8 th Grade Social Studies Mid-term Review Sheet Midterm on February 15 th, 2017

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1 8 th Grade Social Studies Mid-term Review Sheet Midterm on February 15 th, 2017 Name Answer Key The Midterm will cover information regarding the following units: Early Hominids, Ancient Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, and Ancient Greece. The following is a study guide to help you review important terms, people, and places. This study guide is not necessarily reflective of the test. Information not found on this study guide may appear on the Midterm. Look over these items: Past study guides, quizzes and tests Notes, handouts, readings, maps/timelines, from each unit *You will be allowed to bring with you one 4 x 6 index card to use during the test with information, picture, diagrams and charts to aid your success. The card must have student produced work meaning nothing should be typed, printed off of a computer, etc.* Section I: Vocabulary Study well and good luck to all! Mr. Crossman, Ms. McCarthy, and Mr. Nixon *Use the terms below to fill-in the following spaces. Africa Archeologist Bipedal City-state Civilization Cuneiform Democracy Embalming Exodus Hammurabi Hominid Ingenuity Justice Tyranny Kingdom of Kush Mesopotamia Migrate Monarchy Oligarchy Mummification Pre-history Pyramid Torah Dear Dr. Salladino, I wanted to give you my semi-annual report regarding what the students have learned up to date. Our social studies curriculum covers such a broad time frame! All eighth graders started learning about events that occurred during the time period before written records known as pre-history. Many of our early lessons consisted of examining fossils and information found by archeologist (s). One of the most famous women in this field was Mary Leaky who found footprints that dated back millions of years. Mary and her husband also found tools and bones of some of the earliest humans called hominid(s). Many more discoveries were found on the continent of Africa, this led scientists to believe that this was the place humans first started to walk or become bipedal. Based on DNA studies, everyone who lives today has common ancestor, nicknamed Eve. After possessing the knowledge essential for survival, an early species of humans known as Homo Erectus started to _migrate_, or move to other places on earth. Eventually humans

2 would settle down on all continents except Antarctica. My students started to look at reasons why people were able to settle in one area. One of the first places we looked at was _Mesopotamia_, the Greeks called it so because it was land between two rivers. Sumer was an area within the southern part of Mesopotamia. In one lesson, the students examined pictures of artifacts, and had to gather supporting evidence proving that the Sumerians lived in a civilization. This is when a group of people established a written language, social structure, specialized jobs, a system of government, arts, and religion. We even saw that people over 4,000 years ago tried to control the annual flooding of the rivers through community building projects. Within Sumer there were separate city_- states (s) that were like small countries. We studied cuneiform, the first form of writing, and its influences on the culture. The ancients wrote on clay tablets that are still intact and on display at the University of Penn museum. Another group of people we researched were the Babylonians. One of the most influential Babylonian leaders was named Hammurabi. He is known for creating a uniform code of laws. When we studied Ancient Egypt we looked at pictures of the great pyramid of Giza. This is the last structure standing of the original Seven Wonders. mum./embalm. was the process of preparing a body for the afterlife. During this time period, the followers of Judaism lived in Ancient Egypt. The main text for this religion is the Torah. After a few hundred years, the Israelite people left Egypt that is known as the Exodus. Another neighboring people group was the Kingdom of Kush. This group was to the south and was known for wealth from trade. Reading Greek myths and legends have given us insight to the culture. Some common themes found in these stories are ingenuity and justice. We also explored the advantages and disadvantages of four types of government in ancient Greece monarchy, oligarchy, tyranny, and democracy. The land of Greece was very influential in our society today. We will continue to study this culture and how they shaped the western world. Sincerely, 8 th Grade Social Studies Teachers Section II: Early Humans (Chapters 1, 2, and 3) *Complete the practice questions and provide examples from lessons discussed in class.* 1. What occupations study the time of pre-history? What are their responsibilities? Paleoanthropologist studies pre human hominid remains; Biologist studies remnants of plans and food particles; Chemist studies remains of materials people in the past used and dating; Geologist studies stone and the movement of stone; Archeologist man made objects (artifacts) 2. The artifacts you see are pieces of a crown once worn by a Mycenaean King. Who would be able to tell you how old it is and what the raised circles may mean? (Circle your answers) Linguist Botanist anthropologist chemist Dating the artifact geologist archeologist Paleoanthropologist Human culture

3 3. According to our textbook there are several early hominids that are ancestors to human beings. List these hominid in the (Homo genus) and one of their capabilities: Homo habilis was nicknamed Handy Man was the first hominid to use. Homo erectus was nicknamed Upright Man and was the first to use fire. Homo sapiens neanderthal the first wise man & had a sense of community (buried dead). Homo sapiens sapiens or doubly wise man created artwork and are still around today (us). 4. Based on hominid fossils, how long have homo sapiens sapiens walked the Earth? (choose the closest answer) a. 50,000 years ago b. 1 million years ago c. 5 million years ago d. 10 million years ago 5. List 3 differences between Neanderthals and Modern Humans Neanderthals Modern Humans short and stocky taller and more slender stronger muscles pronounced forehead and strong weaker but more intelligent forehead and bones not as pronounced 6. The creature Lucy (Australopithecus Afarensis) was different from other species. What 2 capabilities set Lucy apart? She was bipedal (walked on two legs) and used her hands to carry her young. The brain was 1/3 the size of modern humans. 7. Otzi the Iceman is a very recent study giving us a view into the past. What is the prevailing theory of Otzi s death and what evidence do archeologists to support this theory? Otzi was killed by younger men of his clan. The CT scan showed an arrowhead in his chest and the bronze axe was not taken. 8. The Neolithic Revolution involved the following: (check all that apply) Migration to mountainous regions Global Warming Unstable food supply Population growth near river valleys X Specialized jobs Cave paintings X Planting and harvesting of crops New technologies Extinction of the dinosaurs X Domestication of animals

4 Section III: Mesopotamia (chapters 4, 5, and 6) *Complete the practice questions and provide examples from lessons discussed in class. 9. Check the characteristics of civilization (check all that apply) Transportation X Social Structure X_ Government X Technology X_ Writing X Culture Pet care X Stable Food Supply X_Philosophy/Religion Cooking 10. Where the ancient Sumerians civilized? Yes or No What evidence can you give that supports your answer? Sumerians developed a form of writing (cuneiform); a surplus of food (fertile land); advanced government (king and laws) 11. What makes the land of The Fertile Crescent different from the surrounding area? It has arable land (land that can grow crops)_ 12. What does Mesopotamia mean? the land between the rivers 13. What 2 rivers form Mesopotamia? Tigris River and Euphrates River 14. What modern day country is in this area today? Iraq 15. Which picture below shows a Sumerian citystate? Write a one sentence explanation The picture on the right shows a walled Sumerian city with the surrounding farmland. The idea of a city-state is a self-sufficient land area. This consists of a centrally located city where the majority of people live surrounded by small villages and farmland that feeds the whole population.

5 16. Summarize the Epic of Gilgamesh in about 4 sentences: Gilgamesh was a legendary king of a Sumerian city-state. He met his best friend Enkidu, a strong wild man who was civilized by the priestess Harim. Enkidu is cursed by the gods and dies. Gilgamesh goes on a journey to gain eternal life but fails and learns that people are remembered by their actions. He returns a better leader to save his city-state. 17. List the four empires to rule Mesopotamia in Ancient Times. Identify one key concept from each and draw the images in the boxes below. Akkadian Babylonian Assyrians Neo-Babylonians First empire: multiple Unified Laws: Code Strong military; Intellectuals; invented cities/people groups of Hammurabi treated people cruelly the sundial Section IV: Ancient Egypt (chapters 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12) 18. The Greek historian Herodotus visited Egypt and stated, Egypt is the gift of the Nile. What did he mean and do you agree with him? The Nile provided the water and silt (soil) from flooding. It was used for transportation. Without the Nile River the civilization would not exist. (I do or do not agree). 19. Which type of writing did the Egyptians use on temples and tombs? a) Cuneiform b) Greek Alphabet c) Hieroglyphics d) Sanskrit 20. List three ways the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms are simliar: The government was a monarchy, ruled by the Pharaohs who were mummfied The Egyptians believed in many gods, polytheism, include Osiris, Re, and Horus Hieroglyphics were used to tell stories and histories of Egypt

6 21. List three ways the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms were different: Old Kingdom The pharaoh had the most power and built large tombs, pyramids Middle Kingdom The arts and architecture were promoted by a guiding pharaoh New Kingdom All classes could be mummified and Egypt became an empire 22. True or False: The purpose of mummification was to ready the pharaohs bodies for a cremation ceremony which took place on a boat in the Nile. 23. Matching Objective: Identify the leader and their event/contribution to Ancient history. Figure Event/Contribution S- Senusret I Built the Great Pyramid K- Khufu Considered to be the Father of the Hebrews H- Hatshepsut Honored the Arts in Egypt M- Moses Trade Ships sent to southern Africa A- Abraham Lead the Hebrew people out of Egypt Directions: Use the timeline above to answer the following questions. 24. What year did King Menes (Narmer) unify Egypt? 3100 B.C.E How many years does this timeline show in all? Who ruled first, King Tutankhamon or King Ramses II? Tutankhamon. 27. Which time period above shows the most pharaohs? New Kingdom. 28. What major kingdom bordered Egypt to the south? Describe the different periods of interactions. The Kingdom of Kush border Egypt to the south and was known for its wealth from trade with Egypt and the Central African Kingdoms. During the New Kingdom period, Egypt conquered Kush and egyptianized the culture. Then, in 754 B.C.E. the Kingdom of Kush invaded Egypt and rebuilt temples. Next, the Kingdom of Kush moved its capital south and returned to its African roots. Finally, in the year 24 B.C.E. they signed a peace treaty with Rome.

7 29. Definition Example Religions Polytheism The belief in many gods Ancient Egyptian, Greek Monotheism The belief in one god Judaism, Christianity, Islam 30. What is the name of the primary text of Judaism? What two major religious leaders are described in this text? The primary text of Judaism is the Torah. In this text, Abraham makes a covenant with God and was the Father of the Hebrews. Moses led the Jewish people out from slavery in Egypt to the promised land (modern day Isreal) Section V: Ancient Greece (chapters 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, and 30) *Complete the practice questions and provide examples from lessons discussed in class. 31. True or False: The geography of Greece is made up of islands, mountains, and peninsulas. 32. Each of the following statements refers to one of two early Greek civilizations. Identify the civilization by writing (Min for Minoans or My for Mycenaeans). _Min_ First civilization in the area _Min_ Myth of the Minotaur _My_ War-like culture _My_ Palaces on hilltops _My_ Located on the Greek mainland _Min_ Located on the island of Crete 33. Identify the Greek governments in order of their appearance. 1. Monarchy single ruler passed down the family line 2. Oligarchy ruled by a small group 3. Tyranny ruled by one who takes power 4. Democracy power in the hands of the people 34. What are the elements of a myth and why did the Greeks tell these stories? Myths focus on supernatural beings and explain nature. You will not need to know this For the Mid-Term 35. Name two differences between life in the city-states of Sparta and Athens. Athens women worked in the home; Sparta women were athletic and could own land Athens men could be part of the assembly; Sparta men lived in a barracks until 30

8 Section 6: Map * Locate the following on the map below Sparta Athens Mediterranean Sea Sahara Desert Crete Egypt Asia Minor Giza Ur Babylon N i l e Asia Minor Athens Babylon Crete Egypt Euphrates River Giza Sahara Desert Mediterranean Sea Mesopotamia Nile River Persian Gulf Red Sea Sparta Tigris River Ur

9

10 A SUMERIAN SCHOOL-PRIMARY SOURCE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Read the sentences from the passage: That evening I complained to my father about my bad marks. And so he invited the father of the tablet house to our house, placed him in the seat of honor and gave him dinner. This sentence indicates that: A. The student loved the teacher because he had learned so much and wanted to do something special for the teacher to thank him. B. The father hated and feared his son and supported the teacher s poor treatment of his son. C. The student s family owned a restaurant. D. The teacher needed to be bribed in order for the student to be treated well in school. 2. Which sentence best supports the idea that after the dinner at his father s house the Sumerian pupil would be treated more respectfully and that the teacher would support his eventual rise to a powerful position: A. The son of the tablet house will ascend the highest pinnacles of the art of writing. The day will come when he will be first among his brothers. B. My father heard me recite and was pleased with what I had learned in the tablet house. C. When I was caught talking in class, I was caned. D. He presented him with a jar of oil, a robe, some money and he placed a ring on his finger as well. 3. What does the term pinnacles mean as it is used in line 25 in the story? A. A part of Sumerian architecture similar to a spiral on ziggurats that reaches to the sky. B. The student will have a special comfortable chair to sit on when writing in class. C. The son will be able to write well and be the best writer among his classmates. D. The son will take part in a special class trip involving mountain climbing and will write about it. 4. Which sentence summarizes the passage objectively? A. Students were lazy in Ancient Sumer and needed caning and constant reminders from the teacher to complete their work well. B. Sumerian students learned to write in school, experienced caning in the tablet houses and their families bribed the teachers to insure good treatment of their sons. C. Sumerian teachers communicated extremely well with the families of their students, even visiting the students in their homes and this relationship resulted in the best education and treatment of the student. D. The teachers of Sumer s tablet house were cruel and greedy and only treated students well when they were bribed. 5. This question has two parts. Answer Part One and then Answer Part Two. Part One Which generalization about the Sumerian pupil s father is most supported by the events in this passage? A. He supports his son and wants him to be treated well in school. B. He doesn t care if the students learns to write well and bribes the teacher to give him good grades no matter what. C. He condemns the physical punishment of students and wants the teacher to be punished. D. He enjoys entertaining and likes having the father of the tablet house over for dinner. Part Two Which sentences best support the answer to Part One? Choose two answers. A. That evening I complained to my father about my bad marks. And so he invited the father of the tablet house to our house, placed him in the seat of honor and gave him dinner. B. He presented him with a jar of oil, a robe, some money and he placed a ring on his finger as well. C. My father heard me recite and was pleased with what I had learned in the Tablet House. D. But when I later left the tablet house without permission, the big brother with the stick caned me several times.

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