Kingdoms & Empires of the Middle East

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1 Kingdoms & Empires of the Middle East

2 Trading Peoples: The Aramaens The Aramaens were very active in trade in the early Middle East after having settled in the area around 1200 B.C. Despite having a centralized capital at Damascus the Aramaens were weakened by constant infighting. Due to their widespread trade much of the region spoke Aramaic up until the late 800 s A.D. Aramaic, which is closely related to Hebrew and Arabic, was widely used up Until the late 800 s A.D.

3 Trading Peoples: The Phoenicians The Phoenicians migrated to the area of what is now modern day Lebanon around 3000 B.C. from the Arabian Peninsula. Phoenicia lacked arable land for farming so the people turned to the sea for a living. By 1200 B.C. the Phoenicians had built a string of cities and towns including Tyre, Byblos, Sidon, and Berytus.

4 Trading Peoples: The Phoenicians The Phoenicians harvested the local Cedar trees to build ships and establish overseas trade. They learned to plot their voyages by using the stars and are believed to have traveled to Spain, the western coast of Africa and possibly the British Isles.

5 Trading Peoples: The Phoenicians The Phoenicians traded cedar logs, textiles, glass objects and elegant jewelry. They would introduce new business practices such as bills of sale and contracts. To help manage their business transactions they would use their concise 22 letter alphabet which they developed around 1000 B.C.

6 Trading Peoples: The Phoenicians To protect trade routes and resupply ships, the Phoenicians set up temporary trading posts or colonies. In 750 B.C. the people of Tyre set up a colony at Cartage, in northern Africa, which would become one of the most powerful cities in the Mediterranean. The Phoenician Trireme used multiple levels of oars in combination with sails to travel the Mediterranean.

7 Trading Peoples: The Lydians The Lydians were a group of merchants and artisans living in Asia Minor who prospered due to growing regional trade. The Lydians were among the first people to set prices and developed a money system that would replace the existing barter system. Each Lydian coin, made of gold and silver, had a stamp to show that is was guaranteed to be the same size as any other coin. This Lydian Trite was made of a gold and silver alloy and is believed to be equal to a months wages.

8 Questions: 1. Where did the Aramaens migrate from? 2. Where was the Aramaens capital city? What country is it the modern capital of? 3. What kind of tree did the Phoenicians trade and use to build their ships? 4. Why would the Cedar trees be valuable in the Middle East? 5. Why did the Phoenicians establish colonies? 6. What two business practices were introduced by the Phoenicians? 7. Why is the Phoenician alphabet significant? 8. What were Lydian coins made of? 9. How did people know that the coins were authentic? 10. What is a barter system?

9 Abraham, the father of the Hebrew nation, left the Mesopotamian city of Ur with his wife (Sarai), father (Terah) and nephew (Lot) and would eventually settle in Haran. The Hebrews were a monotheistic people who believed in only one God, Yahweh or Jehovah. Terah took his son Abram, his grandson Lot son of Haran, and his daughter-in-law Sarai, the wife of his son Abram, and together they set out from Ur of the Chaldeans to go to Canaan. But when they came to Haran, they settled there. (Genesis 11:31)

10 Abraham s God would make a covenant, or agreement, with him. He would leave Haran where he and his family had settled and go to the land of Canaan. Canaan was a land to south of Haran, located in what is now the nation of Israel. The LORD had said to Abram, "Leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you. "I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you." So Abram left, as the LORD had told him; and Lot went with him. Abram was seventy-five years old when he set out from Haran. He took his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, all the possessions they had accumulated and the people they had acquired in Haran, and they set out for the land of Canaan, and they arrived there. (Genesis 12:1-5)

11 Abraham s grandson, Jacob (also known as Israel) would have 12 sons and each son would lead a family group or tribe. These family groups would become known as the 12 tribes of Israel. During a time of severe drought in Canaan the Israelites would move to Egypt and were eventually enslaved by the Egyptians. Israel in Egypt (1867) by Sir Edward John Poynter ( )

12 Israel in Egypt, (1867) by Sir Edward John Poynter ( ) They made their lives bitter with hard labor in brick and mortar and with all kinds of work in the fields; in all their hard labor the Egyptians used them ruthlessly. (Exodus 1:14)

13 Moses was born a Hebrew but raised in the Egyptian palace by the Pharaoh s daughter. He would lead the Hebrews Exodus, or departure from Egypt. According to the Bible Egypt would be inflicted with ten plagues. The Pharaoh, hoping to save his people would grant the Hebrews their freedom. Moses was found by the Pharaoh s daughter and raised in the royal palace.

14 The Ten Plagues of Egypt

15 The Hebrews would leave Egypt under the leadership of Moses and set out towards the Promised Land or Canaan. It was during the long march through the Sinai Peninsula that Moses would received God s law or the Ten Commandments. "Departure of the Israelites", by David Roberts, 1829

16 "Departure of the Israelites", by David Roberts, 1829 And he[pharaoh] called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said. Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone ; and bless me also. (Exodus 12:31-32)

17 The Ten Commandments were the main part of Hebrew Law given to Moses by God. The complete set of laws are contained in what is known as the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). The Ten Commandments were given to Moses on Mount Sinai in the Sinai Peninsula.

18 Moses would die before entering Canaan and would be succeeded by Joshua. Joshua would lead the Hebrews (Israelites) on a military campaign in Canaan. The Israelites would fight for over two hundred years to take Canaan.

19

20 The 12 Tribes of Israel Each tribe was given a piece of land and was responsible for conquering that section of land. After the time of Joshua the tribes were led by leaders known as judges. These judges served as both judicial and military leaders. The 12 tribes would not unite until Saul was proclaimed king of Israel in 1020 B.C. The land of Canaan as it was to be divided among the tribes of Israel.

21 The Division of Canaan Among the 12 Tribes

22 Saul, son of Kish, from the tribe of Benjamin was anointed king of all Israel in 1020 B.C. A popular king to begin with but proved to be incapable of defeating the Israelites enemies the Philistines. Saul would be succeeded by David, son of Jesse, a shepherd boy from the tribe of Judah Saul and David, 1660 by Rembrandt ( )

23 David would become king of all Israel around 1012 B.C. after the death of Saul s son Ish-bosheth. David had earlier been crowned king of the tribe of Judah but eventually would become king of all the tribes of Israel. The Star of David (Hebrew translates: shield of David). Now recognized as the traditional symbol of Judaism and Is the center point of the modern day nation of Israel s flag.

24 David would establish his capital at Jerusalem, after he conquered it from the Jebusites. He then organized a central government and worked to enlarge his kingdom. He defeated the Philistines, and the Moabites along with gaining tribute from surrounding lands. The Israelites under David enjoyed economic prosperity from his military campaigns.

25 David would be succeeded by his son, Solomon in 973 B.C. He undertook great building projects throughout Israel as he rebuilt old cities along with building new ones. A great Temple in Jerusalem was also built during his reign as king. Solomon was hailed as a great and wise king but ten northern tribes would split from the kingdom after his death in 922 B.C. The Temple in Jerusalem built by King Solomon. It was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE.

26 The ten northern tribes that separated after Solomon's death under the leadership of Jeroboam and continued to call their kingdom Israel. The two remaining tribes, Judah and Benjamin called their kingdom Judah and kept Jerusalem as their capital and were led by Solomon s son, Rehoboam. The tribes of Zebulun, Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, Dan, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben and Gad made up the kingdom of Israel or the Northern Kingdom. The capital was at Samaria

27 The two divided kingdoms were to weak to resist invasion by foreign powers and in 722 B.C. the Assyrians conquered Israel. In 586 B.C. the Chaldeans defeated Judah and carried many Hebrews off into slavery in Babylon. The Assyrians would conquer Israel In 722 and deport many of the Israelites throughout their empire.

28 Flight of the Prisoners, by James Tissot, This painting by Tissot depicts the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.C.

29 Questions: 1. Who is considered to be the father of the Hebrew nation? 2. Where did he originally come from? 3. What made the Hebrews different from other people in the region? 4. What land was promised to Abraham? 5. What forced the Hebrews to move to Egypt? 6. Why did the Hebrews want to leave Egypt? 7. Who led the Hebrews from Egypt? 8. What was given to the Hebrews in the Sinai Peninsula? 9. Who would lead the Hebrews into the Promised Land? 10. How many tribes of Israel were in the Promised Land? Name them.

30 Questions: Who was the first king of Israel? Why did the Israelites want a king? Who was the second and most successful king of Israel? Why? Who built the temple in Jerusalem? What happened to the nation of Israel when Rehoboam took over? Who captured the northern tribes in 722 B.C.? What happened to Judah in 586 B.C.?

31 During their time in exile the Israelites relied on the leadership and guidance of prophets, or people who interpret God s will. In 539 B.C. the Chaldeans were conquered by the Persians and the Persian King, Cyrus II allowed the Israelites to return home. The Jews would return to Judah and rebuild the walls of Jerusalem and the Temple.

32 The Hittites The Hittites, believed to be from an area beyond the Black Sea, conquered the people of Asia Minor around 2000 B.C. By 1650 B.C. the Hittites had established a well organized kingdom with a capital at Hattusas.

33 The Hittites The Hittites were the first to use Iron Weapons in the Middle East. Spoke wheeled chariots that could carry two soldiers and a driver gave them an advantage in battle.

34 The Hittites Using their advantages they pushed east and captured Babylon in 1595 B.C. The Hittite Empire would span Asia Minor, Syria and part of Mesopotamia and would last until 1200 B.C. The extent of the Hittite Empire in shown in the orange shaded region. The green is the Extent of Egypt's influence in Mesopotamia.

35 The Assyrians The Assyrians came from the northern part of Mesopotamia. Around 900 B.C. they began to subdue their surrounding neighbors by organizing their professional soldiers into units of foot soldiers, charioteers, and cavalry.

36 The Assyrians By 650 B.C. the Assyrians controlled an empire stretching from the Persian Gulf to Egypt and into Asia Minor. Because of the size of the empire, it was divided into provinces that were headed by a governor. A network of roads protected by soldiers was built to improve communication and trade throughout the empire. The extent of the Assyrian Empire

37 The Assyrians The Assyrians treated their conquered people cruelly by burning their cities, torturing and killing prisoners, and deporting entire populations from their homelands. They would force the people under their control to pay heavy taxes to pay for improvements in Nineveh, the Assyrian capital.

38 The Assyrians The Assyrians faced continual revolt from the people under their rule as a result of their cruel treatment. Eventually around 612 B.C. two groups, the Chaldeans and the Medes allied and defeated the Assyrians. The attack on Nineveh by the Medes and the Chaldeans ended the Assyrian Empire.

39 The Chaldeans The Chaldeans or the Neo- Babylonians, were descendants of Hammurabi s Babylonian Empire in the 1700 s B.C. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire the Chaldeans would rise to prominence in Mesopotamia. They would reach the apex, or height of their power under the rule of Nebuchadnezzar, who ruled from 605 B.C. to 562 B.C.

40 The Chaldeans Nebuchadnezzar would extend the boundaries of the Chaldean Empire as far west as Syria and Canaan, forcing the people of Judah into exile in Babylon. The Chaldeans would gain great wealth from their conquests and rebuild Babylon as on the largest, most beautiful cities of the ancient world.

41 The Chaldeans Two of the things that made Babylon so beautiful were the Hanging Gardens and the Wall of Babylon. Both are considered to be among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Artist s rendition of the Hanging Gardens The Ishtar Gate one of eight city gates in Babylon.

42 The Persians The Chaldeans would weaken after the death of Nebuchadnezzar and would eventually be conquered by the Persians in 539 B.C. The Persians originated in central Asia and settled in Mesopotamia around 2000 B.C. in what is now Iran.

43 The Persians Cyrus II developed a strong army and conquered the Medes, Northern Mesopotamia, Syria, Canaan, and the Phoenicians. In 525 B.C. Cyrus II s son Cambyses conquered Egypt, bringing all of the Middle East under Persian control. The Persian Empire would stretch from the Nile River to the Indus River, a distance of 4,800 Kilometers and included 50 million people.

44 The Persians Darius I who ruled from 522 to 486 B.C. organized the Empire into provinces and assigned provincial governors, or Satraps to rule. Military and tax officials were chosen by the king from the conquered people and assisted Satraps in implementing the Kings policies in the provinces. A uniform monetary system was introduced and he made Aramaic the official language of the Empire. Darius I also employed agents known as Eyes and Ears of the King to inspect the running of the provinces. Darius I organized the Persian Empire

45 The Persians The Persians had learned lessons from the Assyrians on how not to treat conquered people. Lands and people that had been conquered by the Persians were allowed to keep local languages, traditions, religions, and some laws. This action by the Persians would earn them loyalty from the people they had conquered.

46 The Persians Darius I brought artisans from many of his conquered lands to build his capital at Persepolis. Roads were built to encourage trade as well as ease the movement of troops. The Royal Road was the most important road built; it ran from Susa to Sardis. Spanning 1,400 Kilometers it had stations every 14 Kilometers to provide travelers with food and fresh horses. Royal Messengers could travel the road in seven days, a journey that had previously taken three months. The Royal Road ran from Susa to Sardis a distance of 1,400 Kilometers.

47 The Royal Road & Trade Routes

48 The Persians All of the rebellions during the reign of Darius I were quelled, including the Ionian rebellion of 499 B.C. in Asia Minor. In 499 B.C. the Ionian Greek City-States revolted against Persia with the help of Athens and other mainland Greek citystates. Darius I would send 30,000 troops to punish Athens for its interference only to be defeated at Marathon in 490 B.C.

49 The Greco-Persian Wars B.C.

50 The Persians Darius I would die in 486 B.C. while making preparations for another, larger invasion of Greece. His son Xerxes would succeed him as king and would lead a force to conquer Greece that would cripple the Persian Empire. Xerxes at the Hellespont, by Jean Adrien Guignet (

51 Xerxes at the Hellespont, by Jean Adrien Guignet

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