Judaism. Adherents: Smallest major world religion, making up 0.2 % human race

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3 Adherents: Smallest major world religion, making up 0.2 % human race Judaism Roots: dating back approximately 4000 years= origins of Judaism, Islam and Christianity (recorded in the Old Testament) Three patriarchs: Abraham, Jacob, Isaac Leaders: Moses and Joshua History of persecution: Babylonian Captivity, Exodus, Romans, Spanish Inquisitions, Holocaust

4 Ancient Israel Birthplace of Judaism is also birthplace to Islam and Christianity

5 What is in a name? Hebrew means From across - name given to Abraham and his followers Israelites: Abraham s grandson Jacob renamed Israel which means he who has wrestled with God. His descendants were called Israelites Jews: named after Jacob s son Judah, ancient father of tribe of King David s dynasty

6 Tracing Roots of Israel s History Nomadic tribes wandered into Palestine from east in approximately 1900 BCE Mesopotamian society dominated by polytheism God (Yahweh) appeared before Patriarch Abraham and told Abraham to go and raise a great nation This began the monotheistic tradition of the Hebrew faith with the establishment of the Covenant, Chosen People and Promised Land Abraham settled in Canaan Story: Sacrifice of Abraham

7 Patriarchs to Judaism Abraham God told Abraham to go to Haran then Canaan and make of him a great nation Began monotheistic tradition Covenant with God The story of the Sacrifice of Abraham

8 Moses An illustrated story of Moses

9 Hidden in a Basket Moses in his basket When Moses was born the Hebrews were slaves in Egypt. Pharaoh was afraid of them because he thought they might take over his country. He ordered that all Hebrew baby boys be killed at birth so that they would not grow up and fight against him. To save Moses his mother made a plan. She hid him in a basket by the side of the River Nile.

10 Moses is Rescued Moses is Found Moses' sister Miriam watched over him until Pharaoh's daughter came to the river to wash. She found Moses in his basket. Miriam told her she knew a woman who could be a nurse for the baby. It was his mother. Pharaoh's daughter took him back to live with her as though he were her son.

11 God Speaks to Moses The Burning Bush Moses grew up as an Egyptian prince, but he never forgot he was a Hebrew. One day Moses lost his temper and killed an Egyptian who had beaten a Hebrew slave to death. He had to run away to another land. God spoke to him from a burning bush and told him he must go back and free the Hebrews from slavery.

12 The Ten Plagues Moses Moses went to Pharaoh to ask him to set the Hebrews free. Pharaoh did not want to lose his slaves. He would not let them go, because they worked on his grand buildings. Awful things began to happen in Egypt. There were ten plagues. Before each one, Moses had warned Pharaoh what would happen. Moses told him the disasters had been sent by God.

13 The Hebrews are Freed Marking the Doorposts The last plague was the worst. The eldest son in every Egyptian family, including Pharaoh's, died. God had warned Moses to mark the doorposts of all Hebrew houses so that Hebrew boys would be safe. Pharaoh was so upset by losing his son that he said the Hebrews could leave Egypt.

14 A Change of Mind The bread had not risen The Hebrews knew they must leave Egypt quickly. They needed food to take with them. There was no time to let the bread rise before it was cooked. They had to take the dough as it was. Pharaoh changed his mind again and sent his army after them to bring them back.

15 Moses Parts the Sea Parting the Red Sea The army chased the Hebrews to the banks of the Red Sea. They would have been trapped but a miracle happened. God told Moses to lift up his rod and as he did so the waters parted to make a dry path. They were able to make their escape.

16 The Hebrews are Saved The path disappeared When all the Hebrews were safely at the other shore, Moses lifted up his rod again and the waters of the sea closed on Pharaoh's army who had been chasing them. God had saved the Hebrews.

17 God Leads the Way Hungry in the Desert Even though the Hebrews were free, they were still in the desert. They wanted to find a land called Canaan which God had promised them. The journey was long and they soon ran out of food. They were very hungry and blamed Moses for taking them out of Egypt. Moses told them that God would give them food.

18 Food and Water Water in the Desert God told Moses, "I will give the people food." The next day the ground was covered with a white food which tasted like honey. Moses called this food manna. God also sent flocks of birds called quails that they cooked and ate. When their water ran out, God told Moses to strike a rock with his rod. As he did so water rushed out and they all had enough to drink.

19 Mount Sinai Thunder and Lightning After three months of travelling the Hebrews came to the foot of Mount Sinai. God called Moses to meet him on the mountain. As he climbed there was thunder and lightning. When he was up the mountain God gave Moses ten laws which told the people how to live.

20 The Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments These Ten Commandments were written on two tablets of stone. Moses stayed so long on the mountain that the people waiting at the foot of the mountain grew angry. They decided to make another God for themselves. It was a golden calf.

21 The Ten Commandments The Golden Calf When Moses returned he was shocked to see the people dancing and worshipping the golden calf. He broke the tablets God had given him and destroyed the golden calf. God forgave his people for worshipping the statue and told Moses to cut two more tablets of stone.

22 God's Laws God's Laws Moses took the stone tablets up the mountain and God gave him the Ten Commandments again. When he came down all the people listened to Moses as he told them what God had said. Moses promised God that the Hebrews would keep all of the Commandments.

23 Leaders Moses Let my people go Exodus the land of milk and honey 10 Commandments Joshua Led Israelites to Promised Land

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25 Key Concepts Covenant solemn and binding agreement between God and Abraham (humanity) as God as the Creator and the Chosen people Chosen People Jews considered themselves to be God s Chosen People as God chose Abraham and led him to monotheism Jews were instruments of God s will God chose Jews (humanity); humanity must choose God Promised Land Gained significance during Moses life as Hebrews sought to keep covenant and develop a community in the Promised Land. Jews believe this is Israel.

26 Expansion of Roman Empire and rule: destroying of the temple leaving only the Western Wall; rabbinic Judaism (interpretative commentaries) Development of Judaism Judges: tribal leaders Kings: King Saul, King David, King Solomon (built temple) Division: Northern tribes = Israel; Southern tribes = Judah Prophetic Tradition: word of God spoken through prophets Love God and keep the covenant with Him Exile in Babylon= Temple of Solomon destroyed; creation of synagogues and rabbis and concept of Messiah anointed one Diaspora: dispersal of Jews outside of Israel and Hellenization Maccabean Revolt: temple rededicated to God

27 Monotheistic Oneness of Creator God Beliefs Human obligation to worship God God is immaterial and indivisible God is referred to as YHWH or YAHWEH I am that I am Lineage People are born Jewish (through mother) or can convert (gerut). Conversion is not possible for Orthodox Judaism. Mitzvah act of performing a good deed or commandment (i.e.: 10 Commandments) Bible contains total of 613 mitsvoth (some positive, some negative) Jesus View of Jesus = born a Jew a preacher and teacher Jesus was not the Son of God; the Messiah is still to come Suffering suffering is heightened because as the Chosen People, Jews expect to suffer for all of mankind Death and Afterlife on death, body returns to earth (dust to dust) but soul return to God who gave it body will be Resurrected and reunited with soul at a later time (therefore no cremation)

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29 TORAH consists of Five Books of Moses written on parchment scroll in ancient form by hand and kept in Ark Torah means law but more accurate is revelation, teaching or instruction Torah is divided into 54 sections and one portion is read each week (2 weeks of year have a double portion) so that the entire Torah is read from beginning to end in a year

30 Sacred Texts Tanukh Jewish Bible, consisting of Torah (Law of Moses), the Prophets, and the Writings Talmud second most important source of rabbinic Jewish law based on Mishnah, which complements and interprets the Torah and applies scripture to everyday life and observance Mishnah Early rabbinic teachings on how to live according to Torah

31 Practices Holy Ark & Torah Blessings and prayer Minyan Kashruth Shabbat Circumcision Shofar Bar / Bat Mitvah Marriage Death & Shiva

32 Holidays Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur Hanukkah Passover

33 Symbols Star of David= shape of King David s shield; symbol adopted by Zionists Menorah= ancient source of light 7 branched= Sabbath 9 branched= Hanukah

34 Denominations Orthodox Conservative Reform Reconstructionist Messianic

35 Western Wall The Western Wall in the midst of the Old City in Jerusalem is the section of the Western supporting wall of the Temple Mount which has remained intact since the destruction of the Second Jerusalem Temple (70 CE) It became a centre of mourning over the destruction of the Temple and Israel's exile communion with the memory of Israel's former glory and the hope for its restoration it became known in European languages as the "Wailing Wall".

36 Interesting Facts The Israeli flag is rooted in Jewish tradition. The white background symbolizes purity. The symbols on the flag are two stripes one on the top and one on the bottom and the Star of David emblem adorning the centre. The stripes and blue colour are inspired by the techeileth dye of the tallit (Jewish prayer shawl) Jews have regarded the Land of Israel as their homeland, both as a Holy Land and as a Promised Land. The Land of Israel holds a special place in Jewish religious obligations, encompassing Judaism's most important sites including the remains of the First and Second Temples

37 Judaism In Modern Anti Semitism in Kingston and World World Zionism movement originally for re-establishment of Jewish nation in Israel Holocaust (Heb., sho'ah) which originally meant a sacrifice totally burned by fire the annihilation of the Jews (6 million) and other groups of people of Europe (5 million) under the Nazi regime during World War II Middle East Conflict Issue of who has the rightful claim to Jerusalem

38 This Nazi propaganda poster reads, Behind the enemy powers: the Jew. The Eternal Jew Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.

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