2 Objectives Understand how Saddam Hussein rose to power Understand how the invasion of Iran affected the world economy. Analyze how the invasion of Kuwait started a global problem. Compare and contrast his political goals with his economic goals.
3 Born on April 28, 1937, in Tikrit, Iraq, Saddam Hussein was a secularist who rose through the Baath political party to assume a dictatorial presidency. Under his rule, segments of the populace enjoyed the benefits of oil wealth, while those in opposition faced torture and execution. After military conflicts with U.S.- led armed forces, Hussein was captured in He was later executed.
4 Saddam Hussein was born on April 28, 1937, in Tikrit, Iraq. His father, who was a shepherd, disappeared several months before Saddam was born. At age 3 he was sent to Baghdad to live with his uncle, Khairallah Talfah. Years later, Saddam would return to Al-Awja to live with his mother, but after suffering abuse at the hand of his stepfather, he fled to Baghdad to again live with Talfah, a devout Sunni Muslim and ardent Arab nationalist whose politics would have a profound influence on the young Saddam. In 1957, at age 20, Saddam joined the Ba'ath Party, whose ultimate ideological aim was the unity of Arab states in the Middle East. On October 7, 1959, Saddam and other members of the Ba-ath Party attempted to assassinate Iraq's thenpresident, Abd al-karim Qasim. During the assassination attempt, Saddam was shot in the leg. Saddam and several others managed to escape to Syria, where Saddam stayed briefly before fleeing to Egypt, where he attended law school.
5 In 1963, when Qasim's government was overthrown in the so-called Ramadan Revolution, Saddam returned to Iraq, but he was arrested the following year as the result of in-fighting in the Ba'ath Party. In 1968, Saddam participated in a bloodless but successful Ba'athist coup that resulted in Ahmed Hassan al-bakr becoming Iraq's president and Saddam his deputy. During al- Bakr s presidency, Saddam proved himself to be an effective and progressive politician, albeit a decidedly ruthless one.
6 Saddam did much to modernize Iraq's infrastructure, industry, and health-care system, and raised social services, education, and farming subsidies to levels unparalleled in other Arab countries in the region. He also nationalized Iraq's oil industry, just before the energy crisis of 1973, which resulted in massive revenues for the nation. During that same time, however, Saddam helped develop Iraq's first chemical weapons program and, to guard against coups, created a powerful security apparatus, which included both Ba'athist paramilitary groups and the People's Army, and which frequently used torture, rape and assassination to achieve its goals.
7 In 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini led a successful Islamic revolution in Iraq's neighbor to the northeast, Iran. Saddam, whose political power rested in part upon the support of Iraq's minority Sunni population, worried that developments in Shi-ite majority Iran could lead to a similar uprising in Iraq. In response, on September 22, 1980, Saddam ordered Iraqi forces to invade the oil-rich region of Khuzestan in Iran.
8 The conflict soon blossomed into an all-out war, but Western nations and much of the Arab world, fearful of the spread of Islamic radicalism and what it would mean to the region and the world, laid their support firmly behind Saddam, despite the fact that his invasion of Iran clearly violated international law. During the conflict, these same fears would cause the international community to essentially ignore Iraq's use of chemical weapons, its genocidal dealing with its Kurdish population and its burgeoning nuclear program.
9 On August 20, 1988, after years of intense conflict that left hundreds of thousands dead on both sides, a ceasefire agreement was finally reached.
10 In the aftermath of the conflict, seeking a means of revitalizing Iraq's warravaged economy and infrastructure, at the end of the 1980s, Saddam turned his attention toward Iraq's wealthy neighbor, Kuwait and on August 2, 1990, Saddam ordered the invasion of Kuwait.
11 A UN Security Council resolution was promptly passed, imposing economic sanctions on Iraq and setting a deadline by which Iraqi forces must leave Kuwait. When the January 15, 1991 deadline was ignored, a UN coalition force headed by the United States confronted Iraqi forces, and a mere six weeks later, had driven them from Kuwait.
12 A ceasefire agreement was signed, the terms of which included Iraq dismantling its germ and chemical weapons programs. The previously imposed economic sanctions levied against Iraq remained in place. Despite this and the fact that his military had suffered a crushing defeat, Saddam claimed victory in the conflict. During Operation Desert Storm on 17 January 1991, eight AH-64As guided by four MH-53 Pave Low IIIs destroyed part of Iraq's radar network in the operation's first attack, allowing aircraft to evade detection. The Apaches each carried an asymmetric load of Hydra 70 flechette rockets, Hellfires, and one auxiliary fuel tank. During the 100-hour ground war a total of 277 AH-64s took part, destroying 278 tanks, numerous armored personnel carriers and other Iraqi vehicles. One AH-64 was lost in the war, to a rocket-propelled grenade(rpg) hit at close range, the Apache crashed but the crew survived.
14 The Gulf War's resulting economic hardships further divided an already fractured Iraqi population. During the 1990s, various Shi-ite and Kurdish uprisings occurred, but the rest of the world, fearing another war, Kurdish independence (in the case of Turkey) or the spread of Islamic fundamentalism did little or nothing to support these rebellions, and they were ultimately crushed by Saddam's increasingly repressive security forces. At the same time, Iraq remained under intense international scrutiny as well. In 1993, when Iraqi forces violated a no-fly zone imposed by the United Nations, the United States launched a damaging missile attack on Baghdad. In 1998, further violations of the no-fly zones and Iraq's alleged continuation of its weapons programs led to further missile strikes on Iraq, which would occur intermittently until February 2001.
15 Members of the Bush administration had suspected that the Hussein government had a relationship with Osama bin Laden's al Qaeda organization. In his January 2002 State of the Union address, U.S. President George W. Bush named Iraq as part of his so-called "Axis of Evil," along with Iran and North Korea, and claimed that the country was developing weapons of mass destruction and supporting terrorism.
16 Later that year, UN inspections of suspected weapons sites in Iraq began, but little or no evidence that such programs existed was ultimately found. Despite this, on March 20, 2003, under the pretense that Iraq did in fact have a covert weapons program and that it was planning attacks, a U.S.- led coalition invaded Iraq. Within weeks, the government and military had been toppled, and on April 9, 2003, Baghdad fell. Saddam, however, managed to elude capture.
17 While in hiding, Saddam released several audio recordings, in which he denounced Iraq's invaders and called for resistance. Finally, on December 13, 2003, Saddam was found hiding in a small underground bunker near a farmhouse in ad-dawr, near Tikrit.
19 From there, he was moved to a U.S. base in Baghdad, where he would remain until June 30, 2004, when he was officially handed over to the interim Iraqi government to stand trial for crimes against humanity. During the subsequent trial, Saddam would prove to be a belligerent defendant, often boisterously challenging the court's authority and making bizarre statements. On November 5, 2006, Saddam was found guilty and sentenced to death.
20 On December 30, 2006, at Camp Justice, an Iraqi base in Baghdad, Saddam was hanged, despite his request to be shot. He was buried in Al- Awja, his birthplace, on December 31, 2006.
22.3 The Northeast Historical Geography Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia Subregion includes: Culture Ethnicities Turks, Kurds, Persians Languages Religion Muslims in the Middle East War and Refugees Causes
Saddam Hussein s Rise to Power 2 The main figure on the Iraqi side of the 1991 Persian Gulf War was Saddam Hussein (1937 ; ruled 1979 2003). After becoming president of Iraq in 1979, Hussein involved his
Council: Historical Security Council Topic: The Question of the Gulf War Topic Expert: Mina Wageeh Position: Chair Introduction: IraqileaderSaddamHusseinorderedtheinvasionandoccupationofneighboringKuwaitonthe
Main Idea Reading Focus Conflicts in the Middle East Regional issues in the Middle East have led to conflicts between Israel and its neighbors and to conflicts in and between Iran and Iraq. How have regional
Rafsanjani on Iran s Conduct of the War June 21, 2008 Ayatollah Rafsanjani said: Even Russians went so far as to supply Iraq with Scud C missiles which could hit targets twice further than Scud B missiles
Ancient Iran Geography and Resources Iran s location, bounded by mountains, deserts, and the Persian Gulf, left it open to attack from Central Asian nomads The fundamental topographical features included
PSCI 2500 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Jim Butterfield Davis Arthur-Yeboah April 11, 2018 Office hours: Davis: M-Th 3:00-4:30 JB: Tu 4:00-5:30, W 2:00-4:00 From last Wednesday, know for the final exam: What
Background Guide ISLAND MODEL UNITED NATIONS Dear Delegates, I would like to formally welcome you to the at IMUN 2014. My name is Tyler Pickford and I will be your Director for the duration of the conference.
Israel in the Middle, Syria, Iran and the Gulf States 27. August 2013 um 11:00 Israel in the Middle, Syria, Iran and the Gulf States by Stephen E Hughes 26 Aug. 2013 Iran & Syria s Bashar Hafezal-Assad
CHAPTER I Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) The Role of External Parties in the Implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 598 War is a conflict which arises as a result of clash or divergence
ANOTHER VIEWPOINT (AVP_NS84 January 2003) GEORGE BUSH TO SADDAM HUSSEIN: DO AS WE SAY, NOT AS WE DO! Elias H. Tuma That is the message of President Bush to President Saddam Hussein, for what is permissible
MIDDLE EAST Middle East Climate Deserts Sahara (North Africa) & Arabian Desert Desert Landscape Sand dunes 15% of Sahara Rocky desert 85% of Sahara Areas With Freshwater Areas with Mediterranean Climate
Published on STRATFOR (http://www.stratfor.com) Home > The U.S. Withdrawal and Limited Options in Iraq The U.S. Withdrawal and Limited Options in Iraq Created Aug 17 2010-03:56  Not Limited Open Access
AFGHANISTAN PAKISTAN 1) Ethnic and Religious Conflict Difference in religion and race 2) Palestinian / Israeli Conflict Fighting over the creation of Israel after WWII 3) Western Influence and Intervention
Islamic Militarism and Terrorism in the Modern World Roots of Hate 1 Terrorism Terrorism in the modern world revolves around fundamentalist Islam To understand the issues, it is important to look at Islam
Medieval Times in the Modern Middle East July 5, 2017 As nations fail, nationalism becomes obsolete. Originally produced on June 26, 2017 for Mauldin Economics, LLC By George Friedman and Kamran Bokhari
The 7 Most Badass War Leaders of all Time #1 Adolf Hitler Born April 20, 1889 Died April 30, 1945 Being so high in command, he was the cause of WWII. He was the founder and the leader of the Nazi Party
THE COLD WAR IN THE MIDDLE EAST And the making of our political present. GEORGE F. KENNAN We have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population. This disparity is particularly great as
2 A Global Controversy: The U.S. Invasion of Iraq The country of Iraq straddles two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, where several of the world s earliest civilizations developed. In what is
SW Asia (Middle East) 2 nd Nine Weeks EOTT/Semester Exam Study Guide #1 Geographically speaking, which country lies between Iraq and Afghanistan? ANSWER Iran lies between Iraq and Afghanistan. #2 The Suez
Spotlight on Iran February 4 February 18, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview Tehran continues to deny Israeli reports about Iranian involvement in the clashes last weekend in Syria, which were triggered
The Collapse of the Islamic State: What Comes Next? November 18, 2017 Overview 1 On June 29, 2014, ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-baghdadi declared the establishment of the Islamic Caliphate by the Islamic State
The Worldviews of the Iraqi Public toward Religion, Politics, Gender, and Coalition Forces: Findings of Values Survey, November-December, 2004 Mansoor Moaddel (PI) Ronald Inglehart (Co-PI) Mark Tessler
Saudi Arabia vs. Iran and the Role of the USA By Jean-Francois Seznec The success of the Geneva talks between the P5+1 and Iran is widely reported as being opposed by Israel and by the Gulf States, especially
The Proxy War for and Against ISIS Dr Andrew Mumford University of Nottingham @apmumford Summary of talk Assessment of proxy wars Brief history of proxy wars Current trends The proxy war FOR Islamic State
REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions,
Contemporary Iran A Realistic Perspective M O H S E N K A D I V A R D E P A R T M E N T O F R E L I G I O U S S T U D I E S D U K E U N I V E R S I T Y W O R L D V I E W S E M I N A R O N T H E M O D E
A Summary of the Discussion: Islamic Dissent in an Islamic Country: Saudi Arabia Dr. Bahgat Korany: The subject-matter is intriguing as Saudi Arabia is perceived as the incarnation of Islam. In fact, it
U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation In Reply, Please Refer to FileNo. DECLASSIFIED BY ucjbaw 60324 ON 05-21-2009 Baghdad Operations Center June 11, 2004 While engaging SSA George
Al-Qaeda claims responsibility for the attack on a Western sea vessel in the region of the Strait of Hormuz On July 28 th 2010 an explosion occurred on a Japanese oil tanker near the entrance to the Persian
Syria's Civil War Explained By Al Jazeera on 02.22.17 Word Count 1,002 A displaced Syrian child, fleeing from Deir Ezzor besieged by Islamic State (IS) group fighters, hangs on the back of a woman as she
Good Reads Phebe Marr s The Modern History of Iraq (Westview Press, 2012) Review and author interview by George Gavrilis. Writing a historical survey of any country is no easy task. This is particularly
PLEASE NOTE THE ANDREW MARR SHOW MUST BE CREDITED IF ANY PART OF THIS TRANSCRIPT IS USED THE ANDREW MARR SHOW INTERVIEW: TONY BLAIR FORMER PRIME MINISTER JUNE 14 th 2014 Now looking at the violence now
Libya: From Rogue-State to Partner Alison Pargeter Following his announcement in December 2003 that Libya would abandon its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programmes, Colonel Qadhafi has been working
Spotlight on Iran March 4 March 18, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview Against the backdrop of European efforts to place limitations on Iran s ballistic missile program and curtail its regional influence
End of Days What s Going On? Pt. 8 March 16, 2014 The Coming Invasion of Israel described as the Battle of Gog and Magog Scripture Passages: Ezekiel Chapters 38 and 39 1. Introduction: The prophet Ezekiel
«The Shiite Marja iyya question» Barah Mikaïl, Chercheur à l IRIS Jamil Abou Assi, Halla al-najjar, Assistants de recherche Etude n 2005/096 réalisée pour le compte de la Délégation aux Affaires stratégiques
UNDERSTANDING THE ISLAMIC STATE INTRODUCTION CRT BRIEFING, 4 SEPTEMBER 2014 Since June 2014, the Islamic State (IS) has been advancing throughout Iraq. The group now controls a large amount of territory
Human Geography of the Middle East & North Africa On the southern Nile River a land of contrast lush green & desert WARNING:ONLY WRITE WHAT IS IN RED FONT!!! North Africa/Middle East: Population Density
War with IRAQ: The Aftermath As the war with Iraq winds down, Americans around the world are celebrating an overwhelming victory against a ruthless regime. We can all be proud of our troops who performed
This should be read in every High School, and posted on the "Must Read" bulletin board of every business in this Country. While we still have one. This is an EXCELLENT essay. Well thought out and presented.
34 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is best known for its efforts to (1) develop workable alternatives to fossil fuels (2) bring Western oil technology to the Middle East (3) stop
The Umayyads and Abbasids The Umayyad Caliphate was founded in 661 by Mu awiya the governor or the Syrian province during Ali s reign. Mu awiya contested Ali s right to rule, arguing that Ali was elected
TIANMUN 2017 UNDP 1 FORUM: United Nations Development Programme ISSUE: Measures to stabilize Iraq STUDENT OFFICER: Duk Won Kim POSITION: President of the United Nations Development Programme Introduction
Iran comes from the word Aryan Aryans settled here in 1500 B.C. Descendents were the Medes and the Persians Eventually, whole territory became known as the Persian Empire 1935 Reza Shah changed the name
International Terrorism Situation I. The Rise of "Al-Qaeda" and the Simaltaneous Terrorist Attacks on the United States 1.The Rise of "Al-Qaeda" When the former Soviet Union launched a military intervention
Al-Qaeda's Operational Strategies The attempt to revive the debate surrounding the Seven Stages Plan Background On September 11, 2008, the Al-Faloja forum published Al-Qaeda's Seven Stages Plan an operational
Persepolis BY MARJANE SATRAPI DR. CONLEY 10 TH LIT AND COMP WHEELER HIGH 2017-2018 ABOUT THE AUTHOR Satrapi was born in Rasht, Iran, and grew up in Tehran in a middleclass Iranian family. Both her parents
SAUDI ARABIA and COUNTERTERRORISM FACT SHEET: FIGHTING AND DEFEATING DAESH MAY 2017 Saudi Arabia is the main target of Daesh (ISIS) and other terror groups because it is the birthplace of Islam and home
ARAB ATTITUDES, 2011 U.S. And Obama Favorable Ratings Drop Sharply Top Arab Concerns: U.S. Interference and Unresolved Palestine Issue Killing bin Laden Will Not Improve Region Mixed Mood on Arab Spring
NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE SADDAM HUSSEIN S GRAND STRATEGY DURING THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR MISTER KURTIS JENSEN AND COMMANDER MATTHEW KLUNDER CORE COURSES 5601 SEMINAR F & 5602 SEMINAR G
Looking at IRAN How 20 Arab & Muslim Nations View Iran & Its Policies March 5, 2013 At the end of 2012, we polled more than 20,000 citizens in 17 Arab countries and three non-arab Muslim countries (Turkey,
36 Prime Minister Bazargan s provisional government faced many obstacles as it attempted to create order amidst ongoing strikes and demonstrations. One of the challenges came from the Ayatollah Khomeini,
Combating the rise of ISIS League of Arab States I. Background on League of Arab States The League of Arab States (Arab League) is an organization that consists of independent Arab States conforming the
Chapter 18, Section 1 For use with textbook pages 439 443. Population Patterns Terms to Know ethnic diversity Differences among groups based on their languages, customs, and beliefs (page 439) infrastructure
Name: Advisory: Period: High School World History Cycle 4 Week 7 Lifework This packet is due Monday, May 15th Complete and turn in on FRIDAY 5/12 for 5 points of EXTRA CREDIT! Lifework Assignment Complete
CHINA AND THE MUSLIM WORLD: THE CASE OF IRAN, SAUDI ARABIA, AND TURKEY Bambang Cipto University of Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia China and the Muslim World China s foreign policy to the Muslim world
Regional Conflict. Global Impact. ihs.com/conflictmonitor Conflict Monitor A complete OSINT collection and analysis service for Syria and Iraq Monitor, anticipate, and respond to evolving threats Geospatial
Ottoman Empire (1800-1914) Internal Troubles & External Threats THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 19 TH CENTURY AP WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 23A The Ottoman Empire: Sick Man of Europe In the 1800s= the Ottoman Empire went
EQ: What are the key characteristics of Southwest Asia s major ethnic groups? (AKS #44b) Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group. Explain the diversity of religions within
Iraq and Anbar: Surge or Separation? Anthony H. Cordesman It is easy to develop strategies for Iraq, as long as you ignore the uncertainties involved and the facts on the ground. Dealing with the uncertain
Film Guide Persepolis June 2013 Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/resources/classroom Abstract This film guide fosters an historical understanding
Position Papers Operation Decisive Storm: Reshuffling Regional Order This paper was originally written in Arabic by: Al Jazeera Center for Studies Translated into English by: AMEC Al Jazeera Center for
1 The Middle East in Conflict: A Century of War and Peace University of Pennsylvania, Spring, 2018 Instructor: Dr. Samuel Helfont Office Hours: Monday 2:30 to 4:30 or by appointment most days Office Address:
10 th körber dialogue middle east Berlin, 2 3 November, 2012 in the wake of the arab spring: democracy and chaos? Körber Foundation International Affairs December 2012 In the Wake of the Arab Spring: Democracy
LASALLE COLLEGE HIGH SCHOOL FRESHMAN SUMMER READING 2012 SOCIAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT BOOK: Children of Jihad by Jared Cohen ISBN: 13: 978-1592403998 During your reading you will be responsible for the following.
Iranian Responses to Growing Tensions with Israel and an Initial Assessment of Their Implications from an Iranian Standpoint February 11, 2018 Dr. Raz Zimmt Summary of Events The escalation along Israel
Hong Kong Baptist University HKBU Institutional Repository Library Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Research Library 2016 The Role of Power Plays in the Syrian Crisis Tung Yui Li Hong Kong Baptist
The Gog and Magog War: The Religion of Death How does Islam and ISIS play a role in the Gog-Magog War? In this The Truth Will Set You Free TWave Radio episode, Pastor Vic Batista of Calvary Chapel Aventura
Chapter 3 Protecting Kurdistan: the Peshmerga Before, During, and After ISIS Sirwan Barzani The Peshmerga, 1 the literal meaning of which is those who face death, are Kurdish fighters who protect the Kurdish
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Œ œ Ÿ The majority of the world s Muslim population follows the Sunni branch of Islam, and approximately 10-15% of all Muslims follow the Shiite (Shi ite,
Joseph Kostiner Conflict and Cooperation in the Gulf Region Joseph Kostiner Conflict and Cooperation in the Gulf Region Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche
flag if India (right) flags of Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia (below) 30.4 NATIONALISM IN INDIA AND SOUTHWEST ASIA INDIAN NATIONALISM GROWS Two groups rid India of foreign rule: Indian National Congress
Global Security Briefing February 2017 The UK and the Terror Threat Paul Rogers Summary The recent statement from the UK s new Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation that the terrorist threat to
Significant Person Sayyid Qutb Overview Historical Context Life and Education Impact on Islam Historical Context Egypt in 19th Century Egypt was invaded by Napoleon in 1798 With the counterintervention
International Terrorism and ISIS Hussain Al-Shahristani 17th Castiglioncello Conference, Italy, 22-24 Sept 2017 Good afternoon It is a great pleasure to be here with you in this beautiful part of Italy
Memorandum for President Assad BY TIM GRIMMETT, TODD HARROD AND BRYAN HURLEY This article provides a Syrian regime perspective on the current state of the civil war, regional dynamics, and prospects for
www.breaking News English.com Ready-to-use ESL / EFL Lessons The Breaking News English.com Resource Book 1,000 Ideas & Activities For Language Teachers http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/book.html Second
ISLAMIC CIVILIZATIONS 600-1000 A.D. ISLAM VOCAB Muhammad the Prophet- the founder of Islam Islam- monotheistic religion meaning submission Muslim- followers of Islam Mecca- holy city to Arab people located
The Twin Precepts of the Turkish Republic Nationalism and Secularism DRAFT KHRP Briefing Paper Last Updated: 08/06/07 Summary In recent months, there has been an increasingly visible nationalist rhetoric
The Umayyad Dynasty Brett Coffman Liberty High School AP World History The death of Muhammad Muhammad died in 632. Set off a problem that exists today the succession of the Islamic state Caliph Islamic