CAPITALS. Confederacy. Union. Capital = Washington D.C. Capital = Richmond, VA Only 107 Miles apart!

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1 CIVIL WAR

2 FORT SUMTER Lincoln s Inauguration Confederate soldiers begin to take over federal courts, post offices, and forts Confederates demand Fort Sumter or else attack Fort Sumter = important b/c location in Charleston Harbor (SC) If Lincoln complies Confederates = legitimate nation if Lincoln defends the fort could be seen as hostile action April 4: Lincoln tells Davis he s sending provisions Davis says no If Davis accepts Lincoln s food for hungry men and does nothing then he loses legitimacy as a nation, but if he attacks he ends peaceful secession and begins war. April 11: Confederates call on the Union to surrender Fort Sumter April 12: Confederates fire on Fort Sumter April 15: Lincoln calls upon the states to provide 75,000 volunteer militia men April 19: Lincoln blockades Charleston harbor

3 After Ft. Sumter attack, more states secede from the Union Virginia Arkansas Tennessee North Carolina In Virginia, many people supported the north Unionists form West Virginia in 1863 Other border states that have slaves decide to stay with the Union Delaware Maryland Kentucky Missouri PATRIOTIC FEVER

4 CAPITALS Union Capital = Washington D.C. Confederacy Capital = Richmond, VA Only 107 Miles apart!

5 AVERAGE SOLDIER 2.75 million soldiers fought White male, native-born, protestant Average age = 26 years old Majority served in the infantry (foot soldier) Men on both sides inspired to fight by patriotism, state pride, the chance for adventure, steady pay

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10 NORTHERN VS. SOUTHERN SOLDIERS Union Population of states: 22 million Confederate Population of states: 9 million (4 million slaves) 2,128,948 soldiers 1,082,119 soldiers 1in 8 died of disease 1 in 5 died of disease 1 in 18 died in battle 1 in 8 died in battle Fought to preserve the Union, eventually to abolish slavery Fought to defend his home 25% foreign-born soldiers 9% foreign-born soldiers 179,000 Black soldiers 3,000 Black soldiers Rations = 22 oz. bread & 12 oz. pork /1 lb. salted beef Wages = $11 $16 a month Rations = 12 oz. bacon/20 oz. beef & 18 oz. flour/20 oz. bread Wages = $11 $18 a month

11 FIRST MODERN WAR 1 out of every 12 adults served 620,000 men died (50% more than WWII) Any injury to the head or stomach was fatal Very few doctors.gangrene was rampant 50,000 survivors had limbs amputated Soldiers have little knowledge of fighting, supplies, and equipment Disease was the greatest threat

12 LIFE AND DEATH Weapons technology Rifled musket: killed more soldiers than anything else, except disease Created wounds that were difficult to treat New types of military technology ironclad ships & submarines canister bullets repeating rifles telegraph observation balloons trench warfare Disease & Hygiene Diarrhea = greatest killer during the Civil War War had over 620,000 casualties more than 400,000 died of sickness and disease Make-shift hospitals

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15 BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR

16 RATIONALE BEHIND BATTLE LOCATION 1. Road Networks 2. Importance of the Area Example: The area between Richmond, VA and Washington, DC 3. Railroad Networks 4. Waterways 5. Topography or Lay of the Land 6. Reliable Intelligence

17 WAR STRATEGIES Union: Anaconda Plan General Winfield Scott 1. Blockade Southern ports 2. Divide Confederacy in two in west 3. Capture Richmond, Confederate capital Confederacy: Offensive-Defensive Strategy 1. Focused on defending own territory 2. Attack Union territory if opportunity presents itself

18 BULL RUN July, 1861: Manassas, VA (U): General Irwin McDowell (C): P.T. Beauregard Confusion caused two (U) artillery batteries to stop firing and (C) overwhelmed (U) troops Major victory for the (C), keeping (U) from Richmond

19 CONSCRIPTION After Bull Run, (U) had 500,000 troops (C) had 400,000 Conscription (Military Draft) Confederates Draft first All white, males aged were declared members of the army for 3 years Loopholes out of service 1. Provide a substitute 2. Working a good job State Legislator Planters March 1863 Union also held a draft All white, males aged Draft riots in New York City

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21 SHILOH April 1862: Southwestern TN (U): Gen. William Sherman & Gen. Ulysses S. Grant Union losses first day of the surprise battle Grant s counterattack on the second day forced (C) troops to retreat Bloody battle marked beginning of total war for both sides as well as the end of Southern control of the Mississippi Valley

22 ANTIETAM September 1862: Sharpsburg, MD (U): Gen. McClellan (C): Gen. Robert E. Lee (U) did not take advantage of Lee s battle strategy plans (found by Union soldiers in advance) (U) attacked successfully & drove the (C) to retreat Strategic victory for (U) But (U) gave up opportunity to finish the (C) forces once and for all by not continuing the battle as the (C) retreated Union lost 2,180 men 10,000 wounded Confederates lost 10,000 men (1/4 of Lee s Army) Lincoln is outraged by McClellan & failure to use Lee s plan McClellan fired Replacement = Ambrose Burnside

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26 EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION Emancipation Proclamation: Sept 1862 Issued after Antietam Didn t free all slaves Said that on January 1, 1863 the government would liberate all slaves. Didn t liberate the Border States or slaves in the South controlled by the Union. Emancipation discourages Britain from supporting the South

27 EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION Reactions Proclamation has symbolic value, gives war high moral purpose Free blacks welcome ability to fight against slavery Northern Democrats claim it will antagonize the South & prolong war Confederacy becomes more determined to preserve way of life Compromise no longer possible; one side must defeat the other

28 54 TH MASSACHUSETTS First military unit consisting of black soldiers raised in the North Emancipation Proclamation use of free black men as soldiers Controversial/ lots of attention Black man's ability to fight in the "white man's war. Black leadership: could blacks be officers? Commissioned officers = white, enlisted men = black Black officers up to LT = noncommissioned, reached positions by moving up the ranks

29 GETTYSBURG July 1: (C) enter Gettysburg looking for supplies. (U) encounters (C) troops north of Gettysburg July 2: (C) joins and attacks (U) from both sides. Fighting begins early in the morning near little round top hill July 3: (C) orders his troops to advance across the open ground They walk right into (U) fire July 4: With 1/3 of his Army gone, Lee (C) retreats in a driving thunderstorm Results 51,000 casualties at Gettysburg Killed, wounded, captured, and missing (U) casualties: 23,055 (C) casualties: abt. 28,000

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32 GETTYSBURG ADDRESS Nov 1863: Speech given during ceremony to dedicate cemetery in Gettysburg Fewer than 300 words Only 9 sentences Less than 3 minutes

33 Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

34 KEY REPEATED WORDS AND CONCEPTS Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

35 KEY REPEATED WORDS AND CONCEPTS Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

36 KEY REPEATED WORDS AND CONCEPTS Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

37 KEY REPEATED WORDS AND CONCEPTS Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

38 KEY REPEATED WORDS AND CONCEPTS Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

39 KEY REPEATED WORDS AND CONCEPTS Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

40 KEY REPEATED WORDS AND CONCEPTS Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

41 KEY REPEATED WORDS AND CONCEPTS Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

42 KEY REPEATED WORDS AND CONCEPTS Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

43 LOCAL FOCUS Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

44 LOCAL FOCUS NATIONAL ISSUE Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

45 LOCAL FOCUS NATIONAL ISSUE GLOBAL SCOPE Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

46 PAST Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

47 PAST NEAR PAST Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

48 PAST NEAR PAST PRESENT Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

49 PAST NEAR PAST PRESENT NEAR FUTURE Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

50 PAST NEAR PAST PRESENT NEAR FUTURE FUTURE Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

51 BIRTH & LIFE DEATH & DYING Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

52 UNCER- TAINTY Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

53 WHAT OTHERS DID Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

54 WHAT OTHERS DID WHAT WE MUST DO Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

55 END OF THE CIVIL WAR

56 VICKSBURG July 4, 1863: Mississippi (U): Gen. Ulysses S. Grant (C): Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest After taking out smaller Confederate forces, Grant (U) ordered a siege of Vicksburg (C) eventually surrendered after much suffering when their reinforcements never arrived Major (U) victory demonstrated North s ability to fight without access to supplies & meant that Mississippi now belonged to the Union

57 SHERMAN S MARCH TO THE SEA Nov-Dec 1864: Atlanta/Savannah GA (U): Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman Sherman marched his troops, burning, vandalizing, pillaging and destroying as they went Sherman s tactic of total war was mean to break the spirit of the Confederacy

58

59

60 Lincoln is nominated by the Republicans Support from war Democrats Running mate was Andrew Johnson (Dem from TN) Democrats nominate General George B. McClellan Ran on a platform labeling the war a failure and called for peace Lincoln thought he was going to lose Sept, 1864 Sherman takes Atlanta boosts Northern moral Inspires a rousing win for Lincoln ELECTION OF 1864

61

62 LINCOLN CALLS FOR ABOLITION Constitutional amendment was necessary to ensure the end of slavery = Thirteenth Amendment! Abolish slavery/involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime Congress debates: Provisions to prevent discrimination against blacks? Election of 1864: Lincoln calls for the utter and complete destruction of slavery Senate passed measure 1864, House passed in Jan 1865 sent to the states for ratification GA ratified in Dec 1865 institution of slavery would no longer exist in the USA

63 APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE News that (U) Sherman s attacks destroyed the South (U) Grant chases (C) Lee to a village outside of Richmond Lee s troops are out of food, water, and other supplies Lee dons his dress uniform and meets Grant to surrender Lee surrenders/grant asks (C) to return weapons and return home

64 ASSASSINATION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN Lincoln never received word that Lee surrendered Actor, John Wilkes Booth organizes a plot to kill Lincoln, VP & Sec. of State April 14, 1865: Ford s Theater in Washington D.C. Lincoln w/ wife in a balcony seat Booth enters Lincoln s box, Lincoln shot in back of head Yells Sic Semper Tyrannis Death always unto tyrants Booth dies several days later in a shoot-out V.P. Andrew Johnson takes over as President

65

66 RECONSTRUCTION

67 EFFECTS OF WAR When Lincoln was assassinated, VP Johnson took over and began the era of Reconstruction Goal of Reconstruction = Individual states would end up joined together in a stronger union No longer would questions concerning secession or nullification be argued by individual states Most importantly, the war officially ended slavery

68 WAR S LEGACY: POLITICAL CHANGES After the war the federal government assumed supreme national authority and no state has ever again seceded The states rights issue still exists, but secession not seen as an option anymore The role of the federal government in people s everyday lives changed as well: Before the War: almost no interaction with national gov t During the War: very strong role in people s lives Taxed people s income, required everyone to use paper money, and drafted men into the army to fight a war After the War: acceptance of federal gov t s expanded role

69 WAR S LEGACY: ECONOMIC CHANGES Before the war, the federal government had mostly stayed away from specifically helping (aiding) any business During the war the federal government did a lot to help businesses Subsidized (gave money to) the construction of a national railroad Passed the National Bank Act of 1863 This made banking safer Northern economy boomed during war Entrepreneurs sold war supplies to the government then invested their money in new businesses after the war Like John D. Rockefeller (oil) and Andrew Carnegie (steel) Southern economy devastated Lost their slaves Much of the industry destroyed by the Union Army 40% of their livestock was dead Most of their farm equipment and machinery was destroyed The few railroads that did exist in the South were torn up

70 HUMAN COST OF WAR Approximately 360,000 Union soldiers and 260,000 Confederate soldiers died in the war Approximately 275,000 Union soldiers and 225,000 Confederate soldiers were wounded Also, about 2.4 million men had been in the military for the last 4 years which completely disrupted their lives and their families Additionally, we now know that many of these Civil War veterans were probably suffering from what we call PTSD

71 RECONSTRUCTING THE NATION Lincoln s plan: 10% plan Lenient to the South all Confederates pardoned, states re-admitted once 10% of population swore allegiance to U.S. Radical Republicans thought South needed punishment Lincoln vetoed Wade-Davis Bill, which required 50% allegiance and put Congress in charge of reconstruction 4 states readmitted under this plan (AR, TN, VA, LA) President Johnson (Lincoln s successor) had different plan with 3 requirements: Withdrawal of secession Allegiance to union Ratify 13th amendment All other Southern states return to union under this plan

72 CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION 1866: Congress tries to undo Johnson s actions, be harsher to South Created Freedman s Bureau Passed Civil Rights Act 1866 Passed 14th amendment (1868) Gave citizenship to all persons born or naturalized and protected due process and equal protection of laws Reconstruction Act of 1867 Kicked southern states back out of union, created 5 military districts States could rejoin if ratified 14th amendment and allowed blacks to vote

73 ELECTION OF 1868 Republican Ulysses S. Grant wins Votes of about 500,000 former slaves help him win

74 FURTHER RECONSTRUCTION 15 th amendment: gave blacks voting rights granted all persons voting rights regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude Ratified in 1870 Physical damage from the war was rebuilt (especially in South) Democrats were opposed to the way that the Republicans were rebuilding the South Called white Southerners who joined the Republican Party scalawags Called Northerners who moved to the South after the war carpetbaggers

75 EFFECTS OF ENDING SLAVERY Former slaves need jobs Many move to cities, attend schools, participate in politics 1866 Homestead Act: set aside 44 million acres for blacks in South Many freed slaves begin sharecropping or tenant farming

76 FAILURE OF RECONSTRUCTION Could not prevent violence against blacks from angry whites Ku Klux Klan is formed in 1866, active throughout country Grant politically inexperienced and ineffective as President, many scandals Supreme Court rulings limited effectiveness of 14th and 15th amendments Jim Crow Laws in the South further restrict Black rights Democrats regained power in the South Election of 1876: Democrat Samuel Tilden gets more popular votes than Republican Rutherford B. Hayes Tilden doesn t win electoral vote, 20 votes are disputed Compromise of 1877: Congress gives Hayes election in exchange for ending reconstruction Military withdraws, southern states regain control of their affairs

What A Union army, consisting of 28,000 men fought 33,000 Confederates. 1 st battle of the Civil War. When July 21, 1861 Where Bull Run Creek,

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