Revolutionary Violence. Christopher Lilley

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Revolutionary Violence. Christopher Lilley"

Transcription

1 Revolutionary Violence Christopher Lilley A HEROINE, MALE CITIZENS AND FEMALE CITIZENS THE HEROINE pointing to the arc de triomphe Musical Interlude Worthy children of Mars, end your wait! Avenge suffering humanity! Liberty calls you to combat; We are burning to follow your steps. To the tyrants of Europe we will bring war: It is time to purge the earth Of Phalarises, of Geryons! Topple their thrones of lava, Crush their scepters of bronze; Break their shackles of mankind: Let us destroy the name of slave. CHOIR OF HEROINES Let us destroy the name of slave: And break the shackles of mankind! 1 In the words of Stanley Hoffman violence was indeed a mark of the French Revolution. 2 Separating violence from the French Revolution is as meaningless as trying to put the sun out with a water pistol. Such an attempt would be inadvisable and nearly impossible. What started with a series of attempted legislative reform led to the most violent of all possible changes: the execution of the King and a complete break with hundreds of years of tradition and monarchy. Unfortunately, the initial focus of the violence on freedom and liberty was replaced with mass executions and terror like cataracts over an eye. Violence is a key factor in the 1 Act II Scene I 2 Stanley Hoffmann, A Note on the French Revolution and the Language of Violence, The Journal of Modern History 56, no. 2 (Spring 1987): 149.

2 2 ultimate failure of the revolution. Authors Mona Ozouf, Gunther E. Rothenberg, and Stanley Hoffmann all write about violence during the French Revolution. 3 The question is exactly how violence was used during the French Revolution. Based upon a study of these three essays there are three important types of violence used during the French Revolution: the rhetorical violence, revolutionary warfare, and ultimately the Terror itself. Violent rhetoric reinforced the militancy of the French Revolution. In his rhetorical study of French Revolutionary violence Stanley Hoffmann argues that the strongly unitary communitarian language of the latter half of the French Revolution led to violence and paranoia. First he quotes a portion of one of Robespierre s speeches: We want to substitute in our land immorality for egotism, probity for honor, principles for customs, ethics for propriety, the rule of reason for the tyranny of fashion, disdain for vice for disdain for misfortune, self-respect for insolence In the system of the French Revolution what is immoral is impolitic, what is corruptive is counterrevolutionary. 4 With language this strong it is easy to imagine a powerful speaker such as Robespierre castigating a foe as a counterrevolutionary simply for not adhering to a specific virtue strongly enough. In response to this Hoffmann asks: What was the significance of this language? It has a number of features that one will find, of course, in other revolutions again. There is the underlying myth of unanimity and of unity, the idea that all the people would be united and transparent, open to one another, if it were not for the traitors, for the criminals. In this view, behind which lurks Rousseau, division and conflict are not natural at all. Division is a crime, and it is the product of 3 Mona Ozouf, War and Terror in French Revolutionary Discourse ( ), The Journal of Modern History 56, no. 4 (December 1984): ; Gunther E. Rothenberg, The Origins, Causes and Extension of the Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon, The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18, no. 4 (Spring 1988): ; Hoffmann, A Note, Hoffmann, A Note, 150.

3 3 plots, factions, and intrigues. This leads, inevitably, to the politics of paranoia. There are multiple kinds of enemies; there are new ones everyday, like mushrooms after the rain. And even they belong to all imaginable categories, they are all part of a system that can only be dealt with by purges. 5 Hoffmann s argument is problematic for anyone who is critical of deterministic logic. In the portion of her article devoted to rhetorical historiography, Ozouf argues that the Terror was not the cause of or response to victories or losses in war. She writes: When Louis Blanc wished to make the revolutionary debate incarnate in personalities, was this not a recognition that individual temperaments had their role to play in events? 6 The Terror was not a reflexive response to internal and external threats. Hoffmann on the other hand argues that the Convention created the Terror without actually intending to. He writes, I am going to concentrate here on the question of Jacobinisme, and what I would call the involuntary invention of totalitarianism during the French Revolution. 7 Whether or not the Terror was created intentionally by individuals or some more deterministic factor, such as demographic changes, Revolutionary language asserted dramatic violent change. Hoffman writes that There is this view of before and after which is so strongly expressed by Robespierre in many of his speeches. Now France is in the hell of war, the war of freedom against its enemies. But tomorrow, after the war has been won, there will finally be time for a constitution and for the regime, as he put it, of victorious and peaceful liberty. 8 Unfortunately, wars occur frequently enough that there is always a reason to wait to create a constitution. Hoffman s arguments about the revolutionary rhetoric are mostly limited to the public rhetoric of the revolutionary leaders, not private correspondence or diaries. 5 Hoffmann, A Note, Ozouf, War and Terror, Hoffmann, A Note, Hoffmann, A Note, 150.

4 4 For understanding official revolutionary rhetoric, Robespierre s speeches are sufficient. To truly understand revolutionary rhetoric, it is necessary to understand unofficial revolutionary rhetoric. What was revolutionary language like in bars, within the family home, and within individual minds? Hoffman s source, though greatly helpful is not sufficient for understanding revolutionary rhetoric in general. Even though the violence in rhetoric is difficult to characterize, the violence in Revolutionary wars are not. The Revolutionary wars between France and the other European nations were a new type of war. In his study of short term and long term historical trends, Rothenberg argues that the Revolution resulted in a type of warfare with new tactics, ideology, and breadth. He states that Even though the French armies sustained about as many defeats as they gained victories, their progress was striking enough to compel opponents to remodel their forces and, to a greater or lesser degree, their entire military systems. 9 Rothenberg argues that it is difficult to accurately describe the causes of the French revolutionary wars. 10 Even though he acknowledges that the causes of the Revolution are difficult to accurately grasp, Rothenberg does give specific causes. He attributes the declaration of war to specific events such as the Assembly s misinterpretation of the reality of the declaration of Pillnitz, the strange pro-war alliance between the republican Girondin, conservatively royalist Feuillants, and moderate Feuillants, and a French ultimatum. 11 He adds these proximate causes to the fact that the French sought to convince the Prussians to fight the Austrians and argues that the sum was that For all the ideological rhetoric of both sides, the ideological factor, if not totally absent, was not foremost in causing war. 12 Ozouf makes a negative argument. She criticizes both versions of the causality hypothesis, that the 9 Rothenberg, The Origins, Rothenberg, The Origins, Rothenberg, The Origins, Rothenberg, The Origins, 783.

5 5 Terror anticipated and contributed to military victories, and that the Terror also was developed as a desperate attempt measure to prevent military defeat. 13 Rothenberg argues that the eighteenth century was a period of limited warfare until the French Revolution occurred. 14 Hoffmann does not give a cause for the war, but he compares the radical stage of the revolution with the Soviet Union. He writes To be sure, the motor of the Russian Revolution was class warfare, but the proletariat was seen as a universal class, which would prevail once the enemies of the class were literally cut off. One finds the same contrast between the evil contemporary state, which has to be purged, cleansed, purified, and the later stage. 15 If this were true, it would mark the revolutionary conflicts as different from all wars before them. Finally, the cause of the Terror is unknown. Rothenberg argues that the origins of the Terror are the external threat of successful invasion and critical internal problems. 16 He argues that the Committee of Public Safety created the Terror as a war measure to create a unified front against invasion and rebellion, that in this role it used the levée en masse to strengthen and supply its military, and that This phase was only temporary. As long as there was a clear threat, the French people were willing to give their support and to make the sacrifices needed to create the armies to check invasions, suppress revolts, and carry the revolution abroad. But after the victories of 1794 removed the immediate danger, Robespierre s ever more radical and repressive regime became intolerable and, in 1794, Thermidor, he was over thrown by his own colleagues in the Convention Ozouf, War and Terror, Rothenberg, The Origins, Hoffmann, A Note, Rothenberg, The Origins, Rothenberg, The Origin, 785.

6 6 In other words, according to Rothenberg, the Terror was nothing but a war measure. Considering this same conclusion Ozouf writes that: Hence the success of Robespierre s nothing more phrases in the language of Revolutionary historiography Terror, he said, is nothing more than prompt, severe, inflexible justice phrases which have been transmitted intact from Louis Blanc to Albert Soboul. In the mind of the former, for example, terrorism was nothing more than the bloody side of the revolutionary dictatorship; for the latter, it was nothing but an aspect of the civil war. 18 Ozouf clearly does not think that the Terror is nothing more than a necessary part of desperate war measures or a preceding cause of victories. If the Terror started before the French suffered losses, then it was not created as a war measure. The violence in the French Revolution can be partially explained by violent rhetoric like that from the highlighted portion of The Meeting of August 10 th. Of course, the language of political leaders sometimes exaggerates the beliefs of those they represent. In their respective articles Hoffman, Rothenberg, and Ozouf do not give voices to anyone besides political leaders, government officials, and historians. However, words alone were not responsible for the Terror. It was probably not caused alone by the stresses of interior crises and foreign invasion and probably did not completely anticipate victory either. It was most likely some combination of the three. The revolutionary wars were fought in new ways that anticipated twentieth and twentyfirst century wars including the Cold War. The French Revolution may in fact have been the pivot point of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in the same way that the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have so far rotated around the world wars. The French Revolution set the 18 Ozouf, War and Terror, 584.

7 7 stage for the revolutions in the mid nineteenth century, and provided strategic precedence for the World Wars. The French Revolution was, in all seriousness revolutionary.

TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Radical Period of the French Revolution

TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Radical Period of the French Revolution Radical Period of the French Revolution Objectives Understand how and why radicals abolished the monarchy. Explain why the Committee of Public Safety was created and why the Reign of Terror resulted. Summarize

More information

The Terror Justified:

The Terror Justified: The Terror Justified: Speech to the National Convention February 5, 1794 Primary Source By: Maximilien Robespierre Analysis By: Kaitlyn Coleman Western Civilizations II Terror without virtue is murderous,

More information

AICE European History Summer Assignment, 2015 France, Mars, 5/2015

AICE European History Summer Assignment, 2015 France, Mars, 5/2015 AICE European History Summer Assignment, 2015 France, 1789 1814 Mars, 5/2015 Introduction: This year, AICE European History will combine elements of two (2) courses: AS Level European History and A-Level

More information

AICE European History Summer Assignment, 2015 France, Mars, 5/2015

AICE European History Summer Assignment, 2015 France, Mars, 5/2015 AICE European History Summer Assignment, 2015 France, 1789 1814 Mars, 5/2015 Introduction: This year, AICE European History will combine elements of two (2) courses: AS Level European History and A-Level

More information

Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Chapter 7-2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Essential Question: How did the slogan Liberty, Equality and Fraternity sum up the goals of the Revolution? The Assembly Reforms France Conflicting Goals

More information

Monday, November 17, Revolution Brings Reform & Terror. Assembly Reforms France. Assembly Reforms France. Assembly Reforms France 11/17/2014

Monday, November 17, Revolution Brings Reform & Terror. Assembly Reforms France. Assembly Reforms France. Assembly Reforms France 11/17/2014 Monday, November 17, 2014 Revolution Brings Reform & Terror Take Out: HW! AKA Friday s classwork Writing utensil Notes Today: The French Revolution Revolution Brings Reform & Terror Homework: Online Revolution

More information

Maximilien Robespierre Speech To The National Convention

Maximilien Robespierre Speech To The National Convention Maximilien Robespierre Speech To The National Convention We have made it easy for you to find a PDF Ebooks without any digging. And by having access to our ebooks online or by storing it on your computer,

More information

French Revolution. By Rush Webster, Gary Ulrich, Isabelle Herringer, Lilah Hwang

French Revolution. By Rush Webster, Gary Ulrich, Isabelle Herringer, Lilah Hwang French Revolution By Rush Webster, Gary Ulrich, Isabelle Herringer, Lilah Hwang The Terror, a stage of the French Revolution in which the corrupt nobility were publicly executed by the enraged and impoverished

More information

Chapter 7-2. Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

Chapter 7-2. Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Chapter 7-2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror I) The Assembly Reforms France II) Conflicting Goals Cause Divisions III) War and Extreme Measures IV) The Terror Grips France V) End of the Terror I) The

More information

Reading Guide Chapter 19 A Revolution in Politics: The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon I. Beginnings: The American Revolution 1.

Reading Guide Chapter 19 A Revolution in Politics: The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon I. Beginnings: The American Revolution 1. Reading Guides 1 st Semester Page 1 Reading Guide Chapter 19 A Revolution in Politics: The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon I. Beginnings: The American Revolution 1. Causes 2. Actions during the

More information

4.6 Execution of Louis XVI and Reign of Terror

4.6 Execution of Louis XVI and Reign of Terror 4.6 Execution of Louis XVI and Reign of Terror I. Peasants fear violence from nobles A. Did this happen? No Great Fear Sweeps France B. What did happen? Peasants became outlaws. The king prepares an army

More information

The French Revolution and Napoleon Chapter 6 World History A

The French Revolution and Napoleon Chapter 6 World History A The French Revolution and Napoleon Chapter 6 World History A Section 1 1. Know what bourgeoisie is and which groups of people made up the bourgeoisie. 2. Know what ancient regime was. 3. Know what many

More information

WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 18 PACKET: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON (1789 CE CE)

WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 18 PACKET: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON (1789 CE CE) WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 18 PACKET: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON (1789 CE - 1815 CE) Take-Home Homework Packet 100 Points Honor Code I understand that this is an independent assignment and that I can

More information

Key Terms: Create flashcards for the following terms. Include a description and the historical significance for each.

Key Terms: Create flashcards for the following terms. Include a description and the historical significance for each. Unit 2: Part III Revolutionary Upheaval Ch. 12 Wood; Ch. 19 McKay Name Key Terms: Create flashcards for the following terms. Include a description and the historical significance for each. I.D. s Day 1

More information

The Republic. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 Main Idea

The Republic. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 Main Idea Main Idea The Republic An extreme government changed French society and tried through harsh means to eliminate its critics within France. Content Statement 8/Learning Goal: Describe how Enlightenment ideas

More information

HISTORY 1400: MODERN WESTERN TRADITIONS

HISTORY 1400: MODERN WESTERN TRADITIONS HISTORY 1400: MODERN WESTERN TRADITIONS This course provides students with an opportunity to examine some of the cultural, social, political, and economic developments of the last five hundred years of

More information

Analyzing Resistance, Collaboration, & Neutrality In the French Revolution

Analyzing Resistance, Collaboration, & Neutrality In the French Revolution Analyzing ance, Collaboration, & Neutrality In the French Revolution Directions: The French Revolution was one of the most shocking and tumultuous events in history. Its causes included the monarchy s

More information

Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities

Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities Focus It was the best of times, It was the worst of times, It was the age of wisdom, It was the age of foolishness, It was the epoch of belief, It was the epoch of incredulity. --Charles Dickens A Tale

More information

French Revolution. French Society Divided Constitutional Government 1 st Republic Napoleon s Empire Peace in Europe

French Revolution. French Society Divided Constitutional Government 1 st Republic Napoleon s Empire Peace in Europe French Revolution French Society Divided Constitutional Government 1 st Republic Napoleon s Empire Peace in Europe French Society Divided I. L Ancien Régime Three estates determined a person's legal rights

More information

The Republic. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 Main Idea

The Republic. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 Main Idea Main Idea The Republic An extreme government changed French society and tried through harsh means to eliminate its critics within France. Content Statement 8/Learning Goal: Describe how Enlightenment ideas

More information

Modern France: Society, Culture, Politics

Modern France: Society, Culture, Politics Rebecca L. Spang Modern France: Society, Culture, Politics http://www.indiana.edu/~b357/ MIDTERM TAKE-HOME EXAM INSTRUCTIONS: You may consult books, articles, class notes, and on-line resources while preparing

More information

Big Questions: How did political rebellions affect the political structures and ideologies around the world?

Big Questions: How did political rebellions affect the political structures and ideologies around the world? AP World History Study Guide Unit 7A Name Ch 30 Age of Revolutions Score / Hour Big Questions: How did political rebellions affect the political structures and ideologies around the world? Relevant Reading

More information

The French Revolution. Human Legacy, Chapter 20.1& 20.2 Pages

The French Revolution. Human Legacy, Chapter 20.1& 20.2 Pages The French Revolution Human Legacy, Chapter 20.1& 20.2 Pages 598-606 Creating a New Nation The violence that marked the beginning of the Revolutions eventually lessened. At this stage in the Revolution,

More information

Napoleon was and still is a controversial figure. He rose to power following a period of Terror in

Napoleon was and still is a controversial figure. He rose to power following a period of Terror in STUDENT NAME February 7, 2015 HST 112 Napoleon: Successor to the French Revolution Napoleon was and still is a controversial figure. He rose to power following a period of Terror in France and brought

More information

French Revolution Dinner Party

French Revolution Dinner Party Name: Date Due: Period: # French Revolution Dinner Party The year is 1792 and revolution is raging across France. As an enlightened member of society, you are hosting a dinner party hoping to bring all

More information

Global History Prelude to Revolution 1. What type of government did the French have at the outset of revolution?

Global History Prelude to Revolution 1. What type of government did the French have at the outset of revolution? Prelude to Revolution 1. What type of government did the French have at the outset of revolution? 7. Why were the bourgeoisie unhappy? 2. How did the government deny people rights? 8. Why had the economic

More information

Timeline - Key Events of the French Revolution ( )

Timeline - Key Events of the French Revolution ( ) Timeline - Key Events of the French Revolution (1789-1794) Over four years after the start of the French Revolution, France descended into a period commonly known as the, when over 16,000 people were executed

More information

Gare L Explosion 1794 by Varlet

Gare L Explosion 1794 by Varlet Gare L Explosion 1794 by Varlet Gare L Explosion 1794 by Varlet On October 6, 1794, Varlet published a sixteen page pamphlet entitled Gare L Explosion. 1 Behold the Explosion! In this same work, Varlet

More information

The French Revolution

The French Revolution The French Revolution Estates The Old Regime France consisted of three social classes called estates. The First Estate. The Catholic Church (Archbishops, bishops) The Church owned 10% of France The French

More information

Animal Farm. Allegory - Satire - Fable By George Orwell. All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others.

Animal Farm. Allegory - Satire - Fable By George Orwell. All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others. Animal Farm Allegory - Satire - Fable By George Orwell All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others. Why Animals? In explaining how he came to write Animal Farm, Orwell says he once saw a

More information

HIST 313: The French Revolution and the Origins of Modern Politics (draft, subject to change)

HIST 313: The French Revolution and the Origins of Modern Politics (draft, subject to change) HIST 313: The French Revolution and the Origins of Modern Politics (draft, subject to change) Prof. Sophia Rosenfeld Spring 2019 Class meetings: Tues. and Thurs., 10:30-12 Professor s office hours: Professor

More information

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION THE FRENCH REVOLUTION & NAPOLEON 1. French society was divided into three s. The first and second ones consisted of the and the, who had almost all of the land, money, and power, but didn t have to pay

More information

J. M. J. SETON HOME STUDY SCHOOL. Thesis for Research Report Exercise to be sent to Seton

J. M. J. SETON HOME STUDY SCHOOL. Thesis for Research Report Exercise to be sent to Seton Day 5 Composition Thesis for Research Report Exercise to be sent to Seton WEEK SEVEN Day 1 Assignment 23, First Quarter. Refer to Handbook, Section A 1. 1. Book Analysis Scarlet Pimpernel, Giant, or Great

More information

The Tennis Court Oath- June 20, 1789

The Tennis Court Oath- June 20, 1789 The Tennis Court Oath- June 20, 1789 The Tennis Court Oath was a result of the growing discontent of the Third Estate in France in the face of King Louis XVI's desire to hold on to the country's history

More information

European History Elementary Grades Syllabus

European History Elementary Grades Syllabus History At Our House Elementary Grades Syllabus July 10, 2009 Prepared by: Scott Powell Introduction This syllabus presents the general objectives for an academic year of with HistoryAtOurHouse for both

More information

Is it true he isn t curving the test grade? OF COURSE HE S CURVING IT! WHAT S WRONG WITH YOU?

Is it true he isn t curving the test grade? OF COURSE HE S CURVING IT! WHAT S WRONG WITH YOU? Is it true he isn t curving the test grade? OF COURSE HE S CURVING IT! WHAT S WRONG WITH YOU? The Semester Final Critical Topics to Review PERIOD 1 (1450 to 1648) The Renaissance Upheavals of the 14 th

More information

Name: Teacher: Mrs. Giermek

Name: Teacher: Mrs. Giermek Name: Teacher: Mrs. Giermek 1. During the early 1800s, which was a major influence on the struggles for political independence in Latin America? 1. poor conditions in urban centers in Latin America 2.

More information

Answer the following in your notebook:

Answer the following in your notebook: Answer the following in your notebook: Explain to what extent you agree with the following: 1. At heart people are generally rational and make well considered decisions. 2. The universe is governed by

More information

American Revolution Study Guide

American Revolution Study Guide American Revolution Study Guide ESSAYS four of the five essays on this review sheet will be on your test. The material from the essay not on the test may appear in another section of the test. You will

More information

PS 506 French political thought from Rousseau to Foucault. 11:00 am-12:15pm Birge B302

PS 506 French political thought from Rousseau to Foucault. 11:00 am-12:15pm Birge B302 PS 506 French political thought from Rousseau to Foucault 11:00 am-12:15pm Birge B302 Instructor: Genevieve Rousseliere Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science Email: rousseliere@wisc.edu

More information

Council on American-Islamic Relations RESEARCH CENTER AMERICAN PUBLIC OPINION ABOUT ISLAM AND MUSLIMS

Council on American-Islamic Relations RESEARCH CENTER AMERICAN PUBLIC OPINION ABOUT ISLAM AND MUSLIMS CAIR Council on American-Islamic Relations RESEARCH CENTER AMERICAN PUBLIC OPINION ABOUT ISLAM AND MUSLIMS 2006 453 New Jersey Avenue, SE Washington, DC 20003-2604 Tel: 202-488-8787 Fax: 202-488-0833 Web:

More information

Adlai E. Stevenson High School Course Description

Adlai E. Stevenson High School Course Description Adlai E. Stevenson High School Course Description Division: Special Education Course Number: ISO121/ISO122 Course Title: Instructional World History Course Description: One year of World History is required

More information

MULTICULTURALISM AND FUNDAMENTALISM. Multiculturalism

MULTICULTURALISM AND FUNDAMENTALISM. Multiculturalism Multiculturalism Hoffman and Graham identify four key distinctions in defining multiculturalism. 1. Multiculturalism as an Attitude Does one have a positive and open attitude to different cultures? Here,

More information

Locke Resource Card. Quotes from Locke s Works

Locke Resource Card. Quotes from Locke s Works Locke Resource Card John Locke was a British philosopher who lived from 1632-1704. In 1690 Locke published one of his more famous books, The Second Treatise of Civil Government. The book addressed many

More information

Trotsky s Notable Publications

Trotsky s Notable Publications Trotsky s Notable Publications Prepared by Michael Molkentin, Shellharbour Anglican College, 2017 Our Political Tasks (1904) Trotsky wrote this pamphlet following the RSDLP s Second Congress in which the

More information

ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN EGYPTIAN POLITICS

ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN EGYPTIAN POLITICS ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN EGYPTIAN POLITICS Also by Barry Rubin REVOLUTION UNTIL VICTORY? The History and Politics of the PLO 1ST ANBUL INTRIGUES MODERN DICTATORS: Third World Coupmakers, Strongmen, and

More information

Thomas Hobbes ( )

Thomas Hobbes ( ) Student Handout 3.1 University of Oxford, England. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Hobbes was born in England. He did much traveling through France and Italy. During his travels, he met the astronomer Galileo

More information

THE HISTORY OF MODERN POLITICAL THOUGHT Wednesdays 6-8:40 p.m.

THE HISTORY OF MODERN POLITICAL THOUGHT Wednesdays 6-8:40 p.m. Department of Political Science SUNY Oneonta Spring 2002 Dennis McEnnerney Office: 412 Fitzelle Phone: 436-2754; E-mail: mcennedj@oneonta.edu Political Science 202 THE HISTORY OF MODERN POLITICAL THOUGHT

More information

EUR1 What did Lenin and Stalin contribute to communism in Russia?

EUR1 What did Lenin and Stalin contribute to communism in Russia? EUR1 What did Lenin and Stalin contribute to communism in Russia? Communism is a political ideology that would seek to establish a classless, stateless society. Pure Communism, the ultimate form of Communism

More information

AP European History. Sample Student Responses and Scoring Commentary. Inside: Short Answer Question 4. Scoring Guideline.

AP European History. Sample Student Responses and Scoring Commentary. Inside: Short Answer Question 4. Scoring Guideline. 2018 AP European History Sample Student Responses and Scoring Commentary Inside: Short Answer Question 4 RR Scoring Guideline RR Student Samples RR Scoring Commentary College Board, Advanced Placement

More information

Revolution Threatens the French King

Revolution Threatens the French King Section 1 Revolution Threatens the French King A. Perceiving Cause and Effect As you read about the dawn of revolution in France, write notes to answer questions about the causes of the French Revolution.

More information

Oberlin College Department of History. FYSP 173: The French Revolution and the Origins of Modern Europe Fall 2012 Tuesdays and Thursdays, 3:00-4:15 PM

Oberlin College Department of History. FYSP 173: The French Revolution and the Origins of Modern Europe Fall 2012 Tuesdays and Thursdays, 3:00-4:15 PM Oberlin College Department of History FYSP 173: The French Revolution and the Origins of Modern Europe Fall 2012 Tuesdays and Thursdays, 3:00-4:15 PM Instructor: Leonard V. Smith 317 Rice Hall, x8950 Office

More information

Directions (You will have 20 minutes max)

Directions (You will have 20 minutes max) Directions (You will have 20 minutes max) 1) Fill in the rest of the grid and making sure all components are there (title, section, quote) 2) Write your paragraph on the back: In what ways did the Enlightenment

More information

The seventeenth century and the first discovery of modern society

The seventeenth century and the first discovery of modern society N.B. This is a rough, provisional and unchecked piece written in the 1970's. Please treat as such. The seventeenth century and the first discovery of modern society In his Ancient Constitution and the

More information

Question: Would you risk taking part in a revolution against your government?

Question: Would you risk taking part in a revolution against your government? Question: Would you risk taking part in a revolution against your government? PATTERNS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF HISTORY IS THE RECOGNITION OF PATTERNS REVOLUTIONS FALL INTO THIS CATEGORY (except

More information

Introduction. It is never a waste of time to study the history of a word. Lucien Febvre, 1930

Introduction. It is never a waste of time to study the history of a word. Lucien Febvre, 1930 Introduction It is never a waste of time to study the history of a word. Lucien Febvre, 1930 Liberalism is a basic and ubiquitous word in our vocabulary.1 But liberalism is also a highly contentious concept,

More information

Topic 3: The Rise and Rule of Single-Party States (USSR and Lenin/Stalin)

Topic 3: The Rise and Rule of Single-Party States (USSR and Lenin/Stalin) Topic 3: The Rise and Rule of Single-Party States (USSR and Lenin/Stalin) Major Theme: Origins and Nature of Authoritarian and Single-Party States Conditions That Produced Single-Party States Emergence

More information

Revolutions Enlightenment ideas help spur revolutions in America and France

Revolutions Enlightenment ideas help spur revolutions in America and France 11/28 Bell-Ringer Silent Read Chapter 18 Section 1 Define: Estates General & Deficit Spending Explain: Tennis Court Oath & Storm on the Bastille You have 10 minutes Revolutions Enlightenment ideas help

More information

Voegelin and Machiavelli vs. Machiavellianism. In today s day and age, Machiavelli has been popularized as the inventor or

Voegelin and Machiavelli vs. Machiavellianism. In today s day and age, Machiavelli has been popularized as the inventor or Geoffrey Plauché POLI 7993 - #1 February 4, 2004 Voegelin and Machiavelli vs. Machiavellianism In today s day and age, Machiavelli has been popularized as the inventor or advocate of a double morality

More information

Do Now: Find your name and your seat DO NOT EAT M&MS (yet) Look over SAQ, we will discuss

Do Now: Find your name and your seat DO NOT EAT M&MS (yet) Look over SAQ, we will discuss Do Now: Find your name and your seat DO NOT EAT M&MS (yet) Look over SAQ, we will discuss Era of Expansion SAQ a. b. c. Rational child rearing - not too lax or too authoritarian. Everything you do should

More information

What does Islam say about terrorism? Answers to common questions on Islam

What does Islam say about terrorism? Answers to common questions on Islam What does Islam say about terrorism? Answers to common questions on Islam Answers to common questions on Islam What does Islam say about terrorism? One of the distinctive characteristics of the times we

More information

History 510:333 France, Old Regime and Revolution Professor Jennifer Jones Spring 2010

History 510:333 France, Old Regime and Revolution Professor Jennifer Jones Spring 2010 History 510:333 France, Old Regime and Revolution Professor Jennifer Jones Spring 2010 1:10-2:30 Tuesday and Thursday Murray Hall, room 208, College Ave Campus http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~jemjones jemjones@rci.rutgers.edu

More information

CHRISTIANITY vs HUMANISM

CHRISTIANITY vs HUMANISM CHRISTIANITY vs HUMANISM Everyone has a personal worldview. A biblical worldview is where God s word is allowed to be the foundation of everything we think, say, and do. A Secular Humanist worldview is

More information

ANALYZING NAPOLEON S ACTIONS: DID HE ADVANCE OR REVERSE FRENCH REVOLUTION?

ANALYZING NAPOLEON S ACTIONS: DID HE ADVANCE OR REVERSE FRENCH REVOLUTION? ANALYZING NAPOLEON S ACTIONS: DID HE ADVANCE OR REVERSE FRENCH REVOLUTION? The Goals of the French Revolution as stated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789) The power in the government comes

More information

Victoria J. Barnett The Role of the Churches: Compliance and Confrontation*

Victoria J. Barnett The Role of the Churches: Compliance and Confrontation* Victoria J. Barnett The Role of the Churches: Compliance and Confrontation* The list of bystanders those who declined to challenge the Third Reich in any way that emerges from any study of the Holocaust

More information

Ethics, Public Safety. and. The Modern American. I took the time to research the origin of the Greek word (Ethos), which is the

Ethics, Public Safety. and. The Modern American. I took the time to research the origin of the Greek word (Ethos), which is the ICJE, P.O. Box 293, Montgomery, AL 36101 * 334-280-0020 Ethics, Public Safety and The Modern American by Assistant Professor Stan Tippins Sr., (2014). Criminal Justice Department/Legal Studies Department

More information

French Revolution DBQ

French Revolution DBQ French Revolution DBQ 2015/2016 Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-6. The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. This question is designed

More information

JULIUS CAESAR REVISION: LESSON 1. Revision of Themes

JULIUS CAESAR REVISION: LESSON 1. Revision of Themes JULIUS CAESAR REVISION: LESSON 1 Revision of Themes Main ideas / issues that the play raises and explores WHAT ARE THEMES? Messages that the play conveys WHAT is conveyed? THINKING ABOUT THEMES. WHY is

More information

In the beginning Born in 7 February 1812 in Portsmouth, England Mother was a teacher; father a naval clerk with lofty dreams Boyhood experiences in

In the beginning Born in 7 February 1812 in Portsmouth, England Mother was a teacher; father a naval clerk with lofty dreams Boyhood experiences in In the beginning Born in 7 February 1812 in Portsmouth, England Mother was a teacher; father a naval clerk with lofty dreams Boyhood experiences in Chatham (Rochester Castle) greatly influenced writing

More information

Historical interpretations of Stalinism. A short introduction.

Historical interpretations of Stalinism. A short introduction. Historical interpretations of Stalinism. A short introduction. In dealing with different historical interpretations of Stalin there are a few things to keep in mind: Which factors does the historian focus

More information

What is Atheism? How is Atheism Defined?: Who Are Atheists? What Do Atheists Believe?:

What is Atheism? How is Atheism Defined?: Who Are Atheists? What Do Atheists Believe?: 1 What is Atheism? How is Atheism Defined?: The more common understanding of atheism among atheists is "not believing in any gods." No claims or denials are made - an atheist is any person who is not a

More information

The Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment Path to the Enlightenment 18th century philosophical movement by those greatly impressed with the scientific revolution Use systematic logic and reason to solve the problems of

More information

Terror In the Defense of Liberty? The Radicalizing French Revolution 1

Terror In the Defense of Liberty? The Radicalizing French Revolution 1 Terror In the Defense of Liberty? The Radicalizing French Revolution 1 Terror In the Defense of Liberty? The Radicalization of the French Revolution Read the following text. Study Questions 1. What kind

More information

Name: Date: Period: Unit 6: Age of Absolutism to Revolution

Name: Date: Period: Unit 6: Age of Absolutism to Revolution Name: Date: Period: HHS World Studies Unit 6: Age of Absolutism to Revolution Skills: citing evidence to support a claim; practice-choosing supporting details from texts to support your claim/answer Content:

More information

Max Weber is asking us to buy into a huge claim. That the modern economic order is a fallout of the Protestant Reformation never

Max Weber is asking us to buy into a huge claim. That the modern economic order is a fallout of the Protestant Reformation never Catherine Bell Michela Bowman Tey Meadow Ashley Mears Jen Petersen Max Weber is asking us to buy into a huge claim. That the modern economic order is a fallout of the Protestant Reformation never mind

More information

CH 15: Cultural Transformations: Religion & Science, Enlightenment

CH 15: Cultural Transformations: Religion & Science, Enlightenment CH 15: Cultural Transformations: Religion & Science, 1450-1750 Enlightenment What was the social, cultural, & political, impact of the Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment? The Scientific Revolution was

More information

Animal Farm. Teaching Unit. Advanced Placement in English Literature and Composition. Individual Learning Packet. by George Orwell

Animal Farm. Teaching Unit. Advanced Placement in English Literature and Composition. Individual Learning Packet. by George Orwell Advanced Placement in English Literature and Composition Individual Learning Packet Teaching Unit Animal Farm by George Orwell Written by Eva Richardson Copyright 2007 by Prestwick House Inc., P.O. Box

More information

!"#$%&'()#*+,-)-%")./"'$%)0"1+2,-&+') by Charles De Jesus, Kelly Anne Dooley and Michael Pezone

!#$%&'()#*+,-)-%)./'$%)01+2,-&+') by Charles De Jesus, Kelly Anne Dooley and Michael Pezone !"#$%&'()#*+,-)-%")./"'$%)0"1+2,-&+') by Charles De Jesus, Kelly Anne Dooley and Michael Pezone This article offers summaries of events along with essential questions, documents and document-based questions

More information

The Enlightenment. Main Ideas. Key Terms

The Enlightenment. Main Ideas. Key Terms The Enlightenment Main Ideas Eighteenth-century intellectuals used the ideas of the Scientific Revolution to reexamine all aspects of life. People gathered in salons to discuss the ideas of the philosophes.

More information

the Sacred Heart of Jesus

the Sacred Heart of Jesus War for the Masses the Sacred Heart of Jesus You see, O my God! all the wounds which tear my heart, and the depth of the abyss into which I have fallen. O Jesus-Christ! divine Redeemer of all our iniquities,

More information

STAGE : Radical Stage

STAGE : Radical Stage Stage 1: National Assembly 1789-1791 Stage 2: Radical Revolution 1792-1794 Stage 3: Directory 1795-1799 Stage 4: Age of Napoleon 1799-1815 STAGE 2 1792-1794: Radical Stage 1 2 3 4 April 1792 January 1793

More information

Chapter 16: The Reformation in Europe, Lesson 1: The Protestant Reformation

Chapter 16: The Reformation in Europe, Lesson 1: The Protestant Reformation Chapter 16: The Reformation in Europe, 1517 1600 Lesson 1: The Protestant Reformation World History Bell Ringer #55 2-23-18 What does the word reform mean? It Matters Because The humanist ideas of the

More information

3. The large rivers such as the,, and provide water and. The Catholic Church was the major landowner and four out of people were involved in.

3. The large rivers such as the,, and provide water and. The Catholic Church was the major landowner and four out of people were involved in. Social Studies 9 Unit 4 Worksheet Chapter 3, Part 1. 1. The French Revolution changed France forever and affected the rest of and the development of. France was the largest country in western Europe, yet

More information

Speech by Michel Touma, Lebanese journalist, at the symposium on Religion and Human Rights - Utah - October 2013.

Speech by Michel Touma, Lebanese journalist, at the symposium on Religion and Human Rights - Utah - October 2013. Speech by Michel Touma, Lebanese journalist, at the symposium on Religion and Human Rights - Utah - October 2013. The theme of this symposium, Religion and Human Rights, has never been more important than

More information

The debates over a new constitution took

The debates over a new constitution took 36 Part III: A Revolution, a Republic, and the Terror The debates over a new constitution took place in the assembly and among the public between 1789 and 1791. At the same time, the assembly had to conduct

More information

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION KEY ECONOMIC INFLUENCES

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION KEY ECONOMIC INFLUENCES KEY ECONOMIC INFLUENCES CAPITALISM INDIVIDUALS & BUSINESSES INDIVIDUAL S SELF-INTEREST COMSUMER COMPETITION German Journalist Changes Economic Ideals in Europe German Journalist s Radical Ideas for Socialism

More information

The Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment By History.com, adapted by Newsela staff on 10.13.17 Word Count 927 Level 1040L A public lecture about a model solar system, with a lamp in place of the sun illuminating the faces

More information

World History. 2. Leader Propaganda Posters Jigsaw (50) 3. Exit ticket (10)

World History. 2. Leader Propaganda Posters Jigsaw (50) 3. Exit ticket (10) World History Unit 2: Russian Revolution Who were the leaders of the Russian Revolution and how did they lead? 70 minutes Mon. Oct. 4 Lesson Outcomes: Students will understand the timeline of the Russian

More information

Kevin Liu 21W.747 Prof. Aden Evens A1D. Truth and Rhetorical Effectiveness

Kevin Liu 21W.747 Prof. Aden Evens A1D. Truth and Rhetorical Effectiveness Kevin Liu 21W.747 Prof. Aden Evens A1D Truth and Rhetorical Effectiveness A speaker has two fundamental objectives. The first is to get an intended message across to an audience. Using the art of rhetoric,

More information

Affirmative Dialectics: from Logic to Anthropology

Affirmative Dialectics: from Logic to Anthropology Volume Two, Number One Affirmative Dialectics: from Logic to Anthropology Alain Badiou The fundamental problem in the philosophical field today is to find something like a new logic. We cannot begin by

More information

English Romanticism: Rebels and Dreamers

English Romanticism: Rebels and Dreamers English Romanticism: Rebels and Dreamers Come forth into the light of things. Let Nature be your teacher. 1798-1832 Historical Events! French Revolution! storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789! limits

More information

Casey Friedman. La Laïcité et la Liberté de Conscience. Although Article 10 of the high-minded Declaration of the Rights of Man and the

Casey Friedman. La Laïcité et la Liberté de Conscience. Although Article 10 of the high-minded Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Casey Friedman La Laïcité et la Liberté de Conscience Although Article 10 of the high-minded Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen states explicitly, No one should be disturbed on account of

More information

POLITICAL PROGRAMME OF THE OGADEN NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT (ONLF)

POLITICAL PROGRAMME OF THE OGADEN NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT (ONLF) POLITICAL PROGRAMME OF THE OGADEN NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT (ONLF) PART 1. Declaration Forming The ONLF We the people of Ogaden Recognizing that our country has been colonized against our will and without

More information

The Universal and the Particular

The Universal and the Particular The Universal and the Particular by Maud S. Mandel Intellectual historian Maurice Samuels offers a timely corrective to simplistic renderings of French universalism showing that, over the years, it has

More information

Europe from Napoleon to the PRESENT

Europe from Napoleon to the PRESENT www.indiana.edu/~hist104 Europe from Napoleon to the PRESENT DISCUSSION CLASSES MEET TODAY AND TOMORROW. MAKE SURE YOU HAVE THE READING before you leave today. Remember: If you miss more than two discussion

More information

Islam, Radicalisation and Identity in the former Soviet Union

Islam, Radicalisation and Identity in the former Soviet Union Islam, Radicalisation and Identity in the former Soviet Union CO-EXISTENCE Contents Key Findings: 'Transnational Islam in Russia and Crimea' 5 Key Findings: 'The Myth of Post-Soviet Muslim radicalisation

More information

Location: Heritage Hall 124 Time: Mon,Wed,Fri (9:05 am-9:55 am)

Location: Heritage Hall 124 Time: Mon,Wed,Fri (9:05 am-9:55 am) Fall Term 2013 HY 466 1B - The French Revolution Location: Heritage Hall 124 Time: Mon,Wed,Fri (9:05 am-9:55 am) Professor Stephen Miller This course will introduce students to the world of the French

More information

An Interview with Jaakko Hintikka

An Interview with Jaakko Hintikka 1) The new biogenetic researches, for example cloning, present once again the ticklish question of the relationship between science and ethics. What is your opinion about this? And what part, do you think,

More information