Journey through Time: Arizona, From Territory to Statehood

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1 Journey through Time: Arizona, From Territory to Statehood What s Your Role? You will be given the name of a person or group who were important to Arizona s early history. Through their eyes, you will experience what life was like. Student Name: Role Play Person/Group: Timeline Using the years from the Role Play card given to you, create a timeline of important years in your person s/group s lifetime. Then, list the events that happened in each year below. ARIZONA TERRITORY 1863 ARIZONA STATEHOOD 1912 Events (list in chronological order) Year Event

2 Role Play- Day in the Life Journal (Historic Date) Dear Journal, Here is a picture of my day: Sincerely, (Historic Name) (Historic Role/Job)

3 Role Play- Student Cards (1 per student)- 6 Pages Charles Poston- first U.S. Congressman from Arizona Territory (1864) Born in Kentucky (1825) First traveled through Arizona during the California Gold Rush (1851) Convinced the U.S. government to make Arizona a territory (1863) Studied law and was court clerk and journalist Mined gold and silver near Nogales, Arizona Known as the Father of Arizona Sharlot Hall- first woman government official in Arizona Territory (1909) Born in Kansas (1870) Settled in Arizona Territory as a child (1882) Became Arizona s Territorial Historian ( ) Worked her entire life to preserve Arizona s past Put her collections of artifacts, documents, and photographs in a museum in Prescott, Arizona Enjoyed reading, writing, and poetry George W.P. Hunt- first Governor of Arizona state (1912) Born in Missouri (1859) Held many government positions in Arizona before and after statehood ( ) Presided over the writing of the Arizona Constitution (1910) First job in Globe, Arizona was as a waiter in a cafe Knitted scarves for soldiers during WWI Fought for Arizona s water rights to the Colorado River

4 Carl Hayden- first U.S. Congressman from Arizona state (1912) Born in the territory near what is now Tempe, Arizona (near Phoenix) (1877) Supported the Salt River Project to bring electricity and water to Arizona (1903) Elected Maricopa County Sheriff (1906) Attended Stanford University in California where he studied history and played football Sponsored creation of Grand Canyon National Park Served as an officer in the Arizona National Guard John Noble Goodwin- first Governor of Arizona Territory (1863) Born in Maine (1824) Appointed by Abraham Lincoln after the first appointed Governor died (1863) Moved territorial capital from Fort Whipple to Prescott (1864) Stopped near Holbrook, Arizona to take Oath of Office and officially declare Arizona a U.S. Territory Created more U.S. postal routes in Arizona Territory Made first set of laws/penalties in Arizona Territory James Gadsden- purchased the land of Arizona from Mexico (1854) Born in South Carolina (1788) Appointed to force Seminole Indians to relocate onto designated Reservations (1823) Proposed California be added as half slave, half free state (1851) Was a businessman who served in the U.S. Military As president of a railroad company, was looking for a southern transcontinental route The town of Gadsden, near Yuma, Arizona was named after him

5 Rancher- owned, raised, and worked with animals on a ranch First came to Arizona for roaming land (1872) 2.5 million cattle and sheep counted in Arizona Territory (1891) More than half of the cattle and sheep died due to a major drought (dry season) (1893) Opposed statehood, regulation, and taxes (1911) Each ranch had its own brand to identify its animals Business people who were hard workers & laborers Oldest ranch in Arizona is near Willcox, Arizona Farmer- owned land and grew crops to eat and sell Mormons began shared farming near Winslow, Arizona (1877) The Arizona Canal was built to bring irrigated water to the cities and fields (1883) Sun power was used to pump water to crops (1904) The Roosevelt Dam turned the Arizona desert into fertile farm land (1911) Eastern farmers were not used to the dry land and air Popular crops were cotton, hay, and vegetables Hired cheap workers to take care of the fields Miner- searched the land for gold, silver, copper & other minerals of value Turquoise first discovered in the southeastern mountains (1698) Copper first discovered in the area (1854) Mines open all over the territory (1863) 25% of all state workers are miners (1910) Brought many early settlers in hopes of finding riches Copper the most common, followed by silver and gold The Clifton, Arizona mine produced half of the state s copper and employed miners steadily

6 Town Sheriff- hired to protect the people of Arizona and enforce laws First territorial laws were created (1864) First sheriffs were appointed by the territorial Governor (1864) First territorial prison opens (1876) The famous Wyatt Earp is appointed sheriff in Tombstone, Arizona (1880) Elected by voters to bring peace to the wild west Also served as tax collector and prison guard Poorly paid and often had other side jobs Store Owner- sold products to local townspeople and visitors The town square idea was introduced to cluster stores in one central area (1864) Roads and railways to and from Phoenix helped stock store shelves with more goods (1867) The Willcox, Arizona Commercial store is the oldest territorial business still running today (1880) Route 66 was completed and stores opened alongside the roadway for travelers (1926) Sold items that early settlers needed but did not have, such as new clothing and food Customers paid in gold, paper, trade, or store credit Government Official- appointed or elected to represent a city, county, state, or country First territorial government official appointed (1863) Met to create a state constitution for Arizona at the state capital in Phoenix, Arizona (1910) First state government officials elected (1914) State officials agreed on the state flag (1917) Most were white men with law background Poorly paid, but usually from wealthy background Included creating local, state, and national laws in the best interest of the people

7 Railroad Worker- worked in various positions to build the tracks and keep the railroad running The first train arrived in the town of Clifton, Arizona (1870) The railroad connecting Arizona and California was complete (1877) The railroad connecting Arizona and the eastern United States was complete (1881) Formed a union to protect worker s rights (1901) Carried passengers and supplies faster and safer than ever before Settled near train stations where work was guaranteed Chinese Immigrant- Chinese descendants who moved to the Arizona Came to the area for mining opportunities (1860) Banned from mining in Arizona Territory (1864) Created the Oriental Mining Corporation (1881) Arizona law prohibited marriage between Chinese and white Anglo settlers (1901) Worked as cooks, washers, shop workers, mine shaft workers, and railroad track laborers Faced racism and discrimination Large settlement in the Prescott, Arizona area Yavapai Tribe Member- native people who settled Arizona land before it was a territory or state First record of Central tribes in Camp Verde, Arizona area (1583) The first county in Arizona Territory was named after this tribe (1865) Tribe members were sent to the Yavapai Prescott Indian Reservation in (1935) Wrote a tribal constitution (1936) Known for beautiful basket weaving designs Men were hunters, gatherers, and traders Divided into four distinct tribal groups

8 Judge- heard cases in court, decided if a person was innocent or guilty, and determined punishment First Arizona Territorial Supreme Court judges (1863) U.S. Supreme Court supports Arizona court decision about railroad bonds in Prescott, Arizona (1902) Arizona s Constitution was rejected because of an issue with the recall of judges (1911) First Arizona Supreme Court judges (1912) Earliest territorial judges were appointed, later were elected by the people The head of the judicial branch of government (local, state, and national) Studied law and usually worked in government Banker- received, loaned, exchanged, held, and protected people s money The first territorial bank was opened in Prescott, Arizona (1877) The first national bank was registered in Tucson, Arizona (1882) Fake money moved through the territory (1893) 18 banks in Arizona used national currency at the time of statehood (1912) Gold and silver were accepted forms of money Before banking, people traded items and services Loaned money or equipment to miners getting started Homesteader- moved to Arizona to get land, build a home, and raise a family People settled land of what is now Arizona as part of New Mexico Territory (1853) Homestead Act allowed people up to 160 acres of unclaimed land to help settle the west (1862) Arizona Land District created to divide the land (1867) Hispanic homesteaders also looked for land (1870) Life was hard, many luxuries were left behind Homes were built from scratch with nearby materials, usually dirt and mud (trees scarce in some parts) The oldest lasting homestead is in Tucson, Arizona

9 Arizona State Symbols (Matching Cards, 2 pages) CATEGORY Name Picture STATE SEAL STATE AMPHIBIAN Arizona Tree Frog STATE NECK TIE Bolo Tie STATE GEMSTONE Turquoise STATE BIRD Cactus Wren

10 CATEGORY Name Picture STATE FISH Apache Trout STATE REPTILE Arizona Ridge-Nosed Rattlesnake STATE FLOWER Saguaro Blossom STATE FLAG STATE TREE Palo Verde STATE MAMMAL Ringtail

11 Arizona: Moving the Territorial Capital Name Use an Arizona atlas or map to find the answers. Arizona maps are also available at 1. Label the following capital cities on the blank Arizona Outline Map. Mark each city with a star Fort Whipple (20 miles north of Prescott) Prescott Tucson Prescott Phoenix 2. Which counties are the following territorial capitals located in? a. Fort Whipple c. Tucson b. Prescott d. Phoenix 3. Shade the area of your map that was included in the Gadsden Purchase. 4. Which territorial capital(s) would have been included in the Gadsden Purchase land area? 5. Label the city that is bold from your Role Play card. Choose a symbol that represents your person/group and mark it at this city. 6. Create a map key/legend for the symbols you used in 1. and Which capital city was the best choice for the capital of Arizona? Explain your choice. 8. Put a for each item shown on your map. Title Compass Rose Symbols Map Key/Legend Scale Index Grid

12 Arizona Acrostic A R I Z O N A

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