The Civil War. The South Breaks Away

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1 The Civil War The South Breaks Away

2 John Brown s Raid and Trial More bloodshed helped push the North and South further apart. In 1859, John Brown and some of his followers raided a federal ARSENAL (gun warehouse). They were hoping to start a slave revolt. Troops stepped in and captured Brown, killing some of his followers as well.

3 Many people in the North and the South thought Brown was crazy. However, at his trial and when he was sentenced to death, he appeared quite sane and calm. Some northerners thought he was a hero, and on the day he was hanged, church bells rang throughout the North. Southerners were furious when they found out about this.

4 At his trial, and before his execution, John Brown predicted there would be much bloodshed and wailing (crying) in a million homes before the slavery issue was settled.

5 The Election of 1860 Thousands of people swarmed into Chicago for the Republican convention. Would the Republican nomination go to William Seward of New York, or to Abraham Lincoln of Illinois? Lincoln won the nomination. Many people are worried this will lead to war.

6 Lincoln generated tremendous excitement

7 The Democratic convention in Charleston, South Carolina was chaotic. The party couldn t agree on slavery, and broke into northern and southern branches. The northerners choose Stephen Douglas, while the southerners chose John Breckinridge of Kentucky.

8 A moderate party that was still seeking compromise was formed. The Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell of Tennessee. Lincoln s name was not even put on the ballot in 10 southern states. However, he won enough support in the northern states that outvoted the South, and he won the election.

9 Abraham Lincoln Republican Stephen Douglas Northern Democrat John Bell Constitutional Union John Breckinridge Southern Democrat

10 This election helped lead to the break up of the U. S.

11 The Union is Broken A South Carolina women described what happened after hearing Lincoln won: The excitement was very great. Everybody was talking at the same time. One, more moved than the others, stood up saying The die is cast No more vain regrets Sad forebodings are useless. The stake is life or death No doubt of it.

12 To many Southerners, Lincoln s election was the last straw. They believed that the President and the Congress would be totally against them. Many leaders had already decided that if Lincoln did win the election it was their duty to leave the Union. Some congressional leaders made efforts to keep the country together, but failed.

13 Secession of the South On December 20, 1860, South Carolina was the first state to secede. By February 1, 1861, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas had all voted to leave the union.

14 The 7 states of the deep South had all seceded by February 1861, before Lincoln had even been sworn in as president!

15 The seven states held a meeting in Montgomery, Alabama. They formed a new nation called the CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA. They felt they had a right to leave. Their constitution was similar to that of the United States. They didn t think the North would fight to keep them in the Union.

16 The War Starts When Lincoln took the oath of office in March of 1861, he faced a dangerous situation. He said, no state can lawfully get out of the Union. However, he pledged that there would be no war unless the South started it.

17 Abraham Lincoln s first inauguration speech, given on March 4, Imagine the pressure he was under!

18 Federal Forts in the South The Confederacy started seizing federal buildings like post offices and military forts because they considered the United States to now be a foreign power. Lincoln must act very carefully. He doesn t want to appear weak, but he doesn t want to start a war. By April, the South has occupied all but 4 forts.

19 Opening Shots at Fort Sumter Fort Sumter guarded the entrance to Charleston, South Carolina, one of the South s most important cities. There was no way it could remain under Union control. On April 12, the fort was asked to give up, but its commander refused. The fort was then attacked, and surrendered on April 13 after running out of ammunition.

20 As Confederate troops shelled Fort Sumter, people in Charleston gathered on their rooftops to watch. To many, it was like a huge fireworks display.

21 Luckily, no one was injured in the attack. No one knew that the fireworks marked the beginning of a terrible war that would split the country apart for four years. President Lincoln immediately called for 75,000 volunteers to put down the southern rebellion. After Lincoln s call Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia secede, and the war is on!!!

22 The War Begins in April 1861 Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas join their southern brethren, bringing the total number of states in the Confederacy to 11. Would Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware join them?

23 Seven states in the deep South had left by February 1, Four more left after Lincoln called for troops. Four slave states stayed in the Union, and West Virginia eventually broke off from Virginia.

24 Dark Blue = Union States Light Blue = Union Territories Orange = Confederate States Yellow = Loyal Slave States Brown = Disputed Territories

25 Between 1861 and 1865, the North and the South waged war against each other in what remains the bloodiest war in American history. For much of that time, it was not entirely clear which side would win. Both sides enjoyed their own unique advantages which they believed would be enough to ensure a quick victory.

26 Even after it became clear that there would be no quick victory in the war between the states, it was not a foregone conclusion that the Union would prevail over the Confederacy. As the war progressed, it seemed more and more inevitable that the North would prevail, but that was not the case at the beginning of the war.

27 Union CSA Total population 22,100,000 (71%) 9,100,000 (29%) Free population 21,700,000 5,600,000 Slave population, ,000 3,500,000 Soldiers 2,100,000 (67%) 1,064,000 (33%) Railroad length 21,788 miles (71%) 8,838 miles (29%) Manufactured items 90% 10% Firearm production 97% 3% Bales of cotton in 1860 Negligible 4,500,000 Bales of cotton in 1864 Negligible 300,000 Pre-war U.S. exports 30% 70%

28 Key Northern Advantages FAR LARGER POPULATION Easily outnumbered the South, where 1/3 of the population was enslaved. HUGE LEAD IN MANUFACTURING Led in nearly all major categories. BIGGER NAVY Used to block Southern trade. ABRAHAM LINCOLN S DETERMINATION Often considered one of America s strongest presidents, Lincoln was absolutely determined to preserve the United States.

29 Key Southern Advantages HOMEFIELD ADVANTAGE Most fighting was done on Southern territory, and they were protecting their homes, families, and way of life. FIGHTING A DEFENSIVE WAR They didn t have to really conquer anything. They had to just hold on long enough until the North gave up. SUPERIOR MILITARY LEADERSHIP The South had always had a strong military history, and America s best military minds were usually Southern.

30 Northern Strategies BLOCKADE THE SOUTH This would cut off supplies, and weaken the South. CONQUER THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER This would cut the Confederacy in two, weakening the Confederate States of America. CAPTURE THE CAPITAL OF RICHMOND After Virginia seceded, the southern capital was moved from Montgomery, Alabama to Richmond, Virginia which is only about 100 miles from Washington, D.C.

31 Southern Strategies USE HOMEFIELD ADVANTAGE TO ITS FULLEST People tend to fight their best when protecting their families and property. Many Southerners compared their struggle to the American Revolution. PROLONG THE WAR Keep fighting until the North was so sick of it, that they would finally say good riddance to the South. KING COTTON Because both Britain and France depended on Southern cotton, perhaps they would intervene in the war and help the South.

32

33 LEADERSHIP

34 Jefferson Davis President of the C. S. A. Represented Mississippi in the House of Representatives from Served in the Army during the Mexican-American War United States Senator from Mississippi, United States Secretary of War from President of the C. S. A

35 We feel that our cause is just and holy; we protest solemnly in the face of mankind that we desire peace at any sacrifice save that of honour and independence; we ask no conquest, no aggrandizement, no concession of any kind from the States with which we were lately confederated; all we ask is to be let alone; that those who never held power over us shall not now attempt our subjugation by arms. ***President Jefferson Davis, April 29, 1861

36 Jefferson Davis and his Cabinet with General Lee

37 Davis first wife, Sarah Knox Taylor, died three months after they were married from malaria. His second wife was named Varina Howell. They had 6 children, but only 1 survived young adulthood and married.

38 While he had a lot of experience as a politician, Jefferson Davis ended up being an unsuccessful President of the C. S. A. He had an overbearing and over controlling personality, and didn t like to trust things to other people to accomplish. He often chose friends for important positions, instead of people who were qualified. He failed to form any type of bond with the common people, and preferred to speak with politicians and military folk. He neglected to handle domestic problems well.

39 An elderly Jefferson Davis around He was imprisoned briefly after the war, and charged with treason. However, he was not executed. In his later years he somewhat re-built his legacy.

40 Abraham Lincoln President of the U. S. A. Had failed at many things at life, but persevered. Little political experience in Washington, D. C. Somewhat impatient. Positive attitude and sense of humor helped put those around him at ease.

41 Lincoln warned the South in his Inaugural Address: "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you... You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it."

42 Lincoln and His Cabinet at the time of the Emancipation Proclamation

43 Lincoln married, Mary Todd from Kentucky. They had four sons, Robert, Eddie, Willie, and Tad. The eldest son, Robert was the only one to survive to adulthood. Eddie died at 3, Willie at 11, and Tad at 18. Mrs. Lincoln later spent time at a mental institution.

44 From his second inauguration speech on March 4, 1865, just 6 weeks before his assassination. Fondly do we hope fervently do we pray that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue, until all the wealth piled by the bond-man's 250 years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash, shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said 3,000 years ago, so still it must be said, "the judgments of the Lord, are true and righteous altogether. With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.

45 Assassination Visiting Antietam One Month to Live

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