2 Influence of Geography Rome s location benefited it in several ways. It was located 18 miles up river from the sea, the Tiber gave it access to the Mediterranean, but it was far enough inland to be protected from invasion. It was built on seven hills, so it was easy to defend. The Tiber narrowed near Rome, so the river could be crossed. Farmland Rome had more available farmland than Greece Central Location of Rome The City of Rome is in the middle of the Italian Peninsula. Italian Peninsula In the middle of the Mediterranean Sea This gave Rome access to trade and conquest throughout the Mediterranean.
3 Establishment of the Roman Republic The Romans overthrew the last Etruscan King in 509 B.C., they established the Roman Republic. Republic: A form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have the right to vote.
4 War and Conquest For about 200 years Rome battled its neighbors Rome established Imperialism controlling foreign lands and people Rome allowed some peoples to have full Roman citizenship. Other communities were made allies, and people were allowed to run their own affairs as long as they provided soldiers for the Roman army. Romans were careful to make conquered peoples feel like part of the Roman Republic.
5 Why was Rome Successful? To Ancient Romans Romans believe their ancestors were successful because of a sense of duty, courage, and discipline. Diplomacy They extended Roman citizenship and allowed states to run their own internal affairs. They could be firm when necessary, crushing rebellions without mercy. Military They were accomplished and persistent soldiers. The Romans built fortified towns throughout Italy, they also built roads to connect the empire.
6 At its height the Roman Empire was 3.5 million square miles In 212 CE Caracalla gave Roman citizenship to every free person Why were Roman cities important? Roman cities were vital for several reasons They helped to spread Roman culture, Roman law, and the Latin language to newly conquered areas.
7 How did the Early empire become so economically prosperous? The relative peace of the early Empire led to an increase in trade and prosperity. What was the occupation of most of the people? Despite the good economy most people were still farmers Latifundia, or large plantation-style farms, were common Why were there so many urban unemployed? The Latifundia were worked by slave labor. Small farmers couldn t keep up and were put out of business. Soldiers were also losing their land while off at war.
8 Problems caused by Gap between Rich and Poor The population of Rome was never equally divided. There were a small number of rich and a very large number of poor. Many of these poor moved to urban areas (cities) in search of jobs and ended up forming a large community of unemployed. These people were in constant danger of causing a revolt. Bread and circuses To keep the mob from revolting the Roman government provided them with free food and entertainment.
9 Slavery was common in the Roman world. As the empire expanded more and more slaves were brought into the empire. Greek, educated, slaves were used as tutors, doctors, musicians, and artists. Other slaves were used for labor, agriculture, and as domestic servants. Domestic slaves were treated fairly well, but slaves that worked on farms and on construction were treated poorly and many died. One slave owner commented that it was cheaper to buy a new slave and replace a dead one than to take care of them.
10 The mistreatment of slaves led to slave revolts The most famous revolt was led by a Gladiator Slave called Spartacus In 73 BC Spartacus led a revolt which managed to defeat several Roman legions and eventually included thousands of slaves. Finally defeated by the Romans in 71 BC Spartacus and 6,000 of his followers were crucified along the roads of Rome.
11 Cities were the heart of the Roman Empire Cities were very crowded. There was heavy traffic and congestion. There was a lot of unemployment and crime was a problem. Fire was a constant danger as many building were made of wood and were very close together. There was a huge gap between rich and poor. The rich would live in lush villas while the poor would live in crowded apartments called insulae.
12 Law and Politics The Romans did not try to build an ideal government, but created political institution in response to problems.
13 Patricians Great landowners, they were the ruling class. Patricians were the minority of the Roman Republic. Plebeians Lower class of the Roman Republic Made-up of less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers. They were the workers Made up the majority of the population
14 Dictator The Republic recognized the necessity of quick action in time of war or crisis. The Romans had an institution where the Consul would appoint a dictator. The Dictator held full power for 6 months. After that time he relinquished power back to the consuls and Senate.
15 Senate The Roman Senate was the select group of about 300 Patricians who served for life. At first their role was to advise government officials but later approved laws, controlled finances and made public policy.
16 Roman Law One of the grievances of the Plebeians was the fact that there was no written legal code. The writing of a legal code standardizes the code so that it is not as easily manipulated. Law of the Twelve Tables First codification of Roman Law It was written on twelve tablets and placed in the Roman Forum so everyone could read it. The Twelve tables only applied to citizens of the Republic. Law of Nations As the Republic, and later Empire, expanded the legal code was expanded to apply to everyone, a universal law based on reason.
17 Legal Principles of Today Many legal ideas that we use now originated in Ancient Rome Innocent until proven guilty People accused of a crime are allowed to defend themselves before a judge. A judge is expected to weigh evidence before reaching a legal decision
18 The Punic Wars Rome vs. Carthage The Punic wars were a series of three wars fought between the Roman Republic and Carthage. Conquest of the Mediterranean: Sicily Carthage was a Phoenician city in Northern Africa, they had a huge trading fleet. Their empire included northern Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, Corsica, and western Sicily. The Romans were nervous about having an enemy so close to their home territory. The two groups Fought over control of Sicily.
19 The First Punic War -Began in 264 B.C. The Romans sent an army to Sicily, and the Carthaginians considered it an act of war because they believed Sicily was their territory. The Romans realized they could not equal Carthage s naval power, so they turned a naval battle into a land battle. The Romans threw planks from their ships over to the Carthaginian ships, then their soldiers ran across and attacked the Carthaginians on their own ships. Carthage surrendered Sicily and had to pay Rome a fine.
20 Second Punic War Carthage vowed to take revenge for the loss of the first Punic War Carthage took more territory in Spain, the Romans encouraged Spanish allies to fight Carthage. Carthage struck back, beginning the second Punic War. Hannibal Carthaginian general, his father made him take a vow of revenge against Rome. He decided to catch the Romans off guard.
21 Hannibal knew he couldn t attack by sea, so he decided to attack by land Hannibal marched his army of 46,000 men and 37 war elephants across the Alps into Italy. He lost most of his men and all but one elephant by the time he got there. He soundly defeated the Romans at the battle of Cannae, by forcing them into a funnel shape and surrounding them.
23 Hannibal conquered much of the Italian Peninsula, but was never able to take the city of Rome itself. The Romans attacked Carthage in order to get Hannibal to leave. Hannibal was defeated at the battle of Zama, ending the second Punic War. Hannibal escaped.
24 Third Punic War Rome had defeated Carthage twice, but was nervous that they would attack again. The Romans attacked and burned the city of Carthage to the ground. Many Carthaginians died of starvation during the siege of the city. The Romans sold the surviving 50,000 people into slavery. The city was systematically burned between until it was completely destroyed. Legend says the Romans spread salt on the earth so nothing would ever grow there again.
25 Section 2: From Republic to Empire Power of the Senate The Senate became more and more powerful in the Republic. Controlled both domestic and foreign policy, as well as finance. The power of the Senate was concentrated in a small group of rich land-owners. These few privileged people ran Rome.
26 The First Triumvirate Three men who emerged from the civil wars to take control of Rome Crassus Richest man in Rome He was a Roman General Pompey Another General, he had just won a campaign in Spain. Julius Caesar General who had also just waged a campaign in Spain
27 Dictator for Life Caesar was declared dictator for life by the Senate and was given absolute power, but he was never made Emperor. Reforms Changes in the Senate Caesar increased the number of people in the Senate and filled it with people who supported his ideas so they could be passed. Public Works He gave land to the poor He cancelled debts of the poor and passed laws to limit discrimination of the poor. He built many public buildings and revitalized the city of Rome and creating jobs for the jobless.
28 Affair with Cleopatra When Caesar went to Egypt in pursuit of Pompey he became involved in the civil war in Egypt between Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIII. Ptolemy had angered Caesar by assassinating Pompey and presenting Caesar with his head picked in a jar. Cleopatra allied herself with Caesar and he helped place her in power, co-ruling with her younger brother, who she later allegedly killed. Caesar and Cleopatra had a son, Ptolemy Caesar, or, Caesarion Little Caesar who she appointed her co-ruler in Egypt. Caesar refused to make Caesarion his heir, he appointed his nephew Octavian to inherit his power and property. She remained his mistress until his assassination.
29 The Ides of March Some Senators feared the Caesar was becoming too powerful and wanted to make himself king. On the Ides of March, March 15, a group of Senators called Caesar to a fake meeting to read grievances of the Senate. Caesar was attacked by the Senators and stabbed 23 times. The poor were outraged by the murder of Caesar. They made a statue of him and rioted. The Senators fled, but were hunted down by Caesar s successors.
30 Causes for the Decline of the Roman Republic Spread of Slavery in the agricultural system Migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment Civil war over the power of Julius Caesar Devaluation of the Roman Currency, Inflation
31 The Second Triumvirate The men united and co-ruled after Julius Caesar s death Octavian The adopted grand-nephew of Caesar and his heir. Mark Antony A friend of Caesar and one of his highest ranking generals. Lepidus Another general and friend of Caesar
32 Antony vs. Octavian Lepidus is exiled and Antony and Octavian end up battling for power. Octavian took control of the West and Antony took the East, including Egypt. Antony marries the sister of Octavian, Octavia. Antony defies Octavian and begins an affair with Cleopatra in Egypt.
33 Antony and Cleopatra Antony and Cleopatra had an affair for several years. He married her using Egyptian customs because he was already married to Octavia. They had three children together. It is said they had lavish feasts and lived in luxury. Octavian convinced the people of Rome that Antony was corrupt. Octavian demanded he leave, but Antony refused. Octavian convinced the Senate to declare war on Antony and Cleopatra.
34 Death Antony committed suicide, having been told Cleopatra was dead. According to the doctor Olympus (an eye-witness), he was brought to Cleopatra's tomb and died in her arms. Cleopatra was captured by the Romans Several days later Cleopatra had her servant sneak in two poisonous snakes and she had them bite her. Octavian was informed of her death, and went to see for himself. Cleopatra's son by Caesar, Caesarion, was proclaimed pharaoh but Octavian had him captured and executed. The other children of Antony and Cleopatra were spared and raised in Rome by Antony s wife, Octavia.
35 The Pax Romana The Roman Peace 200 year period of peace in the Mediterranean region. Economic impact of the Pax Romana Established uniform system of money, which helped expand trade. Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads Promoted prosperity and stability. Social impact of the Pax Romana Returned stability to social classes Increase emphasis on the family Political impact of the Pax Romana Created a civil service Developed a uniform rule of law.
39 Concrete The Romans advanced concrete They invented concrete that could be used under water The use of concrete allowed the Romans to build very quickly and on a larger scale than if they used stone.
40 Roman Monuments -Finished in 80AD, could seat 50,000 people. -Fighting area was 272 ft by 157 ft -Gladiator battles, naval battles, and the execution of criminals were held in the Colosseum
41 Hypogeum Area below the Colosseum where the participants would wait to take their place in the Colosseum performances
42 Aqueducts carried water into Roman cities The water flowed from the highlands at a gradual angle into Roman cities.
43 The Forum was the heart of any Roman City It was the central marketplace and public meeting place for the Roman people.
44 Built by the Emperor Hadrian as a temple dedicated to all of the Roman Gods. Finished around 126 AD
46 The Romans built thousands of miles of roads to connect their large empire. This allowed for the quick movement of people and goods throughout the empire. They were paved with stone and had a drainage system which made them highly advanced. Some are still in use today.
47 The use of the arch allowed the Romans to span large areas with a minimum of building material. Bridges were a part of the Roman Road System
48 Marcus Aurelius was the last emperor of the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace. He died in 180 AD. Rome didn t fall overnight, there were many things that led to its downfall. The Severans were a series of harsh rulers who used the military to expand their power. After the fall of the Severans there was a time of military leadership, where many rulers met violent deaths. The Empire became increasingly unstable.
49 Over time various barbarian groups pushed at Rome s borders. Many groups were pushed into Roman territory as the Huns invaded from Central Asia. These groups included the Vandals, the Visigoths, and the Ostrogoths among others. These groups slowly took over Roman territory and staged several invasions of the city of Rome itself.
50 Rome experienced very high inflation toward the end of the Empire There were heavy taxes and a lot of corruption in the government system There were high rates of unemployment and discontent among the people. En epidemic disease hit Rome in the late empire causing a labor shortage. This caused shortages in the labor force and in the military
51 The Roman Emperors Diocletian and Constantine both attempted reforms to slow the decline of the Empire Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into East and West Diocletian appointed a co-emperor to help rule this now divided empire Leadership was divided among four people
52 After the division of the Empire the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Empire from the Western city of Rome to the Eastern city of Byzantium. He renamed this city Constantinople.
53 There was no one thing which led to the fall of the Roman Empire It included all of the following: Economy: Devaluation of Roman currency from inflation and high military costs Military: Breakdown in military discipline from the hiring of mercenaries. Moral Decay: People lost faith in the Roman government, Plague Political Problems: The Government became corrupt Invasion: Barbarian invasions Some people also believe it may have been lead poisoning from lead pipes, it may have been a lack of technology due to slavery, the new religion of Christianity may have caused people to turn from the government... The causes were many.
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