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1 Bellringer-Write on your paper The Kings of Israel were also religious leaders. How did each contribute to the teaching of Judaism? Which was the most important to its survival? Support your claim with evidence.

2 Chapter 12 The Struggle to Preserve Judaism

3 12.1: Introduction Hebrew Kingdom o Split into two after the death of King Solomon Hebrews were less likely to fight off invaders o Israel was conquered by the Assyrians in 722 BCE Their leaders were taken to Mesopotamia o Judah was invaded by the Babylonians in 597 BCE King Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Jerusalem Hebrews fought off the siege until their food ran out

4 In 586 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar burned down Solomon s great Temple of Jerusalem and all of the houses in the city Most of the people of Judah were taken as captives to Babylon o This time was the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora Never again would most of the followers of Judaism be in the same homeland Despite this the Jews were able to keep Judaism alive

5 Create a Chart Like This in Your Notes Teaching Description Influence Today Monotheism Following Jewish Teachings Equality & Social Justice Importance of Study

6 Completed Chart Teaching Description Influence Today Monotheism belief in one God who is the source of standards of morality (right & wrong) World s oldest monotheistic religion Through study of sacred texts & prayer, Jews feel God is close to them in their daily life. Following Jewish Teachings laws, like 10 Commandments, instructs Jews how to lead upright & honorable lives larger set of laws & practices developed over time. EX: love your neighbors, keeping Sabbath, Passover. Jews practice the rules & practices in different ways

7 Completed Chart Teaching Description Influence Today Equality & Social Justice belief that God considers all people equal, & treating people fairly & caring for less fortunate people are important stories & sayings teach about treating everyone fairly. Caring for those less fortunate in society is a basic value in Judaism Importance of Study study the Hebrew bible, the Talmud, and other writings Jews value study & learning. Many Jews learn about Jewish history, law, & traditions through reading and discussions. They also pass on their knowledge to other members of the faith

8 Bellringer 1/9 Discuss with your seat partner the four key teachings of Judaism. Which one do you see as the most important? Did any of the central teachings surprise you? Does your faith share any similarities with this religion?

9 12.2: The Central Beliefs and Teachings of Judaism Monotheism o Belief that there is only one God o Judaism is the oldest monotheistic religion Teaches that God is all-powerful and all-knowing God is the source of morality Jews believe that it is their solemn duty to honor and obey God Jews believe that they have a personal relationship with God

10 Following God s Law o God s law is central to Jewish life o Oldest laws are the Ten Commandments Tell how to honor God Keep one day holy Laid down laws of right and wrong o You shall not steal ; You shall not murder o Over time Jewish leaders developed a much larger set of rules How to prepare food What foods should be avoided Development of religious practices o Celebrating Passover

11 Equality and Social Justice o Equality Hebrews did not view their leaders as gods Judaism teaches all people who keep the laws are equal in God s sight o Even kings had to obey God s laws o Social Justice There are many stories and sayings in the Torah teach about treating everyone fairly Caring for the less fortunate people in society is a basic value of Judaism

12 The Importance of Study o The study of the Torah is very important Jews study interpretations of the Torah made by scholars and rabbis o At first, interpretations of the Torah were passed down orally o In 200s CE, Jewish scholars began writing the Talmud Contains oral tradition along with learned commentaries Became the basic source of Jewish law Later rabbis wrote their own commentaries on both the Torah and the Talmud

13 12.3: Foreign Domination and Jewish Diaspora Rule by the Babylonians, Persians, and Greeks o Babylon Hebrews lived there for a half a century Prophets encouraged the people This is when the Hebrews became known as the Jews o Babylonians called them Judaeans, which was shortened to Jews

14 o Persians In 539 BCE, Babylonians were conquered by the Persians The Hebrews were released from captivity by Cyrus o Some returned to Judah to rebuild the temple o Others stayed in Babylon o Greeks Tried to force the Jews to worship idols of the Greek gods in their temple In 164 BCE, the Hebrews started a war that lasted 27 years

15 In 164 BCE, the Jews drove the Greeks from Jerusalem o They reclaimed and repurified the temple This is the celebration of Hanukkah Rule by the Romans o 88 years after the war with the Greeks, Judah was an independent kingdom o In 63 BCE, they were conquered by the Romans o Romans brutally executed more than 50,000 Jews o They did allow the Jews to practice their religion and govern some of their own affairs

16 o In 22 BCE, King Herod was allowed to rule in Judah He planned to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem on a grander scale than Solomon s o Took 46 years to complete o In 66 CE, the Jews rebelled against the Romans Were able to keep the Romans out of Jerusalem for 3 years o In 70 CE, Titus led an army of 60,000 against the Jews The Jews fought back, but were outnumbered The Romans destroyed Jerusalem and the great temple o All that remains is one western wall it s sacred

17 o The Roman victory began the final scattering of the Jewish people o Romans seized their land and refused to let Jews from entering Jerusalem o Some Jews remained in Israel, but thousands were sent to other parts of the Roman Empire

18 12.4: Preserving and Passing on the Teachings of Judaism Jews were scattered among many gentile, or non-jewish lands. Rabbi Yohanan ben Zaccai o Helped preserve Judaism o After the revolt against Rome in 66 CE, he urged Jews to surrender in order to save Judaism. o Approached the Romans for help Faked his death to be smuggled out of Jerusalem to met with Vespasian, a Roman general.

19 He asked to start a Jewish school in the town of Yavneh with other rabbis. o Yavneh became the center of Jewish life after the fall of Jerusalem. o Ben Zaccai and 71 other rabbis created a new religious law making body. o Yavneh became a training ground for other rabbis. Teachers came from around the world to study. o Shared what they learned Rabbis made sure that the Jews still had leaders to guide them.

20 New Teachers and Practices o New practices ensured that teachings of Judaism would be passed on o Normally, only religious leaders were allowed to read from the Torah. Yavneh rabbis decided that any adult male could read from the sacred text. Jews no longer needed a trained leader to learn about Jewish history and law. o Synagogue was made more important in Jewish life. House of worship Place to study, hold meetings, and social gatherings

21 Jews were told to build a synagogue wherever there were at least 10 adult male Jews. Strengthened the community and their faith In 1948, Israel was created in part of the lands ruled by David and Solomon. o Jews from other countries began to settle in Israel.

22 Conflict in Israel & Palestine

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