2 + THE ROMAN CIVILIZATION The Beginning A. Geographic Features of Rome! 1. Centrally located between Greece and Spain, extending like a boot into the Mediterranean Sea.! 2. Soil and climate suitable for farming! 3. Lack of rugged mountains along the coast allowed for trade and travel! 4. Eventually, they would expand their territory to include all areas surrounding the Mediterranean, calling it mare nostrum our sea!
3 B. Early Inhabitants of Italy! 1. The Latins settled the northern areas and migrated south to the Tiber River. They became the people known as the Romans.! 2. The Phoenicians sailed from the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the Middle East and settled colonies on Sicily and the coast of Africa (Carthage)! 3. The Greeks also established colonies on Sicily and the southern coast of Italy.! 4. The Etruscans came somewhere from Asia Minor, but aren t sure of their exact origin. They had a well developed culture, but left no written records. They settled along the western coast of Italy and had many conflicts with the Latins.!
4 C. The Founding of Rome! 1. The legend of Romulus and Remus twin brothers raised by a she-wolf; founded the city in 753 BC! 2. A city settled by the Latins on the banks of the Tiber River (for trade and protection). They built numerous villages on the hills overlooking the river The League of the Seven Hills!
5 D. Early Roman Society and Government! 1. The basic unit of Roman society was the family. The family included the entire household, both relatives and slaves. The father was the sole authority ( pater ).! 2. Society was structured with family values at the base: loyalty; submission; self-control; duty; patriotism.! 3. Two social classes developed! Patricians (the privileged upper class; aristocrats)! Plebeians (the common people)! 4. Early government! A monarchy with the king serving as chief priest, commander of the army, and administrator of the government! Imperium: the king s authority! Fasces: bundle of rods enclosing an axe, symbolizing the king s power!
7 + THE ROMAN REPUBLIC The Beginning A. Establishment of the Republic (a form of government in which the people choose representatives to rule for them)! 1. The Etruscans established a monarchy over the Latin villages. The Roman nobility eventually overthrew the king and established a republic! 2. The government was administered by three groups:! Consuls (two officials who shared the powers of a king)!
8 Consuls (two officials who shared the powers of a king)! The Senate (representatives of the tribal/clan leaders)! The Assembly (representatives of the plebeians)!
9 B. Struggle Within the Republic! 1. The patricians took control of the government, leaving the plebeians with few social or political privileges! 2. The patricians depended on the plebeians for menial work and for war this led to representation in the government: The Council of Plebeians passed laws on plebeians, but had not authority over the patricians. This council became known as the Tribal Assembly, under the leadership of the tribunes.! 3. The Law of the Twelve Tables became the foundation for Roman law!
10 4. As time passed and society changed, the struggle for power became a struggle between the wealthy and the poor, not between the patricians and the plebeians. By 287 BC the Tribal Assembly had the power to pass laws binding on all Romans.!
11 + THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Empire Building A. Rome Becomes Master of Italy ( )! 1. Rome led a defensive alliance the Latin League against the Etruscans. After that victory, Rome defeated rival Latin cities to secure the dominant role in central Italy.! 2. Expansion into southern Italy led to conflict with the Greek colonies.!
12 3. Roman control of the Italian peninsula! a. Treated her conquered subjects with mercy and fairness! b. Granted citizenship to many subjects! c. Required the people to furnish troops! d. They received loyalty of conquered peoples through protection, stability, and property!
13 B. Rome Becomes Master of the Western Mediterranean The Punic Wars (Rome vs. Carthage)! 1. Causes! a. Both expanding rapidly geographically! b. Both competing for trade! c. Both distrusted and feared the other! 2. Course! a. The First Punic war was fought over the control of Sicily Carthage had the advantage of a strong navy, but Rome copied their enemy s strategy and shipbuilding skills to eventually drive them out!
14 a. The Second Punic War started as Carthage began expanding into Spain. Hannibal planned to attack Rome from the north, hoping to liberate the Roman subjects. He barely survived the trip across the Alps, but was able to defeat a superior Roman army at the battle Cannae. This showed that the Romans were not invincible.!
15 Rather than march north to meet the threat of Hannibal, Scipio attacked Carthage, forcing Hannibal to return to Africa. At the battle of Zama, Scipio defeated Hannibal.! c. The Third Punic War started after Carthage broke the terms of the treaty. Rome besieged and razed Carthage, spreading salt on its fields to prevent farming.!
16 C. Rome Becomes Master of the Eastern Mediterranean! 1. Rome attacked Macedonia because she had allied herself with Carthage.! 2. Syria, moving westward against a weakened Macedonia, was defeated by Rome.! 3. Egypt made an alliance with Rome.! D. Results of Rome s Wars! 1. Heavy casualties (possibly as high as 1/3 of the population)! 2. Introduced into the citizenry men who had acquired citizenship rather than being born Roman citizens.! 3. Slaves became citizens! 4. Refugees flocked to Rome! 5. Public entertainment was offered to keep the people s minds off war! 6. Other religions brought to Rome!
17 + THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Decline to Dictatorship A. Problems Within the Republic! 1. Farmers returned from the wars economically burdened (no money to restore land, taxes were high, could not compete with foreign grain, unemployment, sought government help)! 2. The common people did not use the powers they had fought to acquire; the Senate remained dominant in Roman politics! 3. The wealthy became more wealthy at the expense of the common man! 4. Corruption throughout the republic!
18 B. The Failure of Reform. The Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, tried to institute land reform by giving land to the poor. They also tried to revive the power of the Tribal Assembly as the voice of the people. They encouraged the government to make inexpensive land available to farmers. An angry Senate urged mobs to kill them.! C. Civil War. Rivalry between the Senate and the Tribal Assembly! 1. Marius (T) vs. Sulla (S). Marius, champion of the people, formed a professional army loyal to him. Sulla formed a strong army by defeating rebel Italians. They used their Roman armies to fight for control of Rome Sulla won and declared himself dictator.!
19 2. Caesar (T) vs. Pompey (S). A triumvirate of three men (Caesar, Crassus, Pompey) attempted to rule Rome. Through various military campaigns in Gaul and Britain Caesar became increasingly popular with the people. When he began to return to Rome, he was warned not to bring his army across the Rubicon River (the traditional boundary of Rome) or it would be considered an act of war. Caesar easily defeated his rivals, bringing peace and prosperity to the people of Rome. The Senate agreed to make him dictator for life. Fearing his increasing power, Senators assassinated Caesar in the Ides of March March 15, 44 BC.!
20 2. Marc Antony vs. Octavian. Octavian, nephew to Caesar, avenged his uncle s assassination by executing the assassins. A divided empire, Antony taking the east and Octavian taking the West, proved insufficient to satisfy each man s ambition. At the battle of Actium Octavian defeated Marc Antony and his Egyptian ally, Cleopatra. This marks the end of the Roman Republic in 31 BC and the beginning of the Roman Empire. It is important to note that the empire building took place during the time of the Republic and the empire governing took place during the time of the empire.!
21 + PAX ROMANA The Roman Peace A. Octavian chose to restore the republic, but it functioned like a monarchy. He took the title of Caesar as his political title. As first citizen he was called Princeps by the common people; the Senate gave him the title Augustus (the revered ) as an expression of loyalty and devotion.!
22 B. The Pax Romana Roman Peace refers to the time of peace and prosperity of the Roman Empire! 1. Economic Prosperity! 2. Social and Political Stability! C. Successors of Octavian. The reforms and accomplishments of Octavian were lost by not providing for a successor. The men that followed him were incompetent, selfish, and greedy. The army maintained the Roman peace by appointing generals as emperors.!
23 + ROME Cultural and Achievement A. Rome was a melting pot of diverse cultures. The spreading Roman empire absorbed other cultures. While Greece was concerned with the theoretical, the why, beauty, art, and philosophy; the Romans were concerned with the practical, the how, law, and politics.! B. Roman contribution to law: protected the individual rights and property of the citizen; became the legal code for principles of current law; universal law, but adaptive to changing needs of the empire!
24 C. Latin language and literature reflected the social conditions and problems of the time! 1. Virgil: the greatest Roman poet, wrote the Aeneid to exalt Rome as the ideal state! 2. Horace: warned of the dangers of luxury and ease! 3. Livy: wrote Roman history; saw the traditional virtues and patriotism of the Roman people as the foundation of Rome s greatness!
25 D. Roman Art and Architecture! 1. Excelled in portrait statues, but was characterized by realism! 2. Architecture demonstrated great engineering skills distinguished by large size, durability, and practicality!
26 E. The Roman Games! 1. Dates back to the time of the Etruscans they were celebrations of conquering heroes and funerary rituals! 2. State-sponsored entertainment primarily to keep the people occupied! 3. Events: chariot races; gladiatorial contests; sea battles; wild animal hunts! 4. The increasing decline of moral virtue coincided with the increasing decline of the strength and success of the empire!
27 + ROME Religion in the Empire A. The Pagan Religions! 1. Worshipped gods of nature similar to Greek mythology! 2. Philosophy became a religion to many! 3. Mystery religions were a combination of mythology and eastern religions emphasizing secrecy and mystic practices! 4. Emperor worship as pontifex maximus the emperor interpreted the will of the gods in the affairs of state!
28 B. The Introduction of Christianity! 1. Many Jews resisted the Roman occupation of Israel. The zealots openly advocated overthrowing the Romans. Jesus of Nazareth preached of a new kingdom, but He meant a spiritual realm, not an earthly one. The Jewish leaders, angry with His claiming to be the Son of God and disappointed with His not teaching the overthrow of Rome, crucified Him. Christianity emerged form His teachings and the work of His disciples (followers).! 2. The spread of Christianity was aided by the work of missionaries (His 12 disciples and Paul), occasional acceptance by the government of Rome, and the failing belief in Hellenistic philosophy. All of His early missionaries became martyrs (people who willingly suffer death for the sake of their beliefs).!
29 The Martyrdom of St. Andrew! The Martyrdom of St. Peter!
30 3. The early church developed first as individuals meeting in private homes. They taught theology (a formulation of beliefs about the nature of God, God s laws and God s requirement for mankind).!!priests organized and performed the special ceremonies. Over time the church developed an administrative structure. Bishops oversaw church affairs in large areas. Patriarchs were the heads of the oldest and largest churches in the major cities (Rome, Jerusalem, Antioch, Constantinople)!!By AD 444 the bishop of Rome, as the leading city of the empire, was given the title of pope as the head of the church.!
31 4. The Romans persecuted the early Christians for a number of reasons! Disloyal citizens! Suspicious of their worship! Refused to worship the emperor! 5. Rome eventually accepted the church: Constantine legalized Christianity in 313 by the Edict of Milan; Theodosius declared Christianity the official state religion!
32 + ROME Collapse of the Empire A. Inept leadership! B. Increasing involvement by the army in political matters! C. Corruption and inefficiency! D. Army becoming less effective in the field! E. Expense of running the government bureaucracy! F. Higher taxes!
33 G. Imbalance of trade! H. Devaluation of currency! I. Rome abandoned the virtues that made her great! J. Lack of self-responsibility! K. Belief in the pagan religions and in Christianity! L. Barbarian invasions! 1. Barbarians: used to describe all those outside the empire who did not share in the Greek or Roman cultures! 2. The Romans enlisted foreigners to help protect the frontiers; some of these were barbarians themselves! 3. The Huns in the Far East pushed eastern European tribes into Roman territory!
34 Did Rome actually fall?! 1. The city. The city of Rome was sacked numerous times by the barbarians; in 476 a non-roman was given the throne. The city of Rome remains an important city in the modern world.! 2. The Republic. The Republic ended in 31 BC, but the principles of law and government continue today.! 3. The Empire. The installation of a non-roman as king ended the Western Roman Empire in 476, but the Eastern Roman Empire continued for over 1000 more years: Byzantium.! 4. The Culture. Roman culture, as a blending of various cultures, influenced all of western Europe.! 5. The Church. The church emerged powerful and intact even as the political structure collapsed.!
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