1 and Study Guide Lesson 2 New Patterns of Civilization ESSENTIAL QUESTION What are the characteristics of a civilization? How did patterns of civilization differ between the ancient and medieval worlds? Reading HELPDESK Content Vocabulary lineage group an extended family unit that has combined into a larger community landed aristocrats an upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another sultanate a state whose military and political power is held by the sultan feudalism political and social order that developed during the Middle Ages when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service. Crusades military expeditions carried out by European Christians in the Middle Ages to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims Academic Vocabulary prospered to succeed in an activity; to have economic success traditional established; customary revival renewed attention to, or interest in, something
2 and Study Guide Cont. TAKING NOTES: Categorizing ACTIVITY As you read, use the graphic organizer below to help identify characteristics of societies in the Islamic World, Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. Islamic World Africa Asia Europe Americas Characteristics IT MATTERS BECAUSE The great states of the ancient world were mostly in decline or at the point of collapse by the beginning of the first millennium A.D. patterns of civilization began to take shape there between 400 and At the same time, new civilizations also began to appear in Japan, Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Americas. These states were increasingly linked by trade. They created the first global civilization. The World of Islam GUIDING QUESTION What factors contributed to the development of the Arab Empire? The new and powerful force of Islam arose in the seventh century in the Arabian Peninsula. Islam means submission to Allah, or God. It spread rapidly throughout the Middle East. A man named Muhammad founded the religion. He then became the spiritual and political leader of the area. After Muhammad's death, his successors known as caliphs organized the Arabs. They began a great expansion. Arab armies moved westward across North Africa and into Spain and eastward into the Persian Empire. There they conquered Syria and Mesopotamia. The Umayyad dynasty took control of the Arab Empire in 661. The Umayyads moved the capital of the empire from Madinah to Damascus in Syria. Abu al- Abbas, a descendant of Muhammad s uncle, overthrew the Umayyad dynasty in 750. He then set up the Abbasid dynasty. The Abbasids built a new capital city at Baghdad on the Tigris River twelve years later. The Abbasids power was weakened by the Seljuk Turks. They fell to the Mongols in Islamic civilization was governed by the teachings of the Quran, the sacred text of Islam. Even so, caliphs eventually came to rule more like kings than spiritual leaders. The teachings of the Quran also had an impact on Islamic society. The established roles of men and women in the society reflect this influence. Much of the prosperity, or success, of this Islamic civilization in the Middle East was based on trade. It was carried on within the Islamic world and also with China, the Byzantine Empire, India, and Southeast Asia.
3 and Study Guide Cont. Muslim Arabs absorbed parts of the cultures of the peoples they conquered. At the same time, they made advances of their own. They especially contributed to mathematics and the natural sciences. The Muslim world combined Islamic ideals, or values, with pre-islamic traditions. As a result, they created original works of literature and art. Mosques from this period remain today. They are proof of the greatness of Islamic art and architecture. Like other empires in the Middle East, the Arab Empire did not last. Even so, it made a lasting impact. Islam brought a code of law and a written language to societies that were previously without. The Arab Empire renewed the trade network that stretched from West Africa to East Asia. As a result, wealth was brought to thousands of people. The lives of millions were improved. The Arab Empire was destroyed by the end of the thirteenth century. However, it left a powerful legacy in Islam. Today Islam remains one of the world s major religions. The spread of Islam to other continents, including Africa and Asia, ensured that it would affect more than just the Middle East. Understanding Relationships How did Islam influence the rule of the Arab Empire? Early African Civilizations GUIDING QUESTION What defined the economies and societies of trading states in Africa? The mastery of agriculture gave rise to three early African civilizations Egypt, Kush, and Axum. Later, new states emerged in different parts of Africa. Some of them were strongly influenced by Islam. Zimbabwe, which developed around 1300, played an important role in the southern half of Africa. Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were three flourishing trading states in West Africa. Mali and Songhai were especially important. Mansa Musa was one of the most powerful kings of Mali. He ruled from 1312 to Musa doubled the size of Mali. He was a deeply religious Muslim who made a pilgrimage to Makkah. He also transformed his capital city at Timbuktu into a center of Islamic learning and culture. By the fifteenth century, the new Songhai kingdom began to surpass Mali. The Songhai Empire reached its height of power during the rule of Muhammad Ture. The chief cities of the empire prospered as never before from the salt and gold trade until the end of the sixteenth century. Africans actively participated in regional and global trade with the Mediterranean world and across the Indian Ocean. The state-building process in sub-saharan Africa was still in its early stages compared with the ancient civilizations of India, China, and Mesopotamia. However, in many ways these new states were as impressive and sophisticated as their counterparts elsewhere in the world. Due to a lack of written records, we know little about early African society and culture. The relationship between king and subjects was often less rigid in African society than in other civilizations. Families, especially lineage groups (groups of
4 and Study Guide Cont. families all descended from a common ancestor), were basic units in African society. Religious beliefs in many African societies focused on many gods and nature spirits. Diviners were believed to have the ability to tell the future. Ancestors were believed to be closer to the gods and, therefore, had influence over people s lives. Africans produced a distinctive culture in woodcarving, sculpture, music, and architecture. Fleets (groups of fighting ships) from Portugal began to explore southward along the coast of West Africa in the fifteenth century. These sailors and the people who sponsored them were in search of gold and slaves. However, when Portuguese ships rounded the southern coast of Africa by 1500, they began to seek domination of Indian Ocean trade. The new situation was a threat to the peoples of Africa. The new African states would be severely tested by the demands of the Europeans. African peoples were not the only ones to confront a new threat from Europe at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The Portuguese reached India, where a new empire was struggling to emerge. Determining Importance How did trade play a role in the development of early African states? The Medieval Asian World GUIDING QUESTION What were the successes and challenges of medieval Asia? China fell into chaos after the Han dynasty ended. The new Sui dynasty was established in 581. The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties together ruled for almost 700 years. During their rule, Chinese civilization flourished once again. A mature political system slowly developed in China. It was based on principles first put into practice during the Qin and Han dynasties. As in the Han Era, China was a monarchy with a large bureaucracy. Confucian ideals were still the basis of the system. In 1279, the Mongols overthrew the Song dynasty and established a new dynasty. The new Mongol rulers adapted to the Chinese political system. But their dynasty failed to last. A new Ming dynasty came to power in China advanced in many ways during the thousand-year reign of these five dynasties. Industry and trade grew in size and technological capacity. Flourishing agriculture in China s countryside bolstered, or strengthened, economic success. In Chinese cities, technological developments added new products and stimulated trade. The Chinese began to make steel for swords and sickles and invented gunpowder for explosives during the Tang dynasty. Chinese society also achieved a remarkable level of development and stability. The civil service provided a stable government bureaucracy. It also allowed for upward mobility that was almost unknown elsewhere in the world. China's achievements were unsurpassed, or unmatched, throughout the world. The Chinese civilization was the envy of its neighbors and of the world. It also influenced other states in the region, including Japan.
5 and Study Guide Cont. Few societies in Asia have historically been as isolated as Japan. The Japanese are cut off from the mainland by 120 miles of ocean. This distance led to little contact with the outside world during most of the country s early development. Once the Japanese became acquainted with Chinese culture, however, they were quick to take advantage of the opportunity. In a few decades, the young Japanese state adopted many features of Chinese society and culture. Major changes into the Japanese way of life were introduced and adopted. But change was often resisted. Early Japanese rulers, such as Shotoku Taishi, a prince of the Yamato clan, tried to create a centralized political system like that of China. But the power of landed aristocrats, or landowners of the upper class, ensured a weak central authority. As a result, the society was able to use imported ideas without endangering customs, beliefs, and institutions inherited from the past. Civilization in India faced a number of serious challenges between 500 and The ongoing threat from beyond the mountains in the northwest was one. A group of rebellious Turkish slaves founded a new Islamic state called Ghazna. Ghazna was located in present-day Afghanistan. In 997 a new leader, Mahmud of Ghazna, began to attack neighboring Hindu kingdoms to the southeast. Muslim power covered the entire plain of northern India by The Muslim state known as the sultanate (state ruled by a sultan) of Delhi was created. The impact of Islam on Indian civilization is still evident today. The Indian subcontinent is divided into mostly Hindu India and two Islamic states, Pakistan and Bangladesh. India also faced the problem of internal rivalry. This infighting had been a part of Indian civilization for hundreds of years. After the fall of the Guptas, internal rivalries continued almost without interruption until the sixteenth century. Another challenge appeared in the religious divisions that took place throughout much of this period. First, Hindus and Buddhists were divided. Later tension arose between Hindus and Muslims. Hinduism in India was able to absorb Buddhism. Then Hinduism reasserted its dominance in Indian society. But that victory was shortlived. One result of the Turkish conquest of northern India was the introduction of Islam into the region. The new religion became a serious rival to traditional beliefs of the Indian people. Southeast Asia sits between two oceans and two great civilizations. It has long served as a bridge linking peoples and cultures. Despite Southeast Asia s central position in the ancient world, complex societies were slow to take form there. When they did begin to appear, they were strongly influenced by the older Chinese and Indian civilizations. In Vietnam, the Chinese imposed their culture by conquest. Elsewhere, merchants and missionaries brought Indian influence. Vietnam, Angkor, Thailand, the Burmese kingdom of Pagan, and several states on the Malay peninsula and Indonesian archipelago were all heavily affected by foreign ideas. They made these ideas part of their own cultures. Yet the Southeast Asia peoples, like the Japanese, put their own unique stamp on these adopted ideas. The result was a region marked by cultural richness and diversity, yet rooted in the local culture.
6 The Roman World Civilization Before Modern Times, Prehistory A.D Summarizing How did the various societies in medieval Asia interact with each other? Europe in the Middle Ages GUIDING QUESTION How did a new European civilization develop after the fall of the Roman Empire? After the collapse of the Roman Empire, new Germanic states were established. As a result, a new European civilization slowly began to emerge in the Early Middle Ages. Charlemagne was a descendant of a Germanic tribe. He had converted to Christianity. His coronation, or being crowned, as Roman emperor in 800 symbolized the coming together of the three chief parts of the new European civilization. He was from the German tribes. He embraced the Roman legacy. And he represented Christianity. Charlemagne's empire is called the Carolingian Empire. It helped develop the idea of a distinct European identity. The lands north of the Alps now became the political center of Europe. Increasingly, Europe emerged as the center of Western civilization. As the Carolingian Empire disintegrated, or fell apart, new political institutions began to develop in Europe. Feudalism put power into the hands of many different lords. These lords made up a powerful group of nobles. They dominated the political, economic, and social life of Europe. The European civilization that emerged in the ninth and tenth centuries began to thrive in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Europeans established new patterns that reached their high point in the thirteenth century. The High Middle Ages lasted from ca to ca This period of growth for Western civilization was characterized by a burst of energy and enthusiasm. An increase in agricultural production helped sustain a dramatic rise in population. Towns and cities expanded greatly. The development of trade and a money economy, along with the expansion of towns and cities, added a dynamic new element to European civilization. These developments did not mean the end of a mostly rural European society. However, they did present new opportunities for people to expand and enrich their lives. Eventually, they created the foundations for a mostly urban industrial society. During the High Middle Ages, European society was dominated by a landed aristocracy. Their primary function was to fight. These nobles built innumerable castles that gave the countryside a distinctive look. Over time, medieval kings began to exert a centralizing authority. As a result, new kinds of monarchical states began to develop. These states laid the foundations for the kingdoms that have controlled the European political scene ever since. The authority of the Catholic Church often overshadowed the power of nobles and kings during the High Middle Ages. In fact, the Catholic Church was perhaps the most powerful institution of the time. The High Middle Ages witnessed a spiritual revival, or renewal, that changed European society. Spiritual renewal led
7 The Roman World Civilization Before Modern Times, Prehistory A.D to many different paths. Strong papal leadership, a dramatic increase in the number and size of churches, new religious orders, and the "Holy Warrior" in the Crusades a military effort to recover the Holy Land of the Near East from the Muslims all resulted. All these paths seemed to reflect a greater concern for salvation. A burst of intellectual and artistic activity also characterized the time. An intellectual revival led to new centers of learning in universities. Reason was used to develop new ways of thought in theology, or the study of God. At the same time, a boom in the construction of religious buildings covered Europe with churches. This is especially evident in the great Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals. They were the visible signs of Christian Europe s strength and energy. However, European society in the fourteenth century was challenged by a large number of disastrous forces. The Black Death, a devastating plague, wiped out one-third of the European population. Trade and industry began to decline. Europe faced constant warfare and political instability. The church began to lose power. And two popes condemned each other. All these events seemed to overpower Europeans. No doubt, to some people it appeared that the last days of the world were at hand. Out of the collapse of medieval civilization came a rebirth of culture known as the Renaissance. Making Connections What was the role of the Catholic Church in medieval Europe? The Byzantine Empire GUIDING QUESTION What factors contributed to the emergence and success of the Byzantine Empire? Roman power in Western Europe collapsed. But the Late Roman Empire in the East, or the Eastern Roman Empire, continued in the eastern Mediterranean. It eventually transformed into the Byzantine Empire. This empire prospered for hundreds of years. A new Christian civilization arose in Europe. At the same time, the Byzantine Empire created its own unique Christian civilization. While Europe struggled in the Early Middle Ages, the Byzantine world prospered and flourished. The Byzantine Empire expanded under the Macedonian emperors of the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries. It achieved an economic success that was evident to foreign visitors. They frequently praised the size, wealth, and physical surroundings of the central city of Constantinople. At its height of power, Byzantium was a multicultural and multiethnic world empire. The empire ruled a remarkable number of peoples who spoke different languages. Byzantine cultural and religious forms spread to the Balkans, parts of central Europe, and Russia. Byzantine scholars spread the study of the Greek language to Italy. They expanded Renaissance humanism, the belief based on the best features of humans rather than on a god or religion. They combined it with an interest in classical Greek civilization. The Byzantine Empire also interacted with
8 The Roman World Civilization Before Modern Times, Prehistory A.D the world of Islam to its east and the new European civilization to the west. Both interactions proved costly and ultimately fatal, or deadly. European civilization and Byzantine civilization shared a common bond in Christianity. This bond, however, was not able to keep them in political agreement. The west s Crusades to Palestine led to western control of the Byzantine Empire from 1204 to 126l. The empire technically was restored, but it did not do well. Ultimately its interaction with the Muslim world led to its demise, or downfall. The Ottoman Turks conquered the city of Constantinople and made it the center of their new empire. Identifying In what way was the Byzantine Empire multicultural? The World of the Americas GUIDING QUESTION Which civilizations flourished in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans? Farming settlements began to appear in river valleys and upland areas in both Central and South America around 5000 B.C. Not long afterward, communities along the Gulf of Mexico coast and the western slopes of the central Andes Mountains began the long march to civilization. The Maya and Aztecs were especially successful in developing advanced and prosperous civilizations. Both cultures built elaborate cities with pyramids, temples, and palaces. Both were polytheistic, believing in many gods. Both practiced human sacrifice as a major part of their religion. Mayan civilization collapsed in the ninth century. The Aztecs fell to Spanish invaders in the sixteenth century. In the fifteenth century, the remarkable Inca civilization thrived in South America. The Inca Empire was carefully planned and regulated. The extensive network of roads that connected all parts of the empire provides evidence of the planning. However, the Inca lacked advanced weapons. As a result, the Inca eventually fell to Spanish invaders. As civilizations developed in Central and South America, the peoples of North America created a large number of different cultures. Inuit, Mound Builders, Anasazi, Plains Indians, and Iroquois all developed societies that responded in their own unique ways to the environmental conditions they faced. All of these societies in the Americas developed in isolation from their counterparts elsewhere in the world. This lack of contact deprived them of access to developments taking place in Africa, Asia, and Europe. They did not know of the wheel, for example. Also, their written languages were not as sophisticated as those in other parts of the world. But in other ways, their cultural achievements were equal to those realized elsewhere. The first European explorers arrived in the Americas at the beginning of the sixteenth century. They described much that they saw in positive terms. Early Spanish visitors said that the cities of the Aztecs were the equal of any found in Spain. One development that the peoples of America lacked was the knowledge of firearms. As a result, tiny groups of Spanish explorers were able to conquer the
9 The Roman World Civilization Before Modern Times, Prehistory A.D magnificent civilizations of the Americas and turn them into ruins in only a few short years. Inferring What factors indicate that the peoples of Central and South America had organized societies?