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1 ... Connecting the Dots...

2 The Syrian Arab Army guarding the Road into Banias

3 Everywhere we went, people said they were voting for Security.

4 And Democracy

5 And the Future

6 Syrian Refugee Camp with people from Aleppo

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8 Sarah In Erbil

9 Water, Drought Oil and Gas Sunni-Shia competition and other ethnic and religious divides Bad Governance (Oppression) ISIS (Terrorism) US Intervention

10 Syria: Loss of the Golan Atatürk Dam Severe drought in 2010 Tabqa Dam under ISIS control Iraq: Atatürk Dam Consequences of War Baghdad, Fallujah, Kurdistan Without regional cooperation, water is always at risk War causes severe damage to water resources

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12 Syria and Iraq share a region where there are significant oil and gas resources BUT this is not the best in the region The Area is desert not heavily populated Prior to the war, Syria was using wells largely for internal consumption (subsidized oil and gas) due to sanctions In Iraq, the best wells are around Basra and Kirkuk

13 The Syrian government includes a large bureaucracy. Demographically it is mostly Sunni. The Syrian Arab Army is composed mostly of Sunnis (they have a draft there) ACCURATELY REFLECTING THE POPULATION There are many Christians and members of other minorities in the Syrian Government and army. The current head of the military is Christian. The President is Alawite.

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15 Before the War, Iraqi Sunni and Shia lived in peace. The Kurds were already protected and possessed of a significant measure of regional autonomy Sunni and Shia often intermarried. Many lived in the same neighborhoods. Similarly, Muslims, Christians and others lived in peace in Syria Regional clustering was due to historic roots of populations. Syria hosted largest number of refugees, Iraqi, Palestinian, Kurds, Indigenous Azeri, Alawite, Christian, Assyrian, Armenian, Kurds, Turkomen, Yazidi, Druze Ethnic and religious diversity in Iraq and Syria

16 Drought and poverty Lack of political freedom Desire by assorted factions for power Iraq Totally destroyed country Disfunctional Government

17 Syria, has had a society that is ethnically and religiously diverse for more than a millennium. Ethnic and religious tolerance are the historical norm in Syria. Syria and Iraq have both have had secular governments for more than a century. Although Iraq has had a number of imposed governments, Syria has had an indigenous government for most of that time.

18 FSA never integrated with SNC FSA never integrated as a whole SNC has no direct relationship with Syrian people FSA first was empowered by outside assistance, then overrun by it Many Syrian Rebels switched sides and went back to the government over the last year

19 Reasons above why Syria didn t fight very hard on this front Not a good reason for starting a war Very nice for small enterprise IF they can get the resources they need to operate wells and refineries. In April of 2013, it was reported that the EU ended sanctions against Syrian oil so the rebels could operate these wells.

20 Guess who is supporting and empowering ISIS?2013 Source: As ad AbuKhalil of Angry Arab News Service the last 2 images are from videos on LiveLeaks, made August 2013

21 April 23, 2013: report that EU lifted Sanctions on Syrian oil US Ambassador Robert Ford poses with FSA Gen Abdul-Jabbar 8/5,8/6: ISIS leader and FSA Gen Abdul-Jabbar celebrate joint victory over Syrian Airforce Base 8/10: Reports of ISIS vs Al Nusra ramping up 8/16-9/20: ISIS taking control of Raqqa 9/23: FSA Gen Abdul Jabbar quits (and splits) after ISIS empties his weapons cache

22 Competent Rich Powerful Ruthless Successful??

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24 Operating oil wells and refineries required advanced technological support Replacement parts for maintenance Skilled Engineers Markets Kurdistan is an example: They have a college that specialized in geology and chemistry They utilize contract engineers from Pakistan and India They are having trouble getting markets even now when supposedly the US is their mentor and ally SUPPOSEDLY, the US supports them

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29 Direct US involvement to create a civil war in Syria following the destruction of Iraq Supplying Weapons to all sides in Iraq to anti government forces in Syria including ISIS, Al Nusra Financing ISIS: through oil, weapons sources US support for Allies financing and managing a revolution in Syria for their own advantage Hiding the truth about what is happening in Syria and Iraq How is this US Intervention?

30 Syria is central to the axis of resistance in the Middle East. They facilitate relations between Iran, Hezbollah, Hamas and other groups who are working towards regional solidarity rather than dependence on western centers of power. Iraq has great oil wealth. Iraq is a contested space between US ally Saudi Arabia and Iran. A disorganized Iraq creates liabilities for Iran, Syria and Turkey and an advantage for Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Monarchies

31 Not just the party (Hezbollah) or the resistance, All of us will be eliminated... Don t you see what is happening in Aleppo, Idlib, Raqqa... In Fallujah and in Anbar? Ask, don t ask the secularists, ask the Islamic parties in those areas about what had occurred to them. And if the takfiri terrorist movement is defeated in Syria, then we will all remain.

32 Stop our government from funding and facilitating terrorist organizations like Israel and ISIS Stop our government from using sanctions to undermine legitimate governments at the expense of the people Stop meddling by our government to secure western interests at the expense of indigenous peoples Educate ourselves about the difficult choices faced by foreign peoples and their governments Respect the lives, the values and the decisions made by other people in other societies Abide by International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law - Then hold others who break International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law accountable.

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