25% Area of Study: Area of Study: God. Central Concepts. The Nature of God God as Creator God s relationship with human life

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1 Candidates are expected to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of beliefs, teachings and practices within a world faith. Reference to relevant sources of wisdom and authority are expected, including scripture and/or sacred texts. 1 hour exam 25% COMPONENT 3 A Study of a World Faith Option 6: Sikhism Area of Study: God Areas of Study The Nature of God God as Creator God s relationship with human life Areas of Study Ceremonies Festivals The Sangat Amritsar Area of Study: Sikh Lifestyle Area of Study: Central Concepts Areas of Study The Oneness of Humanity Gurmukh The Afterlife Sewa Area of Study: Central Practices Areas of Study The Gurdwara Worship

2 Who might the person in yellow be? What is he holding? How many people are kneeling in front of him? Who is the lady standing behind the kneeling men? Guru Gobind Singh Steel bowl (bata) full of Amrit 5 ~ Panj Pyare Mata Sahib Kaur

3 Mata Sahib Kaur ~ Mother of the Khalsa

4 Where might this photo have been taken? Describe what you can see!

5 What are the similarities between these 2 pictures? What are the differences?

6 AMRIT SANCHAR (ALSO CALLED KHANDE DI PAHUL)

7 Amrit Sanchar The Amrit ceremony takes place near to Vaisakhi (Sikh festival 13 th April), when the Khalsa, the brotherhood, had first originated. The Amrit Sanchar ceremony is led by 5 Amrit Dhari (baptised) Sikhs they represent the Panj Pyare (5 blessed / beloved ones). The ceremony takes place in the Gurdwara in the presence of the Guru Granth Sahib.

8 The candidates who want to be initiated must wear the 5k s which are a symbol of the Sikh faith. These include the Kirpan, Kesh, Kachera, Kanga and Kara.

9 THE FIVE K s

10 Use the information on the next 5 slides to annotate this diagram.

11 KESH What is it? Uncut hair It symbolises acceptance of Gods will. Sikhs believe that hair is a gift from God and therefore must be kept long and never cut. It must be kept clean and protected normally by a turban. Staying the way God created you

12 KANGHA What is it? Wooden comb It symbolises to be clean before God, both physically and spiritually. The Kangha is used twice a day and kept in the hair when not in use.

13 KARA What is it? Metal bracelet. Symbolises God the never ending circle. The Kara is like a handcuff to God to remind Sikhs to be good and to think before doing any action. It reminds Sikhs of God who is like a circle with no beginning or end. (Eternal) To understand the Khalsa and Sikh identity. To know the key facts about the 5K's. To be able to explain how it feels to belong to a group. To understand how belonging to a group affects our lives.

14 KACHERA What are they? Traditional white shorts. They symbolise chastity and readiness to defend the faith. Kachera is worn by both men and women to show equality. They are normally white to show cleanliness. (show that they are clean/fresh)

15 KIRPAN What is it? Small dagger/sword. Its symbolises freedom and sacrifice. The Kirpan should never been drawn in anger. It is there to reminds Sikhs of harder times in their past. Sikhs should stick up for what's right and help the weak and needy.

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17 Kanga - a wooden comb This symbolises a clean mind and body; since it keeps the uncut hair neat and tidy. It symbolises the importance of looking after the body which God has created. This does not conflict with the Sikh's aim to move beyond bodily concerns; since the body is one's vehicle for enlightenment one should care for it appropriately. Just as a comb helps to remove the tangles and cleans the hair, the Kanga is a spiritual reminder to shed impurities of thought. Kes - uncut hair Various reasons and symbolisms have been put forward for the Sikh practice of keeping hair uncut. Throughout history hair (kesh) has been regarded as a symbol both of holiness and strength. One's hair is part of God's creation. Keeping hair uncut indicates that one is willing to accept God's gift as God intended it. Uncut hair symbolizes adoption of a simple life, and denial of pride in one's appearance. Not cutting one's hair is a symbol of one's wish to move beyond concerns of the body and attain spiritual maturity. A Sikh should only bow his head to the Guru, and not to a barber. It is a highly visible symbol of membership of the group. It follows the appearance of Guru Gobind Singh, founder of the Khalsa. Kara - a iron bracelet A symbol of restraint and gentility. A symbol that a Sikh is linked to the Guru. It acts as a reminder that a Sikh should not do anything of which the Guru would not approve. A symbol of God having no beginning or end. A symbol of permanent bonding to the community-being a link in the chain of Khalsa Sikhs The Kara is made of steel, rather than gold or silver, because it is not an ornament. Kachha - special underwear This is a pair of breeches that must not come below the knee. It was a particularly useful garment for Sikh warriors of the 18th and 19th centuries, being very suitable for warfare when riding a horse. It's a symbol of chastity. The Kirpan can symbolise: Spirituality The soldier part of the Soldier-Saints Defence of good Defence of the weak The struggle against injustice A metaphor for God Kirpan - a ceremonial sword

18 The Panj Pyare now explain the Sikh principles and teachings to the candidates and ask if they accept them. They are asked questions based on serving humanity, praying to only one God and so on. Once they have agreed to this, the Ardas prayer (prayer read at the beginning and end of the ceremony) is offered and a portion of the Guru Granth Sahib is read.

19 After prayers have been offered, the Amrit is the prepared by the Panj Pyare. The Amrit consists of a mixture of water and sugar which is mixed into a steel bowl (Bata) using the Khanda ( the double-edged sword). Khanda- truth, justice, symbol of faith Sugar- sweet tempered, Gurmukh, God s nature Steel bowlstrength, equality, unity.

20 Each of the Panj Pyare will take it in turns to stir the Amrit, using their right hand while at the same time reciting five prayers taken from the Guru Granth Sahib. The five prayers are the Japji, the Jap, Swayyas, Chaupai Sahib and finally the Anand of Guru Amar Das. The Panj Pyare will sit in a special position called the Bir Asan whilst they are preparing Amrit, as they are crouched on one knee showing that they are always prepared to defend their faith.

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22 Once the amrit has been prepared another prayer is offered and the candidates are called in order to receive amrit. Firstly the candidate receives amrit in their hands 5 times and whilst this is given they recite the words Waheguru ji ka Khalsa, waheguru ji ki fateh (the Khalsa is of God, the victory is God s). Then the amrit is sprinkled into their eyes 5 times which symbolises opening eyes to a Gurmukh life instead of a Manmukh life. Amrit is then sprinkled in their hair 5 times, with the turban partly open. Then finally the candidates must take a sip of the amrit from the steel bowl, this emphasizes equality as everyone takes amrit from the same bowl. The Mool Mantra is then recited 5 times and the new members of the Khalsa are told about the rules they must follow and the responsibilities they now have as being part of the Khalsa.

23 1) 2) 3) 4)

24

25

26 The Ardas is recited again and another reading from the Guru Granth Sahib. Finally Karah Parshad is served. As an Amrit Dhari Sikh, they are now expected to: Follow the teachings of the Gurus and the Guru Granth Sahib, Recite the Banis everyday, Wear the 5k s, Treat people equally Lead a Gurmukh, God-centred life as opposed to a selfcentred Manmukh life. A MALE person will add SINGH (lion) and a FEMALE person will add KAUR (princess) to their name if they haven t already done so from birth! (WHY? What might this signify?)

27 Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa, a worldwide family of pure Sikhs Sikhs who have been through the Amrit ceremony of initiation become Khalsa initiated Sikhs. They take new names (Singh or Kaur) and wear the 5 Ks If you break the rules of Sikhism or don t follow the 5Ks Sikhs need to go through the Amrit ceremony again to rejoin the Khalsa Guru Gobind Singh declared the Sikh holy book as his successor instead of a human being. The Guru Granth Sahib would be the Sikhs' guide forever

28 How can having the same surname make people equal? Do you think it does make people equal?

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30 The first Amrit Sanchar 13 th April 1699

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32 Meaning of Amrit Sanchar Amrit Sanchar is has an important meaning because: o One becomes part of the Khalsa, as a baptised Sikh. o They have responded to Guru Gobind Singh who had created the Khalsa in o One now leads a Gurmukh life instead of a Manmukh lifestyle. They focus on God and not themselves. o It shows their commitment and devotion to the Sikh faith. o They have accepted the Guru s teachings and the teachings within the Guru Granth Sahib. As a baptised Sikh they will set an example and will therefore accept moral responsibilities and keep to Sikh values, beliefs and ideals. o It is a way that a Sikh, especially an Amrit Dhari Sikh is able to achieve Mukti, the liberation from the cycle of birth and rebirth and the chance to receive salvation to go back to God.

33 o Ultimately it strengthens a Sikhs faith. o It not only strengthens a Sikhs outward appearance but also their spirituality. o When becoming part of the Khalsa, members are expected to sacrifice bad habits such as lying, drinking alcohol, taking drugs, gambling etc. o They are expected to be role models to other Sikhs by defending their beliefs and community. o Although they have become baptised Sikhs they are still expected to follow the Gurus teachings as they still have to strive to achieve mukti just as any Sikh would. o Joining the KHALSA show EQUALITY as both males and females have the same ceremony using the same bowl. The surname SINGH and KAUR replaces any caste based surnames and shows EQUALITY

34 Bhai Gurdas Var 3.11 Being one with each other the Guru and the Sikh have made the Lord perceptible (in the form of Guru). Getting initiated by the Guru the disciple has become a Sikh. It was the Lord s desire that the Guru and the disciple would become one. It seems as if the diamond cutting the diamond has brought the other one in one string;

35 5 Sikh Virtues Sat (Truth), Santokh (Contentment), Daya (Compassion), Nimrata (Humility) Pyare (Love).

36

37 The items used within the Amrit Sanchar ceremony also have meaning and significance: Steel bowl (Bata) Strengthrepresented by the use of the steel bowl. Equality- as everyone taking part in the initiation will drink from the same bowl. Strength of heart and mind Unity- they have become united, by joining the Khalsa and being part of the Sikh brotherhood.

38 Khanda (Double-edged sword) Represents truth and justice from falsehood. Defending their faith. Symbol of the Sikh faith itself. Divine Knowledge. Bravery Used to stir the amrit (nectar) in the amrit ceremony.

39 Amrit (sugar and water mix) Sweet nature/tempered Leading a Gurmukh lifestyle. The nature of the Gurus God s nature

40 What can you remember? In which order does the Amrit Sanchar ceremony take place?

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42 What prayers are said during the amrit ceremony? How many times is amrit given to the candidate? What do Sikhs become when they are initiated?

43 Gorilla Girl be.com/watch?v= pwyw0dv_vws&f eature=youtu.be

44

45 Explain the meaning and importance of Amrit Sanchar in Sikhism. (8 marks) Getting initiated by the Guru the disciple has become a Sikh. It was the Lord s desire that the Guru and the disciple would become one. Bhai Gurdas Var 3.11

46

47

48 Kanga - a wooden comb This symbolises a clean mind and body; since it keeps the uncut hair neat and tidy. It symbolises the importance of looking after the body which God has created. This does not conflict with the Sikh's aim to move beyond bodily concerns; since the body is one's vehicle for enlightenment one should care for it appropriately. Just as a comb helps to remove the tangles and cleans the hair, the Kanga is a spiritual reminder to shed impurities of thought. Kes - uncut hair Various reasons and symbolisms have been put forward for the Sikh practice of keeping hair uncut. Throughout history hair (kesh) has been regarded as a symbol both of holiness and strength. One's hair is part of God's creation. Keeping hair uncut indicates that one is willing to accept God's gift as God intended it. Uncut hair symbolizes adoption of a simple life, and denial of pride in one's appearance. Not cutting one's hair is a symbol of one's wish to move beyond concerns of the body and attain spiritual maturity. A Sikh should only bow his head to the Guru, and not to a barber. It is a highly visible symbol of membership of the group. It follows the appearance of Guru Gobind Singh, founder of the Khalsa. Kara - a iron bracelet A symbol of restraint and gentility. A symbol that a Sikh is linked to the Guru. It acts as a reminder that a Sikh should not do anything of which the Guru would not approve. A symbol of God having no beginning or end. A symbol of permanent bonding to the community-being a link in the chain of Khalsa Sikhs The Kara is made of steel, rather than gold or silver, because it is not an ornament. Kachha - special underwear This is a pair of breeches that must not come below the knee. It was a particularly useful garment for Sikh warriors of the 18th and 19th centuries, being very suitable for warfare when riding a horse. It's a symbol of chastity. The Kirpan can symbolise: Spirituality The soldier part of the Soldier-Saints Defence of good Defence of the weak The struggle against injustice A metaphor for God Kirpan - a ceremonial sword

49

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