Iran had limited natural resources Water was relatively scarce, and Iran s environment could only support a limited population Because of the heat,

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1 Ancient Iran Geography and Resources Iran s location, bounded by mountains, deserts, and the Persian Gulf, left it open to attack from Central Asian nomads The fundamental topographical features included high mountains on the edges, and deserts in the interior

2 Iran had limited natural resources Water was relatively scarce, and Iran s environment could only support a limited population Because of the heat, irrigation networks had to use underground tunnels.

3 Iran had mineral resources copper, tin, iron, gold, and silver and plentiful timber.

4 Greatest Empire to that date in the 5 th century B.C. Land of Cyrus the Great, Darius the Great, and Xerxes Land of the Prophet Zoroaster Later the seat of the Safavid Empire Shi a Islam Persia

5 Modern Iran

6 Asia: The Middle East Location North: former Soviet Republics South: Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman East: Afghanistan, Pakistan West: Turkey, Iraq Major Cities: Tehran, Tabriz, Mashhad, Esfahan, Shiraz

7 Iranian Demographics Population nearly 70 million Life expectancy at birth 69 years Birth rate 17 per 1,000 persons Death rate 6 per 1,000 persons Literacy rate 72% 0-14 yrs yrs yrs 60+ yrs

8 Ethnicity and Religion Although there are various sub-groups, the majority of Iranians would say their religion is Islam. The largest ethnic group in Iran is Persians, followed by Azeris. Persians Azeris Kurds Arabs Other Shi'a Muslim (Islam) Sunni Muslim (Islam) Other

9 Economy Mixed System: Large and dominating public sector Small private sector Multinational corporations Structure: Agriculture 24% Industry 28% Services 48% Major Exports: petroleum, carpets, nuts Major Imports: capital goods, food items Unemployment rate: 16% and rising

10 A Youth Powered Society Youth Demographic Between years old 25 million (35%) Median age 26 years old Legal voting age 16 years old Issue of high concern High unemployment

11 Women in Iran Higher Education 65% Changing Marriage and Child Custody Laws Shirin Edabi: Nobel Peace Prize 2003 Professional life Women in all aspects of work force Inequality in senior and managerial jobs

12 Iran Land of the Aryans Constitutional Monarchy (Shah) established in 1905 Renamed Iran by Reza Shah to modernize the country Anglo-Soviet Invasion of 1941

13 Mohammed Mossadegh Democratically elected Prime Minister of Iran Very popular with the people Purges military of corruption Nationalizes foreign oil fields

14 OPERATION AJAX CIA-sponsored coup U.S. supports strengthens the Shah Mossadegh on Trial Shah of Iran Kermit Roosevelt

15 Dictatorship of Shah Reza Pahlavi Lives lavishly Establishes close ties to the West. Represses political dissidents People live in poverty.

16 The Iranian Revolution 1979 Shah flees to U.S. Ayatollah Khomeni Iranian Hostage Crisis

17 A Dictatorship for a Dictatorship Strong Constitutional Monarch Islamic Republic of Iran (Theocracy)

18 1980s strained strained time with US 52 U.S. diplomats held hostage by group of Iranian terrorists who took over American embassy in support of the Islamic revolution. 444 day hostage crisis ended in 1981 The incident was seen by many as a blow against U.S. influence in Iran and its support of the recently fallen Shah of Iran, Pahlavi, who had recently been allowed into the United States for cancer treatment. In Iran, the crisis is thought to have strengthened the political hold of radical anti-american forces who supported the hostage taking. The crisis also marked the beginning of American legal action, or sanctions, that weakened economic ties between Iran and America.

19 A Terrorist State Support for Hezbollah in Lebanon Support for the PLO in Palestine Arafat and Khomenei

20 The Iran-Iraq Iraq War ( ) 1988) US supports BOTH Saddam Hussein and Iran 375,000 Iraqi casualties Over 1 million Iranian casualties George W. Bush s Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Saddam Hussein

21 The Government of Iran Assembly of Experts (the Mullahs) choose the Supreme Leader and review laws for religious compliance President Chosen by universal suffrage and serves a 4 year term Candidates approved by Mullahs President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei

22 Iranian Nuclear Ambitions Pinnochiayatollah January 28, 2005 Birmingham News

23 Iranian Nuclear Ambitions Al-Jazeera

24 Hope in the Youth

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