I, Count de Nevers and Hadwige=Adèle, Princess de France. Died: after 1090 Ermengarde was alive in the years 1063 and Lancelin=Landry II, Seigneur11 de Beaugency (André Roux: Scrolls, 196.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 4-31.). Born: before 1025, son of Lancelin I, Seigneur de Beaugency and Paule I du Maine, Lancelin II is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Hildegarde was born. Lancelin II's maternal parentage is very uncertain. Married before 1052: Alberge N? Died: in Alberge11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 196.) (Stuart, Page 3, Line 4-31.). Married Name: de Beaugency. Born: before 1038 Alberge is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Hildegarde was born. Married before 1052: Lancelin=Landry II, Seigneur de Beaugency,, son of Lancelin I, Seigneur de Beaugency and Paule I du Maine Hughes IV, Lord11 de Lusignan (André Roux: Scrolls, 84.). Also Known As: Hughes "Le Brun." Born: between 0967 and 1010 at Poitou, France, son of Hughes III, Lord de Lusignan and Arsendis N?, Hughes IV is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Hughes V. Married before 1025: Aldiarde de Thouars,, daughter of Raoul I, Vicomte de Thouars and Aremburge=Ascéline N? Died: between 1025 and Aldiarde11 de Thouars (Ibid.). Married Name: de Lusignan. Born: before 1010 at Poitou, France, daughter of Raoul I, Vicomte de Thouars and

152 Aremburge=Ascéline N?, Aldiarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Hughes V was born. Married before 1025: Hughes IV, Lord de Lusignan,, son of Hughes III, Lord de Lusignan and Arsendis N? Bernard, Count11 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 55.) (Abbott, Page 423.). AKA: Bernard, Count de Périgord. Born: before 975, son of Audebert I, Count de La Marche and Almodis de Limoges, Bernard is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Almodie was born. Married before 990 at Poitou, France: Amélie de Montignac,, daughter of Gérard de Montignac and Nonia=Noña de Granol. Died: in Amélie11 de Montignac (André Roux: Scrolls, 55.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Teresa Smith [KFDD12B] note posted 30 May 1995 at 21:30 Hours.) (Stuart, Page 233.). Married Name: de La Marche. Born: before 975 at France, daughter of Gérard de Montignac and Nonia=Noña de Granol, Amélie is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Almodis was born. Married before 990 at Poitou, France: Bernard, Count de La Marche,, son of Audebert I, Count de La Marche and Almodis de Limoges. Died: between 1053 and Geoffroy II, Vicomte11 de Thouars (André Roux: Scrolls, 141.) (Stuart, Page 116, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 June 1995 at 03:10 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 418.). Born: before 1004 at France, son of Savary III, Vicomte de Thouars and N? N?, Geoffroy II was alive in the year Married before 1023 at France: Ainor=Éléonore N? Died: circa 1055 at Saint Michel, Lherm, Bruges, Belgium, Geoffroy II died a monk, but was alive in Ainor=Éléonore11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 141.) (Stuart, Page 116, Line ). Married Name: de Thouars. Born: before 1009 Ainor is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Aimery IV was born. Married before 1023 at France: Geoffroy II, Vicomte de Thouars,, son of Savary III, Vicomte de Thouars and N? N? Died: after 1055 Ainor was alive in the year Robert, Châtelain11 de Moncontour (Abbott, Page 415.). Born: before 1013 at Vienne, Poitou, France Robert was Châtelain and is presumed to have been at least 17 years of age by that time. Married before 1043: N? N? Died: after 1056 (Ibid.) N?11 N? Married before 1043: Robert, Châtelain de Moncontour Geoffroy, Count11 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 64, Line ). Also Known As: Geoffroy "Taillefer" (Abbott, Page 458.). AKA: Geoffroy, Seigneur de Montausier The seigneurie of Montausier [Charente Maritime, Saintonge, France] was held by the Counts of Angoulême. In the Eleventh Century, it was given to a cadet and following return to the comital domain, it was again given in the Twelfth Century to a cadet who established a line of descent (Abbott, Page 469.). Born: circa 1010 at Aquitaine, France, son of Guillaume II/IV, Count d'angoulême and Gerberge-Ermengardis d'anjou. Married between 1020 and 1025 at Saintonge, France: Pétronille, Dame d'archiac,, daughter of Mainard, Seigneur d'archiac and Hildegarde N? (Pétronille was Geoffroy's first wife) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). Occupation: in 1032 Geoffroy I was Count in the year Died: in Dec Pétronille, Dame11 d'archiac (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 64, Line ). Married Name: d'angoulême. Note -: Pétronille is the heiress of Bouteville, France. AKA: Pétronille, Dame de Bouteville ( Born: before 1010 at Saintonge, France, daughter of Mainard, Seigneur d'archiac and Hildegarde N?, Pétronille is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Geoffroy I. Married between 1020 and 1025 at Saintonge, France: Geoffroy, Count d'angoulême,, son of Guillaume II/IV, Count d'angoulême and Gerberge-Ermengardis d'anjou (Pétronille was Geoffroy's first wife) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry."). Died: after 1048 Pétronille was alive in the year Robert, Comte11 d'eu (Paul Theroff, posts, 21 July 1994 at 09:18 hours.) (Stuart, Page 65, Line ). AKA: Robert de Mortain. Born: before 1028 at France, son of Guillaume, Count d'exmes and Lezcéline d'harcourt, Robert is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Armand, was born. Married before 1045 at France: Béatrice N? Married between 1070 and 1079: Matilda de Sicile,, daughter of Roger I, Count de Sicile and Judith d'évreux (Robert was Matilda's first husband and she was his second wife). Repudiated: Matilda de Sicile before 1080 at France. Died: between 1089 and 1093 Robert was tenant-in-chief of many counties in England (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, van Houts, Elisabeth.: Chapter 6: "Wace as Historian", Page 122.) Béatrice11 N? (Paul Theroff, posts, 16 July 1994 at 01:59 Hours.). Married Name: d'eu. Born: before 1031 at France Béatrice is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Armand, was born. Married before 1045 at France: Robert, Comte d'eu,, son of Guillaume, Count d'exmes and Lezcéline d'harcourt. Died: circa 1085 at France Béatrice is buried in La Trèport Guillen Amanieu, Comte11 de Benauges (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Guillen Amanieu d'albret. Born: before 1038 at Gironde, Gascogne, France Guillen Amanieu is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Amanjeu, was born. Married before 1055: Amalvina, Vicomtesse de Bezaume,, daughter of Rodolphe dit Artaud, Vicomte de Bezaume and N? N? Amalvina, Vicomtesse11 de Bezaume (Ibid.) (Abbott, Page 312.). Married Name: de Benauges. Born: before 1026 at La Réole, Bezaume, Gascogne, France, daughter of Rodolphe dit Artaud, Vicomte de Bezaume and N? N? Married before 1055: Guillen Amanieu, Comte de Benauges Hughes, Baron of11 Montgommery (André Roux: Scrolls, 36.) (Abbott, Page 236.). Born: before 990 at England, son of Roger I, Lord of Montgommery and N? N? Married before 1005: Josseline de Bolbec,, daughter of Osbern, Lord de Bolbec and Aveline, Lady of Wevier. Note between 1023 and 1027: Hughes was the Viscomte of Exemes (Hiemes), and an advocate of Traorn Abbey in He signed a charter in He held the barony of Montgomery together with his son, Roger. Died: between 1027 and 1049 at England Josseline11 de Bolbec (André Roux: Scrolls, 36.). Married Name: Montgommery. Born: before 995, daughter of Osbern, Lord de Bolbec and Aveline, Lady of Wevier. Married before 1005: Hughes, Baron of Montgommery,, son of Roger I, Lord of Montgommery and N? N? Guillaume II Talvas, Comte11 de Bellême (André Roux: Scrolls, 53.) (Abbott, Page 133.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La

153 Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). AKA: Guillaume II Talvas, Seigneur d'alençon Guillaume II was chassed off his lands by his son for his extreme cruelty (Abbott, Page 224.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). Born: before 990, son of Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count de Bellême and Mathilde, Dame de Condé-sur-Noireau. Married before 1014 at France: Hildeburge = Haberge de Beaumont,, daughter of Arnoul N? and N? N? (Hildeburge was Guillaume II's first wife). Married before 1055 at France: Haberga de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe,, daughter of Raoul V, Vicomte du Maine and Emmé, Dame du Lude (Haberga was the widow of Tesselin, Sire de Montevrault, when she married Guillaume II). Died: circa 1064 at France (Abbott, Page 133.) Hildeburge = Haberge11 de Beaumont (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Paul Theroff, posts, Posting in Subject "Beaumont" on 6 March 1994 at 20:11 Hours.) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, Posting in Subject "Peverell", 22 July 1994 at 00:54 Hours.). Married Name: de Bellême. Born: before 1000 at France, daughter of Arnoul N? and N? N?, Hildeburge is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Mabile was born. Hildeburge died from strangulation upon the orders of her husband ( Married before 1014 at France: Guillaume II Talvas, Comte de Bellême,, son of Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count de Bellême and Mathilde, Dame de Condé-sur-Noireau (Hildeburge was Guillaume II's first wife) Bernard, Count11 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 55.) (Abbott, Page 423.). AKA: Bernard, Count de Périgord. Born: before 975, son of Audebert I, Count de La Marche and Almodis de Limoges, Bernard is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Almodie was born. Married before 990 at Poitou, France: Amélie de Montignac,, daughter of Gérard de Montignac and Nonia=Noña de Granol. Died: in Amélie11 de Montignac (André Roux: Scrolls, 55.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Teresa Smith [KFDD12B] note posted 30 May 1995 at 21:30 Hours.) (Stuart, Page 233.). Married Name: de La Marche. Born: before 975 at France, daughter of Gérard de Montignac and Nonia=Noña de Granol, Amélie is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Almodis was born. Married before 990 at Poitou, France: Bernard, Count de La Marche,, son of Audebert I, Count de La Marche and Almodis de Limoges. Died: between 1053 and Ebles I, Vicomte11 de Comborn (André Roux: Scrolls, 125, 149.) (Stuart, Page 114, Line ) (Abbott, Page 432.). AKA: Ebles, Vicomte de Ventadour (Abbott, Page 438, 439.). AKA: Ebles, Vicomte de Turenne (Abbott, Page 438.). Born: circa 954 at Blois, Loir-et-Cher, Orléanais, France, son of Archambaud I, Vicomte de Comborn and Sulpicie de Turenne. Married circa 995: Béatrix de Normandie,, daughter of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec (Béatrix was Ebles I's first wife). Divorced Béatrix de Normandie: before Married before 1029 at France: Pétronille N? (Pétronille was Ebles I's second wife and they had no issue). Died: in Béatrix11 de Normandie (André Roux: Scrolls, 125, 136, 149.). Married Name: de Comborn. Born: before 985 at France, daughter of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec, Béatrix is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Guillaume, was born. Married circa 995: Ebles I, Vicomte de Comborn,, son of Archambaud I, Vicomte de Comborn and Sulpicie de Turenne (Béatrix was Ebles I's first wife). Divorced Ebles I, Vicomte de Comborn: before Died: on 18 Jan Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte11 de Châteaudun (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 185, Line ) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 264.). AKA: Geoffroy III, Comte de Dunois (Abbott, Page 102.). AKA: Geoffroy III, Comte du Perche (Abbott, Page 138.). AKA: Geoffoi I, Seigneur de Nogent-le-Rotrou (André Roux: Scrolls.). AKA: Geoffroy I, Seigneur de Mortagne ( AKA: Geoffroy I, Seigneur d'illiers (Ibid.). AKA: Geoffroy I, Seigneur de Gallardon (Ibid.). MaterAlter: before 990 Hildegarde de Blois/Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun (Stuart, Page 185, Line ).

154 Born: before 990 at Châteaudun, Orléanais, France, son of Gausfred = Geoffroi III, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Melisindis, Dame de Nogent-le-Rotrou, Geoffroi is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Rotrou was born. The parentage of Geoffroi II [per Stuart] / III [per Sattipani is in dispute. Stuart shows him as the son of Hughes I by Hildegarde de Blois, whereas Settipani shows him to be the son of Geoffroi II by Melisendis. PaterAlter before 990 Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun/Hughes I, Vicomte de Châteaudun (an unknown value) (Ibid.). Married before 1005: Élizabeth=Hélvise de Carbon,, daughter of Fouques, Count de Carbon and N? N? Note - circa 1033 at Perche, Maine, France: Geoffroy rebuilt the Château de Mortagne. Died: in 1039 Geoffroi I was alive in the year 1031, and was assassinated in 1039 (Abbott, Page 102.) Élizabeth=Hélvise11 de Carbon (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). AKA: Hélvise de Mortagne Roderick Stuart in his Royalty for Commoners erroneously calls Mortagne "Montagne." Married Name: Helvidis de Châteaudun (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 262.). Born: before 900, daughter of Fouques, Count de Carbon and N? N?, Élizabeth is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Rotrou I was born. Married before 1005: Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun,, son of Gausfred = Geoffroi III, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Melisindis, Dame de Nogent-le-Rotrou Ghérin = Warin, Lord11 de Mortagne-au-Perche (Stuart, Page 185, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 211.). AKA: Guérin de Bellême. AKA: Warin, Seigneur de Domfront. AKA: Yves, Seigneur d'alençon (Abbott, Page 224.). AKA: Guarin, Seigneur de Mortagne-au-Perche ( Born: before 1011 at Mortagne-au-Perche, Normandie, France, son of Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count de Bellême and Mathilde, Dame de Condé-sur-Noireau, Guérin is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Adélaïde was born. Married before 1026: Mélisende, Vicomtesse de Châteaudun,, daughter of Hughes I, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Hildegarde de Blois. Died: either 1028 or 1068 Warin was killed (Abbott, Page 224.) ( Mélisende, Vicomtesse11 de Châteaudun (André Roux: Scrolls, 211.) ( Married Name: de Mortagne-au-Perche. Born: before 1006 at France, daughter of Hughes I, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Hildegarde de Blois, Mélisende is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when she died. Married before 1026: Ghérin = Warin, Lord de Mortagne-au-Perche,, son of Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count de Bellême and Mathilde, Dame de Condé-sur-Noireau. Died: in Hildouin III, Comte11 de Montdidier (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.) (Stuart, Page 195, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Hildouin III, Seigneur de Raméru. Also Known As: Hildouin "Comes." Born: circa 980 at Picardie, France, son of Hildouin II, Count de Montdidier and N? de Dammartin. Married before 1010: Lesseline N? Died: after 1037 Hildouin III was alive in the years Lesseline11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.). Married Name: de Montdidier. Born: before 995 at France Lesseline is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Hildouin IV was born. Married before 1010: Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier,, son of Hildouin II, Count de Montdidier and N? de Dammartin Ebles I, Vidâme11 de Reims (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 254.) (Stuart, Page 127, Line ). AKA: Ebles I, Comte de Reims. AKA: Ebles, Comte de Roucy. Born: circa 988 at Reims, Champagne, France, son of Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne and N. de Poitiers. Married before 1014: Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut,, daughter of Raynier V, Count de Hainaut and Hadwige Capet, Princesse de France. Divorced Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut: on 11 May Occupation: before 1053 at France Ebles I was the Vidâme and Count of Reims and Count of Roucy. Died: on 11 May Adélaïde=Béatrix11 de Hainaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 254.) (Stuart, Page 119, Line ). Married Name: de Reims. Born: circa 997 at Netherlands, Pays Bas, daughter of Raynier V, Count de Hainaut and Hadwige Capet, Princesse de France. Married before 1014: Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims,, son of Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne and N. de Poitiers. Divorced Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims: on 11 May Married circa 1035: Manasses, Vicomte de Reims. Died: after 1035 Adélaïde was alive in the year Lisois, Seigneur 11 de Bazougers (Abbott, Page 158.). AKA: Lisois II, Chevalier de Bazougés. Born: in 1007, son of Hughes de Levardin and Alpaïs de Beaumont-au-Maine. Married before 1029: Hersende, Dame d'amboise,, daughter of Archambaud, Seigneur d'amboise and N? N? Died: circa Hersende, Dame11 d'amboise (Ibid.). Married Name: de Bazougers. AKA: Hersande de Busançois. Born: before 1010 at Amboise, Indre-EtLoire, Touraine, France, daughter of Archambaud, Seigneur d'amboise and N? N?, Hersende who was either the sister of, or the daughter [as shown

155 here] of Archambaud, is presumed to have been about the same age as her husband, Lisois. Married before 1029: Lisois, Seigneur de Bazougers,, son of Hughes de Levardin and Alpaïs de Beaumont-au-Maine. Married Name: de Bazougers Archambaud IV, Sire11 de Bourbon (André Roux: Scrolls, 128, 129.) (Stuart, Page 42, Line ) (Abbott, Page 189.). Also Known As: Archambaud "Le Fort." Also Known As: Archambaud "Le Prince." AKA: Archambaud III (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 2.). Born: before 1038 at Bourbonnais, France, son of Archambaud III, Comte de Bourbon and Deaurabe=Aurée N?, Archambaud IV is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter, Ermengarde, was born. Married before 1040 at France: Béliarde N? (Béliarde was Archambaud IV's second wife). Married before 1054: Philippine d'auvergne,, daughter of Guillaume III, Count d'auvergne and Philippine, Countess de Gévaudan (Philippine was Archambaud IV's first wife). Occupation: in 1078 Archambaud IV was Sire de Bourbon in Died: on 16 Jul Béliarde11 N? (Paul Theroff, posts, 10 September 1994 at 17:48 Hours.). Married Name: de Bourbon. Born: before 1025 at France Béliarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time she married. Married before 1040 at France: Archambaud IV, Sire de Bourbon,, son of Archambaud III, Comte de Bourbon and Deaurabe=Aurée N? (Béliarde was Archambaud IV's second wife). MaterAlter: before 1055 Aimon II VaireVache, Sire de Bourbon/Béliarde N? (Some sources indicate that Béliarde was the mother of all of Archambaud IV's children) Geoffroy I, Count11 de Semur (Stuart, Page 62, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 August 1994 at 01:59 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 206.). Born: before 942 at Semur, Brionnais, Bourgogne, France, son of Josserand, Count de Semur and Ricoère N?, Geoffroy I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Geoffroy II, was born. Married before 959 at France: N. de Brioude,, daughter of Dalmace, Vicomte de Brioude and N? N? (She was Geoffroy I's first wife). Married circa 1003 at France: Mahaut de Chalon,, daughter of Lambert, Count de Chalon and Adélaïs=Were de Bourgogne (Mahaut was Geoffroy I's second wife and he was her second husband). Died: after 1015 Geoffroy I was alive in the year Mahaut11 de Chalon (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 August 1994 at 22:02 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 207.). AKA: Mahaut, Dame de Donzy. Married Name: de Bourgogne. Married Name: de Semur. Born: before 971 at France, daughter of Lambert, Count de Chalon and Adélaïs=Were de Bourgogne, Mahaut is presumed to have been born before her father was 50 yewars of age. Married in 998 at France: Henri, Duke de Bourgogne,, son of Hughes, dux Francorum and Hadwige, Princess de Saxe (Henri was Mahaut's first husband and she was his third wife). Married circa 1003 at France: Geoffroy I, Count de Semur,, son of Josserand, Count de Semur and Ricoère N? (Mahaut was Geoffroy I's second wife and he was her second husband) Thibaud, Count11 de Chalon (André Roux: Scrolls, 98.) (Abbott, Page 207.). Born: before 1015, son of Geoffroy I, Count de Semur and Mahaut de Chalon. Married before 1034 at France: Hermentrude N? Died: in 1065 André Roux indicates that Thibaud died in 1065, but Abbott claims it was in Hermentrude11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 98.). Married Name: de Chalon. Born: before 1019 at France Hermentrude is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Adélaïs was born. Married before 1034 at France: Thibaud, Count de Chalon,, son of Geoffroy I, Count de Semur and Mahaut de Chalon Guillaume II/IV, Count11 d'angoulême (André Roux: Scrolls, 87, 147.) (Stuart, Page 64, Line ) (Abbott, Page 458.). AKA: Guillaume II, Seigneur de Chabanois ( AKA: Guillaume II, Vicomte de Rochechouart (Ibid.). AKA: Guillaume II, Vicomte d'aunay (Ibid.). AKA: Guillaume II, Seigneur de Ruffec (Ibid.). AKA: Guillaume II, Seigneur de Consolant (Ibid.). AKA: Guillaume II, Vicomte de Meille (Ibid.). AKA: Guillaume "Taillefer" (Ibid., Born: between 0978 and 0979 at Aquitaine, France, son of Arnaud I, Count d'angoulême and Aldéarde d'aunay. Married before 1000 at France: GerbergeErmengardis d'anjou,, daughter of Geoffroy I = Gausfred, Count d'anjou and Adela N? (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 247.). Died: on 6 Apr 1028 Guillaume II/IV is buried at Saint Cybard in Angoulême, France. While other sources indicate that Guillaume II died 6-Apr-1028, Lord Mountbatten's manuscript indicates he died 6 April The French Website indicates he died 8 April 1028 (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry.") ( Gerberge-Ermengardis 11 d'anjou (André Roux: Scrolls, 87, 147.) (Stuart, Page 115, Line ) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 227.). Married Name: d'angoulême. Born: in 962 at France, daughter of Geoffroy I = Gausfred, Count d'anjou and Adela N? Married before 1000 at France: Guillaume II/IV, Count d'angoulême,, son of Arnaud I, Count d'angoulême and Aldéarde d'aunay (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 247.). Died: after Mainard, Seigneur11 d'archiac (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.) (Stuart, Page 64, Line ). AKA: Mainard, Sire de Bonteville. Also Known As: Mainard "Le Riche." AKA: Maynard, Seigneur de Bouttevillé (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome I (Volume 1), MDCCLXX (1770), Pages 350.). Born: before 995 at France Mainard is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Pétronille was born. Married before 1010: Hildegarde N? Died: circa 1048 (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., Posted by Robert Carver, MGC [Prodigy ID# CQGW37A] under Subject "Fitzalan", on 12 April 1997 at 13:38 Hours, and citing Lord Mountbatten's handwritten document on "The Plantagenet Ancestry.") Hildegarde11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 87.). Married Name: d'archiac. Born: before 995 at France Hildegarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Pétronille was born. Married before 1010: Mainard, Seigneur d'archiac. Died: after 1048 Hildegarde was alive in the year Guillaume, Count11 d'exmes (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 195, 265.) (Stuart, Page 163, Line ). AKA: Guillaume, Count d'eu. Also Known As: Guillaume "Le Bâtard." Note -: Guillaume was the first Count d'exmes then also Count d'eu, he was the only bastard son of Richard I, Duke of Normandy, and therefore also known as Guillaume, Le Bâtard de Normandie. He was alive in the year 998 A.D. Born Illeg.: between 0965 and 0982 at France -, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec, - Guillaume was alive in the year Married before 1027 at France: Lezcéline d'harcourt,, daughter of Turchetil, Seigneur de Turqueville and Ancéline de Montfort-sur-Risle. Died: on 26 Jan 1057.

156 1669. Lezcéline11 d'harcourt (Ibid.) (André Roux: Scrolls, 265.). Married Name: d'exmes. AKA: Lezcéline de Turqueville From her father's side, Lezcéline was also known as Lezcéline de Turqueville. AKA: Lasceline de Tourville. Born: before 1013 at France, daughter of Turchetil, Seigneur de Turqueville and Ancéline de Montfort-sur-Risle, Lezcéline is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Robert, was born. Married before 1027 at France: Guillaume, Count d'exmes,, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec. Died: in 1058 at France Lezcéline died a nun and is buried at the Abbey de Saint Pierre-sur-Dives Rodolphe dit Artaud, Vicomte11 de Bezaume (Abbott, Page 312.). Born: before 1001 at La Réole, Bexaume, Gascogne, France, son of Almalvin, Vicomte de Bezaume and N? N?, Rodolphe is presumed to have been at least 25 years of age when he died. Married before 1020: N? N? Died: circa 1026 (Ibid.) N?11 N? Married before 1020: Rodolphe dit Artaud, Vicomte de Bezaume,, son of Almalvin, Vicomte de Bezaume and N? N? Roger I, Lord of11 Montgommery (André Roux: Scrolls, 36.). Born: before 980 at England, son of Rogerus Magnus and N? N? Married before 990: N? N? Note - between 1022 and 1027: Roger I was the Viscomte of Exemes, and in 1022 founded Traorn Abbey. He was exhiled to Paris in Died: circa 1040 at Auvergne, France N?11 N? Married before 990: Roger I, Lord of Montgommery,, son of Rogerus Magnus and N? N? Osbern, Lord11 de Bolbec (Stuart, Page 124.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., David Dowell posting on the Genealogy BB of the Prodigy Interactive Personal Service under Subject "Antrobus" on 7 January 1996 at 22:23 Hours.). AKA: Osber=Oberne de Bollebec (M. de La Chenaye-desBois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 306.). Occupation: Osbern=Herbatus. He was the Forrester of Arques. AKA: Osborne=Osbern Giffard de Bolbec. Born: before 980 at Longueville, Normandie, France Osbern is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Josseline was born. Married before 990: Aveline, Lady of Wevier,, daughter of Herbastus, Chevalier de Crépon and Cyrid N? AKA: Osbern, Seigneur de Longueville (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Sheila Morelli [Prodigy ID# HBSB91C], under topic "Royal/Noble/Heraldry", Subject "Bolbec/Giffard", posted on 6 May 1998 at 20:15 Hours, Citing Weis, Moriarty [NEHGS 1921], and Davis (1963).). Died: in 1063 at France Aveline, Lady of11 Wevier (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., David Dowell posting on the Genealogy BB of the Prodigy Interactive Personal Service under Subject "Antrobus" on 7 January 1996 at 22:23 Hours.). AKA: Wévie de Crépon. Married Name: de Bolbec (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 306.). Born: circa 974 at Longueville, Normandie, France, daughter of Herbastus, Chevalier de Crépon and Cyrid N? Married before 990: Osbern, Lord de Bolbec Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count 11 de Bellême (André Roux: Scrolls, 53, 211.) (Stuart, Page 252, Line ) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). AKA: Guillaume, Comte d'alençon ( (Abbott, Page 223.). Born: before 972 at Orne, Normandie, France, son of Yves I, Count de Bellême and Godehilde=Gordeschilda de Ponthieu, Guillaume I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Guillaume II, was born. Married before 989: Mathilde, Dame de Condé-sur-Noireau. Died: in 1028 at Domfront, Orne, Normandie, France, Guillaume I is buried at the Cathedral of Notre-Dame-sur-l'Eau (Abbott, Page 133.) Mathilde, Dame11 de Condé-sur-Noireau (André Roux: Scrolls, 53, 211.) (Stuart, Page 252, Line ). Married Name: de Bellême. Born: before 975 Mathilde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Guillaume II was born. Married before 989: Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count de Bellême,, son of Yves I, Count de Bellême and Godehilde=Gordeschilda de Ponthieu Arnoul11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls.). Born: before 985 at Normandie, France Arnoul is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Hildeburge was born. Married before 1000 at France: N? N? N?11 N? Married before 1000 at France: Arnoul N? Audebert I, Count11 de La Marche (André Roux: Scrolls, 55.) (Abbott, Page 423.). Born: before 960 at Poitou, France, son of Boson I, Count de La Marche and Emmé, Countess de Périgord, Audebert was alive in the year 992. He is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Bernard was born. Married circa 974: Almodis de Limoges,, daughter of Giraud, Vicomte de Limoges and Rothilde de Brosse. Died: in 997 at Gençay, Vienne, Poitou, France, Audebert I was killed in battle (Stuart, Page 232.) Almodis11 de Limoges (Stuart, Page 233, Line ). Married Name: de La Marche. Born: before 960, daughter of Giraud, Vicomte de Limoges and Rothilde de Brosse, Almodis is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Bernard was born. Married circa 974: Audebert I, Count de La Marche,, son of Boson I, Count de La Marche and Emmé, Countess de Périgord. Died: between 1007 and 1011 (Stuart.) Gérard11 de Montignac (Stuart, Page 233.). Born: before 955 at France Gérard is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his daughter Amélie was born. Married before 974 at France: Nonia=Noña de Granol Nonia=Noña11 de Granol. Married Name: de Montignac. Born: before 960 Noña is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Amélie was born. Married before 974 at France: Gérard de Montignac.

157 1696. Archambaud I, Vicomte11 de Comborn (André Roux: Scrolls, 125, 136.) (Stuart, Page 114, Line ) (Abbott, Page 432.) (M. de La Chenayedes-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 62.). AKA: Archambaud II, Vicomte de Ventadour. AKA: Archambaud I, Vicomte de Turenne. AKA: Archambaud "Jambe Pourrie" (Ibid.). Born: circa 934 at Blois, Loir-et-Cher, Orléanais, France, son of Hugues II, Vicomte de Comborn and N? N?, he began construction of the Château de Monçeaux in 963. Married in 953 at France: Sulpicie de Turenne,, daughter of Bernard, Vicomte de Turenne and Doda de Quercy. Died: circa 993 Archambaud completed the construction of the Château de Monçeaux in Sulpicie11 de Turenne (André Roux: Scrolls, 125, 136.) (Stuart, Page 220, Line ). Married Name: de Comborn. AKA: Sulpice, Dame de Tournès (Abbott, Page 438.). Born: circa 936 at Turenne, Guyenne, France, daughter of Bernard, Vicomte de Turenne and Doda de Quercy, Sulpicie was alive in the year 962 (Stuart, Page 220.). Married in 953 at France: Archambaud I, Vicomte de Comborn,, son of Hugues II, Vicomte de Comborn and N? N? Died: after 975 Sulpicie was alive in the year Richard I, Duke11 de Normandie (, Personal Research. References, Encyclopedic Research.) (Stuart, Page 124, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 195, 242.) (Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish kingdom under the Carolingians: (Singapore: Longman Singapore Publishers Pte Ltd, (c) 1983), Page 238.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:26 Hours.). AKA: Richard, Regent de France Richard was the Regent of France from 956 to 960. Also Known As: Richard "Sans Peur" ("The Fearless") (Abbott, Page 219.). Born: in 933 at Fécamp, Caux, Normandie, France, son of Guillaume I, Duke de Normandie and Sprote de Bretagne. Note - between 0942 and 0965: When in 942 Richard I's father William Longsword (Longue Épée) was murdered at the instigation of Arnoul, Count of Flanders, Richard was still a minor. Louis IV and Hugh The Great both tried to seize Normandy, and Louis took charge of Richard. Richard escaped from his custody at Laon, and retook Rouen. From 947, Richard governed in relative peace and in 965, he swore allegiance to the Carolingian King Lothar. Officially married to Emma, daughter of Hugh the Great; they had no children, but from his common-law wife Gonnor, a Dane, they had many. Married between 0956 and 0960 at France: Emma de France,, daughter of Hughes, dux Francorum and Hadwige, Princess de Saxe. Significant-Other: Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec before Married in 978: Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec,, daughter of Herbastus, Chevalier de Crépon and Cyrid N? (Lady Gonnor was Richard's common-law wife as Richard had no children with his wife Emma, daughter of Hugh the Great). Significant-Other: N? N? before She was a concubine of Richard I. Died: on 20 Nov 996 at Fécamp, Caux, Normandie, France Gonnor, Dame11 de Bolbec (André Roux: Scrolls, 36.) (Stuart, Page 67, Line ). Married Name: de Normandie. AKA: Gonnor, Dame de Crépon. Born: circa 936 at France, daughter of Herbastus, Chevalier de Crépon and Cyrid N?, According to some sources, Lady Gonnor's parentage is unknown other than that her parents were Danes. Significant-Other: Richard I, Duke de Normandie before Married in 978: Richard I, Duke de Normandie,, son of Guillaume I, Duke de Normandie and Sprote de Bretagne (Lady Gonnor was Richard's common-law wife as Richard had no children with his wife Emma, daughter of Hugh the Great). Died: in 1031 at France Gausfred = Geoffroi III, Vicomte11 de Châteaudun (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ) (Ibid.) (Ibid.). Born: circa 965, son of Geoffroy = Gausfred II, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Hermengarde = Hildegard N? Married before 989: Melisindis, Dame de Nogent-le-Rotrou,, daughter of Rotrocus, Seigneur de Nogent-le-Rotrou and N? N? Died: in Melisindis, Dame11 de Nogent-le-Rotrou (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 262.). Married Name: de Châteaudun. Born: before 975, daughter of Rotrocus, Seigneur de Nogent-le-Rotrou and N? N? Married before 989: Gausfred = Geoffroi III, Vicomte de Châteaudun,, son of Geoffroy = Gausfred II, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Hermengarde = Hildegard N?

158 1714. Fouques, Count11 de Carbon. AKA: Fulcoin, Comte de Mortagne (Ibid.). Born: before 875 at Mortague-au-Perche, Normandie, France. Married before 900: N? N? N?11 N? Married before 900: Fouques, Count de Carbon Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count 11 de Bellême (André Roux: Scrolls, 53, 211.) (Stuart, Page 252, Line ) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome II (Volume 2), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 291.). AKA: Guillaume, Comte d'alençon ( (Abbott, Page 223.). Born: before 972 at Orne, Normandie, France, son of Yves I, Count de Bellême and Godehilde=Gordeschilda de Ponthieu, Guillaume I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Guillaume II, was born. Married before 989: Mathilde, Dame de Condé-sur-Noireau. Died: in 1028 at Domfront, Orne, Normandie, France, Guillaume I is buried at the Cathedral of Notre-Dame-sur-l'Eau (Abbott, Page 133.) Mathilde, Dame11 de Condé-sur-Noireau (André Roux: Scrolls, 53, 211.) (Stuart, Page 252, Line ). Married Name: de Bellême. Born: before 975 Mathilde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Guillaume II was born. Married before 989: Guillaume I dit Talvas, Count de Bellême,, son of Yves I, Count de Bellême and Godehilde=Gordeschilda de Ponthieu Hughes I, Vicomte11 de Châteaudun (Stuart, Page 184, Line ) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). AKA: Hughes II, Comte de Dunois (Abbott, Page 102.). Born: between 0960 and 0965 at Orléanais, France, son of Geoffroy = Gausfred II, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Hermengarde = Hildegard N? (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 264.). PaterAlter before 990 Hughes I, Vicomte de Châteaudun/Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun (an unknown value) (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). Married before 990: Hildegarde de Blois,, daughter of Thibaut, Count de Blois and Leutgarde de Vermandois (Hildegarde was Hughes I's second wife and she is said to have been the widow of Ernaud de La Forte when she married him). AKA: Hughes I, Archbishop de Tours (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 264.). Died: on 10 Jun Hildegarde11 de Blois (André Roux: Scrolls, 122, 184.) (Stuart, Page 184, Line ). Married Name: de Montmorency. Married Name: de Châteaudun. Born: before 955 at Orléanais, France, daughter of Thibaut, Count de Blois and Leutgarde de Vermandois, Hildegarde is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Thibault was born. Married before 970: Bouchard I, Baron de Montmorency,, son of Albéric de Centumlioe and Eadhild, Princess of England. MaterAlter: before 990 Geoffroi II/IV, Vicomte de Châteaudun/Hildegarde de Blois (Stuart, Page 185, Line ). Married before 990: Hughes I, Vicomte de Châteaudun,, son of Geoffroy = Gausfred II, Vicomte de Châteaudun and Hermengarde = Hildegard N? (Hildegarde was Hughes I's second wife and she is said to have been the widow of Ernaud de La Forte when she married him). Died: after 1008 Hildegarde was alive in the year Hildouin II, Count11 de Montdidier (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.) (Stuart, Page 195, Line ). AKA: Hilduin d'arcis-sur-aube (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/genfiles/coucy_a.txt, on 23 April 1996 at 13:58 Hours.). Born: circa 950 at Montdidier, Somme, Picardie, France, son of Hildouin=Helpuin I, Count de Montdidier and Hélissende=Hersinde, Countess d'arcis-sur-aube. Married before 979: N? de Dammartin. Died: in 992 at Jérusalem, Palestine, Holy Land, Hildouin II died while on a pilgrimage N?11 de Dammartin (André Roux: Scrolls, 198.). Married Name: de Montdidier. Born: before 972 at France She is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time her husband, Hildouin II died. Married before 979: Hildouin II, Count de Montdidier,, son of Hildouin=Helpuin I, Count de Montdidier and Hélissende=Hersinde, Countess d'arcis-sur-aube Gervais, Count11 de Châtillon-sur-Marne (André Roux: Scrolls, 135.) (Stuart, Page 127, Line ). AKA: Gervais, Comte de Roucy. AKA: Giselbert, Vidâme de Reims. Born: circa 956 at France, son of Renaud, Count de Reims and Albérade=Aubrée de Lorraine. Married before 985 at France: N. de Poitiers. Died: circa 995 at Reims, Marne, France. Buried: before 1000 at Abbey de Saint-Rémi, Reims, Marne, France. PaterAlter before 1040 Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne/Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle (an unknown value) N.11 de Poitiers (Ibid.). Married Name: de Châtillon-sur-Marne. Born: before 970 She is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Judith was born. Married before 985 at France: Gervais, Count de Châtillon-sur-Marne,, son of Renaud, Count de Reims and Albérade=Aubrée de Lorraine. MaterAlter: before 1040 Liétaud, Seigneur de Marle/N. de Poitiers Raynier V, Count11 de Hainaut (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 115.) (Stuart, Page 101, Line ) (Abbott, Page 558.). Born: circa 950, son of Raynier IV, Count de Hainaut and Alix d'alsace, Some sources show this Raynier as Raynier IV. Married circa 996 at France: Hadwige Capet, Princesse de France,, daughter of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers. Died: in Hadwige Capet, Princesse11 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 115.) (Stuart, Page 119, Line ). Married Name: de Hainaut. Born: between 0970 and 0986, daughter of Hughes II, King de France and Adélaïde de Poitiers, Hadwige is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Raynier V. Some sources indicate she was born in 969, which was before her parents were married. Married circa 996 at France: Raynier V, Count de Hainaut,, son of Raynier IV, Count de Hainaut and Alix d'alsace. Died: after 1013 Hadwige=Hegdig was alive in the year Hughes II, King11 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Hallam, Pages ) (Stuart, Page 99, Line ) (Castelot, Tome 1, Pages 415, 424.). AKA: Hughes Capet, Count de Paris. AKA: Hughes Capet, Count de Poitou. AKA: Hughes Capet, Count d'orléans. AKA: Hughes Capet, Comte d'auxerre (Abbott, Page 202.). AKA: Hughes Capet. Born: between 0939 and 0941, son of Hughes, dux Francorum and Hadwige, Princess de Saxe. Married in Jan 970 at France: Adélaïde de Poitiers,, daughter of Guillaume=William I, Comte d'aquitaine and Adèle de Normandie (Some sources indicate that Alice and Hughes were married in 968). Note - between 0987 and 0996 at France: Hughes became King crowned and anointed on 3 July 987 in Noyon. Hughes was the Chief of the Capetian Dynasty, and ruled as King from 987 to 996 with the support of Adalbéron, Archbishop of Reims, and of the ecclesiastical Feudal churchmen. In 970, he married Adélaïde de Poitiers, daughter of Guillaume III "Tête d'étoupe", Duke of Aquitaine. In the first month, hoping to secure the support of the Emperor Lothar, Hughes returns Verdun to him. On 25 December 987, he has his son, Robert, crowned King in the Cathedral of Sainte-Croix in Orléans, to rule over the peoples West from the Meuse to the Ocean. He then gets the idea in his head to have his son marry Suzanne known as Rosala, daughter of the ex-king of Italy Berenger II, and widow that very year of Arnould II, Comte de Flandre.

159 She is however 32, some claim 35, years older than young Robert. Her dowry would bring to the Capetian House, Montreuil-sur-Mer and direct access to the Channel. He was victorious over the last Carolingiens, Charles de Lorraine, with the help of Arnoul, Bishop of Orléans, and was at the mercy of his vassals most notably the lords of Blois. His beginnings were very weak: Consider the dispute: While Adalbert, Comte de Périgord, laid siege to Tours, King Hughes and his son, Robert, would never dare to declare war on him, but they asked him "Who made you Count?", and Adalbert answered "Who made you King?". Succinctly put, this summarizes Hughes' difficult situation. Upon the death of Théophano, Empress of Germany, one of Hughes most potent enemies, one who had supported Charles de Lorraine and the Archbishop Arnoul de Reims against Hughes, was eliminated in 992. However, Eudes de Chartres would take Melun. At this time, Hughes was in accord with Foulques Nerra, Comte d'anjou. Richard of Rouen also is called to the rescue and Melun is given back to its rightful owner, Bouchard de Vendôme. He had his son Robert canonized. The direct line of Hughes ruled for twelve succeeding generations following his death in 996 until Early kings associated their elder sons with the Throne during their lifetime. While the direct line appeared content to use the name Capet, once the direct line was broken, the cadet line preferred to use the more euphonious names of Valois and Bourbon they derived from their fiefs. Died: on 24 Oct 996 at Les Juifs, France, Les Juifs is near Chartres. Hughes is buried at Saint Denis Adélaïde11 de Poitiers (André Roux: Scrolls, 79.) (Stuart, Page 119, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:11 Hours.). Married Name: de France (André Roux: Scrolls.). AKA: Alice de Poitou. AKA: Adélaïde d'aquitaine. Born: circa 950 at Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou, France, daughter of Guillaume=William I, Comte d'aquitaine and Adèle de Normandie, History would remember Adélaïde, the first capetian Queen of France, for her charity and piety. She was the founder of the Monastery de Saint-Frambault as well as of the Convent d'argenteuil. Married in Jan 970 at France: Hughes II, King de France,, son of Hughes, dux Francorum and Hadwige, Princess de Saxe (Some sources indicate that Alice and Hughes were married in 968). Died: between 1004 and Guillaume I/II, Count11 de Provence (André Roux: Scrolls, 114, 147.) (Stuart, Page 236, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 2 May 1994 at 14:37 Hours.) (Castelot, Tome 1, Page 419.) (Abbott, Page 606.). AKA: Guillaume II d'arles. Born: circa 955 at Anjou, France, son of Bozon II, Count d'arles and Folcoare=Constance de Toulouse. Occupation: in 968 Guillaume was the Count de Provence at Arles in the year 968, and the Marquis of Provence. Married before Apr 970: Arsinde de Comminges,, daughter of Arnold I, Comte de Comminges and Arsende, Countess de Carcassonne (Arsinde was Guillaume I/II's first wife). Married in 985 at France: Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou,, daughter of Fouques II, Count d'anjou and Gerberge, Comtesse de Gâtinais ("Regina, sese viduatam dolens..., Wilelmum Arelatensem [Wilhelm of Arles] adiit, eique nupsit") (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 248.). Occupation: between 0992 and 0994 at Avignon, Provence, France, Guillaume I/II was a priest in Avignon. Died: circa 994 at Avignon, France, Guillaume died a priest Adélaïs=Adèle11 d'anjou (André Roux: Scrolls, 85, 147.). Married Name: de France. Married Name: Blanche de Provence. Married Name: de Gévaudan. Married Name: de Toulouse (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). AKA: N? N? Born: circa 930 at France, daughter of Fouques II, Count d'anjou and Gerberge, Comtesse de Gâtinais, According to Stuart's Royalty for Commoners, this Adélaïde was known as "Blanche", where André Roux claims the daughter of Geoffroy [son of Fouques II] was Known as Blanche. Adélaïs is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age when she married Étienne (KeatsRohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 225.). Married before 946: Raimond de Toulouse,, son of Raymond III, Count de Toulouse and Garsinde de Gascogne ('Qui suscepti a regina id sibi videri optimum dixerunt Ludovico regi assciscendam conjugem Adelaidem, Ragemundi nuper defuncti ducis Gothorum olim uxorem." In an act of 1021, Adélaïde, Comtesse de Provence, previously and briefly Queen of France, acknowledges the existence of her son Willem III de Toulouse and his wife the Countess Emma. In addition, a Papal Bull from Pope Benoit VIII is addressed to Count Willem of Toulouse and his mother Adélaïde, as follows: "domno Willelmo comiti... et domno Hugoni comiti, domnoque Rainaldo comito filio... Willelmi... et... dignissimae domnae Adeleidi comitissae, cognomento Blanchae, nuruque ejus domnae Gerberge comitissae." - The Pope clearly specifies that the Countess Adelaide, known as Blanche has as stepdaughter Gerberge, daughter of Otto-Wilhelm from his first spouse Ermentrude of Mâcon. The Benedictin Monks of the 18th. Century upon which most works on the genealogy of the House of Toulouse are based, apparently dismissed the significance of these documents) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Pages ). Married before 955 at France: Étienne, Comte de Gévaudan,, son of Ermengaud, Count de Rouergue and Adélaïs=Alaïs de Toulouse (Étienne was Adélaïde's first husband) (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 247.). Married in 982 at Brioude, Aquitaine, France: Louis V, King de France,, son of Lothaire, King de France and Emma, Princess of Italy (Adélaïde was the widow of Stephen (Étienne), Count of Gévaudun, when she married the young King Louis V, son of King Lothaire -- she being much older than he. Conjugal love between the couple was nil. After all, King Louis was still an adolescent and she was quite old and set in her ways. They refused to share a common bed. They even had different residences. Not surprisingly, Adélaïde bore Louis no children). Divorced Louis V, King de France: in 984 at France (When King Louis V's father felt that his son was having problems and also that he lacked the dignity expected of royalty, he came to Brioude to confer with him. They left Brioude together. The Queen, Adélaïde, feeling abandoned, sought support from Guillaume d'arles and married him. The divorce from Louis followed shortly). Divorced Louis V, King de France: in 984 ( Married in 985 at France: Guillaume I/II, Count de Provence,, son of Bozon II, Count d'arles and Folcoare=Constance de Toulouse ("Regina, sese viduatam dolens..., Wilelmum Arelatensem [Wilhelm of Arles] adiit, eique nupsit") (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 248.). Married in 1016: Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne,, son of Adelbert II, King de Lombardie and Gerberge=Garsinde de Chalon ( Married Name: de Bourgogne (Ibid.). Died: in 1026 (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Settipani, Christain: Chapter 11: " Les comtes d'anjou et leurs alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", Page 247.) (Perro, Ancient, Royal, Colonial Ancestry, Page 4 16:10 Hrs], Citing A.G. Moriarty: "The Ancestry of King Edward III, The Plantagenets"; F. Weiss & W.L. Sheppard "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists:, 5th. Ed, G. Paget "Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.") Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of11 Kiev (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ) (Augé, Tome II, Page 1054.) (Paul Theroff, posts, "Byzantium", Posted on 09 October 1995 at 03:15 Hours, citing E.S., Band II, Tafel 128.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Carver, [Prodigy ID# MNDY85D], "Russian Royals" on 26 August 1995 at 11:58 Hours.) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:43 Hours.). AKA: Vladimir I, Prince of Russia. AKA: Vladimir I Swjatoslawitsch. AKA: Vladimir, Grand Prince of Novgorod. AKA: Vladimir, Grand Duke de Kiev. Born: circa 956 at Kiev, Ukraine, son of Swiatoslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev and Maloucha, the Slav. Married circa 976: Adlaga N? Married circa 977 at Kiev, Ukraine: Olava N? Married in 980: Rognieda de Polotsk,, daughter of Rogwolod, Prince de Polotsk and N? N? (Rognieda is thought to have been Vladimir's third wife but may have been his first). Married circa 981: N? N? (She was a Greek and the widow of his Vladimir's brother Téropolk when she married Saint Vladimir). Married before 983 at Kiev, Ukraine: Malfrida of Bohemia. Baptized: in 988 (Vladimir was baptized

160 a Christian in the year 988, though he had many wives and concubines. The Russians were converted to Christianity as a people at that time. Prior to that, they tended to worship natural spirits). Married in 989: Anna, Princess of the East,, daughter of Romain II, Emperor of Constantinople and Théophano = Sophia Phokas (Saint Vladimir I, while continuing the Varangian practice of multiple spouses [married and otherwise], married Princess Anne, sister of Basil II, Eastern Emperor). Married between 1012 and 1017: N. von Ohningen,, daughter of Kuno, Count von Ohningen and Richilde, Princess of Germany. Note - before 1015: Saint Vladimir reunited Russia, and his several sons re-divided the patrimony among themselves. The idea that "might makes right" kept the princes at war with each other, so it was agreed that the Rota system would be established. This was a ranking of the various principalities with Kiev at first being #1... at the death of the reigning Grand Prince, the then Prince of city-state #2 advanced to Kiev, the Prince of #3 city-state moved to city-state #2, and so forth... this never worked well. After more bloodshed, this as replaced by the Patrimonial Succession laws, thereby the sons of each princely father inherited his property and stayed there... well, they were supposed to do so. At any rate, this created the princely lines of Kiev, Novgorod, Chernigov, Yaroslav, Polotsk, Vladimir, Pereslovl, etc... A junior line of princes was founded by Andrew Bobulinsky [abbreviated version of his real name] and the juncture of the Moskva and Oka rivers. A KREML [fort] had been built there to control the commercial flow on the rivers... and with that foundation, the rise of Moscow and its line of princes began, based upon economic materialism. Died: on 15 Jul 1015 at Berestovoye, Kiev, Ukraine, Vladimir ruled from his seat in Kiev, where he had a brilliant court and laid the foundation for the Russian Empire. He embrassed the Christian faith. The Order of Saint Vladimir was created by Catherine II, Empress of Russia in 1782 to commemorate his memory, and was designed to reward civil or military servants. The Order has four classes and the ribbon is comprised of 3 vertical bands, 2 black with a red one in the middle. His Feast Day is 15 June. Vladimir is buried in the Church of Ti in Kiev Rognieda11 de Polotsk (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Stuart, Page 104, Line ) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:43 Hours.). Married Name: Kiev. Born: circa 952 at Polotsk, Byelorussia, Russia, daughter of Rogwolod, Prince de Polotsk and N? N? Married in 980: Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev,, son of Swiatoslav I, Grand Prince of Kiev and Maloucha, the Slav (Rognieda is thought to have been Vladimir's third wife but may have been his first). Died: in MaterAlter: circa 1011 Dobronega Maria of Kiev/Rognieda de Polotsk Olaf III, King of11 Sweden (Stuart, Page 177, Line ) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:43 Hours.). Also Known As: Olaf "Skotkonung." Born: before 983, son of Erik, King of Sweden and Sigrid of Sweden, Olaf III is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Ingegerd was born. Other sources, posted by Leana Randall, indicate that Olaf III was born circa 950, which makes his mother's birthdate [alleged to be ca. 950, per Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners"] improbable. Married before 998: Astrid, Princess of the Obotrites,, daughter of Mieceslas III, Prince of the Obotrites and Sophia N? (Astride was Olaf III's second wife). Significant-Other: Endia of Mecklenburg before Died: in Astrid, Princess of the11 Obotrites (Stuart, Page 265, Line ) (Leana Randall, Prodigy Post, post under Subject "Russia" on 27 July 1994 at 02:49 Hours.). Married Name: Astrid = Ingrid, Princess of Sweden. Born: circa 979 at Sweden, daughter of Mieceslas III, Prince of the Obotrites and Sophia N? Married before 998: Olaf III, King of Sweden,, son of Erik, King of Sweden and Sigrid of Sweden (Astride was Olaf III's second wife). Died: after Arnulf I, Count of11 West Friesland (Stuart, Page 222, Line ). Born: between 0950 and 0970, son of Dietrich II, Count of West Friesland and Hildegarde de Flandre, Arnulf I is presumed to have been born after his mother was 15 years of age. Married before 979: Luitgarde de Luxembourg,, daughter of Sigefroy, Count de Luxembourg and Hedvige d'alsace. Died: on 18 Sep 993 Arnulf I was slain in action Luitgarde11 de Luxembourg (Stuart, Page 225, Line ). Married Name: West Friesland. Born: in 962, daughter of Sigefroy, Count de Luxembourg and Hedvige d'alsace ( Married before 979: Arnulf I, Count of West Friesland,, son of Dietrich II, Count of West Friesland and Hildegarde de Flandre. Died: on 14 May Bernhard I, Margrave11 von Nordmark (Stuart, Page 15, Line ). AKA: Bernard I, Count de Turinge. AKA: Bernard I, Count of North Thuringia. Born: before 985, son of Dietrich, Lord von Haldensleben and N? N? Married before 990: N. Vladimirowitscha,, daughter of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and N? N? Note - before 1018: Bernard I was the Margrave of the Saxon Nordmark. Died: circa N.11 Vladimirowitscha (Ibid.). Married Name: von Nordmark. Born: circa 982, daughter of Saint Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev and N? N? Married before 990: Bernhard I, Margrave von Nordmark,, son of Dietrich, Lord von Haldensleben and N? N? Bernard I, Duke11 de Saxe (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). AKA: Benno Billung. Born: circa 940, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Married circa 990: Hildegarde von Stade,, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Died: on 9 Feb 1011 at Corivey Bernard I is buried at Michaeliski in Luxembourg Hildegarde11 von Stade (Stuart, Page 215, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 6 July 18:40 Hours.). Married Name: de Saxe. Born: between 0974 and 0976, daughter of Henry von Stade and Hildegarde von Rheinhausen. Married circa 990: Bernard I, Duke de Saxe,, son of Hermann, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Westerburg. Died: on 3 Oct 1011 Hildegarde is buried at Michaeliski in Luxemburg Heinrich11 von Schweinfürt (Stuart, Page 197, Line ). AKA: Henry, Margrave in the Nordgau. Born: either 0950 or 0975, son of Berthold I, Margrave von Nordgau and Eiliswintha von Walbeck, Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" shows Henry born in 975, whereas E.S. [via Paul Theroff] shows Henry born in 950 (Paul Theroff, posts, Posted on the Internet, at ftp://members.aol.com/ptheroff/witlsbc1.txt, 4 August 1996 at 03:30 hours.). Married before 1000: Gerberge von Henneberg,, daughter of Otto II of Tullfeld and N? N? Died: on 18 Sep Gerberge11 von Henneberg (Stuart, Page 78, Line ). Married Name: von Schweinfürt. AKA: Gerberge de Gleiberg ( Born: before 993, daughter of Otto II of Tullfeld and N? N?, Gerberge is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Henry. Married before 1000: Heinrich von Schweinfürt,, son of Berthold I, Margrave von Nordgau and Eiliswintha von Walbeck. Died: after Humbert, Comte11 de Savoie (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.) (Stuart, Page 132, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, "Savoy" posted on 19 February 1994 at 04:30 Hours.) (Abbott, Page 644.). AKA: Humbert, Comte de Sermorens Humbert was Comte de Sermorens = Salmourenc in the Viennois in

161 1003. AKA: Humbert, Comte de Maurienne. Also Known As: Humbert "Aux Mains Blanches." AKA: Humbert, Comte de Noyon. MaterAlter: before 993 N? N?/Humbert, Comte de Savoie. Born: between 0993 and 0998 at France, son of Berthold=Bérold, Count de Savoie and Katharina, Palatine de Schiren, Roderick W. Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners", Page 132, Line , being somewhat self-contradictory, places Humbert's father as one Humbert=Umberto [son of Hugh, Comte de Vienne by Willa de Bourgogne] and Humbert's mother as N?. He also has Humbert's father dead c 976, which makes him a less than ideal father since Humbert was born in 998 [according to the same source]. Other sources indicate Humbert's father may have been one Bérold by Ermengarde, who as widow, became the wife of King Rodolf III de Bourgogne. Abbott shows Humbert "aux Blanches Mains" as the son of one Humbert, Comte de Savoie who died circa 994. MaterAlter: before 998 Ermengarde N?/Humbert, Comte de Savoie. PaterAlter before 998 Humbert, Comte de Savoie/Humbert=Umberto de Vienne (an unknown value). Note - between 1003 and 1035: Humbert was the Comte d'aoste in 1025 and Comte de Maurienne in 1027 [though some sources indicate it was in 1038 as a reward of helping King Conrad the Salic make goo dhis claim on Bourgogne], Comte de Sermorens in the Viennois in 1003, Comte de Noyon in He acquired Chablais in Married before 1015: Ancilie du Valais,, daughter of Anselm, Count du Valais and Adélaïde d'ortigen (Some sources indicate that Humbert's wife was Auxilia possibly von Lenzburg). Died: in Ancilie11 du Valais (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.). AKA: Auxilie de Noyen. Married Name: de Savoie. Born: before 1001 at France, daughter of Anselm, Count du Valais and Adélaïde d'ortigen, Ancilies is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Amadeus, was born. Married before 1015: Humbert, Comte de Savoie,, son of Berthold=Bérold, Count de Savoie and Katharina, Palatine de Schiren (Some sources indicate that Humbert's wife was Auxilia possibly von Lenzburg) Ulrich=Manfredo II, Marquis11 de Turin (André Roux: Scrolls, 119.) (Stuart, Page 225, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, "9th/10th Centy.Kings" posted on 18 February 1994 at 01:03 Hours.). AKA: Manfredo II, Marquis de Susa. Born: before 1000 at Italy, son of Manfredo I, Marquis de Turin and Prangarda di Canossa, Ulrich is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Adélaïde was born. Married before 1014: Berthe d'este,, daughter of Humbert=Oberto I, Count de Genoa and Railinda de Como. Died: on 23 Dec 1035 at Turin, Italy Berthe11 d'este (Stuart, Page 71, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). Married Name: de Turin. AKA: Berta degli Obertenghi. Born: before 1001 at Este, Liguria, Italy, daughter of Humbert=Oberto I, Count de Genoa and Railinda de Como, Berthe is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Adélaïde was born. Married before 1014: Ulrich=Manfredo II, Marquis de Turin,, son of Manfredo I, Marquis de Turin and Prangarda di Canossa. Died: on 29 Dec Aimoin I, Count11 de Genève (André Roux: Scrolls.). Born: before 998 at Savoie, France, son of Albert, Count de Genève and Eldegarde N?, Aimon I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age when his son, Gerold I, was born. Married before 1015: Berthe de Flandre. Died: after 1016 Aimoin I was alive in the year Berthe11 de Flandre. Married Name: de Genève. Born: before 1000 Berthe is presumed to have been at least 16 years of age by the time her son Gérold I was born. Married before 1015: Aimoin I, Count de Genève,, son of Albert, Count de Genève and Eldegarde N? N.11 de Genève. Born: before 1001 He is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his daughter Gisèle was born. Married before 1018: Mathilde de Bourgogne,, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France Mathilde11 de Bourgogne (Stuart, Page 133, Line ). Married Name: de Genève. Born: between 0956 and 0960, daughter of Conrad I, King de Bourgogne and Mahaut=Mathilde, Princess de France. Married before 1018: N. de Genève Otto-Guillaume, Duke11 de Bourgogne (André Roux: Scrolls, 98, 123.) (Abbott, Page 506.). AKA: Othon, Count de Nevers. AKA: Otton I, King de Lombardie. AKA: Othe Guillaume, Count de Mâcon (Abbott, Page 212.). Note -: Otton-Guillaume was Count and then Duke de Bourgogne. Adelbert, Duke of Lombardie married Gerberge, Countess of Dijon. Their son Otto-Guillaume was adopted by Henri, Duke of Burgundy who died in 1001/1002, and who is Gerberge's second husband and the Uncle to King Robert II de France. Born: between 0958 and 0959 at France, son of Adelbert II, King de Lombardie and Gerberge=Garsinde de Chalon. Married before 973: Ermentrude de Reims,, daughter of Renaud, Count de Reims and Albérade=Aubrée de Lorraine (Ermentrude was Otton's first wife). PaterAlter circa 991 Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne/Henri, Duke de Bourgogne Henri, Duke de Bourgogne, being without heir of his own, adopted Otto-Guillaume. Married in 1016: Adélaïs=Adèle d'anjou,, daughter of Fouques II, Count d'anjou and Gerberge, Comtesse de Gâtinais ( Died: on 21 Oct 1026 at Pouilly-sur-Saône, France, Otton-Guillaume is buried in Dijon. Some sources indicate that Otto-Guillaume died on 15 October Ermentrude11 de Reims (André Roux: Scrolls, 123, 193, 269.) (Stuart, Page 70, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls.). Married Name: Ermentrude, Countess de Mâcon. AKA: Ermentrude, Queen de Lombardie. Married Name: de Bourgogne. AKA: Ermengarde de Roucy (M. Lainé (Pub), Archives Généalogiques et Historiques, Tome Quatrième (Volume 4), MDCCCXXXIV (1834), De Villeneuve, Page 7.). Born: circa 938 at Reims, Marne, Champagne, France, daughter of Renaud, Count de Reims and Albérade=Aubrée de Lorraine, For reasons that are not clear the British call it Rheims rather than Reims. Married before 956: Albéric=Aubri II, Count de Mâcon,, son of Liétaud II, Count de Mâcon and Ermengarde de Vergy. Married before 973: Otto-Guillaume, Duke de Bourgogne,, son of Adelbert II, King de Lombardie and Gerberge=Garsinde de Chalon (Ermentrude was Otton's first wife). Died: on 5 Mar 1005 Some sources indicate Ermentrude may have died in Richard II, Duke11 de Normandie (Stuart, Page 67, Line 89-32; Page 134, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 168.) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:26 Hours.). Also Known As: Richard "Le Bon" (Abbott, Page 219.). Born Illeg.: circa 958 at Normandie, France, -, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec, -. Married circa 1000: Judith de Bretagne,, daughter of Conan I, Duke de Bretagne and Ermengarde d'anjou. Married in 1017: Estrid of Denmark,, daughter of Svend I, King of England and Gunhild of Poland (Richard was Estrid's first husband). Repudiated: Estrid of Denmark circa Married between 1020 and 1027: Poppa N? (Poppa was Richard II's third wife). Died: on 28 Aug 1027 at Fécamp, Seine-Inférieure, Normandie, France Judith11 de Bretagne (André Roux: Scrolls, 149, 168.) (Stuart, Page 125, Line ; Page 135, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 07 June 1995 at 14:10 Hours.). Married Name: de Normandie. AKA: Judith de Rennes. Born: in 982 at Rennes, Bretagne, France, daughter of Conan I, Duke de Bretagne and Ermengarde d'anjou. Married circa 1000: Richard II, Duke de Normandie,, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame

162 de Bolbec. Died: on 16 Jun Castillon Renaud11 de Château Renard (Stuart, Page 105, Line ) (Abbott, Page 97.) (Ibid.). Born: before 967 at France, son of Renaud, Comte de Sens and N? N?, Castillon is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son Albon was born. Married before 985: N? N? N?11 N? Married before 985: Castillon Renaud de Château Renard,, son of Renaud, Comte de Sens and N? N? Milon I11 de Monteleherico (Stuart, Page 178, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 08 June 1995 at 18:23 Hours.). AKA: Milon I, Seigneur de La Ferté-sur-Oucy. Born: before 991 Milon I is presumed to have been at least 18 years of age by the time his son, Gui I, was born. André Roux's data skips this generation. Married before 1009 at France: N?, Dame de Montlhéry,, daughter of Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry and N?, Dame de Montlhéry. Died: after 1057 Milon I was alive in the years 1034 and N?, Dame11 de Montlhéry (Stuart, Page 178, Line ). Married Name: de Monteleherico. AKA: N?, Dame de Chèvreuse. Born: before 994 at Montlhéry, Seine-et-Oise, Ile-de-France, France, daughter of Thibault, Seigneur de Montlhéry and N?, Dame de Montlhéry, She is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son, Gui I, was born. André Roux's data skips this generation. Married before 1009 at France: Milon I de Monteleherico. Died: after Guillaume11 de Gometz (Stuart, Page 68, Line ). AKA: Guyllaume I, Seigneur de Bures. Born: before 996 Guillaume is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Bertrade was born. Married before 1011: N? N? N?11 N? Married before 1011: Guillaume de Gometz Renaud I, Count11 de Nevers (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 117, 144.) (Stuart, Page 188, Line ) (Abbott, Page 183.). AKA: Renaud I, Count d'auxerre. Born: between 0990 and 1000 at Nivernais, France, son of Bodo I, Lord de Nevers and Mathilde, Countess de Bourgogne, Renaud I was alive in the year Married on 28 Jan 1016 at France: Hadwige=Adèle, Princess de France,, daughter of Robert II, King de France and Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy. Died: on 29 May 1040 at Savigny-le-Bourguignon, France, Renaud I was slain in battle Hadwige=Adèle, Princess11 de France (André Roux: Scrolls, 79, 117.) (Stuart, Page 169, Line ). Married Name: de Nevers. AKA: Advise, Comtesse d'auxerre (Abbott, Page 202.). Born: circa 990 at France, daughter of Robert II, King de France and Rosèla=Suzanne, Princess of Italy. Married on 28 Jan 1016 at France: Renaud I, Count de Nevers,, son of Bodo I, Lord de Nevers and Mathilde, Countess de Bourgogne. Died: in 1063 (Abbott, Page 183.). This Coat of Arms is associated with the Comtes de Bar-sur-Seine Renaud I, Comte11 de Bar-sur-Seine (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome III (Volume 3), MDCCLXXI (1771), Page 198.). AKA: Renaud I, Count de Tonnerre (André Roux: Scrolls, 143, 199. ) (Stuart, Page 188, Line ) (Abbott, Page 86.). AKA: Renaud I, Seigneur de Polisz. AKA: Renaud I, Seigneur d'avisoy. Born: circa 980 at Bourgogne, France, son of Milon II/IV, Count de Tonnerre and Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine. Married before 1025 at France: Ervide N? Died: on 16 Jul Ervide11 N? (André Roux: Scrolls, 199.) (Stuart, Page 188, Line ). Married Name: de Tonnerre. Born: before 1011 Ervide is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter Eustache was born. Ervide was the sister of Ardvin, Bishop of Noyen. Married before 1025 at France: Renaud I, Comte de Bar-sur-Seine,, son of Milon II/IV, Count de Tonnerre and Ermengarde de Bar-sur-Seine Géraud II, Count11 de Forez (Stuart, Page 226, Line ). AKA: Géraud II, Count de Rohau. AKA: Géraud II, Count de Lyon (Abbott, Page 573.). AKA: Giraud, Comte de Roannais (Abbott, Page 577.). Born: before 1000 at France, son of Artaud II, Count de Forez and Teutberge de Vienne, Géraud II was alive in the year Married before 1032: Adélaïde N? Died: in 1058.

163 1773. Adélaïde11 N? (Stuart, Page 226, Line ). Married Name: de Forez. Born: before 1022 at France Adélaïde is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when she married Géraud II. Married before 1032: Géraud II, Count de Forez,, son of Artaud II, Count de Forez and Teutberge de Vienne Lambert I, Count11 de Louvain (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 217, 253.) (Stuart, Page 49, Line ) (André Roux: Scrolls.) (Ibid.). AKA: Lambert II, Count de Mons. Born: circa 950, son of Raynier IV, Count de Hainaut and Alix d'alsace. Married before 980: Gerberge de Brabant,, daughter of Gilbert, Count de Brabant and Gerberge de Saxe (Ibid.). Married circa 990: Gerberge de Lorraine,, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Died: on 12 Sep 1015 at Florennes, Philippeville, Namur, Belgium, Lambert I was killed in battle defending his nephew's Comté de Hainault against the newly-created Godefroy Duc de Brabant. Lambert I is buried at the Cloister of Sainte Gertrude in Nivelles Gerberge11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 193, 217, 253.) (Stuart, Page 89, Line ). Married Name: de Louvain. Born: circa 975 at France, daughter of Charles, Prince de France and Bonne=Adélaïde d'ardenne. Married circa 990: Lambert I, Count de Louvain,, son of Raynier IV, Count de Hainaut and Alix d'alsace. Died: after 1017 Gerberge was alive in the year Gerberge is buried at the Cloister of Sainte Gertrude in Nivelles, France Gozelon I, Duke11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.) (Stuart, Page 79, Line ). AKA: Gozelon I, Margrave of Antwerp. AKA: Gozelon I, Count de Verdun. Born: circa 967, son of Godfrey, Count de Verdun and Mahaut=Mathilda de Saxe. Married before 994: N? N? Died: on 19 Apr N?11 N? Married before 994: Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine,, son of Godfrey, Count de Verdun and Mahaut=Mathilda de Saxe Godizo, Count11 de Béthune (Stuart, Page 269, Line ). Born: before 998 at France, son of Unrouch=Hunroch, Count de Teisterbant and N? N?, Godizo is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age when he died. Married before 1018: Berthe=Bave N? Died: in Berthe=Bave11 N? (Ibid.). Married Name: de Béthune. Born: before 1003 Berthe is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Eberhard was born. Married before 1018: Godizo, Count de Béthune,, son of Unrouch=Hunroch, Count de Teisterbant and N? N? Louis II, Comte11 de Chiny (Stuart, Page 47, Line ). AKA: Louis II, Comte d'ivoix. Born: before 1025 at Ivoix, Luxembourg, son of Louis I, Comte de Chiny and Adélaïde N? Married before 1046: Sophie de Verdun,, daughter of Frederick, Comte de Verdun and N? N? Note - in 1048: Louis II defeated Duke Gozelon and avenged his father's death. He founded the Monastery of Suxi and entertained Emperor Henry III and King Henri I de France in Died: in Sophie11 de Verdun (Ibid.). Married Name: de Chiny. Born: before 1022, daughter of Frederick, Comte de Verdun and N? N? Married before 1046: Louis II, Comte de Chiny,, son of Louis I, Comte de Chiny and Adélaïde N? Died: in Hildouin, Comte11 d'arcis-sur-aube (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 198, 254.) (Stuart, Page 195, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995 at 15:14 Hours.). AKA: Hildouin IV, Comte de Montdidier (Stuart, Page 195, Line ). AKA: Hildouin IV, Seigneur de Raméru. Born: circa 1010 at France, son of Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier and Lesseline N? AKA: Hildouin IV, Comte de Roucy Comte de Roucy by marriage (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). Married in 1031: Adélaïde=Alice, Countess de Roucy,, daughter of Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims and Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut (Adèle brought Roucy to the Count of Montdidier as dowry, enriching his land holdings). Occupation: between 1061 and 1068 Hildouin IV was also the Count de Montdidier (Picardie, France) Seigeur de Raméru in 1061

164 then Count de Raméru in 1063, and obtained Roucy in dowry from his marriage to Adélaïde. Died: between 1063 and 1068 E.S. [via Paul Theroff] suggests that Hildouin died in Adélaïde=Alice, Countess 11 de Roucy (André Roux: Scrolls, 135, 198, 254.) (Stuart, Page 128, Line ). AKA: Isabelle de Roucy. AKA: Adélaïde de Reims. AKA: Alix de Châtillon (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 632.). Born: circa 1014 at Roucy, Champagne, France, daughter of Ebles I, Vidâme de Reims and Adélaïde=Béatrix de Hainaut. Married in 1031: Hildouin, Comte d'arcis-sur-aube,, son of Hildouin III, Comte de Montdidier and Lesseline N? (Adèle brought Roucy to the Count of Montdidier as dowry, enriching his land holdings). Died: between 1062 and Albert II, Count11 de Namur (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.) (Stuart, Page 88, Line ) (Paul Theroff, posts, 04 February 1995, at 15:14 Hours.). Born: circa 1000 at Belgium, son of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Married before 1030: Relinde de Lorraine,, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N? Died: in 1037 Albert II was killed. Some sources indicate that Albert II died between 1063 and Relinde11 de Lorraine (André Roux: Scrolls, 197.). Married Name: de Namur. AKA: Regelinde, Countess de Châtenois. Born: circa 994, daughter of Gozelon I, Duke de Lorraine and N? N? Married before 1030: Albert II, Count de Namur,, son of Albert=Adalbert I, Count de Namur and Ermengarde=Adélaïde=Ermentrude de Lorraine. Died: on 1 Feb Bernard II, Duke11 de Saxe (André Roux: Scrolls, 113.) (Stuart, Page 223, Line ). Born: circa 995, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Married between 1019 and 1020: Bertrade, Princess of Norway,, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married in 1020: Elica von Schweinfürt,, daughter of Heinrich von Schweinfürt and Gerberge von Henneberg ( Died: on 29 Jun Bertrade, Princess of11 Norway (Stuart, Page 151, Line ). Married Name: de Saxe. Born: before 970, daughter of Harold II, King of Norway and N? N? Married between 1019 and 1020: Bernard II, Duke de Saxe,, son of Bernard I, Duke de Saxe and Hildegarde von Stade. Died: after 1030 Bertrade was alive in the year Godefroy, Count11 d'eu (Paul Theroff, posts, 09 July 1994 at 19:25 Hours.) (M. de La Chenaye-des-Bois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome IV (Volume 4), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 582.) (Ibid.). AKA: Geoffroy, Comte de Brionne (Ibid.). AKA: Geoffroy dit de Clare. Born Illeg.: between 0959 and 0963 at Normandie, France, -, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec, - According to the Dictionnaire, Godefroy was alive in the year 921; however, no other source was found to support that allegation. Married before 970: N? N? Died: in N?11 N? (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., David Dowell posting on the Genealogy BB of the Prodigy Interactive Personal Service under Subject "Antrobus" on 7 January 1996 at 22:23 Hours.). Born: circa 957 at Normandie, France. Married before 970: Godefroy, Count d'eu,, son of Richard I, Duke de Normandie and Gonnor, Dame de Bolbec Fulk11 d'aunon (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., posted by Robert Carver [Prodigy ID# MVRS13F] under Subject "Royal Intermarriages", 9 April 1996 at 21:23 Hours and citing Turton "The Plantagenet Ancestry", Pg. 134.). Born: before 984, son of Baudouin N? and N? N?, Fulk is presumed to have been at least 20 years of age by the time his daughter, Gunnora, was born. Married before 1003: N? N? N?11 N? Married before 1003: Fulk d'aunon,, son of Baudouin N? and N? N? Osbern, Lord11 de Bolbec (Stuart, Page 124.) (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., David Dowell posting on the Genealogy BB of the Prodigy Interactive Personal Service under Subject "Antrobus" on 7 January 1996 at 22:23 Hours.). AKA: Osber=Oberne de Bollebec (M. de La Chenaye-desBois, Dictionnaire de La Noblesse, Tome V (Volume 5), MDCCLXXII (1772), Page 306.). Occupation: Osbern=Herbatus. He was the Forrester of Arques. AKA: Osborne=Osbern Giffard de Bolbec. Born: before 980 at Longueville, Normandie, France Osbern is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Josseline was born. Married before 990: Aveline, Lady of Wevier,, daughter of Herbastus, Chevalier de Crépon and Cyrid N? AKA: Osbern, Seigneur de Longueville (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., by Sheila Morelli [Prodigy ID# HBSB91C], under topic "Royal/Noble/Heraldry", Subject "Bolbec/Giffard", posted on 6 May 1998 at 20:15 Hours, Citing Weis, Moriarty [NEHGS 1921], and Davis (1963).). Died: in 1063 at France Aveline, Lady of11 Wevier (Genealogy BB of Prodigy Svcs., David Dowell posting on the Genealogy BB of the Prodigy Interactive Personal Service under Subject "Antrobus" on 7 January 1996 at 22:2