2 Chapter Introduction Section 1: China Reunified Section 2: The Mongols and China Section 3: Early Japan and Korea Section 4: India After the Guptas Section 5: Civilization in Southeast Asia Visual Summary
3 How does architecture record history? Angkor Wat is a symbol of Cambodia and appears on its flag. First built by the Khmer as a Hindu temple, it has served as a Buddhist shrine since the fourteenth century. Although most of the walls have carvings of Hindu stories, there are images of the Buddha. In this chapter you will learn about the changes in the Asian world. How does the architecture in your city or state relate to its history? Which structures have been changed based on their use?
6 China Reunified What was the result of the collapse of the Han dynasty?
7 The Mongols and China What do you think were strengths of the Mongolian military?
8 Early Japan and Korea How did Japan s geography affect its development?
9 India After the Guptas Which religions had a major impact in Indian society?
10 Civilizations in Southeast Asia Which civilizations most influenced Southeast Asia?
12 The BIG Idea Order and Security After centuries of chaos and civil war, three dynasties unified China, bringing peace, stability, and technological progress.
13 Do you think a written test should be required for all jobs? A. Yes B. No
14 Three Dynasties The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties restored peace to China in between periods of chaos and disorder.
15 SUI DYNASTY In 581 the Sui dynasty was established. The Sui dynasty is known for unifying China under one emperor. Sui Yangdi was the second ruler of the dynasty. He was a cruel ruler, and used forced labor to build the Grand Canal, connecting the Huang He (Yellow River) and Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). Oppressive policies led to a rebellion that ended the empire. Empires in China,
16 The Tang dynasty came to power in 618. Tang rulers restored civil service exams for government positions. Emperor Tang Xuanzang and other Tang rulers were unable to prevent plotting and corruption in the government.
17 Tang rulers hired Uighurs to put down rebellions but continued unrest led to the fall of the dynasty in 907.
18 In 960 the Song dynasty came to power. The Song ruled during a time period of economic prosperity and cultural achievement. Because of threats from nomadic warriors to the north, the Song moved their capital farther south to Hangzhou. Dynasties of China
20 Why did the Tang dynasty hire Uighurs? A. To build the Grand Canal B. To build the Great Wall C. To defend the empire from nomadic warriors D. To defend the empire from rebellions
21 For 700 years, the Chinese economy grew in size and sophistication.
22 Government and Economy (cont.) During the rule of the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties, the Chinese government and economy grew in size and complexity. The Song government weakened the power of large landholders and helped poor peasants get their own land, which led to an abundance of food.
23 Government and Economy (cont.) The economy was still based on agriculture, but technological advances led to development of steel and gunpowder. Gunpowder was invented during the Tang Dynasty Used to make explosives and a weapon called a fire-lance. A weapon that shot out flames and projectiles up to 40 yards.
24 Government and Economy (cont.) Woodblock printing was developed during the Tang Dynasty. Books could now be mass produced. First complete book to be printed was a Buddhist work. International and domestic trade also increased and the Silk Road was renewed with trade of Porcelain, silk, and tea.
25 What did the Chinese not export via the Silk Road? A. Porcelain B. Ivory C. Silk D. Tea
26 In the late 1200s, the Italian merchant Marco Polo described Hangzhou as one of the largest and most beautiful cities in the world. Chinese society developed into a complex mixture of landowners, free peasants, sharecroppers, and landless laborers.
27 Chinese Society (cont.) Most significant was the rise of the landed gentry, called the scholar-gentry, who became the political and economic elite of Chinese society. Few women had any power. An exception was Wu Zhao, known as Empress Wu, who ruled for half a century. When a woman was married, her family was expected to give a dowry to the husband. Poor families sold their daughters.
28 - chess - playing cards - horseback riding
29 Which of the following is an example of a dowry? A. Civil service exam B. Sharecropper C. Money D. Block printing
31 At the end of this section be able to: Identify the characteristics of the Mongol Empire Locate and describe the geographic patterns of conquest and expansion.
32 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values Shifts in religious belief caused major changes in the organization of Chinese society, which were intensified when the Mongol Empire conquered China.
34 People and Places Mongolia Genghis Khan Gobi Kublai Khan Beijing
35 Military innovations are necessary to become an empire. A. Agree B. Disagree A. A B. B
36 The Mongols The Mongols created the world s largest land empire by conquering all of China.
38 The Mongols (cont.) The Mongols under Genghis Khan created the largest land empire ever. The Mongols were a pastoral people from the Gobi in what is present-day Mongolia. In 1206 Genghis Khan was elected the ruler and immediately devoted his life to conquest. Upon Genghis Khan s death in 1227, the empire was divided into khanates. Mongol Empire, 1294
40 The Mongols (cont.) In 1279, Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, conquered the Song dynasty and established the Yuan dynasty in China. Kublai Khan established his capital at Khanbalik, in what is present-day Beijing. While the Mongols were successful in ruling China, they were unsuccessful in attacking Southwest Asia because of tropical and hilly regions. The Mongol Dynasty in China
42 The Mongols, led by Genghis Khan, A. Brought much of Eurasian under a single rule, creating the largest land empire in history. B. Used tactics that were especially effective in tropical and hilly regions C. Only concern was to conquer the islands of Java and Sumatra D. Defeated every army that challenged them, except Vietnamese.
43 The Mongol Dynasty eventually fell victim to
44 Why were the Mongols unsuccessful in attacking Southwest Asia? A. Their cavalry charges were not effective in tropical regions. B. They did not have the navy to support long wars. C. A disease epidemic ravaged the Mongolian army. D. Kublai Khan was killed while fighting in Southwest Asia.
45 Religion and Government By the time of the Sui and Tang dynasties, Buddhism and Daoism had emerged to rival Confucianism.
46 Religion and Government (cont.) Buddhism and Daoism became increasingly popular during the Tang dynasty. Buddhist monasteries acquired thousands of acres of lands and serfs. Buddhists taught that everything in the material world is an illusion. This was contrary to Confucian teachings of devotion to family and work.
47 Religion and Government (cont.) Beginning in the Song dynasty, government officials supported neo- Confucianism, which stated that the world is real and that satisfaction comes from participation. Buddhism no longer enjoyed state support.
48 Religion and Government (cont.) Buddhism was attacked for being a foreign religion Monasteries held lands and serfs, and with this came corruption Government destroyed many Buddhist temples and official support went to a revived Confucianism.
49 Why did Buddhism become unpopular with the Chinese government? A. It taught about equality for everyone. B. It taught that rebellions were justified. C. The Buddhists were mostly non-chinese. D. It was contrary to Confucian ideals beliefs of devotion to family and work.
50 A Golden Age in Literature and Art ASSIGNMENT -Please Read Pages Write a 2 paragraph summary on the rise of literature and art, and how it made an impact on Chinese Society -Be prepared to share
51 A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.) The golden age of Chinese literature occurred during the Tang and Ming dynasties. The invention of the printing press helped to make literature more available to people. Poetry, as expressed by Tang-era poets Li Bo and Du Fu, was especially important to Chinese literature.
52 A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.) Painting was an important art form during imperial China. Influenced by the Daoist vision, landscape painting reached its height. Tang artisans perfected the making of porcelain.
53 What inspired the Chinese painters to paint scenes of nature? A. Buddhism B. Daoism C. Confucianism D. Hinduism
55 The BIG Idea Physical Geography The geography of Japan, a string of islands, and of Korea, a peninsula bordering China, have had a huge impact on their respective histories.
57 Centralized power is the only way a successful government can govern. A. Agree B. Disagree A. A B. B
58 Early Japan Japan s history has been marked by power struggles between rulers and independent families.
59 Early Japan (cont.) Early Japanese society was made up of a small ruling class of aristocrats and a large population of farmers. Prince Shōtoku Taishi tried to unify the clans of Japan. He emulated the Chinese system of government and established centralized power. Early Japan
60 Early Japan (cont.) In the Nara Period, the emperor began to call himself the Son of Heaven. The aristocrats kept tax revenues for themselves, and the centralized national government lost power and influence. Mongol Campaigns, 1200s
61 Early Japan (cont.) During the Heian Period there was little centralized power, so the aristocratic families sought the protection of samurai. The samurai lived by a warrior code known as Bushido ( The way of the warrior ). Above all samurai ( those who serve ) were loyal to their lord and employer.
62 Minamoto Yoritomo defeated the rival clans and set up a centralized government under the control of a shogun. Fighting the Mongols put a strain on the political system and the shogunate was overthrown.
63 Early Japan (cont.) The collapse of central rule coincided with the rise of daimyo. The noble families constantly warred with each other, and by 1500, Japan was in chaos.
64 What gave rise to the samurai? A. The lack of soldiers B. The lack of central authority C. The need to protect the emperor from internal strife D. The need to protect Japanese trade
65 Life in Early Japan Japan s small size and relative isolation have had a major effect on the development of its economy, religion, and culture.
66 Life in Early Japan (cont.) Farming provided the basis of the Japanese economy, although only about 11% of the land was tillable. Japan traded raw materials and manufactured items for silk, porcelain, books, and copper coins.
67 In Japanese society, women were subordinate to men. Aristocratic women were active in society and the arts. Women worked in roles as farmers, salespersons, and entertainers A husband could divorce on the grounds of talking to much, having a serious illness, or being unable to produce a male child.
68 Life in Early Japan (cont.) Japanese religion was centered around the worship of spirits (kami) and became known as Shinto ( the Sacred Way ) Among aristocrats, a sect of Buddhism known as Zen became popular. Zen would be adopted by the samurai as well. According to Zen, there are different ways to achieve enlightenment, a state of pure being.
69 Which of the following groups accepted Zen Buddhism in early Japan? A. Samurai B. Merchants C. Peasants D. Women
70 The Emergence of Korea ASSIGNMENT -Please Read Page 283 -Write a 2 paragraph summary on The Emergence of Korea, and how it was influenced by the presence of dominating neighbors. -Be prepared to share
71 The Emergence of Korea The early history of Korea was marked by the presence of dominating neighbors.
72 The Emergence of Korea (cont.) Korea is a mountainous peninsula. Its proximity to China and Japan has greatly influenced Korean history. The Koryo dynasty emulated Chinese political systems. The Koryo accepted Mongol rule in the thirteenth century. This led to the fall of the dynasty. In 1392 Yi Sŏng-gye seized power and founded the Yi dynasty.
73 Which of the following groups did not influence Korean history? A. Mongols B. Persians C. Japanese D. Chinese A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D
75 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values When Islamic peoples conquered much of India, tension arose between the Muslim rulers and the majority Hindu population.
76 Content Vocabulary Theravada Mahayana Academic Vocabulary retained traditional
77 People and Places Ghazna (Ghaznī) Mahmūd of Ghazna Rajputs sultanate of Delhi Timur Lenk Samarqand Moguls Dandin
78 Do you think religion, society, and culture are impacted by one another? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B
79 The Impact of Religion Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam all influenced the development of India.
80 The Impact of Religion (cont.) The people of India retained a widespread acceptance of Buddhism for centuries. People did not always agree on the teachings of Buddha, and split, in Buddhism occurred. Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam in India
81 Theravada The followers who believed Buddhism was a life philosophy became known as the school of Theravada. Mahayana The followers who believed Buddhism was a religion became known as the school of Mahayana.
82 ASSIGNMENT: Look on page 284. Create a graphic organizer that highlights the thoughts of both groups. See Graphic Organizer on Next Slide
83 BUDDHISM PAGE 284 Theravada Mahayana NOTE: THERE IS ROOM FOR THIS IN YOUR NOTES.
84 Decline of Buddhism Buddhism eventually lost influence in India although it was transported abroad with much success. Early in the eighth century Arab armies brought Islam to northwest India. In the tenth century rebellious Turkish slaves founded the Islamic state of Ghazna (Ghaznī).
85 The Impact of Religion (cont.) In 997, Mahmūd of Ghazna attacked Hindu kingdoms to the southeast. Mahmūd s forces defeated the Rajputs and extended Muslim power to the new state of the sultanate of Delhi. Timur Lenk attacked the capital of Delhi in the fourteenth century. He massacred as many as 100,000 Hindu prisoners at the gates of the city.
86 Indian Society and Culture The ruling class of India was made up of Muslims, but some members of the Hindu population also prospered. The rich culture of India was reflected in its art, literature, architecture, and technological advances.
87 Indian Society and Culture (cont.) Muslim rulers in India maintained strict separation between Muslims and Hindus. This relationship led to suspicion and distrust between the two groups. India s location and traditional trade routes made it a center for trade between Southwest and East Asia. Between 500 and 1500, religious architecture in India developed from caves to magnificent structures such as Hindu temples and towers.
89 The BIG Idea Physical Geography The mountains, river valleys, and islands of Southeast Asia had a major effect on its political, cultural, and economic development.
90 Content Vocabulary archipelago agricultural society trading society Academic Vocabulary region area
91 People and Places Malay Peninsula Vietnam Angkor Jayavarman Pagan Thai Thailand Strait of Malacca Melaka
92 The Formation of States The geography of Southeast Asia led to the development of distinct cultures throughout the region.
93 The Formation of States (cont.) The region known today as Southeast Asia is dominated by a mainland that extends from China to the Malay Peninsula, and an archipelago which includes Indonesia and the Philippines. Southeast Asia, 1200
94 The Formation of States (cont.) The area of Southeast Asia contains a vast array of races, cultures, and religions. The geographical barriers of the region encouraged the development of separate cultures. Vietnam was one of the first states to develop its own identity. Vietnam was heavily influenced by China, as Vietnam warred with its neighbor and eventually copied its system of government.
95 The Formation of States (cont.) Jayavarman II united the Khmer people and created the kingdom of Angkor in the ninth century. The proximity to enemies, such as the Burmese kingdom of Pagan and the arrival of the Thai people in 1300, signaled the end of the Angkor Kingdom. States of Southeast Asia, 111 B.C. A.D. 1600
96 The Formation of States (cont.) The Thai people established their empire on the Chao Phraya River. They were influenced by a combination of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs which became the modern culture of Thailand. The inhabitants of Burma were a pastoral people who grew wealthy and influential from trade in the region.
97 The Formation of States (cont.) The Malay region was divided between the mainland peninsula and the islands of Indonesia. This kingdom was never unified because of geographical barriers. The people of the Malay kingdom grew wealthy from controlling trade passing through the Strait of Malacca. The Muslim city of Melaka became an important trading post on the peninsula. It was also influential in the spread of Islam in the region.
98 Life in Southeast Asia The growth of the states of Southeast Asia depended largely on trade and agriculture.
99 Life in Southeast Asia (cont.) The states of Southeast Asia can be categorized into two groups: agricultural societies and trading societies. Economic and political power in Southeast Asia was held by hereditary aristocrats. Farmers, fishermen, artisans, and merchants comprised the rest of the society.
100 Life in Southeast Asia (cont.) Women in Southeast Asia received more rights than in proximate regions. Hinduism and Buddhism were both popular in Southeast Asia, and Theravada Buddhism eventually became the religion of the masses.
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Discussion Topic: Delhi Sultanate and Mali Table Leaders: Brandon Butterwick Shrey Amin Neel Ambardekar Allie Arasi Andrew Buck Questions prepared to Lead or Prompt discussion for the Harkness Discussion.
Paleolithic simple stone tools were developed, hunter/gatherer societies were organized in small groups, women and men were equally important to the survival of the group Neolithic first began in the Middle