Y8 Summer Exam Religious Studies Revision Booklet. (Condensed Version)

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1 Y8 Summer Exam Religious Studies Revision Booklet (Condensed Version) Version 1 - May 2017

2 Exam Strategy 1 Mark Question Strategy No strategy required. This is a multi-choice question 2 Mark Question Strategy These questions will begin with: GIVE - Give two brief answers LIST - List two brief answers BRIEFLY EXPLAIN - Give one answer with a brief explanation 4 Mark Question Strategy There are two types of 4 mark questions: standard questions and contrasting views questions. Use the following strategies: Standard 4 Mark Question Strategy Point, explain x2 Contrasting Views 4 Mark Question Strategy Start with views of most Christians (point, explain) Then give a contrasting view (point, explain) from another religion; another Christian denomination; a non-religious point of view e.g. atheist 5 Mark Question Strategy Point, explain x2 Include 1 quote to support your answer 12 Mark Question Strategy Arguments in support - Point, explain x2 Arguments against - Point, explain x2 Include 2 quotes to support your answer You must give a reasoned conclusion

3 Christianity Revision BELIEFS AND TEACHINGS Denomination Note: Ecumenical refers to the worldwide Church Trinity The name for different branches of the Christian Church. Examples include: Catholic (the largest Christian group - based in Rome with the Pope as the leader) Protestant (a branch of Christianity that broke away from Catholicism) Church of England (an Anglican, Protestant group established by Henry VIII) Methodist - (a branch of Protestant Christians) Orthodox (a branch of Christianity usually found in Eastern European countries like Russia) Quakers (known as the Society of Friends - a pacifist group of Christians) The belief in one God in three forms: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Holy Special and set apart for a special purpose by God Attributes of God Omnipotent - God is all powerful Omniscient - God is all knowing Benevolent - God is loving Transcendent - God is beyond the world Immanent - God is involved in his creation Creation Incarnation Crucifixion Resurrection Ascension Afterlife Salvation Grace Atonement The belief that God created the world. Different interpretations of the creation story from Genesis: 1. The world was created in 7 24-hour days (literal Christians) 2. In hebrew the word day (yawm) means means a long period of time - so the world was created in seven ages (this could be millions of years) 3. The world was created by God but the creation story is just used to illustrate the creation idea Additionally, many Christians believe that God works through science. Charles Darwin = Evolution was made possible by God. Thomas Aquinas = First Cause Argument - God instigated the big bang. God becoming flesh and taking on human form (God the Son) Jesus capital punishment on the cross. He was convicted of blasphemy as he claimed to be the son of God. Jesus rising from the dead on Easter Sunday. This shows that Jesus was incarnate, it proves that sins can be forgiven and it proves that there is life after death. Jesus going back up to heaven 40 days after Easter. Judgement - Christians believe that they will be judged based on their life on earth. People will be separated as set out in the parable of the sheep and the goats. Heaven - a state of being with God after death Hell - a state of not being with God (or being with the devil) after death Purgatory - a state of spiritual cleansing of the soul in preparation for heaven. The idea that souls can be forgiven their sins through faith and by good deeds. The kind things that God does for people e.g. forgiveness. The action of making amends for wrongdoing. Repent (sometimes called penitence) - to feel regret for your own sins Reconciliation - the process of making people in conflict friendly again (this is also the name of one of the 7 sacraments where some Christians confess their sins to a priest and do an act of penitence to make things right with God and earn his forgiveness). Names of Jesus The Word - meaning that Jesus spoke the word of God

4 Miracles Gospel Saint Paul Agape Messiah - the promised one (although Jews do not believe that Jesus is the Messiah) Events that have no scientific explanation. Some were performed by Jesus. The collective name for the four books of the Bible that detail Jesus life. The books were written by and are named after: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Originally called Saul. He used to persecute Christians until he received revelation from God. He then went on to teach Christianity to others and changed his name to Paul. A term that refers to unconditional Christian love. Bible quote The Lord s Prayer Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us. Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen God so loved the world that he gave his only son that whoever believes in him shall not perish but shall have eternal life. Nothing is impossible with God. The Word became and made his dwelling among us. When Jesus was baptised, a voice from heaven said you are my son Go and make disciples of all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. This is my body, given for you. Do this in remembrance of me. Because you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me. Love your neighbour as yourself. Treat one another as I have loved you. Blessed are you when people... persecute you because of me. Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. Link to key words - there are many more ways you can use these quotes too! Prayer; worship; forgiveness; afterlife; atonement; heaven; sin; salvation. Trinity; Crucifixion; Resurrection. Creation; Omnipotent. Incarnation; Jesus sometimes referred to as The Word Proof that Jesus is the Son of God; Trinity; Incarnation Sacraments; Baptism; Trinity. Sacraments; Holy Communion/Eucharist; From the Sheep and the Goats parable. Explaining why Christians should help other people in the community. Explaining why Christians should help other people. Explaining why Christians should help other people. Christian response to persecution Christian response to persecution

5 Islam Revision BELIEFS AND TEACHINGS Muslim Islam Allah Tawhid Monotheistic Sunni Muslims Sunni beliefs The 6 articles of faith Shi a Muslims Shi a beliefs The 5 roots of Usul ad-din (principles) Imam God s relationship with the world Qualities of God Predestination Akhira Ka aba Risalah Malaika (angels) Someone who has submitted to Allah The name of the religion followed by Muslims - the word Islam means peace Arabic name of God The oneness of God A religion that believes in only one God believe in the authority of the Qur an and Sunnah (following Muhammad s teachings and deeds) as interpreted by the four rightly guided Caliphs (Muslim leaders): Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali. 1. Belief in God (Tawhid) 2. Belief in prophethood (including Muhammad as the greatest and last prophet) 3. Belief in the afterlife/judgement (Akhira) 4. Belief in angels (Malaika) 5. Belief in the holy books as authority (Kutub) (e.g. Qur an) 6. Belief in the supremacy of God s will (Qadr) Shi a Muslims believe that Muhammad s successor should be a descendant (Ali). Whereas Sunnis believe the leader should be elected (Abu Bakr, who was elected to succeed Muhammad). Shi as also believe that there are 12 Imams in total. It is believed that the twelfth and final Imam known as the Mahdi is still alive but hidden until he will return with Jesus to bring about fairness and justice Belief in God (Tawhid) 3. Belief in prophethood (Nabuwwah) (including Muhammad as the greatest and last prophet) 4. Belief in the day of judgement (resurrected to be judged, then sent to paradise or hell) 5. Belief in the justice of God (humans are accountable) 6. Belief in the Imamate (the 12 Imams are in charge) Meaning 1 = a person who leads Islam prayers (like a priest) Meaning 2 = the title given to Ali and his successors (in Shi a Islam only) Immanent = the idea that God is present in and involved with life on earth Transcendent = the idea that God is beyond and outside life on earth Omnipotent = the idea that God is almighty and has unlimited power Omniscient = the idea that God knows everything Beneficent = the idea that God is benevolent and is a loving God Merciful = the idea that God shows compassion and forgiveness to humans even though he has the power to punish them Just (Adalat in Shi a Islam) = the idea that God judges humans fairly, rewarding the good and punishing the bad The idea that God knows (but doesn t decide) everything that will happen because he is omnipotent. Everlasting life after death Resurrection = rising from the dead to be judged by God Heaven (paradise) = the state of eternal happiness in the presence of God Hell = the state of total separation from God after death and a place of punishment The black cube-shaped building in the centre of the Grand Mosque in Mecca - the holiest place in Islam Messages from God are known as Risalah. These messages are communicated by angels to the prophets and recorded in the holy books. Spiritual beings believed to: 1. Pass on God s message to Prophets 2. Guardian angels - taking care of people

6 Jinn (genie) Prophets Holy books 3. Recording in the book of deeds for judgement day Jibril (Gabriel) = The angel who brought God s message to prophets, particularly Muhammad (pbuh) Mika il (Michael) = The angel of mercy who rewards good deeds and provides nourishment Kiraman Kaatibeen = writers of the book of deeds Iblis = a being created from fire who was allowed to mingle with Angels in the heavens until he rejected the command of God to bow before Adam. He is known as Shaytan (Satan) - he tempts Muslims to do bad deeds. Adam is important because God gave him understanding, which he passed on to other humans through his descendents. God revealed to Adam which food Muslims are allowed to eat, how to repent for wrong doings and how to bury the dead. Abraham (Ibrahim) is important because he was a man of faith who denounced the worship of idols, rebuilt the Ka aba and gave the message that there is only one God. He proved his devotion to God by being prepared to sacrifice his own son. Muhammad (the last and greatest prophet) is important because he received the final revelation of Islam through the Angel Gabriel (Jibril). These revelations formed the Qur an. Qur an = the most important holy book in Islam - believed to be the word of God revealed to Muhammad via the angel Jibril. Torah = the five books revealed by God to Moses Psalms = a holy book revealed to David by God Gospel = a holy book revealed to Jesus by God Scrolls of Abraham = a holy book revealed by God to Abraham (they have been lost)

7 SIKHISM The formation of the Khalsa When Sikhism was first established, Sikhs were persecuted in India. Guru Gobind Singh, the Sikh ruler at the time, decided that he had to have a group of highly committed and skilled warriors to defend the Sikhs. During the festival of Vaisakhi in 1699 he asked for 5 human heads. One by one they went into his tent. He returned with a bloody sword. He hadn t really killed them. They became known as the Panj Piare- the 5 beloved ones. This was the formation of the Khalsa or the pure. Guru Gobind said all members of the Khalsa had to drink Amrit from the same bowl (people of different backgrounds at that time not allowed to eat or drink together), this was to show equality. They also had to use the same name to show they were one family in the faith. Men would be called Singh (lion ) and women Kaur (princess)they would all drink the Amrit to show equality. The Amrit ceremony When Sikhs join the Khalsa they take part in the Amrit ceremony. They wear the Five K s, read from the Guru Granth Sahib and drink Amrit ( a mixture of sugar and water) Guru Nanak s teachinggs 1 GOD Guru Nanak taught people that there was only one God, and although there are many religions, they all lead to the same God. He also said that all people belong to one God. Guru Nanak said that people should work hard and look after each other, and that they should be kind to animals and birds. Guru Nanak also taught that men and women are equal. He also said that it was most important to always speak truthfully. The 5 K s Kesh - Long, uncut hair (and beard for men) This symbolizes respect for God by not changing the way that he makes you Kacchera - Baggy shorts This symbolizes modesty and also a readiness to go into battle for their faith if necessary

8 Kanga - Comb This reminds Sikhs to keep their lives in good order, as well as their Kesh neat and tidy Kara - A steel bracelet This symbolizes God has no beginning or end, and is a physical reminder of Him Kirpan - A small sword This reminds Sikhs to fight against evil, both physical and spiritual, in their everyday lives

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