Historical Overview. Ancient Israel is the birthplace of the 3 great monotheistic religions of the world: Judaism, Christianity and Islam

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1 Ancient Israel

2 Historical Overview Ancient Israel is the birthplace of the 3 great monotheistic religions of the world: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Ancient Israel dates back approximately 4000 years to the books of the Old Testament Great patriarchs of Judaism: Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Joshua Hebrews, Israelites, Jews, Semites: have all undergone persecution throughout history; from Babylonian Captivity, Exodus, Diaspora, Spanish Inquisition, Holocaust

3 Introduction to Judaism

4 What is in a name? Hebrew means From across - name given to Abraham and his followers Israelites: Abraham s grandson Jacob renamed Israel which means he who has wrestled with God. His descendants were called Israelites Jews: named after Jacob s son Judah, ancient father of tribe of King David s dynasty

5 Tracing Roots of Israel s History Nomadic tribes wandered into Palestine from east in approximately 1900 BCE Mesopotamian society dominated by polytheism God (Yahweh) appeared before Patriarch Abraham and told Abraham to go and raise a great nation This began the monotheistic tradition of the Hebrew faith with the establishment of the Covenant, Chosen People and Promised Land Abraham settled in Canaan Story: Sacrifice of Abraham

6

7 Abraham s Sacrifice

8 Jacob (grandson of Abraham) Abraham s grandson Jacob took name Israel which means God ruled and organized Israelites into 12 tribes Some tribes settled in Egypt (due to drought and famine) and where subjected to Pharaoh rule and slavery

9 Moses An illustrated story of Moses

10 The Exodus

11 The Plagues of Egypt Water to Blood Frogs Gnats or Lice Flies Livestock Diseased Boils Thunder and Hail Locusts Darkness Death of the Firstborn

12 The Plagues of Egypt Water to Blood 7:19 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams, upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their pools of water, that they may become blood; and that there may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood, and in vessels of stone.

13 The Plagues of Egypt Frogs 8:2 And if thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs: 8:3 And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, which shall go up and come into thine house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thine ovens, and into thy kneading troughs: 8:4 And the frogs shall come up both on thee, and upon thy people, and upon all thy servants.

14 The Plagues of Egypt Gnats or Lice 8:16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.

15 The Plagues of Egypt Flies 8:21 Else, if thou wilt not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thy houses: and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they are.

16 The Plagues of Egypt Livestock Diseased 9:3 Behold, the hand of the LORD is upon thy cattle which is in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain.

17 The Plagues of Egypt Boils 9:8 And the LORD said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh. 9:9 And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast, throughout all the land of Egypt.

18 The Plagues of Egypt Thunder and Hail 9:18 Behold, to morrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation thereof even until now.

19 The Plagues of Egypt Locusts 10:4 Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast: 10:5 And they shall cover the face of the earth, that one cannot be able to see the earth: and they shall eat the residue of that which is escaped, which remaineth unto you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which groweth for you out of the field.

20 The Plagues of Egypt Darkness 10:21 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt. 10:22 And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days

21 The Plagues of Egypt Death of the Firstborn 11:4 And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt: 11:5 And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.

22 Moses & Exodus: Let My People Go! Moses received revelations from God: burning bush, rod / staff, 10 plagues, parting of the Red Sea End of 13 th century BCE- Moses led the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt during Rames II reign called the EXODUS Moses led the 12 Tribes of Israel to Mount Sinai where Yahweh gave him the 10 Commandments, uniting the Hebrews under one God Moses and Hebrews searched for the Promised Land or the land of milk and honey, however they wandered in the desert for 40 years

23 Exodus

24

25

26 Jewish Teachings

27 Kings of Israel 1230 BCE, Israelites guided by Joshua, invaded Canaan (Promised Land) 1020 BCE: first king of Israelites was Saul, then David, then Solomon Under King David the Israelites captured city of Jerusalem King Solomon built the Temple of Jerusalem, to house the Arc of the Covenant (sacred box to hold Torah) Solomon s Temple was destroyed during Babylonian invasion, rebuilt in 6 th century BCE, and destroyed again in 70 CE by the Romans Only remaining part of Solomon s Temple is the Western Wall

28 Jericho

29 David

30 King Solomon

31 After the death of Solomon, Kingdom of Israel split into two (north= Israel; south= Judah) Israel was conquered by Assyrians in 722 BCE and the scattered people were known as the Lost Tribes of Israel Judah was eventually destroyed by Babylon in 586 BCE and inhabitants were held in captivity (called the Exile or Babylonian Captivity) Emergence of synagogues and rabbis during Exile Released by Persians in 538 BCE and returned to Jerusalem to rebuild temple Lost Tribes of Israel

32 Diaspora Diaspora is a Greek word meaning sowing of seed or dispersal which refers to Jewish population living outside of Israel In 332 BCE, Jewish people in fell under Hellenization (Greek culture) as Alexander the Great conquered Persia, Egypt and India 164 BCE, group of Jews called the Maccabees revolted against Greek rule, took control of Jerusalem and rededicated the Temple to God (Hanukkah) 64 BCE, Jerusalem fell to Romans and the Kingdom of Judah became one of the provinces of the Roman Empire (Judea). The people living there were called Judeans, and it is from this word that we get the word Jew In 66 CE the people of Judea revolted against Rome. This uprising was crushed and the temple was destroyed for a second time in 70 CE Despite the dispersion of Jewish people throughout Europe after 70 CE, their culture and religious beliefs have been by far the most influential of all the ancient cultures of the Near East

33 Persecution

34 Jerusalem

35 Impact of Ancient Israel Covenant = formal agreement between Hebrews and God (Yahweh); Hebrews worshipped God and only God, and in return, they would be God s Chosen People and given Canaan as the Promised Land Spiritual ideas profoundly influenced Western culture, morality, ethics and conduct Three of the world s most dominant religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam all derive their roots from the spiritual beliefs of the Ancient Israelites

36 Jewish Holidays and Festivals

37 Purism and Passover

38 The Jewish Calendar Fall Observances Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) This two-day observance marks the beginning of the holiest time of the year for Jews. Yom Kippur (Day or Atonement) This is the most solemn day of the Jewish year and signals the end of the Ten Days of Penitence. It is devoted to fasting, prayer, and synagogue services. Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles) Sukkot is a harvest festival of thanksgiving. To commemorate the dwellings of the ancient Israelites during the harvest, many families build temporary huts (sukkot) in which they eat and even sleep. Simchat Torah Celebrates the conclusion of the year-long cycle of reading the Torah (the five books of Moses) and the beginning of a new cycle and marks the end of the fall season of special religious observances

39 The Jewish Calendar Winter Observances Chanukah (Festival of Lights) This eight-day observance is a celebration of religious freedom and commemorates the re-dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem in 165 B.C.E. Families celebrate in their homes by lighting candles for eight nights, exchanging gifts and eating special foods. Purim (Feast of Lots) Based on the biblical Book of Esther (The Megillah), Purim celebrates the foiling of a plot to kill the Jews in ancient Persia. A ritual of Purim is to read the story from The Megillah of how Esther and Mordecai prevented Haman from exterminating the Jews.

40 The Jewish Calendar Spring Observances Pesach (Passover) This eight-day festival of freedom celebrates the deliverance of the ancient Israelites from Egyptian bondage. Families gather for a traditional meal, or Seder, on the first two nights, when the story is retold and symbolic foods are eaten. Shavu ot (Festival of Weeks) Coming in late Spring, this two-day observance celebrates the giving of the Torah (the Five Books of Moses) on Mount Sinai, and commemorates ancient Israel s acceptance of the Torah and its obligations.

41 Links Judaism Religion and Ethics Ancient History Sourcebook- Israel Ancient Israel

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