# Unit 7 Lesson 4 The End of the Republic

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1 Unit 7 Lesson 4 The End of the Republic

2 Lesson 4 The End of the Republic 1. A Roman legion is building a pen to hold their officers horses. A post is put every 6 feet along a rectangular fence that is 42 feet long and 36 feet wide. How many posts will the legionaries need? 2. Hannibal is trying to estimate how money tone his elephants weigh before he attempts to take them through the Alps. All together his elephants weight 10,145 pounds. Estimate the number of tons. 3. Gaius s family is thinking about buying a family pass to the Flavian amphitheater. The pass is 80 dinars for a family of 4. Individual passes are 25 dinars each. How much money can Gaius s family save by purchasing a family pass instead of 4 individual passes? 4. Scrolls at the Forum are being sold 3 for 7 denarius. If the merchant can place 400 scrolls on 5 shelves with an equal number on each shelf, how many scrolls are on each shelf? 5. A gardener is building a border for a flower garden with a row of red bricks. The row is 136 ½ inches long. Each brick is 10 ½ inches long and cost \$.35. How much will the border cost?

3 Generalization: Leaders impact both their own people and other peoples Big Idea After changing from a republic to an empire, Rome grew politically and economically, and developed a culture that influenced later civilizations.

4 Questions - make generalizations why was Caesar killed? Romans, especially Senators, feared that Caesar was trying to make himself king - drawing conclusions why did Octavian turn against Marc Antony? summarizing how did the Roman Republic become an empire? After Marc Antony s death, the Senate gave Octavian nearly limitless powers and named him Augustus

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7 Slaves and wealth pour in

8 Patricians become wealthier

9 Patricians gain more land and power

10 Rise of the middle class

11 Time of Disorder - plebeians rioted to restored the power of the tribunes Widespread unemployment among the plebeians - jobs lost to slaves - farms lost to Patricians - more poor poured into the city - the unemployed mob grew - Pompey and Crassus - overturned Sulla s laws - power away from the Senate and back to the people - conflict between classes escalated - Crassus stayed in Rome - Pompey continued military campaigns - added Bithynia in 68 BC - added Syria in 63 BC - enlarged province of Asia - added Palestine

12 Gaius Julius Caesar - from a poor patrician family - saw the military as a path to power - became a popular general for his victories in Spain - started the Gallic War - goal - conquer Gaul and make it part of Rome - empire now included Western Europe - increase his own reputation and power - De Bello Gallico - became the govern of Cisalpine Gaul, Illyricum and Narbonese Gaul - Did not believe that the Republic could rule effectively - popular with the plebeians - acted as their champion

13 First Triumvirate - Pompey, Crassus and Caesar - all three would share power equally - response to insults and challenges from the Senate - too ambitious to truly work together - led to Civil War

14 Pompey fearing his popularity with the people ordered Caesar to disarm his troops Caesar refused to accept this humiliation, marched his army into Italy - this was illegal under Roman Law - to Cross the Rubicon - began the Second Civil War Caesar drove Pompey out of Rome

15 Caesar and Pompey Pompey flees to Greece Caesar defeats him in Greece, Spain, and North Africa Pompey fled to Egypt Killed by Ptolomey

16 One of the big problems -- Cleopatra

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18 Caesar in Command - 46 BC declared himself dictator for life - had the support of the plebeians - Reforms - made army and government more efficient - increased size of Senate for better representation - citizenship to more people in the provinces - improved the tax system - reduced unemployment - establish colonies - land for urban poor and ex-soldiers - revised the calendar

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20 Actions increased his popularity with the people, but incurred the hatred of the Senate - feared he would make himself king of Rome Dealt with the problem on the Ides of March, 44 BC Led by Cassius and Marcus Brutus all members of the Senate Stabbed Caesar to death - identify how did most Romans feel about the death of Caesar? Angry - recall what happened to Caesar s killers after the assassination? Marc Antony and Octavian defeated them and the leaders killed them.

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22 Battle for Control - after Caesar s death his main general, Mark Antony tired to take control - so did Caesar s heir his nephew Octavian To prevent more conflict, they, along with Lepidus, agreed to rule together as the - Second Triumvirate - went after and defeated Caesar s murders - decided to rule different parts of the Republic - Octavian the west - Antony the east - he married Octavian s sister- Octavia Could not Rule Together - Lepidus forced to retire - made the mistake of challenging Octavian - Antony abandons his wife and takes up with Cleopatra - both men want control of everything -- Third Civil War

23 The Third Civil War - Octavian and the Roman Army - against Antony, Cleopatra and her Egyptian forces - major confrontation Battle of Actium - Octavian the winner now sole ruler of Rome - Antony and Cleopatra flee back to Egypt - Octavian follows - both commit suicide rather than be taken back to Rome by Octavian - results of the Battle of Actium - end the Roman Republic - Octavian became master of Greco-Roman world - Rome dominated by the West, not the East

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25 Birth of the Roman Empire - Octavian now sole ruler ruled 44 years - did not make himself dictator - appeared to work with the Senate and Assemblies and return to the ways of the old Republic - reality he was completely in charge - took the title Augustus - Rome s first emperor - continued Roman expansion - created the Pretorian Guard, as well as police and fire force in Rome - new public buildings in Rome - I found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble - reorganized government administration - Pax Romana or Roman Peace - time of peace and prosperity - choose his successors - only one outlived him stepson Tiberius - start of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty

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