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1 Council: Historical Security Council Topic: The Question of the Gulf War Topic Expert: Mina Wageeh Position: Chair Introduction: IraqileaderSaddamHusseinorderedtheinvasionandoccupationofneighboringKuwaitonthe 2nd of August This was after Kuwait had violated their Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) quota in oil production, which dropped the price of oil. Iraq had been in great debt after the IranKIraq War ended in 1988 and they claimed that Kuwait had beenoverproducingoilfromiraqilandandasthepriceofoildropped,iraqremainedindebt. TheUNproduced11resolutionscondemningIraqforitsactionsandcallingittowithdrawfrom Kuwait.Iraqhoweverignoredthe11resolutionsthatwerepassedfromthe2ndofAugustto the 28th of November On the 29th of November 1990, the UN authorized by all necessarymeansforcountriestostopiraqiftheydidnotcompletelywithdrawbeforethe15th of January 1991 in resolution 678. Iraq remained occupying Kuwait and a 42Kday war ensued betweeniraqandacoalitionof44countries,ledbytheusa,startingwhatwenowknowasthe Gulf War. The war ended on 28 February 1990 when Iraq and the coalition forces signed a ceasekfire.iraq sinvasionofkuwaitalarmedtheunsecuritycounciltotakeaction.wewillbe discussingandrecreatingresolution661asitwasaftertheundecidedtotakeactionsagainst theiraqiinvasionofkuwait.thistopicdiscussesseveralbarrierstodevelopmentsuchashow countries must strengthen their relations for economic prosperity, world peace and maintenance of sovereignty and the delegates will spend time diplomatically finding ways to achieve those goals. Foreign intervention was a shortkterm solution for the war but 12 years later the Second Gulf War started. So delegates would also need to find long term solutions suchratherthanusing allnecessarymeans tostoptheinvasionbutalsotoconfirmpolitical stabilityintheregionbyensuringthatcountriesdonotoverproduceoilandensuringthatthe countries within the region maintain good diplomatic relations to avoid another war. Key Terms/Figures/Groups: OPEC% The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a permanent, intergovernmental Organization, created at the Baghdad Conference on September 10 14,

2 1960, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. Ten other Members later joined the five Founding Members: Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, EcuadorandGabon.OPEChaditsheadquartersinGeneva,Switzerland,inthefirstfiveyearsof itsexistence.thiswasmovedtovienna,austria,onseptember1,1965. Rumaylah%Oil%Field% TheRumaylah(oil(fieldisasuperKgiantoilfieldlocatedinsouthernIraq,approximately20mi (32km)fromtheKuwaitiborder. Discoveredin1953bytheBasrahPetroleumCompany(BPC), anassociatecompanyoftheiraqpetroleumcompany(ipc),thefieldisestimatedtocontain17 billionbarrels,whichaccountsfor12%ofiraq'soilreservesestimatedat143.1billionbarrels. RumaylahissaidtobethelargestoilfieldeverdiscoveredinIraq andisconsideredthethird largestoilfieldintheworld. TheIraqigovernmentbyPublicLawNo.80of11December1961confiscatedtheoilfield.Since then, this massive oil field has remained under Iraqi control. In 1975 Saddam Hussein, nationalized the assets and rights of IPC and the BPC. The dispute between Iraq and Kuwait overallegedslantdrillinginthefieldwasoneofreasonsforiraq'sinvasionofkuwaitin1990. Saddam%Hussein% BornonApril28,1937,inTikrit,Iraq,SaddamHusseinwasasecularistwhorosethroughthe Baath political party to assume a dictatorial presidency. Under his rule, segments of the populace enjoyed the benefits of oil wealth, while those in opposition faced torture and execution.aftermilitaryconflictswithu.s.kledarmedforces,husseinwascapturedin2003.he waslaterexecuted. Jihad% Onthe19ofJanuary,SaudiArabia'shighestreligiousauthorityhasissuedadecreesanctioning aholywaragainstsaddamhusseinbyallmuslimsand"thoseassistingthem"toevicthisforces fromkuwait.the"fatwa,"orreligiousdecree,authorizingthe"jihad,"orholywar,wasissued bysheikabdulkazizbinabdullabinbaz,theheadofthecouncilofulema,saudiarabia'smost seniorislamicauthority.itwaswrittenatthebeginningofthecoalition'soffensiveagainstiraq, andpublishedonfridayinaspecialeditionofalkmuslimoon,themostpopularislamicweekly newspaper.copiesofthedecreewerepostedtodayinseveralmosquesacrossriyadh.

3 ThefatwablessesnotonlyallMuslimsparticipatinginthewartoevictIraqiforcesfromKuwait, butnonkmuslimsaswell,ahighlyunusualevent.itcallstheiraqileader"theenemyofgod,"a strongcondemnationinislamicterms.supportfortheking "ThefatwaremovesanydoubtaboutthereligiousjustificationforaskingnonKMuslimstohelp thiscountryattackanothermuslimcountry,"saidareligiousscholar,whospokeoncondition thathenotbeidentified. ThedecreealsoprovidesreligiousandpoliticalsupportforKingFahd,knownasthe"Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" in Mecca and Medina. The Saudi King touched off a passionate debate in Islamic circles in August by requesting the help of American and other nonkmuslim forcesindefendingthekingdom.( NATO% The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European states based on the North Atlantic Treaty that was signedon4april1949kthesepowerswerecalledtointerveneintheiraqkkuwaitconflict. Background Information: ThecausesoftheGulfWaractuallybegunwhenIraqwasatwarwithIran.DuringthiswarIran wasnotonlyattackingiraqbutalsoattackingoiltankersfromkuwaitatseatoo.tosupportthe endingofthewarkuwaitfinanciallyaidediraqbylendingthecountry14billionusdollars.iraq triedtoconvincekuwaittodissolvethedebtasiraqhaddonekuwaitafavorbybeingatwar with Iran, Kuwait declined and this caused a rift between the two countries. For a year they triedtoresolvethefinancialsituationbuttonoavail.thenextstepwasforiraqtoaskallopec memberstoreduceoilproductionsothepriceofcrudeoilwouldincrease,thiswouldinturn increase revenues for Iraq allowing the country to pay back its debts. While other countries mayhaveagreedkuwaitdidtheoppositeandaskedtoincreaseitsquotabyfiftypercent,much tothedissatisfactionofiraq. Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion and occupation of neighboring Kuwait in early August Alarmed by these actions, fellow Arab powers such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt called on the United States and other Western nations to intervene. Hussein defied UnitedNationsSecurityCouncildemandstowithdrawfromKuwaitbymidKJanuary1991,and the Persian Gulf War began with a massive U.S.Kled air offensive known as Operation Desert

4 Storm.After42daysofrelentlessattacksbythealliedcoalitionintheairandontheground, U.S.PresidentGeorgeH.W.BushdeclaredaceaseKfireonFebruary28;bythattime,mostIraqi forces in Kuwait had either surrendered or fled. Though the Persian Gulf War was initially considered an unqualified success for the international coalition, simmering conflict in the troubledregionledtoasecondgulfwar knownastheiraqwar thatbeganin2003. Though the longkrunning war between Iran and Iraq had ended in a United NationsKbrokered ceasefireinaugust1988,bymidk1990thetwostateshadyettobeginnegotiatingapermanent peace treaty. When their foreign ministers met in Geneva that July, prospects for peace suddenly seemed bright, as it appeared that Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein was prepared to dissolve that conflict and return territory that his forces had long occupied. Two weeks later, however, Hussein delivered a speech in which he accused neighboring nation Kuwait of siphoning crude oil from the ArKRumaylah oil fields located along their common border. He insistedthatkuwaitandsaudiarabiashouldcancelout$30billionofiraq sforeigndebt,and accusedthemofconspiringtokeepoilpriceslowinanefforttopandertowesternoilkbuying nations.! InadditiontoHussein sincendiaryspeech,iraqhadbegunamassingtroopsonkuwait sborder. Alarmed by these actions, President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt initiated negotiations between IraqandKuwaitinanefforttoavoidinterventionbytheUnitedStatesorotherpowersfrom outsidethegulfregion.husseinbrokeoffthenegotiationsafteronlytwohours,andonaugust 2,1990orderedtheinvasionofKuwait.Hussein sassumptionthathisfellowarabstateswould standbyinthefaceofhisinvasionofkuwait,andnotcallinoutsidehelptostopit,provedto beamiscalculation.twokthirdsofthe21membersofthearableaguecondemnediraq sactof aggression, and Saudi Arabia s King Fahd, along with Kuwait s governmentkinkexile, turned to the United States and other members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) for support.! Iraqi%Invasion%of%Kuwait%%Allied%Response% U.S.PresidentGeorgeH.W.Bushimmediatelycondemnedtheinvasion,asdidthegovernments ofbritainandthesovietunion.onaugust3,theunitednationssecuritycouncilcalledforiraq to withdraw from Kuwait; three days later, King Fahd met with U.S. Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney to request U.S. military assistance. On August 8, the day on which the Iraqi governmentformallyannexedkuwait HusseincalleditIraq s 19thprovince thefirstu.s.air

5 Force fighter planes began arriving in Saudi Arabia as part of a military buildup dubbed OperationDesertShield.TheplaneswereaccompaniedbytroopssentbyNATOalliesaswellas EgyptandseveralotherArabnations,designedtoguardagainstapossibleIraqiattackonSaudi Arabia. InKuwait,Iraqincreaseditsoccupationforcestosome300,000troops.Inanefforttogarner supportfromthemuslimworld,husseindeclaredajihad,orholywar,againstthecoalition;he also attempted to ally himself with the Palestinian cause by offering to evacuate Kuwait in return for an Israeli withdrawal from the occupied territories. When these efforts failed, HusseinconcludedahastypeacewithIransoastobringhisarmyuptofullstrength. The%Gulf%War%Begins% OnNovember29,1990,theU.N.SecurityCouncilauthorizedtheuseof allnecessarymeans offorceagainstiraqifitdidnotwithdrawfromkuwaitbythefollowingjanuary15.byjanuary, the coalition forces prepared to face off against Iraq numbered some 750,000, including 540,000 U.S. personnel and smaller forces from Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet Union, Japan,EgyptandSaudiArabia,amongothernations.Iraq,foritspart,hadthesupportofJordan (another vulnerable neighbor), Algeria, the Sudan, Yemen, Tunisia and the Palestinian LiberationOrganization(PLO). EarlyonthemorningofJanuary17,1991,amassiveU.S.KledairoffensivehitIraq sairdefenses, movingswiftlyontoitscommunicationsnetworks,weaponsplants,oilrefineriesandmore.the coalition effort, known as Operation Desert Storm, benefited from the latest military technology, including Stealth bombers, Cruise missiles, sokcalled Smart bombs with laserk guidance systems and infrared nightkbombing equipment. The Iraqi air force was either destroyedearlyonoroptedoutofcombatundertherelentlessattack,theobjectiveofwhich wastowinthewarintheairandminimizecombatonthegroundasmuchaspossible. War%on%the%Ground% By midkfebruary, the coalition forces had shifted the focus of their air attacks toward Iraqi groundforcesinkuwaitandsoutherniraq.amassivealliedgroundoffensive,operationdesert Sabre,waslaunchedonFebruary24,withtroopsheadingfromnortheasternSaudiArabiainto KuwaitandsouthernIraq.Overthenextfourdays,coalitionforcesencircledanddefeatedthe Iraqis and liberated Kuwait. At the same time, U.S. forces stormed into Iraq some 120 miles

6 west of Kuwait, attacking Iraq s armored reserves from the rear. The elite Iraqi Republican GuardmountedadefensesouthofAlKBasrahinsoutheasternIraq,butmostweredefeatedby February27. With Iraqi resistance nearing collapse, Bush declared a ceasefire on February 28, ending the Persian Gulf War. According to the peace terms that Hussein subsequently accepted, Iraq would recognize Kuwait s sovereignty and get rid of all its weapons of mass destruction (includingnuclear,biologicalandchemicalweapons).inall,anestimated8,000to10,000iraqi forceswerekilled,incomparisonwithonly300coalitiontroops.( Countries and Organizations Involved: OPEC% OPEC'sobjectivesaretocoKordinateandunifypetroleumpoliciesamongMemberCountries,in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investingintheindustry.( USA% WascalledbyEgyptandSaudiinordertointerveneintheIraqKKuwaitconflict,andhadmany involvementsinthewaritself,evidentinthemanyairstrikesiraqwitnessed.( % Kuwait% ThetensionbetweenIraqandKuwaitoriginatedwhenIranattackedoilfieldsinKuwaitinthe IraqKIranWar.KuwaitthengaveIraq14billiondollarstohelptheirfinancialstabilityafterthe war.iraqtriedtoconvincekuwaittodissolvethedebtasiraqhaddonekuwaitafavorbybeing atwarwithiran,kuwaitdeclinedandthiscausedariftbetweenthetwocountries.forayear they tried to resolve the financial situation but to no avail. Thereafter, Iraq invaded Kuwait. FortunatelyforKuwait,ithadstrongrelationshipswithSaudiArabiaandtheUS.( Iraq% IraqaskedallOPECmemberstoreduceoilproductionsothepriceofcrudeoilwouldincrease, this would in turn increase revenues for Iraq allowing the country to pay back its debts it

7 attainedasaresultoftheiraqkiranwar.leadbysaddamhussein,invadedkuwaitinattemptto acquireoilresourcesbecausekuwaitdidnotonlyrefuseiraq srequestbutalsosuggestedfor anincreaseofoilproductionby50%.( Saudi%Arabia% Along with other Arab league countries, strongly condemned Iraq for its actions and fought alongthesidesofkuwait.primarily,saudiwasaccusedalongsidekuwaitbyhusseinandalso hadpreviousstrongrelationshipswithkuwait.( Timeline: May( K Hussein asserts oil overproduction by Kuwait and United Arab Emirates is "economicwarfare"againstiraq. July(15117(1(IraqaccusesKuwaitofstealingoilfromRumaylahoilfieldonIraqKKuwaitborder andwarnsofmilitaryaction. July(22(1(IraqbeginsmilitarybuildupagainstKuwait. August(2(1(IraqinvadesKuwaitandseizesKuwaitioilfields.Kuwait'semirflees.Iraqmasses troopsalongthesaudiborder.u.n.condemnsiraq'sinvasionanddemandswithdrawal.( August(6(1(U.N.imposestradeembargoonIraq. August(7(1(SaudiArabiarequestsU.S.troopstodefendagainstpossibleIraqiattack. August(8(1(HusseinproclaimsannexationofKuwait. August(9(1(FirstU.S.militaryforcesarriveinSaudiArabia.U.N.declaresIraqiannexationof Kuwaitvoid. August(10(1(Husseindeclaresa"jihad"orholywaragainsttheU.S.andIsrael. August(12(1(NavalblockadeofIraqbegins.AllshipmentsofIraqioilhalted. August(28(1(IraqdeclaresKuwaitits19thprovince,renamesKuwaitCityalKKadhima. September(14115KUnitedKingdomandFranceannouncedeploymentof10,000troopstoGulf. Relevant UN Treaties and Events: UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution660(S/RES/660) UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution661(S/RES/661) UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution662(S/RES/662) UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution664(S/RES/664) UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution665(S/RES/665) UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution666(S/RES/666) UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution667(S/RES/667) UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution669(S/RES/669)

8 UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution670(S/RES/670) UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution674(S/RES/674) UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution677(S/RES/677) UnitedNationsSecurityCouncilResolution678(S/RES/678) The first resolution passed (660) condemned the actions of Iraq and authorized Iraq to withdraw.acommitteewasalsoestablishedinresolution661tofocusontheimplementation ofthesanctions.theunfurtheredimplementingsanctionsagainstiraqinresolution662and resolution665.therewasalsogreatconcernforthehumanitarianaidwhichwereaddressedin resolutions664and666.theundecidedinresolution670toaddmoresanctionsandtoexpel severaliraqidiplomats.resolution678gaveiraqonefinalchancetoleavekuwaitbefore15 th of Januaryoracoalitionofcountrieswouldhavetocometakemilitaryaction. Previous Attempts to Solve the Issue: TheUNSecurityCouncilhad11meetingsinattempttosolvetheissue.CondemningIraqasking Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait was the beginning from resolution 660. In the next resolutions efforts were made to demobilize Iraq s control over Kuwait. The UN agreed to not recognize Iraq sannexationofkuwaitandtoputtransferembargoandeconomicsanctionstoterritory. However many people were caught in the crossfire so the UN had to begin humanitarian missions to supply displaced Kuwaitis in the region and urged Iraq to begin diplomatic negotiations. Possible Solutions: Foreign intervention is a possible solution. Despite the Arab League voting to not allow it, it maybetheonlywaytotakeiraqoutofkuwaitandbeginnegotiations.iraqhadmademany demandsconcerningthesituationinpalestinetotheusgovernment,whichwererejected,but may be taken into reconsideration to not allow for any foreign intervention. Also long term solutionsmaybeneededtoensurepoliticalstabilityintheregionbystrengtheningsanctionsif violationsofinternationallawweremadeandtoensurecountriesarelawabidingortoensure thatdiplomaticrelationsbetweencountriesaremaintained. (

9 Works%Cited% "TIMELINE." PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, n.d. Web. 22 June "Security Council, SC, UNSC, Security, Peace, Sanctions, Veto, Resolution, President, United Nations, UN, Peacekeeping, Peacebuilding, Conflict Resolution, Prevention." United Nations. United Nations, n.d. Web. 22 June History.com Staff. "Persian Gulf War." History.com. AE Television Networks, Web. 22 June "Brief History." OPEC : Brief History. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 June Miller, Judith. "WAR IN THE GULF: Muslims; Saudis Decree Holy War on Hussein." The New York Times. The New York Times, 19 Jan Web. 22 June 2017.

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