New England Colonies. New England Colonies

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1 New England Colonies 2 3 New England Economy n Not much commercial farming rocky New England soil n New England harbors n Fishing/Whaling n Whale Oil n Shipping/Trade n Heavily Forested n Lumber n Manufacturing n First factories n Rum n Made from Molasses n Largest industry in America after 664 New York, Boston n Some estimates had every American drinking 3 gallons/yr. n Shipbuilding 4 New England Colonies n Massachusetts n Plymouth 620 n Massachusetts Bay Colony 629 n Connecticut n Rhode Island n New Hampshire 5 The Great Migration n In the 620 s, England began to experience an economic downturn n High unemployment

2 n High unemployment n Charles I raises taxes n Church of England began to punish Puritans because they were critical of the church. n More than 40,000 Englishmen immigrated to the colonies in the Caribbean and New England between 630 and Massachusetts Bay Colony n 629--Massachusetts Bay Company granted a charter by Charles I n Company Colony owned by stock-holders n All stocks were eventually bought by Puritans and decided to move company to America n Led by John Winthrop, over 000 Puritans sailed to Massachusetts to establish an ideal Christian community in New England. n City on a hill n First land in Salem, then Boston n Colony grows and prospers n Well prepared for the task n Little resistance from Indians n Trade with Plymouth n Healthier climate than Virginia 7 Massachusetts Bay n Company Charter provided more freedom than royal charter in Virginia n Provided that a General Court in Massachusetts would make laws, and elect a governor and other officials n Families, and later towns, would send representatives to the General Court 2

3 n Families, and later towns, would send representatives to the General Court n Only male church members were eligible to vote n This created a Theocracy government ruled by, or subject to, the church 8 9 Salem Witch Trials n In the early 690 s, a group of girls accused people, mostly women, of casting spells on them. n Special Courts were formed to conduct witchcraft trials, often marked by hysteria n Accused were often pressured to confess n Trials led to the execution of 9 people for witchcraft n Within a year, officials regretted the trials and apologized for the actions of the Salem Court. Connecticut n Some colonists disagreed with the church s influence on government n Minister Thomas Hooker believed that any property owner should be eligible to vote, regardless of church membership n In 636, Hooker and 00 of his followers were granted permission to leave Massachusetts to create a new settlement - Connecticut n Proprietary colony owned by one or more individuals n 639 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut made the government more democratic n Possibly the first written Constitution in the Western World n Acknowledges individual rights of man and government s job to protect them n Men who were not church members were allowed to vote n General Courts/Assemblies are developing representative government n Still part of Connecticut s Constitution 3

4 0 New Hampshire n The English crown granted land to Captain John Mason and others in 623 n Proprietary colony n Sent 2 groups of settlers to the new territory to create a fishing colony n Little Harbor, Dover n Mason died in 635 before ever arriving in N.H. n Made agreement in 64 to join Massachusetts Bay Colony for protection n Became a royal colony in 679 under control of the crown Rhode Island n Founded by Puritan minister Roger Williams n Disagreed with leaders in Massachusetts n Believed in Soul-Liberty people should have right to opinion on religious matters n Wall of Separation between church and politics n Promoted religious tolerance n Wanted to deal fairly with Indians n Exiled from Massachusetts and settled to the south in Providence in 644 n Given land by Natives n Proprietary Colony n Anne Hutchinson 4

5 n Anne Hutchinson n Challenged church leaders n Banished in 637 and founded Portsmouth in Rhode Island 5

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