The Worldviews of the Iraqi Public toward Religion, Politics, Gender, and Coalition Forces: Findings of Values Survey, November-December, 2004

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1 The Worldviews of the Iraqi Public toward Religion, Politics, Gender, and Coalition Forces: Findings of Values Survey, November-December, 2004 Mansoor Moaddel (PI) Ronald Inglehart (Co-PI) Mark Tessler (Co-PI)

2 Table 1: The Regional Distribution of the Sample Region Size Percent Baghdad Basrah Tekrit Nasirria Umara Hilla Najaf Diwania Kut Karbala Ramadi Samawa Baquba Kirkuk Sulaimania Erbil Total

3 Table 2: Religion-ethnic distribution Religion-Ethnicity Size Percent of total Percent valid Sunni-Kurd Shi'i-Arab Sunni-Arab Total Other: Muslim-Arab, Turk, Christian Total

4 The Iraqi Worldviews in a Comparative Perspective: Religiosity, Gender, and Democracy

5 Figure 1: Participation in religious services Once a week or more Percent 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 44% 45% 42% 33% 27% 27% Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran Jordan Egypt USA

6 Figure 2: Self-described religiosity Describe self as a religious person 120% 100% 80% 84% 82% 85% 98% 81% Percent 60% 62% 40% 20% 0% Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran Jordan Egypt USA

7 Figure 3: Religious versus national identity Above all I am a Muslim versus country nationalist Percent 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 79% 75% 72% 63% 61% 34% 23% 17% 15% 10% Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran Jordan Egypt Muslim Nationalist

8 Figure 4: When jobs are scarce, men should have more rights to a job Men more rights to a job Percent agree 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 68% 76% 69% 80% 90% 20% 10% 10% 0% Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran Jordan Egypt USA

9 Figure 5: Men make better political leaders than women do Men better political leaders 100% 90% 87% 86% 84% 80% 72% Percent agree 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 60% 22% 20% 10% 0% Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran Jordan Egypt USA

10 Figure 6: University education is more important for boys than for girls University education for boys 70% 60% 59% Percent agree 50% 40% 30% 20% 44% 37% 38% 31% 10% 7% 0% Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran Jordan Egypt USA

11 Figure 7: Polygamy and wife obedience Percent agree 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 88% 81% 74% 78% 52% 45% 46% 19% 11% 9% Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran Jordan Egypt Polygamy Wife must obey her husband

12 Figure 8: Basis of marriage: parental approval vs. love 80% 70% 71% Percent agree 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 50% 48% 26% 41% 49% 10% 0% Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran Parental approval Love

13 Figure 9: Democracy is the best form of government Percent agree Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran Jordan Egypt USA

14 Figure 10: Western cultural invasion is a very serious problem Strongly agree Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran Jordan Egypt

15 Variations among Iraqis in terms of Religion and Ethnicity: Sunni- Kurd, Shi i-arab, and Sunni- Arab

16 Table 3: Marriage and Gender Relations Kurds Shi'is Sunnis Love as basis of marriage 55% 21% 26% Men better pol leaders (disagree) 27.6% 6.7% 5.1% Univ ed for boys (disagree) Polygamy (disagree) Wife obedience (disagree) Her decision to dress (agree)

17 Table 4: Considers unacceptable as neighbors (%) Country Sunni-Kurd Shi i-arab Sunni-Arab Total American French British Jews Christians Iranian Kuwaiti Turk Jordanian

18 Table 5: Percent having very much or much trust (no trust at all) Sunni-Kurd Shi'i-Arab Sunni-Arab Total Religious institutions Iraqi military Iraqi TV Other TV Interim govt American forces 62 (14) 4 (80) 2 (87) 13 (71) Arab league UN

19 Figure 11: percent expressing a great deal of trust in the Shi is Kurd Shi i Sunni

20 Figure 12: percent expressing a great deal of trust in the Sunnis Kurd Shi i Sunni

21 Figure 13: Percent expressing a great deal of trust in the Kurds Kurd Shi i Sunni

22 Figure 14: Form of government 100 % very or somewhat good Sunni-Kurd Shi'i-Arab Sunni-Arab Total Strong leader Democratic system Islamic govt-ulama absolute power

23 Figure 15: Characteristics of a good government %very important Sunni-Kurd Shi'i-Arab Sunni-Arab Total implement laws according to people's wishes Islamic laws only

24 Figure 16: Iraq would be a better society, if Strongly agree Sunni-Kurd Shi'i-Arab Sunni-Arab Total More respect for women Adopts American model Religion and politics separated Iraqis were non-sectarian

25 Figure 17: Assessment of outcomes 90 Strongly agree Sunni-Kurd Shi'i-Arab Sunni-Arab Total Ex-Iraqi politicians too much power Dissolving the army beneficial US forces in big cities good for security De-baathification harmful artificial sectarianism

26 Figure 18: Iraq is better off with or without Saddam Percent agree Sunni-Kurd Shi'i-Arab Sunni-Arab Total 10 Iraq better off without Saddam Iraq better off with Saddam Not sure

27 Table 6: Consider an obstacle for the formation of an independent and prosperous Iraq (% a great deal) Sunni-Kurd Shi'i-Arab Sunni-Arab Total Saddam loyalists Shi'is a great deal of power Kurdsa great deal of power Sunnis a great deal of power American domination continues Religious leaders Civil war Losing cultural identity US cultural influences increase Crime Foreign fighters Iran too much influence

28 Table 7: How long the U.S. should remain in Iraq? Sunni-Kurd Shi'i-Arab Sunni-Arab Total Leave now Leave after the elections Stay one year from now Stay more than one year Leave after the settlement of security Do not leave Difficult to express any opinion

29 Figure 19: Percent saying they will not vote in national assembly elections Kurds Shi'is Sunnis

30 Table 8: Most important problem facing you and your family Sunni-Kurd Shi'i-Arab Sunni-Arab Total Absence of security Lack of job Lack of necessities Foreign occupation Terrorism and political violence Absence of freedom

31 Table 9: Second most important problem facing you and your family Sunni-Kurd Shi'i-Arab Sunni-Arab Total Absence of security Lack of job Lack of necessities Foreign occupation Terrorism and political violence Absence of freedom

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