Early History and Law

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1 / OLD TESTAMENT STUDIES: t Erly History nd Lw By Hrold S. Bender A Bible Survey Course in Five Units FIRST UNIT

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3 OLD TESTAMENT STUDIES Erly History nd Lw First Unit of Bible Survey Course in Five Units THIRD EDITION By HAROLD S. BENDER, DEAN Goshen College Biblicl Seminry Revised by C. NORMAN KRAUS ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF BIBLE Goshen College MENNONITE PUBLISHING HOUSE SCOTTDALE, PENNSYLVANIA 1956

4 Tble of Contents I. Introduction to the Study of the Bible 5 II. Introduction to the Study of the Old Testment 12 III. Primevl History 18 IV. Ptrirchl History 28 V. From Egypt to Cnn 37 VI. The Morl nd Civil Lw 49 VII. The Religious Institutions nd Ceremonies of Isrel.. 55 VIII. Deuteronomy 64 IX. Joshu nd the Conquest of Cnn 71 X. The Period of the Judges 80 Mp of Plestine 79 Copyright 1956 by Mennonite Publishing House Scottdle, Pennsylvni Printed in U.S.A.

5 Foreword to Third Edition This Bible Survey Course ws conceived by the forerunner of the Mennonite Commission for Christin Eduction, the Generl Sundy School Committee of Generl Conference. This committee sensed the urgency of techer trining in the Mennonite Church nd dopted pln of ction known s the Elementry Techer Trining Course. This course led to the preprtion of Bible survey mnuls, three volumes of twelve lessons ech: Old Testment Lw nd History, by H. S. Ben der; Old Testment Poetry nd Prophets, by Pul Erb; nd New Testment Studies, by C. K. Lehmn. These books p pered in Jnury, The Bible Survey Course mnuls were well received. Within four yers the first edition ws exhusted. In Septem ber, 1940, under the direction of the Commission Secretry of Techer Trining the second edition ppered. In this edition few chnges were mde to mke the mterils more dpt ble to trining clsses. A few corrections of fct were lso included. The Bible Survey Course mnuls continue to enjoy wide spred use. However, chnging needs nd requirements hve led to this third edition. Requirements for techer-trining courses hve been chnged from twelve to ten sessions of 45 minutes ech. This necessitted the rerrngement of mterils which resulted in five volumes of ten lessons ech: Old Test ment Studies: Erly History nd Lw; Old Testment Stud ies: Lter History nd Poetry; Old Testment Studies: The Prophets; New Testment Studies: The Gospels nd Acts; nd New Testment Studies: The Epistles nd Reveltion. The content hs remined much the sme except for reor gniztion, new study questions, ddition of mps, nd correc tions of fct in the light of more recent studies nd discoveries. The revision hs been done by C. Normn Krus of Goshen College under the direction of the Christin Eduction Deprt ment of the Editoril Division of the Mennonite Publishing House nd the Curriculum Committee of the Mennonite Com mission for Christin Eduction. 3

6 4 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I With the new formt nd with renewed emphsis upon trining for Christin service we hope these volumes will con tinue to provide the church with mens to more nd better Bible knowledge nd will prepre men nd women to tech the inspired Word of God to His glory. Pul M. Lederch Field Secretry Mennonite Commission for Christin Eduction

7 Lesson I Introduction to the Study of the Bible The Purpose of the Bible The holy scriptures... re.ble to mke thee wise unto slvtion through fith which is in Christ Jesus. All scripture is given by inspirtion of God, nd is profitble for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: tht the mn of God my be perfect, throughly furnished unto ll good works (II Tim. 3:15, 16). No merely humn words cn stte more clerly nd perfectly the purpose of God in giving mnkind the Bible thn these divinely inspired words written by Pul to Timothy nerly two thousnd yers go. The gret, supreme purpose of God s reveltion to mn in His Word is to sve men from sin through fith in Christ Jesus nd to mke them live perfectly the good life of righteousness, which is required of ll who re the children of God. All use of the Scriptures should be in ccord with this divine purpose. Bible study which does not led sinners to slvtion or which does not mke sved men live holier lives is not spiritul. Whtever vlue such nonspiritul Bible study my hve whether literry, historicl, scientific, or morl, it is not the vlue which the child of God should seek. The Sundy-school worker who desires to fulfill stisfctorily his God-given tsk of teching the Word should never surrender to the ll too common tempttion to del superficilly (though perhps inter estingly) with the Bible. He must del spiritully with the Scriptures. He must bring forth tresures which the Holy Spirit my pply to the hert of the pupil or the listener. To do this he must first find spiritul food in the Word for himself. In ccord with this fundmentl principle we pproch the systemtic study of the Bible with the pryer to God to be delivered from: (1) mere forml study without hert de sire for the knowledge of his will in ll wisdom nd spiritul understnding (Col. 1:9) ; (2) mere lerning of fcts bout the 5

8 6 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I Bible or bout the contents of the Bible without lerning the ppliction of the truth of Scripture to life; (3) mere memoriz ing of the words of Scripture without understnding the spirit ul mening of the words; (4) mere ccumultion of knowl edge without willing obedience to the sme. A sving nd snctifying knowledge of the Word is possi ble only to those: (1) who give themselves to study with ll diligence s desiring to be pproved of God nd not to plese men; (2) who re willing to submit their minds in full obedi ence to the Word nd bring every thought into cptivity to Christ, surrendering ll notions nd opinions of their own or of ny other Bible techer if they conflict with the Word ; nd (3) who seek nd secure by pryer nd devotion the guidnce of the Holy Spirit, who is ble to guide into ll truth. To this end ll the informtion which hs been gthered by Bible stu dents of ll ges bout the Bible s whole, its trnsmission nd trnsltions, it interprettion nd ppliction, bout the individul books nd their uthors, cn nd should be mde use of. Every device for clerly presenting fcts nd truths nd retining the sme in memory is legitimte. Mere senti mentlity will vil nothing, nd merely to go over the Bible in the sme old rut of method or thinking will be unfruitful to deeper knowledge of the truth. A person who does so my be one of those who re ever lerning, nd never ble to come to the knowledge of the truth. The Scripture s Reveltion God, who... spke in time pst unto the fthers by the prophets, hth in these lst dys spoken unto us by His Son, sid the writer of Hebrews, nd gin, Therefore we ought to give the more ernest heed. The importnt ide is tht the Bible brings to mn messge from God. The Bible is the record of wht God hs to sy to mn. In this record of God s gtet redemptive cts nd the prophet s inspired interpret tion of them both God s chrcter nd His will for us re re veled. This view of the Bible, which is tht of Christ nd the postles, nd which hs been the view of the believing church of Christ in ll ges nd ll lnds, is in strict opposition to common nd widespred modern view which considers the Bible to be record of mn s ttempt to find God, product of

9 Lesson I INTRODUCTION TO THE BIBLE 7 the religious experience of of gret men, yes, but still men. The difference between men these two views cn be briefly stted thus: The Bible is the Word of God, or it is the word of men. If it is the word of men, it ceses to hve finl uthor ity for the believer. If it is the Word of God, s we believe it is, then we must nd will give to it the most ernest heed of which we re cpble. The Historicl Nture of Reveltion The reveltion of God in the Bible comes to us in historicl rther thn philosophicl or theologicl grb. Its messge be gins with the beginning of history In the beginning God creted nd it ends with the consummtion of history t Christ s coming Even so, come, Lord Jesus. Oftentimes students who re beginning their study of the Bible wonder why they must wde through so much seemingly unimportnt historicl mteril. A closer look, however, revels tht it is precisely here in this history tht God is reveling His chr cter nd will to men. A survey glnce t the sweep of Biblicl history will show its importnce. In the story of the cretion nd fll the stge is set. Here we lern wht mn is nd wht his responsibility to God is. Here lredy the purpose of God to redeem mn kind becomes evident. The gret mid-point of Biblicl his tory is the incrntion nd deth of Christ. All tht precedes it the cll of Abrhm, the formtion of Isrel nd the giv ing of the lw, the ministry of the prophets to wywrd, un fithful people is in preprtion for it. God used the events of Isrel s history to mke known His purposes in Christ. The writings of the New Testment cluster round the incrntion of the Word, Jesus Christ, but they clerly point forwrd to the Prousi when history will be consummted, redemption completed, nd God will be ll in ll. The writers of the Bible left out mny events bout which historins tody would like to know. They sy very little bout culturl or politicl conditions. This is becuse they were not merely re cording chronicle of events in generl ; rther, they were portrying those prticulr events which revel God s nture nd pln for mnkind.

10 8 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I The Bible s the Messge of Redemption The Bible is book with one messge, the messge of re demption. There re mny topics of interest, t lest tempor lly to mnkind, on which the Bible is silent. The Bible is not n encyclopedi of ll knowledge. It is not textbook in ll fields of lerning. It is textbook of finl uthority in the one thing which is needful, on the one topic of eternl interest to mnkind, the topic of redemption. It teches ll tht cn be known nd ll tht need be known bout how sinful humnity my be restored to the imge of its holy Cretor. The whole of Scripture is focused on this theme ; therefore ll Scripture must be studied from this point of view. All Scripture history is the history of the unfolding, chievement, nd completion of God s gret redemptive work, which begn with the first words of instruction, wrning, judgment, nd promise to our first prents in Eden, nd which will close with the gret ct of God in completely redeeming both body nd soul, in csting ll iniquity into outer drkness, nd in gthering the whole fmily of His precious redeemed sons nd dughters from ll kindreds, peoples, tongues, nd ntions to be forever in His presence throughout ll eternity, enjoying His goodness nd love. Knowing the limited though ll-importnt theme of the Scriptures, the Bible student will be content with the omis sions of Scripture nd will not criticize the Holy Spirit, nor will he seek to fill in the pprent gps by his humn specul tion. He will rejoice tht he is in full nd complete possession of ll needful truth nd will see to it tht this truth possesses him completely so tht he will grow in grce nd the knowl edge of Christ unto perfect mn, unto the mesure of the stture of the fulness of Christ, to the prise of Him who hth redeemed us. Amen. Methods of Bible Study The Bible my be studied profitbly in vrious wys. 1. A topicl study goes through the Bible, selecting ll the truth pplying to certin topic, to doctrine, to n institu tion, to chrcter ; s, for exmple, God, sin, the church, Pul. 2. A historicl study trces the history of mn, people, n institution, or period of time, s it is presented in the Bible

11 Lesson I INTRODUCTION TO THE BIBLE 9 in one or more books. Illustrtions re: Moses, the Isrelites, the temple, the period of the wilderness wnderings, the erly church. 3. A study of books trets ech book s unit by itself, summrizing the contents of the book both historiclly nd topiclly. All three methods mentioned bove require both nlysis nd synthesis. Both strt with creful, detiled study nd conclude with synthesis or combining of the detils secured into generl, unified summry or whole. The present mnul will follow primrily the third method, treting ech book by itself, but endevoring to set forth both the history nd the teching contined in the book. Since the books of the Old Testment from Genesis to Esther re histor icl books which re filled primrily with nrrtives of the lives nd experiences of men nd peoples nd present truth more by story, exmple, nd nlogy thn by direct teching of doc trinl or prcticl nture, the primry emphsis in Unit I of the Bible Survey Course will be historicl. Rules of Interprettion for the Bible Student A few common-sense, prcticl rules of interprettion should be dopted nd honestly followed by every Bible stu dent if he wishes to void wresting the Scripture to his own destruction, s some unlerned nd unstble men hd done lredy in Peter s time. Unless sound rules of interprettion re obeyed it is possible to prove lmost ny strnge doctrine by Scripture. The best ccepted rules of interprettion my be summrized s follows: 1. The plin literl mening of words is to be followed un less the Scripture itself indictes figurtive mening or unless recognized figures of speech nd figurtive style of lnguge re used. Figurtive, obscure, or difficult lnguge should be interpreted in the light of other cler Scriptures on the sme subject tht re not figurtive, obscure, or difficult, nd should never be used s the bsis for the estblishment of doctrines. 2. Scripture cn best be interpreted in the light of the setting in which it ws written. Hence knowledge of the history, geogrphy, customs, nd generl bckground of the time of the writing of book, s well s n cquintnce with

12 10 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I the uthor s experiences nd his purposes in writing will be of id in interprettion. 3. The originl mening of Scripture s intended by the Holy Spirit is the one which Bible students should seek to find. Normlly this is single nd not double mening, lthough there my be vrious pplictions of the originl truth, nd the pssge my dmit other interprettions which my in themselves be true. In cse of certin prophecies the Holy Spirit in the New Testment indictes second fulfillment, but gret cution should be exercised by fllible humn beings in suggesting second fulfillments where these re not indicted by Scripture itself. 4. No Christin doctrine cn be estblished on the bsis of Old Testment pssges lone; it must be bsed on New Testment teching. The New Testment must be used to in terpret the Old Testment, but the Old Testment my not serve s finl guide to the interprettion of the New Test ment. 5. Scripture interprets Scripture. The reveltion of God in His Word is hrmonious unity without conflicting incon sistencies. Compre Scripture with Scripture to secure cler interprettion. A conflict between n interprettion of one Scripture pssge nd n interprettion of nother Scripture pssge is definite proof tht one or both of the interprettions re in error nd should be revised. 6. In cse of difficulty in interprettion we should dmit the difficulty nd postpone decision bout the mening until more light hs been secured rther thn force n interprettion. As time goes on, nd s we grow in grce nd knowledge, we see deeper into the riches of God s truth. Yet there re depths nd heights of reveltion, s well s mysteries, in God s Word, which we will not fully understnd until we see our Lord fce to fce, nd know even s we re known. 7. The finl uthority s to the mening of word or pssge is lwys the originl lnguge used by the uthor of the book, never trnsltion. The originl lnguge of ll the New Testment books ws Greek. The originl lnguge of ll the Old Testment books ws Hebrew, or, s in prt of Dniel nd few verses of Ezr nd Jeremih, modified Hebrew known s the Armic. Although knowledge of the originl

13 Lesson I INTRODUCTION TO THE BIBLE 11 lnguges of Scripture is highly desirble, number of relible trnsltions which re now vilble in vrious lnguges re quite stisfctory for the use of the verge Bible student. 8. No Bible commentry, Bible dictionry, Bible help, Bi ble chrt, or officil creed, is inspired, nor is it finl uthority in the interprettion of Scripture pssge. All such ids re the product of fllible humn minds, however devout nd lerned they my be, nd re to be used with grtitude nd cution. For this reson ny type of Bible or printed form of Scripture which plces comments or interprettions of humn uthors on the sme pge with the inspired Scripture itself, however useful the comments my be, my be hndicp to the Bible student for three resons: () The student is in clined to trnsfer the uthority of the inspired Word to the un inspired comments nd therefore give undue weight to some one humn uthor s interprettion ; (b) the constnt presence of humn comments my obscure the direct testimony of the Scripture itself ; (c) the student my do no thinking for him self. It is therefore recommended tht the Bible student lwys use the text of the Word of God without comments or ddi tions, both for his devotionl reding nd for his study. Inter preting Bibles should be considered s commentries nd used s such. Questions (For Review nd Discussion) 1. Wht is the purpose of the Bible? Quote II Tim. 3:15, Give four hindrnces to, nd three requirements for, effec tive Bible study. 3. Wht is the purpose of Biblicl history? 4. Nme nd describe three methods of Bible study. 5. Give six rules of interprettion. 6. Wht is the centrl theme of the Bible messge?

14 Lesson II Introduction to the Study of the Old Testment The Purpose of the Old Testment Now ll these things hppened unto them [i.e., to the people of the Old Testment] for ensmples: nd they re written for our dmonition ( I Cor. 10:11). With these words Pul refers to the experiences of the Isrelites in their journey from Egypt to Cnn, nd gives the Corinthin Christins the divinely intended ttitude towrd the Old Testment writings ; for certinly wht pplies to the experiences of the Old Test ment church s recorded in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, nd Deuteronomy, lso pplies with equl force to the experiences of the ptrirchs before the entrnce to Cnn, nd to the people of God fter their settlement in Cnn. We re to view the Old Testment history, therefore, s it is contined in the Old Testment books in divinely inspired nrrtives, s intended to contribute to the development of fith in Christ nd to the promotion of righteousness in the believer. This purpose is stted clerly by Pul in the pssge in his letter to Timo thy, s quoted erlier. But the sttement by Pul mkes it cler tht not only the historicl nrrtives of the Old Test ment but the whole of the Old Testment writings, including the poets nd the prophets, were written for the profit of the mn of God. The spiritul profit of the Old Testment rises out of the fct tht, s Jesus sid to the Phrisees whom He found serch ing the Scriptures, they testify of Jesus Christ, the Redeemer, the Son of God. Jesus demonstrted this fct in detil to the two disconsolte disciples wlking to Emmus on the resur rection dy when, beginning t Moses nd ll the prophets, he expounded unto them in ll the scriptures the things con cerning himself ( Luke 24:27). This does not men tht there is specific teching bout Christ on every pge of the Old Testment, nor even in every single book, but tht the theme of the Old Testment s whole nd throughout is the re- 12

15 Lesson II INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT 13 demptive work of God with the Sviour Messih s the center. The Old Testment should be studied, therefore, with the in tent to discover the redemptive deling of God with mn s disclosed therein. It should be studied with the spiritul eyes of the believer fixed upon the coming One, who should be clled The mighty God, The everlsting Fther, The Prince of Pece, nd by whose stripes mny should be heled. In this journey of spiritul discovery through the Old Testment every pge will become live with mening s we behold the finger of God trcing history, nd s we her His voice spek ing the Word of God through the prophets, seers, nd poets to us of tody s to the men of old. The Reltion of the Old Testment to the New Testment How the postles, nd Christ Himself, delighted to tell their Jewish brethren of the Old Covennt tht the lw nd the prophets were now being fulfilled! Mtthew s whole Gospel ws written to prove this fulfillment in n bsolutely finl nd uthorittive fshion. Peter s erly sermons t Pentecost hd fulfillment s their text. The writer of Hebrews set himself to the tsk of wiping out completely mong Jewish believers ny lingering thought tht the Old Covennt ws still not completely fulfilled. Truly in the concept of fulfillment lies the rightful understnding of the reltion of the Old Covennt or Testment to the New. Fulfillment mens literlly mk ing full or completing, bringing to finl conclusion. The ide tught is simply tht the gol for which the Old Covennt ws estblished, the objective for which the Old Testment lw nd institutions were given, is now fully ccomplished. It ws not ccomplished before, but now the tsk is completed. Sometimes the ide of fulfillment is thought of only s the correspondence of detils of events in the life of Christ nd the erly history of the church with the written prophecies of the Old Testment. Such fulfillment is rel nd constitutes pow erful evidence of the relity of divine reveltion nd of the uthenticity of the Scriptures, but it is not the kind of fulfill ment which Jesus ment when He sid: Think not tht I m come to destroy the lw, or the prophets: I m not come to destroy, but to fulfill (Mtt. 5:17). Nor is it the kind of fulfill ment tht Pul ment when he sid: For ll the lw is fulfilled

16 14 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I in one word, even in this; Thou shlt love thy neighbor s thy self (Gl. 5:14) ; nd, Love is the fulfilling of the lw (Rom. 13:10). The fulfillment to which Jesus nd Pul referred ws the completion of the pln of redemption. We shll never red the Old Testment right unless we see in it merely the first stge, the preprtory nd premoni tory stge, of reveltion, dpted to the condition of mnkind before the full light of the glorious Gospel of Christ ws shed upon ll men. The completion of the progrm of redemption ws the originl gol of God, nd this completion in the New Covennt of Christ s blood, with the ttendnt, complete, nd finl reveltion is the relity, is the substnce, of which the preprtory Old Covennt nd prtil reveltion ws but the shdow of things to come; but the body is of Christ (Col. 2:17). From this point of view, nd this only, correct ppreci tion of the Old Testment cn be obtined. Three conse quences rise from the concept of fulfillment for our use of the Old Testment. (1) The Old Testment is necessry to n understnding of the New. (2) The preprtory elements of lw, institutions, nd prophecy re to be considered s bol ished, for Christ is the end of the lw for righteousness to every one tht believeth (Rom. 10:4), for the lw mde noth ing perfect, but the bringing in of better hope did (Heb. 7:19), but Christ is the meditor of better covennt, which ws estblished upon better promises (Heb. 8:6). The whole religious system therefore of the Old Covennt hs pssed wy nd hs no plce in the new dy of Christ. (3) The eternl, spiritul verities in the Old Testment remin. The underlying principle of the Old Testment is the ttinment of the mercy of God through fith, nd the ttinment of obedi ence to God by trust in His grce, s Hebrews 11 proves quite clerly. This gret principle, the eternl principle governing the reltionship of God nd mn, together with ll subsidiry truth which conforms to the new lw of Christ, is permnently vlid for the believer. The Contents of the Old Testment The Old Testment constitutes bout two thirds in volume of the Bible in its complete form. Of the sixty-six seprte volumes or writings in the Bible (ccording to the English

17 Lesson II INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT IS Bible) thirty-nine re in the Old Testment. In olden times the Jews divided the Old Testment into three types of writ ings, clled Lw, Prophets, nd Writings. The Lw included the first five books of the Bible ; the Prophets included ll the historicl books (former prophets) except Chronicles, Ezr, Nehemih, nd Esther, nd the prophets (ltter prophets), while the writings included wht we cll the poeticl books, the historicl books just mentioned, nd Dniel. This division ws used by Christ nd the postles. However, clssifiction which ccords better with the chrcter of the vrious Old Testment books is the division into history, poets, nd proph ets; or history nd didctic writings. The Bible Survey Course will use twofold division. Unit I will del with the lw nd the historicl books, while Unit II will del with the poeticl nd propheticl books. The Scope, Nture, nd Purpose of Old Testment History Although some historicl mteril is found in severl of the propheticl books, in the min the historicl nrrtives re found in the books of the Pentteuch (the first five books of the Bible), Joshu, Judges, nd Ruth, the books of Smuel, Kings nd Chronicles, nd Ezr, Nehemih, nd Esther. Of these books, Ruth nd Esther re personl nrrtives, nd Chronicles is lrgely dupliction of Smuel nd Kings, but s whole the books nmed cover redemptive history from the cretion down to the close of the Old Testment reveltion, which is to bout 400 B.C. It is of course cler tht out of the tremendous mss of historicl experiences of ll mnkind from cretion to 400 B.C., only very smll frction hs been recorded by the inspired writers of the historicl books (whose nmes, by the wy, re nowhere in the Old Testment mentioned s uthors). It is importnt, therefore, to know the principle of selection which God used, in order to understnd the nture of the historicl writings of the Old Testment. As repetedly stted before, redemption is the theme of the Old Testment s well s of the entire Bible. The principle of selection, therefore, my be stted s follows: Tht such historicl mteril is preserved for our instruction s is necessry for n understnding of redemp tion, which mens, such mteril s is necessry to understnd

18 16 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I the nture of God nd the nture of mn, the will of God nd the duty of mn, the nture, cuse, nd effects of sin, the nture of the judgment, the method of redemption, nd the person of the Redeemer. The chronologicl rrngement of the historicl mteril is s follows: 1. The cretion. 2. The origin of sin nd the fll of mn. 3. The experience of men in sin, leding to the first gret judgment in the flood. 4. The founding of humn society. 5. The selection, cll, estblishment, nd instruction of redemptive fmily. 6. The preprtion, instruction, estblishment of re demptive ntion, nd its equipment with typiclly redemptive religious system. 7. The experience of this people with God, with the world, with sin, with judgment, nd with redemption. 8. The grdul instruction of this people regrding the person of the Redeemer nd the nture of the finl redemption. In studying the historicl books of the Old Testment we will, therefore, keep in mind the nture of Old Testment histo ry, nd we will look for the reveltion, through this history, of God s truth regrding sin nd redemption. We shll tret the vrious historicl nrrtives, interesting s they my be in themselves, s primry vehicles of spiritul truth, nd in the religious system of the Isrelites s it is set up in preliminry, outline fshion by Seth, Noh, Abrhm, Isc, nd Jcob, nd s finlly estblished in the lw of Moses with the system of scrifices, ceremonies, priesthood, tberncle, nd temple, tithes, nd seprtion, we shll see the types which foreshdow Christ s glorious redemptive work nd the blessed experiences which should be the possession of the church, the body of believers.

19 Lesson II INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT 17 Questions (For Review nd Discussion) 1. Wht vlue hs the study of the Old Testment for Chris tins tody? 2. Wht did Jesus expound in ll the scriptures to the disci ples on the rod to Emmus? 3. Stte the two menings of fulfillment s pplied to the Old Testment. 4. Why is knowledge of the Old Testment necessry for n understnding of the New Testment? 5. Nme the books of the Old Testment ccording to the three gret divisions. 6. Wht is the principle of selection used by God in the writing of the historicl books of the Old Testment? 7. Give brief chronologicl outline of the history of the Old Testment in terms of the pln of redemption. 2

20 Lesson III Primevl History (Genesis 1 11) Introduction to the Book of Genesis Author. Moses. Content Cretion, Primevl History nd Ptrirchl History. Time. Cretion to Exodus (c B.C.), exct time is unknown. Purpose. To show mn s need for redemption nd to describe the be ginnings of the pln of redemption. Nture. Historicl nrrtives of the experiences of erly men, except chpters 5, 10, most of 11, nd 46, which re genelogicl, nd 49, which is chiefly poem. Divisions of Genesis (for generl view nd memory work) I. Cretion, The universe, 1: Mn, 1: II. Primevl History, The estblishment of humn society, The origin of sin in the Fll, Society before the Flood, 4, The judgment by the Flood, Society fter the Flood, III. Ptrirchl History, Abrhm, 12:1 25: Isc, 21 27; 35: Jcob nd his sons, 25:19-34; Joseph, Outline, Chpters 11 (for reference nd study) I. Cretion, The physicl universe, 1: The erth (9, 10), its vegettion (11-13), its solr system (14-19), nd its niml life (20-25), 1: Mn in God s imge (26, 27), his dominnt plce in the cretion (28-31), 1: * Before the time of Dvid it is difficult to be certin of the chronology of the Old Testment. Dtes nd time given in this mnul re therefore pproximte only. There is still some disgreement mong conservtive Bible scholrs s to the dte of the Exodus. Some Bible scholrs dte it s erly s 1446 B.C., but the generlly ccepted dte is lter thn tht. The dte dopted here is from the Dvis Dictionry of the Bible. 18

21 Lesson III PRIMEVAL HISTORY 19 II. Primevl History, The estblishment of humn society, 2.. The Sbbth, 2:1-3. b. Mn plced s dweller in Eden, 2:4-15. c. Mn fced with morl choice, 2:16, 17. d. Mn finds no compnionship in nimls, 2: e. Mrrige instituted, 2: The origin of sin in the Fll, 3.. Stn the tempter, 3:1-5. b. The disobedience nd Fll, 3:6, 7. c. The judgment by God upon the sinners, 3:8-24. d. The promise of redemption nd victory over Stn, 3: Society before the Flood, 4, 5.. Godly Abel slin by ungodly Cin, 4:1-8. b. God s judgment on sinful Cin, 4:9-15. c. The development of socil institutions, 4: d. The godly line of Seth, 4:25, 26. e. The genelogy of the ten ptrirchl fmilies from Adm to Noh, 5. f. Rewrd of godly Enoch, 5: The judgment of wicked society by the Flood, Wicked society, 6:1-7. 6:8 7:6. b. Godly Noh nd his commission to build the rk of refuge, c. The Flood of judgment, 7:7-24. d. The delivernce of godly Noh, 8:1-19. e. The promise to Noh, the worshiper, 8: Society fter the Flood, 9. The blessing of God pece, 9: conditioned upon Noh s keeping b. The covennt of God with godly Noh, 9:8-17. c. The curse on Cnn, nd the blessing on godly Shem nd Jpheth, 9: d. The genelogy of the descendnts of Noh, 10. e. The judgment upon sinful mnkind t Bbel, 11:1-9. f. The genelogy of the descendnts of Shem s the ncestors of Abrhm, 11: g. Removl of Abrhm s fmily from hethen Mesopotmi, 11: Selections for Reding: Gen. 1 11, omitting chpters 5 (except verse 24 ), 10, nd 11: Also John 1:1-5; Heb. 11:1-7; II Pet. 2:4, 5; 3:5-7; Col. 1:16, 17; Eph. 3:9; Rom. 5:12-21; I Cor. 15:22, 45-49; Is. 45:18; Pslm 19:1-4; 90:2; 24:1, 2; 100:3; Job 38:1 42:6.

22 20 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I Cretion Mn, nd God s delings with him, is the theme of Genesis, nd so the story begins with the origin of mn nd the universe in which he lives. In brief but mrvelously cler nd beu tiful pssge the deeply spiritul ccount of the origin of mn nd the universe is given in the very first chpter of the book. The following fcts re mde cler by the story: 1. God existed s n eternl Divine Being before the foun dtion of the world. 2. God is the Cretor of ll things. 3. God is the Cretor of the life nd soul of mn s well s of his body. 4. The universe ws creted in n orderly fshion out of nothing by the sheer fit or immedite decree of God s will. 5. The universe ws creted good nd perfect. It is uni verse of lw nd order nd purpose. 6. Mn is the supreme product of God s cretive work, nd s its mster is intended by God to use the universe for his sustennce nd well being. In other words, the universe ws creted s hbittion for mn, s the scene of his hppiness nd development. 7. Mn ws creted unique in tht he lone hs nture like God s nture nd is cpble of fellowship with nd behv ior like Him. 8. The universe nd mn were creted to be plesing to God, or, in other words, for His delight nd glory. 9. From New Testment pssges such s John 1:3; Col. 1:16, nd Eph. 3:9 we know tht Christ ws the Being by whom the cretive work of God ws chieved. Upon the bsis of this ccount nd through it the following truth regrding God nd mn is reveled: 1. God is the lmighty, sovereign Lord of the universe nd of mn. 2. God hs purpose for the universe nd mn. 3. Mn owes to God everything he is nd my become. 4. Mn is cpble of knowing God nd serving Him. 5. Mn is responsible to God. 6. Mn is not to be mstered by the universe, but by virtue of his spiritul nture is to be mster of the universe.

23 Lesson III PRIMEVAL HISTORY 21 Without this truth it is impossible to understnd sin nd slvtion. Primevl History 1. The Estblishment of Humn Society. The story continues in chpter two with more detiled ccount of the estblishment by God of humn society. In chpter two the following points bout mn re mde cler:. God s cretive ctivity nd Sbbth rest re pttern for mn s life. b. Mn is to pply himself to mstery of the mteril universe through his own ctivity nd is to be responsible, independent personlity. c. The permnent compnionship of mle nd femle, mn nd womn, in mrrige nd the fmily, is to be the bsic hu- mn institution nd the source of n bundnt popultion of the erth. d. Mn is to hve no fellowship with the nimls. e. In his erthly existence, mn is to be subject to the will of God s his lw, but is given the responsibility of choice nd willing obedience. 2. The Origin of Sin Through the Fll. The Isrelites for whom Moses wrote the Book of Genesis were thoroughly cquinted with the wful fct of sin nd its terrible effects upon mn nd its consequences in the wrth of God upon mn. How cme it tht the mn whom God creted without sin, ccording to Genesis 1 nd 2, becme sinful nd in need of redemption? The nswer to this question is given in the story of the Fll s found in the third chpter. The following fcts re clerly brought out:. Stn is the uthor of evil nd sin. b. Sin is disobedience to the will of God. c. Sin cme into the hert of mn by free decision of mn. d. Sin brings guilt nd shme nd remorse. e. Sin cnnot be hidden from God. f. God must nd will judge the sinner. g. The wges of sin is deth. h. The judgment of God upon sin nd the sinner is n ct of mercy nd love.

24 22 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I i. The physicl effects of sin cnnot be escped by mn, even though the guilt of sin cn be removed by the redemptive ction of God nd slvtion is blessing to the physicl life of mn. j. The originl, blessed stte of mn in Prdise hs been lost, nd the present stte of the humn rce is stte of sin. Prdise cn never be regined in this present world system, which is under the power of sin nd deth. k. The promise of redemption (Gen. 3:15) ws the bsis of the hope of mn s slvtion. The gret truth in the story of the Fll is God s judgment upon the sinner. But embedded in the very hert of this drk cloud of judgment, is the str of redemptive promise contined in verse fifteen. He who punishes sin, t once lso promises ultimte victory over sin. The fct tht Almighty God is the uthor of this promise is gurntee of its fulfillment, but we must wit long before we lern further detils of the method by which the redemption is to be crried out. In the mentime, however, the only hope for mn is trust in God nd fith in this promise. We must believe tht Adm nd Eve, on the bsis of their cceptnce of this promise by fith, were forgiven of their sins nd tht their fith ws reckoned to them for righteousness, nd tht consequently their worship ws ccept ble. Compre Heb. 11:4; Gl. 3:5-11, 18, nd Romns 4. From New Testment pssges, such s Romns 5 nd I Corinthins 15, we know tht by the sin of our first prents the corruption of sin entered the nture of mn, nd tht ever since ll men hve sinned nd come short of the glory of God. Thus the trgedy of Eden hs been the trgedy of the rce, the judg ment of Eden hs been the judgment of the rce, nd the prom ise of Eden hs been the glorious hope of redemption for the rce. 3. Humn Society Before the Flood. The story of mnkind now hstens on to its climx of sin nd corruption in the terrible nd complete judgment by the Flood. But on the wy we re given few rpid glimpses of the development of humn society.. A portion of the descendnts of Adm retined the god ly fith which ll should hve preserved. By nme, Abel, Seth,

25 Lesson III PRIMEVAL HISTORY 23 Enoch, nd Noh pper in the godly line ; mny others in ddi tion to them must hve, t lest in prt, preserved the fith. But grdully men clled less nd less upon the nme of God until t lst fith in God ll but disppered. b. The gret mss of mnkind continued in incresing dis obedience nd sin. Their experiences re typified by the ex periences of Cin nd Lmech. The prominent nd importnt feture of these experiences is tht sin brought bout more sin, nd tht it ws punished by God. Nevertheless sin in cresed, nd the wickedness of mn becme exceedingly gret. c. During the centuries in which sin ws ripening to its wful hrvest, humn institutions were developing nd civiliz tion ws being built up. We re given but few glimpses of this development, pprently only sufficient to remind us of wht mn could hve ccomplished if he hd not yielded to sin. We lern of the estblishing of cities nd city civiliztion, of the development of griculture nd stock rising, of the origin of music nd musicl instruments, of the invention of methods of working metl, of the beginning of literture by the recittion of the first poem, nd the growth of religion, but this is ll. In the midst of the growing drkness of wickedness, the light of holy life shines forth in glory, nd it is mde cler tht the fvor nd blessing of God rests upon such life. This is the mening of the story of Enoch. His trnsltion to glory in living stte, however, ws not only promise to those of fith ; it ws lso terrible wrning to wicked men tht holy life could no longer exist in the midst of the depths of wickedness except s men lived in close fellowship with God. This is the lesson, too, in prt, of Noh s preservtion. 4. The Judgment of Wicked Society by the Flood. The detils of the building of the rk nd the coming nd going of the wters of the flood, interesting though they my be, need not detin us here. Two gret, but wful truths re reveled in God s deling with mn through the Flood. The first truth is tht of judgment. Here the destructive effect of sin is reveled in ll its ctstrophic ghstliness s permnent lesson to mnkind. The complete destruction of the humn rce, except for one fmily, displys with the brillint clrity of the noondy sun wht God thinks, nd must lwys

26 24 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I think, of sin. Judgment is inevitble nd complete for the sin ner; s inexorble s the rising wters of the Flood is his coming destruction unless he becomes member of the fmily of grce. All his chievements in culture nd civiliztion, how ever vluble nd notble they my be, cnnot crete counter weight to his sin. The curse pronounced upon the sinner, The soul tht sinneth, it shll die, cn never be lifted by the sinner himself. The second truth, which is just s gret s nd more won derful thn the first, is tht God cn nd will sve the sinner from his sin if he will ccept the grcious offer of slvtion. God sought to wken men to reliztion of their desperte condition both by Noh s preching (for he ws precher of righteousness ) nd by the vivid prble encted before their scoffing eyes by the construction of the rk. But it ws ll to no vil. Only Noh nd his fmily believed God, trusted His promise, nd found grce in the eyes of God nd were sved. And they were not sved by ny merit of their own ; they were sved not by works, but by fith, s ll sved sinners from Adm down to us who red these lines hve been sved. Red Heb. 11:7. They mnifested their fith by their works in building the rk nd entering it. So the gret pln of redemption becomes incresingly clerer. God will destroy the unbelieving, wicked sinner who rejects His offer of mercy, but He will sve by His merciful grce those who trust Him nd exercise fith nd obedience. But their fith must be proved by their works. Beginning with Noh, the rk of slvtion must be built by humn hnds, c cording to God s pln. Abrhm nd the ptrirchs hd their prt to do in circumcision nd scrifices. Moses nd the chil dren of Isrel built the rk in their dy by crrying out the ceremonil lw. In our dy we must prove our fith by the fruit of righteousness. But s yet, we know nothing of the definite pln of God by which redemption is to be wrought ; we know only the princi the principle of the grce of God nd the fith nd obedi ence ple of mn. We know nothing s yet of chosen fmily, or rce, or of the person of the Messih. These truths re to come lter. But before this truth is further reveled we re given brief ccount of humn society fter the Flood.

27 Lesson III PRIMEVAL HISTORY Humn Society After the Flood. The very brief ccount of humn society fter the Flood, contined in chpters 9 11, serves to bring out the following points:. Fith in God continues in Noh s fmily, nd is recon firmed by God s promise of blessing. b. Sin lso continues in Noh s fmily nd is recondemned by the curse upon Cnn. c. The mercy of God likewise continues to ll the descend nts of Noh nd is estblished in covennt which is symbol ized by the rinbow. d. The shedding of humn blood is henceforth forbidden to Noh nd his descendnts (except by commnd of God), chpter 9, verses 6 nd 7. These verses hve been much mis understood. They constitute the oldest lw of God for mn. Why did God forbid the shedding of mn s blood by mn s will? Two resons suggest themselves. One comes from the nture of mn nd is this: Destruction of life leds to more destruction of life, nd the only wy to preserve pece nd mintin the humn rce is to quit it ltogether. Notice tht immeditely following this prohibition, comes the positive commnd tht life should be incresed nd multiplied by mn tht the erth my populted. A second reson suggests itself from the n ture of the lw of Moses. God did not wnt humn beings to use the shedding of blood for humn punishment of sin s n expression of humn will. For tht reson the sixth commnd ment sys, Thou shlt not kill. The only killing llowed the people of God in the Old Testment ws tht provided for by the will of God, not the will of mn, either in the fulfillment of the penlties of the lw of Moses, or in crrying out God s com mnd to destroy His enemies (nd the enemies of the people of God) by wrfre. Chpter 10 ccounts for the spreding of the descendnts of Noh over the estern Mediterrnen bsin nd lists the peoples living there in the time of Moses. Then one more inci dent is told to reinforce gin the lesson of sin nd judgment. The people of Bbel, in their pride nd vinglory, wish to exlt themselves extremely. As punishment for their sin (the sin of ntionlism nd ntionl pride, which hs been so terribly de-

28 26 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I structive in ncient times s well s in modern times, nd which is no doubt one of the gretest sins of society s whole nd leds to wr nd destruction now s well s erlier), God confounds the lnguge nd sctters the people. Once more the lesson is tught. God will judge nd punish the sinner. From this point on, the ttention of the reder is turned towrd coming events. We re bout to be given the story of God s choice of mn nd his fmily s the gents of His re demptive pln ; so we re prepred for this nd given the con nection between Noh nd Abrhm by (1) genelogy of the descendnts of Shem, nd (2) brief ccount of the removl of Abrhm s fther s fmily westwrd from hethen Mesopo tmi, prt wy towrd the future lnd of promise. But in this removl we hve lredy the beginning of further reveltion. The people of God cnnot live in the midst of wicked hethen people, s prt of tht people, nd retin their fith; they must be seprted from the hethen world nd must live prt from it, not mingling with it. So the fmily of Terh, Abrhm s fther, even though worshiping idols, is tken from its hethen home nd people, nd plced in frwy Hrn even before Abrhm received his finl definite cll. And to mke the seprtion complete, the fmily is kept t the hlfwy sttion until idol-worshiping Terh dies, nd Abr hm becomes the independent hed of his fmily, the chosen gent of God s coming pln of redemption. Summry Thus we find in Genesis 1 11 rich tresure of reveltion. More thn tht, we find here the bsolutely essentil reveltion which is necessry to understnd the Gospel of the incrntion, toning deth, nd victorious resurrection of Jesus Christ, the Redeemer. Without Genesis 1 11, John 3:16 is mystery. God sent His Son to die becuse He so loved the world nd is not willing tht ny should perish but desires tht ll might believe nd hve eternl life. But why, why, is the world in dnger of perishing? It is becuse mn, plced in good world, filed to keep his fith in God nd to remin in stte of obedi ence nd love towrd Him, but by miserble filure yielded to the tempttion of Stn, rebelled ginst God s will, sinned nd fell, thus coming under the punishment of just God.

29 Lesson III 1 PRIMEVAL HISTORY 27 Genesis 11 in simple, powerful, pictoril nrrtive tells us bout God nd mn ; bout sin nd slvtion ; bout sover eign, good, nd loving Cretor-Fther-God; bout rebellious, sinning, flling, corrupted mn ; bout the judgment of God, nd bout the sving, merciful grce of this sme God extended to ll who by fith ccept the s yet undisclosed nd unfulfilled promise. As proof of the slvtion by God of those who believe, remember Adm nd Eve, Abel, Seth, Enoch, Noh, Shem, nd Abrhm. Questions (For Review nd Discussion) 1. Wht gret events mrk the beginning nd the end of the history recorded in the Book of Genesis? 2. Give eight spiritul lessons from the cretion story in the Book of Genesis. 3. Tell the story of the origin of sin in the Fll. 4. Nme three gret judgments found in the first eleven chp ters of the book of Genesis. 5. Quote the verse in Genesis which gives the first promise of redemption. 6. Wht my we lern from the story of the Flood regrding the nture of redemption? 7. Nme five chrcters in Genesis 1 10 who were ccepted by God. 8. Nme the ncestors of the two lines of humnity fter the Fll, godly nd ungodly. 9. In wht pssge in Genesis my we find the beginning of teching of nonresistnce? 10. Wht ws the sin of the builders of the Tower of Bbel? 11. Why ws Abrhm s fmily clled from Ur to Hrn, nd why were ll but Abrhm kept in Hrn to die? 12. Why is the third chpter of Genesis necessry to under stnd John 3:16?

30 Lesson IV Ptrirchl History (Genesis 12 50) Outline of Ptrirchl History I. The Life of Abrhm, 1. 12:1 25:18. The cll to the finl settlement in Cnn, 12, From the settlement to the birth of Isc, 14:1 21: From the birth of Isc to the deth of Abrhm, 21:22 25:18. II. The Life of Isc, 21:1 28:9; 35: From Isc s birth to his mrrige with Rebekh, From Isc s mrrige to his settlement t Beersheb, 25, From Isc s settlement t Beersheb to his deth, 27:1 28:9; 35: III. The Life of Jcob, 25:19-34; From Jcob s birth to his deprture from home, 25:19-34; 27:1 28:9. 2. From Jcob s home-leving to his covennt in Giled, 28: From the covennt in Giled to the descent into Egypt, From Jcob s descent into Egypt to his buril, IV. The Life of Joseph, From Joseph s birth to his rrivl in Egypt, 37, From Joseph s rrivl in Egypt to his promotion to power, 39:1 41: From Joseph s promotion to power to his deth, 41:37 50:26. V. Judh, 43 46; 49:8-12. Selections for Reding: Gen. 12:1-9; 15; 18:16-33; 19:12-29; 22; 25:19-34; 27:1-29; 28; 31:1 33:11; 37; 41 45; 50: Three men of old re recognized throughout the Old Test ment s the fthers of the people of God : Abrhm, Isc, nd Jcob. They, the ptrirchs, re the founders of Isrel, nd it is their God, the God of Abrhm, Isc, nd Jcob, tht their descendnts worshiped, the gret Jehovh, the God of the ptrirchs who hd done mighty deeds for them nd estb lished with them nd their children s children His gret cove nnt. The story of their lives nd of those ssocited with them, their enemies nd their llies, their wives, their servnts, nd their descendnts, prticulrly of Joseph, the son of Jcob, through whom the people of God cme down into Egypt, con stitutes ptrirchl history. The divinely inspired writer hs preserved for us in Genesis chin of powerful nd 28

31 Lesson IV PATRIARCHAL HISTORY 29 beutiful stories relting incidents out of their lives which re fmilir to every lover of the Word. These stories do not give complete history of the ptrirchs or of their times, but rther selection of their experiences, which revel not only the wekness nd sinfulness of mn, nd the holiness nd love of God, but disclose with incresing clerness the gret re demptive pln nd working of God, nd set forth the process by which He prepred people for the gret reveltion of the lw nd the scrifices tht ws to come t Sini through Moses. The Life of Abrhm 1. The Cll nd Finl Settlement in Cnn. By birth nd blood, Abrhm ws typicl Bedouin Arb chieftin, mni festing in his nture nd his life the chrcteristics nd cus toms of the Arb nomd. But though true representtive of his people nd his tribe, he ws essentilly different from them in two wys: first, becuse he ws not n idol worshiper s his fmily nd tribe hd been, but worshiper of the true God ; second, nd chiefly becuse his life ws yielded to God nd he ws willing by fith to let Him work out His pln in his life. It ws, therefore, by God s free grce nd Abrhm s willing ness tht he becme the fther of the chosen people, friend of God, gret exmple of fith, nd the fther of the fithful. Abrhm s fmily lived in the territory of the gret city of Ur, locted in the fertile vlley of the lower Euphrtes River on the Persin Gulf, city which we know by recent ex cvtions to hve been the cpitl of region of gret welth nd culture nd high degree of civiliztion, nd center of the worship of the moon-god. Ur ws no plce to prepre people fitted to receive the reveltion of God ; so God took first Abrhm s fmily out of Ur to Hrn, hlfwy to Plestine, nd then Abrhm himself with his immedite fmily from Hrn to Plestine, the future home of Isrel. The purpose of the cll to this migrtion, which Abrhm obeyed, nmely, tht through him ll mnkind should be blessed, ws first n nounced to Abrhm fter his rrivl in Hrn. The fulness of the promise, however, cme to him only in the promised lnd fter the seprtion from ll others, including his nephew Lot, hd tken plce, nd fter Abrhm s fith nd obedience hd been thoroughly tested nd he hd turned his bck upon the

32 30 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I tempttions of the cities of the plin, Sodom nd Gomorrh. It ws God s grcious pln to rewrd Abrhm s obedience nd strengthen his fith fter the testing time in his seprtion from Lot, nd these promises were repetedly grciously re newed whenever Abrhm s hert stood in specil need of re ssurnce. The first promise of the possession of the promised lnd cme to Abrhm t Shechem, his first dwelling plce within tht lnd, where he set up his first ltr nd worshiped the true God in simplicity nd godly fer. By this ct of worship Abrhm estblished the true fith in lnd where from hundred hills hethen ltrs smoked, nd where most degrdingly immorl nd brbric hethen ceremonies were encted. The history of the ptrirchs revels repeted estblishment by the ptrirchs of ltrs to the worship of Jehovh through out the lnd. As long s this worship ws mintined in spirit nd in truth, ll ws well. However, during his sojourn in Egypt, due to fmine, Abrhm seems to hve left off the hbit of worship. It is not to his credit tht he represented his wife s his sister, even though she ws his hlf sister. His misbehvior would hve led to the loss of his wife, but for the intervention of God. Expelled from Egypt, Abrhm gin set up worship t Bethel, where he clled upon the nme of Jeho vh. How different, fter his renewl of worship, is Abrhm s behvior in the next crisis, the strife with Lot, when his gen erosity nd nobility of chrcter shine forth. Becuse he stood the test nd ws willing to live seprte from sin, God rewrd ed him with the enlrged promise which is given in Genesis The Covennt. From the Finl Settlement in Cnn to the Birth of Isc. The gretest event in Abrhm s life, nd the one most importnt for future history, nd for the pln of redemption, ws the estblishment of the covennt of promise. Before the estblishment of the covennt (Genesis 15) Abrhm s generosity ws once more demonstrted by his rescue of Lot through the militry defet of Lot s cptors, following which he met nd worshiped with Melchizedek, king of Slem, priest of the true nd Most High God. Then, t time when Abrhm probbly fered vengence t the hnds of the defeted kings who hd been Lot s cptors, nd when his fith wvered becuse he hd no son, cme the full promise

33 Lesson IV PATRIARCHAL HISTORY 31 of God, nd the forml estblishment of the covennt between God nd Abrhm. In this covennt God promised clerly to give seed to Abrhm nd promised the possession of the promised lnd by this seed, seling the covennt with mircu lous mnifesttion of His presence. On Abrhm s side the covennt ws rtified by renewed cceptnce by fith of God s promise, even though he ws eighty-five yers old. And he believed in Jehovh, nd he reckoned it to him for righteous ness (RV). Such strong fith in God, sys Dr. Smpey, is the finest righteousness men cn offer. This is not mere intel lectul belief, but complete surrender of hert nd life to the God who promises. Such is the fith tht brings justifiction. It is lso fith tht brings forth works of righteousness. But Abrhm s fith wvered, nd t the instigtion of Srh, his wife, he erred in seeking to provide the promised seed through Ishmel, the son of midservnt of his house hold. So God cme to him thirteen yers lter, with renewl of the promise, when Abrhm ws ninety-nine yers old. This time God promised son nmed Isc, nd Abrhm ccepted the ordinnce of circumcision s the outwrd sign of his be longing to God s His peculir possession. This time, in the renewl of the covennt, God emph sized the requirement of righteousness: I m the Almighty God ; wlk before me, nd be thou perfect. As if to tech Abrhm the gret lesson of holiness. God showed him the coming destruction of Sodom nd Gomorrh, nd permitted him through intercessory pryer to relize tht the holy nd just wrth of God ginst sin leds to the destruction of the unrepentnt sinner, but tht the long-suffering mercy of God could rescue Lot. Agin Abrhm s generosity stnds out. In due time God gve Abrhm the promised son, nd Isc ws born, with unspekble joy to his fther nd mother. Isc becme in double sense the son of promise, tht is, the proof of the present fulfillment of God s promise nd the gur ntee of the future fufillment of the unfulfilled prt of the promise 3. The Cross. From the Birth of Isc to the Deth of Abrhm. God decided to subject Abrhm to the severest pos sible test, the test of bsolute fith nd obedience. He required of Abrhm the offering of the son of promise. The test ws

34 32 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I mde once for ll, nd the fithful Abrhm pssed through the ordel nobly. In his hert he mde the gret scrifice, nd gve bck to God the son of promise, ccounting tht God ws ble to rise him up, even from the ded, s the writer of Hebrews sys. It ws terrible, lmost unberble tril for Abrhm, but perhps in it he hd the blessed experience of seeing Christ s dy, of hving foretste of wht it could men for God to scrifice His beloved, only begotten Son to redeem the world. How God must hve rejoiced to see His fithful friend Abrhm stnd this test! We too my rejoice tht the gret representtive believer of the Old Testment pssed through this severe tril successfully, nd know thereby tht we shll never be tried bove tht which we shll be ble, by fith, to ber victoriously. Once more, hving proved his fith, Abrhm received renewl of the covennt promise. The remining dys of his old ge he lived in pece t Hebron, demonstrting in his dying dy his fith in the promise of the future possession of the promised lnd, for he ws compelled to cknowledge tht he ws sojourner nd pilgrim in the lnd s yet, hving even to buy the few squre yrds of lnd necessry for his buril plce. But before he died he proved his fith by providing for the son of promise wife of his own blood, to mintin the divinely desired seprtion from the people of the lnd. The Life of Isc Of Isc, in comprison with Abrhm his fther, nd Jcob his son, but few incidents re relted. His birth, the ttempted scrifice by his fther, his mrrige, his troubles t Gerr, nd the deception prcticed upon him by his wife, Rebekh, nd his son Jcob these constitute the min prt of the record. Twice Jehovh ppered to him, both times to strengthen his fith. He erected n ltr to the true God, nd received from Him the renewl of the covennt of promise mde with his fther Abrhm, thus, himself child of promise, pssing on the promise. Isc s plce in God s pln seems to hve been chiefly to be link in the chin from Abrhm to Moses. He ppers s n echo of Abrhm ; no new reveltion cme to him. Fithful, submissive, quiet, nd true, he mintined the fmily trditions

35 Lesson IV PATRIARCHAL HISTORY 33 nd the worship of Jehovh in the lnd promised to Abrhm s seed, though he, like his fther, ws strnger nd sojourner in the lnd, nd owned no lnd himself. Most of his one hun dred nd eighty yers he lived in the south prt of the promised lnd, like his fther, Bedouin chief with the chrcteristics nd customs of nomd. He ws buried beside his prents nd his wife in the cve of Mchpelh. The Life of Jcob With Jcob, ptrirchl history once more expnds into the rich nd instructive story, full of incidents, tht chrcter ized the story of Abrhm. Mny stories re told, which when woven together into one ccount, enble us to trce the develop ment of Jcob s chrcter from birth to the grve. Seen in its fullness, the story of Jcob is story of the grce of God vic toriously trnsforming strong nd selfish mn into gret nd pious sint. A mircle of grce is unfolded before our eyes, nd s if to mke this triumph of divine grce in Jcob clerer nd more striking, the story of the filure of Jcob s twin brother Esu is woven into the story of Jcob. The contrst between Jcob nd Esu is evident. Esu ws hunter nd fighter, with some ttrctive chrcteristics, son whom his fther Isc loved. But he ws mn whose niml ppetites ruled him, nd whose chrcter is reveled by his miserble decision to sell his birthright for bowl of pe soup, nd lso by his doption of voluntry polygmy mong the hethen. He did not pprecite the vlue of the spiritul blessings nd the promise which Isc nd Abrhm enjoyed, but rther longed for temporl prosperity nd worldly power, while he t the sme time lcked the firm will nd pious spir tions of his brother Jcob. God s rejection of Esu stnds fully justified by Esu s life. Jcob ws in his erlier ttitudes less humnly ttrctive thn Esu. He reveled himself s the typicl shrewd Bedouin trder, strong nd selfish, willing to employ questionble mens to ttin his ends, including deception of his fther Isc nd his uncle Lbn, nd tking dvntge of his brother Esu. He ws mbitious, strong-willed, persevering, nd stedy in purpose, trits which lter, under God s trnsforming grce, mde him strong nd useful chrcter. 3

36 34 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I The gret chrcteristic of Jcob ws his constntly grow ing pprecition of the covennt blessing, nd for this God led nd blessed him. In his youth he thought more of the mteril benefits of the blessing, but t Peniel we see Jcob who longed with pssionte longing for the spiritul blessing, nd wrestled with the mighty wrestler to whom he sid, I will not let thee go, except thou bless me. Through trils nd disppointments, through sufferings brought on in prt by his own sin Jcob lerned to len on God. His chrcter ripened, nd he entered into closer fellowship with Jehovh. At his first Bethel he brgined with the God who tried to led him into more spiritul ttitude, but t his second Bethel, when troubles in connection with his dughter ssiled him, he erected n ltr to the God who hd ppered to him there s he fled from Esu. In his lter yers blow fter blow fell upon him. Jehovh ws chstening him whom He loved. The beloved wife Rchel died, fmine cme, nd strife mong his sons led to the stg gering blow of the pprent loss of his fvorite son Joseph whom he mourned for yers. But the Jcob who finlly moved down to Egypt with his fmily to spend his closing dys under the loving protection of his noble, nd high-plced son, Joseph, ws not Jcob, the wily supplnter of his crooked youth, but Isrel the sint, who lifted holy hnds to bless Phroh. And when his sunset cme, Jcob died in pece with the prophecy on his lips, tht the sceptre shll not deprt from Judh,... until Shiloh come, nd with beutiful testimony to the Angel which redeemed me, nd to the grce of God which fed me ll my life long (Gen. 48:15, 16). The Life of Joseph One of the most beutiful stories in the Old Testment is tht of the inspiring creer of Joseph, of whom it hs been well sid, tht he ws Christin before the dvent of Christ. In contrst to the record of his fther, Joseph s record is spot less, one of the few spotless lives in Old Testment history. If selfish element entered into his life in connection with his youthful drems of gretness, fiery trils purged out the dross. Brought to Egypt s young mn, nd sold to high govern ment officil s slve, he mintined his personl purity in the

37 Lesson IV PATRIARCHAL HISTORY 35 fce of gret tempttions, conquering victoriously becuse of deep religious life tht kept him from sinning ginst God, s he himself expressed it. By sheer bility nd fithfulness in duty, he rose to the highest position in the empire of Egypt, prime minister under Phroh. In his success Joseph proved the keeping power of God, nd demonstrted tht successful business creer is possible for the fithful servnt of God. The touching ccount of his cre for his ged fther nd his un deserving brethren teches the lessons of love nd forgiveness, nd of cre for kindred. And my we not see in Joseph s creer lesson tught the people of God in the Old Testment ge, tht suffering hs vlue, lesson which we hve lerned best through the coming of God s Son to die on the cross for our sins. Joseph ws perse cuted nd slndered, he suffered in slvery nd in prison, not for doing wrong but becuse he refused to do wrong. And he endured it ll without complint, in fith, s seeing Him who is invisible. God s rewrd nd blessing upon Joseph will be n inspirtion nd strength to the fith of God s children s long s the Bible is red. Judh It would not be right to conclude ptrirchl history with out brief sttement bout Judh, the fourth son of Jcob. So often his chrcter nd his significnce re overlooked. But he dre not be omitted from ptrirchl history for two resons: first, becuse he becme the hed of his brethren, the ruler, the hed of the royl line, the one through whom should come the Messih, the Prince of Pece; nd second, becuse of his beu tiful self-scrificing spirit. As the spokesmn for his brethren he took the responsibility for them ll, nd when he offered himself s substitute for his ccused younger brother Benjmin in whose sck the stolen cup ws found, he reminds us of our Elder Brother, Judh s linel descendnt in the flesh, who freely offered Himself s subsitute for us guilty sinners. Summry of Ptrirchl History The two hundred nd fifteen yers of ptrirchl history from the settlement of Abrhm in Cnn to the settlement

38 36 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I of Jcob nd his cln in Egypt re gret yers in the redemp tive pln of God. In these yers God seprted His chosen fmily, guided them, instructed them, punished them for sin, delivered them, nd brought them closer to Him in obedience nd fellowship. On mn s side we see, it is true, wekness nd sin, trnsgression nd filure, but in spite of ll this, fith victorious, fith in the fithful Jehovh. As sojourners nd pilgrims in the lnd of promise, in which they possessed leglly only buril plot, the grve t Hebron where ll the ptrirchs from Abrhm to Joseph were buried, the ptrirchs endured s seeing Him who is invisible, counting themselves heirs of the promise, nd looking for better city which hth found tions, whose builder nd mker is God. Though they received not the promises, they were persuded of them nd embrced them, hving seen them fr off, nd they died in fith. In their experiences, experiences of very humn men like us, we lern with incresing clerness s the decdes pss, the lessons of fith nd obedience, of sin, nd of redeeming, forgiving love. So we leve the fthers, these sints of old, ll men of fith Abrhm, of world-conquering fith ; Isc, of quietly enduring fith; Jcob, of wrestling fith ; Joseph, of suffering, victorious, rewrded fith ; nd Judh, of self-scrificing fith. Questions (For Review nd Discussion) 1. Nme the five outstnding ptrirchs. 2. Wht ws the purpose of the cll of Abrhm? 3. Why ws Abrhm chosen to be the fther of the fithful? 4. Give the outstnding filure of Abrhm s fith, nd the outstnding ct of obedience. 5. Stte the two wys in which Isc ws son of promise. 6. When nd why ws circumcision estblished? 7. Compre Isc with Abrhm. 8. Why is Jcob the deceiver to be preferred to Esu? 9. Compre the Jcob who left home for Pdn-rm with the Jcob who returned. 10. In wht wy does the life of Joseph illustrte God s grce? 11. In wht sense does Judh remind us of Jesus? 12. Show how ech of the ptrirchs lived by fith.

39 Lesson V From Egypt to Cnn Exodus, Leviticus, nd Numbers: Historicl Mteril For the ske of ese in lerning, the contents of Exodus, Leviticus, nd Numbers will be divided into severl prts. Les son V will present the historicl mteril, the whole of the nrrtive portions, the story of the life of Moses nd the deliver nce of Isrel from Egypt, together with the wilderness wn dering to the finl cmp opposite Jericho. The next two chp ters del with the lw, the scrifices, the tberncle nd the priesthood. This will permit unified, systemtic tretment of both history nd lw. Author. The three books of Exodus, Leviticus, nd Numbers, together with Genesis nd Deuteronomy, seem to be prts of wht ws origi nlly one continuous writing. Therefore, like Genesis, they were ll written by Moses though this is not stted in the books. Exodus 24:4, RV, sttes tht Moses wrote ll the words of Jehovh, but this probbly refers to the book of the covennt (Exodus 20 23) lone. Time Covered. Exclusive of the period from Jcob s settlement in Egypt to the birth of Moses, the time covered is the time of the life of Moses, which is 120 yers. Deut. 34:7. The dte of the Exodus ws bout 1320 B.C. Some plce it even few yers lter. The preprtion nd cll of Moses, the delivernce of Isrel Content. from Egypt, the forty yers wilderness wnderings, including the reveltion of the lw nd the ceremonil system t Sini. Exodus Divisions (for generl view nd memory work) I. The Oppression nd the Work of Moses, 1:1 12:36. II. The Delivernce, 12:37 18:27. III. The Giving of the Lw t Sini, IV. The Pttern of the Tberncle nd Its Construction, Outline (for reference nd study) 1:1 I. The Oppression of Isrel nd the Work of Moses, 12: Deth of Joseph, 1: Bondge in Egypt, 1:

40 38 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I 3. Birth nd erly creer of Moses, 2: Cll of Moses, 2:23 4: First interview with Phroh nd its filure, 5:1 7:7. 6. Ten Plgues, 7:8 12:36. II. The Delivernce, 12:37 18: Exodus nd Pssover, 2. 12:37 13:16. Pssing of the Red Se nd destruction of Phroh s hosts, 3. 13:17 15:21. Mrch from the Red Se to Sini, 15:22 18:27. III. The Giving of the Lw t Sini, Preprtion of the people, Morl lw (Ten Commndments), Civil lw, :19. Blood covennt between Jehovh nd Isrel, 23:20 24 ;18. IV. The Tberncle, Pttern of the tberncle, Brech of the covennt by the worship of the golden clf, 32, Renewl of the covennt, Construction of the tberncle, Leviticus 1 Divisions (for generl view nd memory work) I. The Lws of Scrifice, Purifiction, nd Atonement, 16. II. The Lw of Holiness, Outline (for reference nd study) I. The Lws of Scrifice, Purifiction, nd Atonement, Lws for offering the scrifices, Consecrtion of the priests, 8, Sin of Ndb nd Abihu, Lws of purifiction, Dy of Atonement, 16. II. The Lw of Holiness, Prohibitions for priests nd people, Lw of festivls, 23, Yer of Jubilee, Blessings for obedience, nd punishments for disobedience, Lws of vows nd tithes, 27. Numbers Divisions (for generl view nd memory work) I. Events nd Lws t Sini, 1:1 10:10. II. Events nd Lws from Sini to Mob, 10:11 21:35. III. Events nd Lws in Mob, Outline (for reference nd study) I. Events nd Lws t Sini, 1:1 10: Numbering nd rrngement of the tribes, 1, Numbering nd duties of the Levites, 3, 4.

41 Lesson V FROM EGYPT TO CANAAN Vrious lws, 5:1 9: Guidnce by the pillr of cloud nd fire, 9:15 10:10. II. Events nd Lws from Sini to Mob, 10:11 21: The strt of the journey, 10: Complint bout mnn, nd gift of quils, Mirim s leprosy, At the spies nd the judgment, 13, Kdesh Vrious lws, Rebellion of Korh, 16, Duties nd privileges of priests nd Levites, Lws of defilement by ded bodies, Deth of Mirim nd Aron, Fiery serpents, 21. III. Events nd Lws t Mob, Blm, Sin of Isrel t Bl-peor, Finl numbering, Lw of inheritnce, 27:1-14, nd chpter Moses deth nd his successor foretold, 27: Lws of offerings nd vows, Conquest of Midin, Settlement in the Est-Jordn Country, 32. Selections for Reding: Ex. 1:7-14; 2; 3; 6:1-8; 11; 12; 14:5-31; 16; 17; 19:1-6; 23:20-24; 18: Leviticus 9; 10:1-11. Numbers 9:15-23; 14; 21:1-9; 24; 33: The gretest event in the history of Isrel from the giving of the promise to Abrhm to the finl collpse of the kingdom of Judh in the cptivity in 586 B.C. ws the delivernce from Egypt nd the giving of the lw t Sini. The two events to gether mke up one gret redemptive ct by which God com pleted the seprtion of His people from the world nd the con secrtion of this people to Himself. In lter dys the prophets pointed the people bck to the love nd power of God which hd brought them up out of Egypt, nd chllenged them to obedience nd fithfulness upon the bsis of the gret deliver nce. The pslmist likewise prised the gret mercy of God nd the mighty deeds wrought for His people t tht time. Truly the Exodus ws centrl point in the history of God s people. The seed of Abrhm, Isc, nd Jcob hd in truth, ccording to the promise, become very gret in number, s the snds of the seshore. There were mong them 603,550

42 40 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I men of militry ge lone, ccording to Num. 1:46: But Isrel ws oppressed in strnge lnd, not the lnd of promise, nd the gret reveltion of God s holiness nd mn s redemption through scrifice hd not yet come. Nor ws Isrel united people, living ccording to God s will, under theocrtic gov ernment ( rule by representtives of God). True, by their so journ in Egypt, the descendnts of Jcob lerned mny things which in the pln of God they needed to lern, such s mny of the rts nd crfts of civilized Egypt, including the rt of government nd the rt of wrfre, which they, however, lerned by exmple, not by prticiption. But they could not fulfill their mission s long s they were the slves of Egypt. When the fullnes of time cme, therefore, God delivered Isrel, by His mighty rm, out of the lnd of Egypt, out of the hnd of Phroh who did not wnt to let God s people go. God ccomplished this through : 1. A specilly prepred leder, Moses. 2. A series of mighty mircles, the ten plgues, ending in the deth of the first-born of every fmily in Egypt nd the first-born of ll cttle. 3. A mighty defet of the rmy of the pursuing Phroh t the Red Se. Points (1) nd (2) fll under the first section of the outline of Exodus I. The Oppression. Let us consider them s preprtory to the delivernce. The Cll Preprtion of Moses The creer of Moses from his birth in Egypt to his deth on Mt. Nebo revels two principles which re essentil to effective service for God by ny humn life : (1) humn tlent nd preprtion ; nd (2) divine cll, guidnce, nd blessing. When the second principle ws bsent, Moses filed. The beutiful story of the bbe in the bsket bot tells us of mother who hppily combined both principles, showing humn common sense in providing for the sfety of her first-born bby boy, nd fith in God. She did ll she could, nd trusted Jehovh for His blessing on her efforts. God sved Moses nd brought him into the royl fmily for trining, but first of ll the mother of Moses provided the boy with Hebrew mother s trining in the fith of his fthers.

43 Lesson V FROM EGYPT TO CANAAN 41 The remrkble preprtion of Moses for his work s the gent of God for the delivernce of His people flls into three distinct stges. First, he lerned to know God through re ligious trining, t his mother s knee, tht shped his whole future creer nd tht helped to keep him loyl to his people nd his God in spite of his life in the royl fmily. This home trining set his hert right. In the plce of Phroh, s the son of Phroh s dughter, Moses ws trined by the best techers of the lnd, so tht when he reched mnhood he ws instructed in ll the wisdom of Egypt nd prepred to be ruler. Thus, in mrvelous wy, God used the oppressor of His people Isrel to protect nd trin the deliverer of Isrel. This royl trining equipped the mind of Moses with vluble informtion nd developed his tlents. Such trining ws gretly needed by the one who ws to be the civil leder nd ruler of slve people, s well s their religious leder. But Moses needed to be trined in the school of humility nd trust in God, in the school of ptient witing upon the Lord nd His power rther thn trust in his own strength. His first lesson in this school cme t the ge of forty, when with out cll from God, he undertook to right wrong which he sw inflicted by n unjust tskmster upon one of his hevily burdened Hebrew brethren. His hert ws right, for he blzed forth in righteous nger, but he ws foolishly wrong in the method by which he rshly chose to deliver his people. His choice to shre the ffliction of the people of God rther thn to enjoy the plesures of sin for seson ws noble, but God hd other plns. It ws necessry tht both wicked Phroh nd wek-fithed Isrel should lern tht Jehovh ws the mighty God, redy nd ble to cre for His people. So Moses hd to flee for his life from the venging Egyptin uthorities, nd he escped into the desert of Midin fr beyond the borders of Egypt. A mn trined to rule over n empire must now keep sheep on the bck side of desert for living. But in the forty yers Moses spent in the wilderness school he lerned fr more thn how to tend sheep. He lerned to possess his soul in ptience nd to control his fierce temper, so tht he be cme the meekest nd most enduring of ll men. Num. 12:3. Without this gret lesson, he could never hve ptiently crried

44 42 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I the burden of murmuring people for forty yers in the desert. And thus t the ge of eighty, fter he hd been fully prepred ccording to the divine pln, first by pious mother, then in the best schools of Egypt, nd finlly by God Himself in the desert, Moses ws redy for the gret work which God hd for him to do, the gretest work ny humn being ws clled upon to do before the time of Christ. The powerful story of the burning, nd yet unburned, bush brings vividly to the Bible reder the gret essentils tht con stitute cll from God nd the proper response by the clled one. Moses ws tught: (1) the holiness of God nd the neces sry holiness of the life tht is to serve Him, (2) tht God knows the needs of His people nd will provide for them, (3) tht God will enble Moses to do his work successfully, nd (4) tht the wrth of God is kindled ginst ll who refuse to her His cll to service. No excuses cn hold ginst God s cll. As punishment for his finthertedness, Moses ws mde dependent upon his brother Aron s his spokesmn. But nother gret truth is embedded in the story of the burning but unburned bush, truth tht contins glorious promise. When Moses sked for the nme, tht is the chrcter, of God, gret reveltion cme. Henceforth God Almighty (El Shddi) wished to be known by the nme Jehovh, the God of grce nd redemption. God hd reveled Himself to the ptrirchs s God of power nd mercy, but His new revel tion of Himself to His people gretly surpssed the old, for He would drw nigh to His people in new covennt reltionship. The children of Isrel were to hve experimentl knowledge of God s grce of sort tht Abrhm, Isc, nd Jcob never hd. They were to be given institutions tht would mke plin the mening of redemption, would typify Christ, nd would serve them for the next millennium nd longer until the full reveltion of redemption in the work of Christ on the cross re plced the types nd shdows of the old dispenstion. Now fully prepred, willing to obey, nd redy to pro ceed in his work, Moses, with Aron, set out for Egypt nd nnounced to the rejoicing ssembled elders of Isrel tht Je hovh hd come down to deliver them.

45 Lesson V FROM EGYPT TO CANAAN 43 The Contest Between Moses nd Phroh The story of the contest between Moses nd Phroh, which ended in the relese of the children of Isrel from bond ge, is in relity the story of contest between Jehovh nd Phroh, the hethen king, with his hethen gods. Phroh boldly defied Jehovh s God powerless to execute His pur poses. He incresed the bitter burden of Isrel in bondge. In rpid succession, God visited Egypt with ten terrible plgues, ech more serious thn the first, ech indicting greter bur den of guilt upon Phroh s ech renewed opportunity ws followed by renewed hrdening of the hert. Finlly, fter the sixth plgue, when the stubborn nd deceitful king hd repetedly refused to bow to the will of God, God begn to hrden his hert nd to close the door of mercy upon him. God ment to mke of Phroh n object lesson nd wrning to ll the world. After the eighth plgue Phroh s dy of grce ws pst. And when fter the tenth nd terrible plgue of the deth of the first-born Phroh relesed Isrel for the mrch out of Egypt into the Est, the pprent yielding to God s will fter ll turned out to be insincere. But the lst puny ttempt of mere mortl to block the progrm of God ended in the w ful ctstrophe of the destruction of Phroh nd his gret rmy in the Red Se, when God becme glorious in power, s Moses sys in his beutiful song of prise commemorting the delivernce in Exodus 15. Thus cme to glorious end the long nd bitter oppression of the Isrelites, in which the he then Egyptins mde their lives bitter with hrd bondge. The Delivernce The gret delivernce of Isrel from Egypt by the merci ful power of God is rich in spiritul mening. The mening of this delivernce ws first mde plin to Isrel in the institu tion of the Pssover fest, ceremony which tught three truths: (1) tht ll men deserve condemntion to deth s sinners under the wrth of God, (2) but tht the love nd mercy of God lone sves His children from this condemn tion through no merit of their own but through substitution ry scrifice ; (3) tht fith, s proved by the ppliction of the blood upon the doors of the Isrelite homes, is necessry to

46 44 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I mke effective the scrificil blood of the tonement, whereby God in the ngel of deth pssed over or sved His people. The whole story of the institution of the nnul memoril fest of the Pssover is instructive to the Christin, for Christ is our Pssover, nd we re sved from deth in the sme wy s the Isrelites of old were sved on the first nd terrible Pssover night. On the night of the Pssover, the Isrelites requested nd received from their former msters gifts of jewels nd riment, which no doubt enbled them to build the costly tberncle nd its furniture. Evidently tht night begn the presence nd guidnce of Jehovh in the form of the pillr of fire by night nd the cloud by dy, which therefter ccompnied His people in ll their wilderness wnderings, nd which ws typicl of the immedi te cre nd keeping of God which comes to the sved believer nd ccompnies him uncesingly through ll the vrying scenes of life. This reveled presence of God with His people, this bode of God mong men (the Shekinh), never cesed from tht Pssover night to the time of the cptivity. His presence ws in the pillr nd cloud, but soon most directly on the mercy set of the rk in the tberncle. When Christ cme, God tberncled mong men in the flesh. Since the scension God hs dwelt in every believing hert through the Holy Spirit. The grce nd power of God were most gloriously re veled in the delivernce of Isrel t the Red Se. He hd led the Isrelites into plce where it ws humnly impossible for them to escpe from the pursuit of trined rmy, nd here He mirculously delivered them with more complete destruction of the enemy thn ny humn power could possibly hve c complished. And ll tht Isrel hd to do ws to stnd still in fith nd see the glory of the Lord reveled. By this gret de livernce, Jehovh mde good His title s the owner of the chosen people. He redeemed them nd mde them His for ever. Henceforth they would not hve the slightest excuse to forske Him for the worship of other gods, nd over nd over gin the prophets nd pslmists of lter genertions mde use of this experience s n unnswerble rgument for loylty to Jehovh. Just so we who hve been redeemed by the blood

47 Lesson V FROM EGYPT TO CANAAN 45 of Christ re under everlsting obligtions to honor nd serve the One who hs redeemed us from sin nd hs tken us into fellowship with Himself. Like Moses, we do well to celebrte the mercies of God who hs delivered us from the bondge of sin, nd girdle the erth with songs of grtitude nd prise to our Redeemer God. But the experience of delivernce t the Red Se ws not the only experience of its kind which the Isrelites enjoyed. In the few short weeks which elpsed before they cme to Sini, the mount of the Lord, where gret reveltions wited them, they were mirculously sved from deth in the desert by (1) the sweetening of the wter t Mrh, (2) the provision of mnn for food, (3) the provision of wter from the rock in Horeb, nd (4) victory over Amlek. Jehovh hd led His people wy from the well-trveled direct crvn route from Egypt to Plestine long the Medi terrnen cost, into brren desert region where it ws utter ly impossible to provide bred nd wter in quntity sufficient for the sustennce of the gret host. This He did with the cler purpose of testing their fith. He did not provide them in dvnce with supplies, but brought them into need tht they might lern to live by fith nd trust in Him. In ddition enemies begn to threten them. It is but nturl tht Isrel did not stnd the test, nd begn to give wy under the strin, with murmuring nd complining. But God s children, now s then, must live bove this nturl plne of unbelief, must hve the life of courgeous fith, coming to God in believing pryer, trusting Him to keep nd provide. Blind unbelief is sure to err, nd it dishonors the God who hs redeemed us. The Giving of the Lw t Sini Three months fter the Isrelites left Egypt they rrived t the bse of the mountin in the southern prt of the penin sul of Sini, which ws to be the scene of the giving of the lw by specil ct of God. This mountin, clled by the two nmes, Sini nd Horeb, becme holy mount to Isrel, be cuse of the nerness of God to His people here. Hither Je hovh hd brought His redeemed people, nd here He kept them for n epoch-mking yer, prt from the busy life of the world, tht He might imprt to them His lw nd precepts.

48 46 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I Here, during the course of the yer s encmpment, occurred the proclmtion of the Ten Commndments from the smoking mount, the rtifiction of the new covennt between Jehovh nd Isrel, nd the estblishment of most of the civil nd cere monil lws tht were to govern the life of the people of Je hovh for more thn thousnd yers, until the lw should be fulfilled in Christ. Finlly when ll ws completed, the people were orgn ized for the further mrch. Offerings for the tberncle were mde by the princes of the tribes, nd the gret host deprted for the promised lnd fter yer s sty t Sini. The rest of the ccount of the journey from Egypt to Cnn is hertbreking story. The people soon murmured ginst God nd His leder Moses, nd mny longed for the fleshpots of Egypt. Disstisfction broke out on the prt of Aron nd Mirim becuse of Moses foreign wife. Mirim ws punished by leprosy for her rebellion, though heled gin by the intercession of Moses. But the crowning trgedy cme when the host hd reched the border t Kdesh, with the filure of the people to follow the two fithful spies (Cleb nd Joshu) of the twelve who hd been sent out to spy out the lnd. Open revolt broke out ginst Moses, nd Cleb nd Joshu were lmost stoned by n ngry mob. Once gin, when Jehovh offered to destroy the people nd mke new ntion out of Moses, this gret mn unselfishly interceded in mighty pryer. But this time, though Jehovh herd the pryer, He decided tht the cowrdly genertion should be punished nd should not be llowed to rech Cnn. They were ll condemned to die in the wilderness ; only their chil dren would rech the promised lnd. Cleb nd Joshu, the fithful spies, were the only ones of the older genertion who were llowed to enter Cnn, except possibly some of the Levites who were not numbered with the men of wr. The following thirty-eight yers of imless wndering in the wilderness were full of severe trils for Moses. An exmple ws the rebellion of Korh, Dthn, nd Abirm ginst Moses nd Aron. At lst, just before the entrnce into the promised lnd ws to be mde t Kdesh, Moses nd Aron themselves filed. They dishonored God by disply of prideful temper before the people who murmured t the lck of wter, nd

49 Lesson V FROM EGYPT TO CANAAN 47 Moses in nger smote rock twice insted of merely speking to it s God hd commnded. Becuse of this filure Moses nd Aron were denied entrnce to the promised lnd. Thus God showed tht He will hold to strict ccount those whom He hs chosen s His representtives before the world. Their filure brings gret reproch upon the cuse. And here is lesson to ll. If even the gret Moses, fter his long experi ence nd close fellowship with God, filed, let us bewre when we think we stnd, lest we fll. Aron died on Mt. Hor soon fter this. Becuse Edom re fused pssge through its territories, Moses hd to led the people by roundbout wy south nd est to the country be yond Edom nd Jordn. On the wy mny were bitten by serpents, nd the plgue ws stopped only by obedience to the sign of the brzen serpent. Our Lord stted tht this incident ws type of Himself on the cross, when He sid, And I, if I be lifted up from the erth, will drw ll men unto me (John 12:32), nd Even so must the Son of mn be lifted up: tht whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but hve eternl life (John 3:14). In the lst months before his deth, Moses with the help of Joshu led his people in the conquest of the fertile Est Jordn territory. But here gin trgic incident occurred. An enemy king of Mob, Blk, sought to get Blm, the fmous seer, to curse Isrel, but Jehovh led him to bless them. In revenge upon the Isrelites Blm induced the women of Mob nd Midin to get God s people involved in the immorl worship of Bl. In consequence thousnds died. Finlly in the closing months of his life, the Lord through Moses gve mny ceremonil nd civil lws to the people. Also, by the direction of God, Moses ordined Joshu s his successor. He wrote down the book of the lw, probbly most of the Pentteuch, nd gve it to the priests for sfe keeping. Deut. 31: His frewell ddress, together with the ccount of his deth, is recorded in the Book of Deuteron omy.

50 48 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I Questions (For Review nd Discussion) 1. Wht ws the gretest event in the history of God s people from the cll of Abrhm to the cptivity, nd why? 2. Wht two requisites for effective service re illustrted by life of Moses? 3. Wht gret lesson did Moses lern, in his forty yers in the desert, tht ws necessry for his work s leder of Isrel? 4. Give four lessons from the story of the cll of Moses t the burning bush. 5. When nd why did God give the nme Jehovh to be used? 6. Wht three truths relting to the pln of redemption re tught by the first Pssover? 7. In wht two wys did God mnifest His constnt presence to His people fter the crossing of the Red Se? 8. Nme the two occsions when Moses sved Isrel by inter cessory pryer. 9. Why were none of the people except Cleb nd Joshu llowed to rech the promised lnd? Why were Moses nd Aron denied entrnce? 10. From wht event in the wilderness wnderings did Jesus drw type of Himself?

51 Lesson VI The Morl nd Civil Lw Author. The uniform teching of the Bible is tht the lw ws given Source. Ex ; Deut. 5:6 Outline through Moses. 6:5; Num. 5, 6. I. Morl Lw, Ex. 20:1-17; Deut. 5:6-21; 6:4, 5. II. Civil Lw, Ex ; Deut. 24:1-4; Num. 5; 6; 15:30-42; 35; 36. Selections for Reding: Ex. 20:1 23:13; Num. 35; Deut. 5:1 6:9. The Lw nd Institutions of Isrel The reveltion of God through Moses to His people t Sini covered the whole of the life of the people, for God in tended to estblish, nd did estblish theocrcy, tht is, divinely ordered society in which everything ws controlled by God through His representtives. Hence the lw included morl lw, civil lw, nd ceremonil lw. It lso included complete institutions for governing the people ; priesthood to direct the worship of the people nd represent the people be fore God; set of elders to govern the people; prophet, Mos es, nd other prophets to follow him, who were to represent God to the people, to spek for Him, nd in generl serve s the guides of the elders in the government s well ; snctury nd system of scrifices to provide for the tonement of the sins of the people. The lw is recorded s it ws given, nd is found in prt in Exodus nd Numbers, but for the most prt in Leviticus. In Deuteronomy revision nd recsting of prts of the lw in the form best dpted to the life of Isrel s settled people is given. The Giving of the Lw Let us exmine more closely the scene t Sini when the lw ws given. Before the people could meet Jehovh, they hd to be prepred by ceremonil clensing, nd even then they were not permitted to drw ner, lest the wrth of God should consume them. Then out of the midst of mrvelous 4 49

52 50 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I disply of His glory on Mount Sini, Jehovh condescended to spek in the hering of the trembling people the ten words which lie t the foundtion of His morl lw, not only for the Jews but for ll men. Following upon this, God gve to Moses series of ordinnces nd sttutes for the direction of the elders nd judges in Isrel by which they were to dminister justice. These lws re clled the Book of the Covennt be cuse, immeditely following Moses return from the mount where he ws given the lws, solemn covennt ws entered into by the people to observe these lws in fithful obedience forever, in response to the promise of God to led them by His ngel into the promised lnd, nd to drive out the enemy be fore them, tht they might inherit the lnd nd possess it. The covennt ws seled by the sprinkling of blood in solemn scrifice upon n ltr surrounded by twelve pillrs, which Moses hd built for the occsion ; hlf of the blood of the scri fice ws sprinkled upon the ltr, nd hlf upon the people. Jesus ws thinking of this old blood covennt when He estb lished the memoril of the new blood covennt of redemption in the night tht He ws betryed, tking the cup nd sying, This cup is the new covennt in my blood, even tht which is shed for you ( Luke 22:20, RV). As the uthor of Hebrews lso sid, He is the meditor of the new testment [covennt], tht by mens of deth, for the redemption of the trnsgres sions tht were under the first testment [covennt], they which re clled might receive the promise of eternl inheri tnce (Heb. 9:15). Following the conclusion of the covennt, s if to indicte His plesure, God gve Moses nd Aron nd the seventy elders glorious vision of Himself. The next stge in the giving of the lw ws the giving of the pttern of the tberncle nd its furniture. Forty dys nd forty nights Moses spent in the glory on the mount in the pres ence of God receiving the pttern. During this time he lso ws given the Ten Commndments on stone tblets inscribed by God Himself. During the time tht Moses ws out of sight terrible trgedy occurred ; the newly mde covennt ws broken. The first nd second commndments were broken by the people, who, with the consent nd id of Aron himself, set up nd worshiped golden clf. The following events re very instruc-

53 Lesson VI THE MORAL AND CIVIL LAW 51 tive. The nger of Jehovh ws kindled nd He would hve consumed His rebellious people nd strted new with Moses s the hed of new chosen rce. But the utterly unselfish intercessory pryers of Moses for his people led Jehovh to spre them. Here the nobility of Moses shines forth in splendid light. Nevertheless the zel of Moses for the purity of the worship of Jehovh led t once to severe punishment for the gret sin, nd by the id of the tribe of Levi, who lone remined true to Moses nd Jehovh, three thousnd were slin. Lter, on the mount, Moses pleds twice more for the mercy of God upon His people, nd God grciously nswers his intercession with the promise to led His people in person to the promised lnd. In beutiful concluding scene on the mount, Moses prys for richer reveltion of the glory of God, nd God grnts him the fullest reveltion of His chrcter nd glory which Moses cn ber nd still live. Finlly God re news the covennt with Isrel, nd Moses writes new upon the tbles of stone the Ten Commndments, for the first divine ly inscribed tbles hd been broken by Moses s symbol of judgment upon the people when their sin of worshiping the golden clf ws discovered. Very instructive is the report tht when Moses ppered gin to the people his fce shone with celestil brightness from his glorious experience with God on the mount. Long witing in the immedite presence of God illumines the fce of the believer nd mkes him we-inspiring to sinners. But if the life is to be full of this glory, the interviews with God must be frequent nd prolonged (II Cor. 3:12-18) nd for this n unin terrupted fellowship with Christ is required. In this believers differ from Moses, who hd to veil his fce to cover the fding glory. In the next months, following the renewl of the cove nnt, the tberncle ws built nd its furniture constructed nd instlled. The mterils for the building were contributed by freewill offerings of the people, nd the skill necessry to crry out the construction ws given by the Spirit of God to the chief crftsmn, Bezleel. When ll ws completed the glory of Jehovh filled the tberncle, nd the biding presence of Jehovh cme to dwell on the mercy set on the rk of the cov ennt in the holy of holies. Henceforth, s long s the snctu-

54 52 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I ry stood, God ws worshiped in His temple, nd every true Isrelite pryed fcing it, s did Dniel in Bbylon. In connection with the building of the snctury, the rules of cceptble worship were given through Moses, Aron nd his sons were set prt s priests forever, nd the cere monil lws of clenliness were given. From this time on scri fices to Jehovh upon the gret ltr never cesed, theoreticl ly t lest [during the cptivity, , the temple ws deso lte], until the temple ws destroyed in A.D. 70. The only un fortunte incident ws the offering of strnge fire to Jehovh which incurred the deth of Ndb nd Abihu s punishment. The Morl Lw The Ten Commndments The Ten Comndments spoken by Jehovh from Mount Sini lie t the foundtion of Isrel s lws nd of ll morl lw. The civil lw nd ritul lw were subject to chnge nd did chnge, but these ten words were never chnged nd never will be chnged, for they hve been recognized by Christ Himself. All, excepting possibly the originl ppliction of the fourth commndment, re binding upon ll men to the end of time. Jesus took these commndments nd pplied them to the hert s well s to the outwrd deed, thus mking them fully spiritul, thing which the Jews of the old dispens tion hd filed to do. The Ten Commndments fll nturlly into two gret divisions, duties to God (1-4), nd duties to fellow mn (5-10). They might be trnslted into brief modern expressions s follows: I. Duties to God 1. Worship only the one true God. 2. Worship God in the spirit without the use of imges. 3. Reverence God s nme s stnding for His nture. 4. Keep God s dy holy. II. Duties to Fellow Men 5. Honor prents, thus preserving the home. This is the first commndment with promise. 6. Do not commit murder. Respect the scredness of humn life.

55 Lesson VI THE MORAL AND CIVIL LAW Do not commit dultery. Respect the scredness of the mrrige tie. 8. Do not stel. Respect nother s property. 9. Do not lie. Respect the truth. 10. Do not covet. Keep the hert pure. The Ten Commndments re serching requirements which touch lmost every phse of life. Upon the first four true nd pure religion is founded ; upon the lst six sound socil order cn be founded, which will include mrrige, the home, privte property, nd mintennce of lw nd order. If ny one of the six is disregrded, serious consequences follow for society. The lst of the ten is the most serching, for it touches thought nd desire. God requires good hert s well s good life. But ll of the ten require right hert, nd without this hert not one of them cn be kept. Pul sys indeed tht the tenth commndment, Thou shlt not covet, tught him the exceeding sinfulness of sin. Rom. 7:7-11. But Jesus sys tht ll the lw is summed up in two gret lws Thou shlt love the Lord thy God (Deut. 6:5) nd, Thou shlt love thy neighbour s thyself ( Lev. 19:18). Jesus mens to sy tht without hert tht is right towrd God nd mn in its inmost desires, it is impossible to keep the lw. The Ten Commnd ments re not outdted or outlived. They re mightily needed tody in their fullest nd widest spiritul ppliction. The Civil Lw Compred to the fundmentl morl lw, the civil lw given to Isrel through Moses is not finl nd bsolute. It ws dpted to the needs of the time, nd djusted to the hrd ness of the people s herts (for instnce the lw permitting divorce, Deut. 24:1-4, nd Mtt. 19:3-9). Mny of the ordi nnces were temporry ; some were even chnged by Moses thirty-eight yers lter when Isrel ws bout to enter the promised lnd. Nevertheless much tht is found in these lws cn still serve s model for just nd righteous lws for the welfre of men nd ntions tody. On the other hnd, God tolerted things in the civil lw of Moses which He does not llow in the Christin dispenstion. This does not indicte chnge in God but rther wise dpttion by God to mn s chnging needs nd cpcities.

56 54 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I In comprison with the lws of other ntions of this sme time, the lws of Moses were much more merciful nd just. Mny buses common mong other ntions were expressly for bidden in Isrel. The innocent were much better protected, nd the criminl ws more justly delt with. The penlties of the fmous contemporry Code of Hmmurbi of Bbylon were much more severe. Following re some of the subjects delt with in the civil lw: regultion of involuntry slvery ; penlty for murder nd the ssult of prents, kidnping, ssult of free mn, servnts, or pregnnt womn ; lws defining the responsibil ities of those who own nimls ; penlties for theft nd rob bery ; settlements of property dmge ; regultions concern ing rpe nd other sex perversion, oppression of the poor nd foreigners ; nd the prohibition of chrging interest on money lent to other Isrelites. These sound lmost contemporry. As hs been sid before there were mny more tht were more temporry in nture. Questions (For Review nd Discussion) 1. Nme ll the events tht hppened during the yer s sty t Mt. Sini. 2. Wht re the Ten Commndments nd the folowing ordi nnces clled? 3. In wht chpter re the Ten Commndments given? 4. Repet the Ten Commndments ccording to the two di visions. 5. Wht is God s prt in the covennt mde with Isrel? Wht is Isrel s prt? 6. Quote the verses from the Pentteuch which Christ clled the two gretest commndments.

57 Lesson VII The Religious Institutions nd Ceremonies of Isrel Source: Ex ; Leviticus; Num. 9:1-14; 18; 19; Outline I. Ceremonil Lw, Leviticus, ll except 8 10; Num. 9:1-14; 19; II. Institutions : 1. Tberncle, Ex Priesthood, Ex. 29 ; Lev. 10; Num Festivls, Lev. 23, 24; Ex. 23: Selections for Reding: Ex. 23:14-19; 25 27; Lev. 1 7 ; Num. 18. The Ceremonil Lw The ceremonil lw regultes Isrel s pproch to God nd provides for the worship of God by ntion. It is bsed upon the fundmentl conception of God s the Holy One ; Ye shll be holy ; for I Jehovh your God m holy. The ide of holiness is twofold : first, seprtion from the sinful world ; nd second, seprtion to God, or consecrtion to God. Holi ness does not exist prt from God, nd cn be found only in things devoted to God, whether person, people, plce, n ct, or thing. From this point of view Isrel ws holy people becuse devoted to God, nd therefore seprted from ll other ntions. From the sme point of view every Isrelite, before offering scrifice to God, hd to clense himself cere monilly, not becuse he thereby becme morlly pure, but becuse he needed to be reminded tht only those who re seprted from the evil of the world, nd hve no worldly tint, cn stnd in the presence of holy God, nd hve fellowship with Him. The unfortunte thing ws tht the Isrelites cme to substitute outwrd ceremonil clensing for inwrd morl purity nd uprightness of hert thus chnging ceremonil clensing from teching symbol into thing of vlue in itself. The ceremonil lw mde it plin tht no living being 55

58 56 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I could pproch to God nd stnd in His presence in his own right, by virtue of his own goodness. In the first plce, mn required the id of priest, specilly consecrted nd puri fied representtive ; nd secondly, he ws required to bring n offering. Furthermore the lesson of his sinfulness, nd the need of divine grce nd redeeming forgiveness, ws tught through the requirement tht every offering hd to be ccom pnied by the shedding of blood to be of ny vlue. Without the shedding of blood there ws no remission of sins, nd hence bloodless offering could not be ccepted from mn. With those fundmentl principles in mind let us briefly consider the entire scrificil system of the Mosic lw. There re two generl clsses of offerings, nd three bsic types. I. Two Clsses of Offerings. 1. Public, offered t the expense of the ntion. 2. Privte, offered by n individul. II. Three Kinds of Offerings. 1. Animl offerings, or blood scrifices. Cttle, sheep, or gots of both sexes (rrely doves) were used. The nimls must be free from blemish, nd t lest eight dys old. Scri fices were of three kinds: (1) burnt offering ; (2) sin offering; nd (3) pece offering. Fuller discussion follows below. 2. Mel offering or vegetble offering. White mel, or un levened bred, ckes, or wfers, or ers of rosted grin, con stituted the mteril, which ws lwys offered with slt, nd (except in the sin offering) with olive oil. The mel offering ws offered with n niml scrifice, or independently s n offering by itself. In the former cse it ws entirely consumed in the burnt offering, while in the ltter cse it ws consumed either in whole or in hlf upon the ltr, while the other hlf went to the priest. 3. The drink offering. This offering ws never offered lone but only with the mel offering when it ccompnied the burnt offering or pece offering. The three scrifices or niml offerings, mentioned bove (II, 1), were the most importnt offerings. 1. The burnt offering signified entire self-dediction of

59 Lesson VII RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS AND CEREMONIES 57 the offerer to Jehovh. Hence the entire niml ws consumed on the ltr, while the blood ws sprinkled bout the ltr. 2. The sin offering nd the trespss offering mde tone ment for trnsgression of the offerer, the former (sin offering) for sins which did not ffect others, but only oneself, the ltter (trespss offering) for trespsses which ffected others. In both, only the ft of the niml ws burned on the ltr, while the flesh ws either burnt outside the cmp, or given to the priests for their consumption, s the cse might be. The essen til prt of these offerings, however, ws the blood. The blood ws symboliclly displyed before Jehovh s evidence tht the sin hd been expited by the tking of the life of substitute. The blood ws either poured before the ltr, or on the ltr, or pplied to the horns of the ltr of incense. Sometimes sev erl methods were used for the sme offering. In ny cse the intent ws cler ; sin must be toned for by the shedding of blood, tht is, by the deth of living being, n niml tht ws not in itself guilty but ws without blemish. 3. The pece offering ws of three kinds: () the thnk of fering in recognition of unmerited blessings; (b) the votive of fering, in pyment of vow ; nd (c) the freewill offering s n expression of love for God. In ll three cses the blood ws sprinkled upon the ltr, nd the ft ws consumed on the ltr, while the flesh ws divided between the priests nd the offerer, who with his friends te it t mel before the Lord t the snctury, where Jehovh ws present s guest. The procedure in offering scrifice consisted of five cts: 1. Presenttion of the scrifice t the door of the snctury by the offerer himself. 2. Lying on of hnds by the offerer upon the niml vic tim s hed, signifying his identifiction with the niml s his substitute. 3. Slying the niml by the offerer himself, who thus sym boliclly killed himself, ccepting thereby the just punishment for sin. 4. Symbolic ppliction of the blood to the ltr, to indi cte tht expition for sin ws mde to God. 5. Burning the scrifice on the ltr, whereby its essence or flvor scended to God, becoming sweet (tht is, plesing) smell to Him.

60 58 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I In concluding this brief summry of the offerings it should be sid tht not ll sins could be toned for by the scrificil system which the lw provided. Only sins committed through ignornce or wekness could be toned for, wheres those done delibertely or with high hnd could not be toned for. Mny sins re enumerted which could be punished only by deth or expulsion. From such terrible sins of open defince of the lw of God, tht is, rebellion ginst God, nothing in the scrificil system could vil. On behlf of such rebellious sinners, how ever, the mercy of God could be invoked through intercessory pryer, s Moses did for Isrel severl times, nd for Aron nd Mirim. God ws righteous, not letting sin go unpunished, but He ws lso God of mercy, forgiving iniquity nd trnsgres sion nd sin. Ex. 34:6, 7. Prophets nd pslmists of lter times unite in exlting the mercy of Jehovh to repentnt sinners (cf. Pslm 51). Without this mercy rebellious, sinful Isrel would hve been cst off mny times in the course of her history. As it ws, Isrel ws not cst off until she rejected the Sviour in her lst gret ct of rebellion, the crucifixion of Christ (cf. Mtt. 21:33-46). Institutions 1. The Tberncle. Since Isrel ws theocrcy, tht is, visible represent tion of the reign of God, nd Jehovh ws regrded s King, it becme necessry to provide plce where He might dwell mong His people, nd where He might give visible mnifest tions of His glory. For this purpose dwelling or tber ncle ws constructed, which ws Jehovh s holy hbit tion, the house of Jehovh. It ws mde demountble so s to ccompny the Isrelites on their journeys. Since it ws the plce where Jehovh met His people nd communed with them, it ws clled the tent of meeting, nd the tberncle of the congregtion, nd since it ws the depository of the t bles of the lw or testimony, it ws lso clled the tent of tes timony. It ws constructed t Sini ccording to divine pt tern given to Moses by God Himself, nd ws used s the plce for the officil public worship of God from the time of the Ex odus till the reign of Solomon.

61 Lesson VII RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS AND CEREMONIES 59 It ws in essence semirigid tentlike construction IS by 45 feet (10 by 30 cubits) in dimensions nd bout 15 feet (10 cu bits) high, built of upright bords of cci (shittim) wood overlid with gold, which were set in bses of silver nd united by horizontl poles of cci (shittim). The open rectngle thus creted ws covered with four costly coverings, of white linen, got s hir, red-dyed rm s skins, nd bdger skins. The est end of the rectngle ws not borded shut, but left open for n entrnce, nd ws hung with curtin of embroidered linen suspended from golden hooks ttched to five pillrs overlid with gold. The interior ws divided into two rooms by curtin or veil of rich linen embroidered with symbolic figures of the cherubim. The first or estern room, clled the holy plce, 15 by 30 feet in size (10 by 20 cubits), ws entered dily by the priests in their ministry, while the western room, clled the most holy plce, mesured 15 feet (10 cubits), per fect cube, nd ws entered only once yer by the high priests only, nmely, on the gret Dy of Atonement. The tberncle ws plced in n open court, 75 by 150 feet, enclosed by con tinuous curtin of linen bout 7)4 feet (5 cubits) high, suspend ed from rods (fillets) of silver hung between cci (shittim) pillrs. In this open court, ll the public worship of Isrel ws con ducted, nd ll the scrifices were presented. For this purpose the gret or brzen ltr, bout 4)4 feet high nd 7)4 feet (3 by 5 cubits) squre, ws plced ner the center of the spce in front of the entrnce to the tberncle proper. On this ltr fire, which t first hd been mirculously lighted, burned with out cesing. A brzen bsin ws set between the ltr nd the snctury t which the priests performed their ceremonil clensings before conducting the scrifices. Within the tberncle were four dditionl pieces of furni ture. Three were in the front or estern room: the golden ltr of incense; the seven-brnched golden cndlestick, or lmp ; nd the wooden tble overlid with gold, on which the shewbred nd wine were plced. In the holy of holies the only ob ject ws the oblong, wooden chest covered with gold, known s the rk of the covennt, upon which two golden figures of cherubim, with outstretched wings, were mounted. The spce between the wings down to the lid of the chest (the mercy set)

62 60 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I ws lighted with glow clled the glory or shekinh glory, the visible sign of the presence of God. The tberncle ws reltively costly structure with much precious metl bout it, of gold nd silver. Its construction ws mde possible by the freewill offerings of the people which in turn consisted lrgely of the gifts the Egyptins hd given before the Exodus. It ws dedicted exctly yer fter the deprture from Egypt. During ll the period of the wndering cloud rested on it by dy nd pillr of fire by night. When the cmp ws moved the structure ws tken down by the Levites who crried it to the next stopping plce where it ws gin set up. 2. Priesthood. The pproch of the Isrelites to God in worship, whether individully or s whole, hd to be mde through specilly or dined representtives, clled priests, who therefore officited t ll cts of worship. At Sini Aron nd his sons nd descendnts were p pointed to be priests forever, with Aron s the chief priest or high priest. The priests were especilly consecrted or or dined to their office by the nointing with oil, nd were to give themselves wholly to their service. In worship they were re quired to wer specil priestly grments of white linen. When not engged in worship they dressed like other men. The high priest wore specil blue robe of gret splendor nd signifi cnce. Over this he wore short sleeveless shirt of fine linen clled the ephod. On his chest hung brestplte of judgment dorned with precious stones engrved with the nmes of the twelve tribes. On his hed ws specil pointed cp, to the front of which ws fstened gold plte inscribed Holiness unto the Lord. To the brestplte were ttched the mysteri ous Urim nd Thummim by which the will of God could be scertined. A very significnt work of the high priest ws the specil ministry on the gret Dy of Atonement. On this dy, once yer, tonement ws mde for the priesthood, the tberncle, the ltr, nd ll the people, by sprinkling the blood of sin of ferings in the holy of holies. Then one got ws tken s the substitute for the people, the sins of the people were symboli-

63 Lesson VII RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS AND CEREMONIES 61 clly lid upon its hed, nd it ws driven wy into the wilder ness bering the reproch of the ntion. 3. The Festivls. The ceremonil lw lso prescribed weekly, monthly, nd yerly festivls. The weekly festivl ws the Sbbth, conse crted to rest nd joyful devotion. The monthly festivl ws the dy of the new moon. Three gret nnul fests were p pointed by the lw: (1) Pssover, week in April, which cele brted the delivernce from Egypt ; (2) Pentecost, dy in My, which ws the fest of the hrvest of the first fruits; (3) Tberncles, week in October, which ws the fest of the finl hrvest, nd commemorted the wndering in the wilder ness. Lter in the history of Isrel other festivls were dded. The fest of Purim ws held in Mrch celebrting the Jews delivernce from wicked Hmn. Esth. 9: Juds Mccbeus instituted the fest of Dediction in 165 B.C. to celebrte the redediction of the temple fter its desecrtion by Antiochus Epiphnes. This brief ccount of the lw of Moses nd the institutions which it provided gives n outline picture of the religious life of the Isrelites under the pln which God expected them to follow until the Sviour nd Messih ws to come in person. The lw served twofold purpose it regulted the life nd worship of Isrel under the Old Covennt, nd typified or foreshdowed Christ nd the inugurtion of the New Cove nnt. Fundmentlly the sme God nd the sme pln of redemption re reveled in both the Old nd New Covennts. Isrel ws God s people who hd been clled by His grce into covennt fellowship, nd mny of the terms which re used to describe the Christin church in the New Testment re tken from the descriptions of God s people in the Old Testment. The lw in itself did not provide the grce which the Gos pel brought, but rther led to condemntion. The lw revels mn s sin, God s holiness nd love, forgiveness through sub stitutionry scrificil tonement, nd consequent snctific tion. Nevertheless, the lw in itself could not sve. It hd vlue only becuse it ws fulfilled in Christ, nd only those who lived by fith were sved under the lw, for justifiction by fith is n Old Testment teching, s Pul himself shows. Pul

64 62 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I lso teches (Rom. 7) tht the lw reveled sin nd deprvity in the hert of him who tried to keep it, nd thus served to pre pre him for fith, tht is, it served s schoolmster to bring us unto Christ (Gl. 3:24). In fct both Pul nd Peter show tht the dispenstion of lw ws inferior to the dispenstion of the Gospel, for it ws yoke of bondge which the fthers were not ble to ber, in contrst to the freedom of the Chris tin, nd it ws ministry of condemntion nd deth, wheres the Gospel is ministrtion of righteousness; it ws covennt of the letter in contrst to covennt of the spirit. The lw could not mke live; tht ws the work of Christ in the hert through fith. The key to the understnding of the reltion of the lw to the Gospel is given by the Epistle to the Hebrews. Tht entire book is n exposition of the superiority of Christ nd the Gos pel to Moses nd the lw. The old lw foreshdows, typifies, the work of Christ who brings the relity. Therefore Christ (with the Gospel) is in every wy better thn the old, better High Priest, better Promiser, better Scrifice, more perfect Tberncle The lw ws preprtion for the Gospel, for it mde mn feel the gret need of Sviour Those who kept the lw in spirit s well s in letter joyfully received the Sviour when He cme. The symbols nd types of the Messih contined in the lw tech us much tht is instructive to Christins. The gretest reson for the study of the Old Testment is to lern still more bout the person nd work of our gret Prophet, Priest, nd King, Jesus Christ.

65 Lesson VII RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS AND CEREMONIES 63 Questions (For Review nd Discussion) 1. Wht re the two elements in the ide of holiness? 2. Wht ws the purpose of the ceremonil clensing under the lw? Nme nd describe the three generl kinds of offerings. Nme nd give the purpose of ech of the three niml offerings or scrifices. 5. Wht did the sprinkling of the blood on the ltr signify? 6. Explin the mening of the three nmes: tberncle, tent of meeting, tent of testimony. 7. Nme nd plce ll the furniture of the tberncle, both in the tent nd in the court. 8. Wht ws the purpose of the priesthood? 9. Nme the three gret nnul fests provided for by the lw. 10. Wht ws the twofold purpose of the lw? 11. In wht sense ws the lw preprtion for the Gospel?

66 Lesson VIII Deuteronomy Author. Moses, except for some scribl dditions such s the ccount of his deth. Time. Forty yers fter the delivernce from Egypt, just before the entrnce into Cnn. Contents. The Book of Deuteronomy consists lmost entirely of gret finl ddress of Moses delivered to Isrel in three instllments, com mitted to writing nd solemnly rtified s covennt. The ddress occupies thirty of the thirty-four chpters. The remining chpters recount Moses preprtion for his deprture, the ordintion of his successor, Joshu, nd the deth of Moses. Deuteronomy is the book of preprtion for the entrnce into Purpose. Cnn fter thirty-eight yers of wndering in punishment for the sin of unbelief t the time of the report of the spies t Kdesh. Isrel hs finlly reched the Est-Jordn lnd, nd hs conquered Est- Jordn territory. The new genertion needs to be reinstructed in the lw which hd been given t Sini thirty-nine yers before, nd since settled life in Cnn in cities nd towns nd on frms is to replce the wndering, seminomd life of the wilderness, modifictions of the originl lw re necessry. Hence Moses, the originl uthor of the lw s given in Exodus, Leviticus, nd Numbers, reviews the greter portion of the lw be fore the people, with ccompnying dmonitions nd wrnings. For this reson the title of the book is Deuteronomy, mening the sec ond lw. Deuteronomy is one of the outstnding books of the Old Test ment, rich in spiritul techings. The honor in which the book ws held by Christ nd the postles is indicted by the lrge number of quottions from this book in the New Testment. It ws from this book tht ll of Jesus replies to the tempter were tken. 1 I. First Address of Moses, 4. Divisions (for generl view nd memory work) II. Second Address of Moses, Historicl review, nd dmonitions, S Legl precepts, III. Third Address of Moses, 27, 28. IV. Fourth Address by Moses t the Rtifiction of the Covennt, 29, 30. V. Concluding History, Outline (for reference nd study) I. First Address of Moses, Story of journey from Sini to Kdesh, 1. 64

67 Lesson VIII DEUTERONOMY Story of journey from Kdesh to Mob, 2: Story of the conquest nd llotment of the Est-Jordn lnd, 2:26 3: Exhorttion to obedience, 4. II. Second Address of Moses, The Ten Commndments, Exhorttions to obedience with promise of blessings nd wrn ings of judgment, Reminder of pst filures nd rebellions, 9, Renewed exhorttion to obey the lw nd to study it, Lws nd precepts for use in Cnn, III. Third Address of Moses, 27, The lw to be inscribed t Ebl, with the curses to be given t Ebl, Blessings to be given t Gerizim, 28. IV. Fourth Address of Moses, 29, Renewl of the covennt nd chrge of Moses to the people, 29, 30. V. Concluding History, Ordintion of Joshu, nd the chrge to the priests nd Levites, Song of Moses, Blessing by Moses, Deth of Moses, 34. ppels to his people to love Jehovh nd keep ll His com mndments. The ppel to Isrel to be fithful nd obedient is bsed upon the love nd mercy of God towrd His people s demonstrted over nd over gin in the preceding forty yers. For this reson much of the history of the delivernce nd the wilderness wnderings is retold by Moses. But im bedded in the history rich spiritul pssges re found. We should not forget tht Jesus mkes Deut. 6:5 the first nd gretest commndment, plcing longside of it Lev. 19:18. The presence of these two sentences lone in the Pentteuch is sufficient to lift these books to the highest plne for the Chris tin. The lter Jews mde no mistke in choosing six verses from Deuteronomy s the essence of their religion, nd requir ing them to be memorized by ll Jewish boys before being dmitted to membership in the syngogue. Another outstnds The Book In this book the ged Moses, divinely ppointed leder of Isrel nd prophet of God, pours out his hert in ernest

68 66 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I ing feture of the Book of Deuteronomy is the beutiful poetic song of Moses contined in the thirty-second chpter. First Address Moses begins his gret ddress to Isrel by reclling the promise of God given t Horeb (Sini) thirty-eight yers before, together with the commnd to go forwrd into the promised lnd nd to occupy it. After mentioning the ppoinment of judges t tht time by Moses, the ddress moves on to remind Isrel of their gret filure through unbelief when they were t Kdesh nd becme discourged t the report of ten of the twelve spies. Moses specificlly sys tht the people did not believe God nd for tht reson lost their opportunity nd hd to wnder in the wilderness. The futile ttempt to ttck, in their own strength, the Amorites in the hill country only demonstrted ll the more the need of the Isrelites to trust in God nd to obey Him. The thirty-eight yers tht follow this filure t Kdesh re pssed over very rpidly s the ddress goes on. But the victories of the pst few months over Sihon, King of Heshbon, nd Og, King of Bshn, re relted in detil, together with the llotment of the Est-Jordn conquered territory to the tribes of Reuben nd Gd, nd the hlf-tribe of Mnsseh. Here Moses discloses his request to God to be ble to go into the promised lnd, nd the fct tht it ws refused nd tht he ws merely llowed to see the lnd from Mount Pisgh. At the conclusion of the historicl review, Moses mkes strong ppel for obedience to the sttutes nd judgments which God hd commnded, together with the wrning not to dd to or diminish from the words of the lw. A strong ppel ginst idoltry follows this, with the solemn wrning tht Isrel will perish nd will be scttered mong the ntions s punishment if they fll into idoltry, lthough even then they re promised mercy nd forgiveness if they return. So Moses ws the first of the prophets to prophesy in essence the cptivity. His exhorttion concludes with the ppel to Isrel to remember the gret deeds of delivernce which God hd performed, nd to think of Him therefore s the only God, the One to obey. After the conclusion of the ddress Moses set side three cities of refuge est of the Jordn to which persons

69 Lesson VIII DEUTERONOMY 67 guilty of unpremeditted murder might flee for sfety. This ddress occupies four chpters. Second Address The second ddress is much longer thn the first, filling twenty-two chpters. This ddress differs from the first in tht it does not recount history but reherses some of the lws given t Sini, with emphsis upon the spiritulity of the lws nd insistence upon their observnce. The first hlf of the ddress is devoted to retelling of the story of the giving of the lw t Sini, together with repeti tion of the Ten Commndments in slightly different form, plus commentry on them. Moses repets the touching ppel of Jehovh t Sini for obedience: O tht there were such n hert in them, tht they would fer me, nd keep ll my com mndments lwys, tht it might be well with them, nd with their children for ever (Deut. 5 :29)! This ppel to obedi ence rings through the Book of Deuteronomy in loud tones gin nd gin. Moses emphsizes the blessings of obedience. One is led to feel tht Moses knew how disobedient they would be in the future, how hrd it would be to remin true to God nd His lw, nd for this reson in his lst dys mde such strong ttempt to secure the promised obedience. He wrned the people tht in times of prosperity they would forget God, nd he pleded with them to Love the Lord thy God with ll thine hert, nd with ll thy soul, nd with ll thy might (Deut. 6:5). This gret nd first commndment (s Jesus clled it) is followed by the commnd to give fithful teching to the children. This teching ws gin to be used to remind future genertions of the gret delivernce from Egypt. As one of the mens to estblish nd mintin fithfulness to Jehovh, Isrel is commnded to be seprte from ll other ntions, for Isrel is to be n holy people unto the Lord. The expression holy people here mens seprted from the world nd dedicted to God nd His service. As good nd sufficient reson for this seprtion nd dediction Moses reminds them tht it ws only God s love tht chose them nd not ny merit of their own. This sme love would continue to bless them bove ll other people. Moses promises them delivernce from ll their enemies by the Lord Himself, who

70 68 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I would drive out inhbitnts of Cnn before them nd deliver their kings into Isrel s hnds. This theme of God s mighty deeds in their behlf in the pst nd His promises of blessing for the future is repeted severl times, with prticulrly strong nd effective sttement in the eighth chpter. Then by reminding the Isrelites of their sins nd rebellions ginst God in the pst Moses tries to mke them humble nd give up trust in their own righteousness for trust in God. In contrst to Isrel s rebellions, God s mercies re enumerted. And gin the ppel is mde, Therefore thou shlt love the Lord thy God,... nd keep his commndments, lwy (Deut. 11:1). Finlly blessing nd curse is set before them, the blessing to ccompny obedience nd the curse to follow disobedience. The ltter prt of the second ddress, beginning with the twelfth chpter, brings long series of lws. A first group dels with religious mtters such s the preprtion of cen trl plce of worship, prohibition of eting blood, requirements regrding the eting of holy things in the holy plce, provisions for the Levites, the punishment of idolters, regultions gov erning the eting of mets (clen nd unclen) nd concern ing the giving of tithes. Other lws estblish the three gret nnul fests, Pssover, Pentecost, nd Tberncles, nd pro vide for the seventh yer to be yer of debt relese for the poor. Another set of lws gives instruction regrding govern ment, including even the election nd duties of king. In these lws re some mrked dvnces over other ntions of tht time, such s the prohibition of enchnters, diviners, nd witches, s well s the provision for cities of refuge nd the punishment of flse witnesses. Finlly group of lws is given concerning privte nd socil life, such s the regultion of inheritnce, punishing stubborn son, sex distinction in clothing, immorlity, vows, divorce, wges, muzzling the ox tht treds out the corn, unjust weights, etc. At the conclusion of the second ddress, the people were commnded to write the words of the lw upon stones which were to be trnsported into Cnn nd used to build up n ltr on Mt. Ebl.

71 Lesson VIII DEUTERONOMY 69 Third Address Here Moses lso gives orders to rrnge the people in two groups t Mt. Gerizim nd Mt. Ebl in the promised lnd to receive the blessings nd cursings, the former for obedience nd the ltter for disobedience. These blessings nd curses re specified in detil in powerful ppel by Moses in this ddress. Fourth Address Finlly Moses drws up covennt between Jehovh nd Isrel. This is ccepted nd put into force. A fourth ddress ccompnies the rtifiction of this covennt which is renewl of the covennt t Sini, nd which leds to promise of obedi ence by the people. In this ddress Moses sets before Isrel deth nd life, s the issues of disobedience or obedience. After the rtifiction of Concluding History the covennt, Moses publicly chrged Joshu with his duties s his successor nd then com mitted the lw to the priests, with the chrge to red it pub licly every seven yers. At the request of God Moses wrote song prising Him for His mercy towrd His people, to serve s testimony nd s n ntidote ginst the prophesied postsy. Finlly Moses gve his blessing upon the Isrelites nd upon their tribes in touching frewell ddress. His con cluding words pply to God nd His people in ll ges, Hppy rt thou, O Isrel: who is like unto thee, O people sved by the Lord ; The eternl God is thy refuge, nd underneth re the everlsting rms (Deut. 33:29, 27). With these lst words to his people Moses went up onto Mount Pisgh (Nebo) lone to view the promised lnd, nd there he ws buried, in n unknown grve. The lst verses of Deuteronomy py tribute to Moses. It is fitting here perhps to gther together the tributes to Moses out of the Scriptures. 1. Moses ws the first nd gretest prophet of the Old Testment. God communed with him fce to fce. Deut. 34:10. He ws type of Jesus s prophet. Deut. 18:15-19.

72 70 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I 2. Moses ws the gret lwgiver. "The lw ws given by- Moses (John 1:17). 3. Moses ws prince of intercessors (Jer. 15:1), nd ws thoroughly unselfish in his prying. 4. Moses ws the meekest mn of his time. Num. 12:3. 5. Moses ws gret soul winner, for he led his people to put their trust in Jehovh. A sign of the importnce of Moses in reveltion nd in the kingdom of God is the fct tht t the trnsfigurtion he ppered nd spoke with the glorified Christ. Questions (For Review nd Discussion) 1. Explin the nme, Deuteronomy. 2. Upon wht does Moses bse his ppel to Isrel to be fith ful nd obedient to God? 3. Wht punishment does Moses prophesy s coming upon Isrel if they fll into idoltry? 4. In wht sense ws Isrel to be holy people? 5. Describe the renewl of the covennt which Moses super vised. 6. Nme two occsions when Jesus used quottions from Deuteronomy. 7. Give five gret chrcteristics of Moses. 8. In wht sense ws Moses the first prophet? 9. Wht New Testment scene indictes the gretness of Moses? 10. Where nd how ws Moses buried? 11. Who ws Blm?

73 Lesson IX Joshu nd the Conquest of Cnn Introductory Note on the Historicl Books The twelve historicl books from Joshu to Nehemih ( Esther) contin the history of God s people, the Hebrew ntion, from the first settlement in Cnn under Joshu to the lst return from the cptivity in Bbylon, period of nerly thousnd yers. The Jews reckoned these books s six in number, nd counted the first four, tht is, the books before Chronicles in the English Bible (Joshu, Judges, Smuel, Kings), s propheticl books, nming them the former prophets. * This nme indictes the high regrd in which the Jews held these books, but still more their conception of their nture nd purpose s inspired writings in bringing to men messges from God. We too shll seek to find in these books not only interesting informtion bout the history of Isrel, her judges, kings, prophets, nd people, but lso nd perhps with more egerness, lessons for life from the delings of God with His people s whole, nd with individuls. We shll lso see how through the ges of Isrel s history God s one incresing purpose runs, how the reveltion of the coming Redeemer becomes clerer nd clerer, nd the spiritul side of prophetic teching becomes stronger. We shll see on mn s side rise nd fll, obedience nd disobedience, success nd fil ure, the ll-too-common trgic story. On God s side we shll see the everlsting mercies of Jehovh constntly renewed, His fllen children restored gin nd gin by His infinite com pssion nd love. But we shll see how, s the prophet Isih sys, fter He hd plnted His vineyrd in very fruitful hill (estblishment of the lw nd the settlement in Cnn) nd fenced it, nd gthered out the stones thereof,... nd built Lw, Prophets, nd led to the inclusion of the historicl books with the prophets, so tht Writings the first-nmed were clled "former prophets to distinguish them from the prophets proper, whose writings were clled, the ltter prophets." See Contents of the Old Testment in Lesson I. * The threefold division of the Old Testment used by the Jews 71

74 72 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I tower in the midst of it, God ws disppointed to hrvest wild grpes insted of good fruit, nd in consequence hd to lywste the vineyrd in judgment (cptivity of Isrel nd Judh). We shll see the trgedy of the growing postsy of God s people, but we shll lso see the fithful remnnt, who remined the hope of Isrel, true to God nd His Word, sep rte from the hethen world, devoted to God s cuse, looking forwrd to the gret, fr-off divine event when out of Judh should rise the Messih, the Sviour who should sve His people from their sins. The historicl books hve other remrkble chrcteristics. They show close cquintnce with the secret motives of men nd the hidden purposes of God. At the sme time the utmost imprtility is used ; the weknesses of the gret re not covered up, their sins re not condoned. And ll long these books revel remrkble dpttion to the needs of the reders in furnishing lessons of prcticl holiness. The writers of the historicl books re never mentioned. It my be supposed, however, tht men like Joshu, Smuel, nd the prophets wrote them. Nmes of prophets nd seers re given, however, who wrote portions of the history of Isrel, which portions were used in writing the completed historicl books. For exmple, Dvid s history ws written by Smuel, Nthn, nd Gd (I Chron. 29:29, 30) ; Solomon s history ws written by Nthn, Ahijh, nd Iddo (II Chron. 9:29). Isih wrote the history of Uzzih (II Chron. 26:22), nd Hezekih (II Chron. 32:32), nd perhps of other kings. Shemih nd Iddo wrote the story of Rehobom (II Chron. 12:15), Iddo wrote the story of Abijh (II Chron. 13:22), nd Jehu wrote the story of Jehoshpht (II Chron. 20:34). It is, of course, cler, s hs been sid in Lesson I, tht only selection out of the enormous mss of mteril on the history of Isrel is given to us in the Bible. The writers do not intend to, or try to, give complete ccount. Agin, the events which men might prefer to red re frequently omitted. Insted of politicl events nd gret deeds, which re frequently merely mentioned, or pssed over in silence, things re given out of the privte life of ll kinds of men, from mighty kings to poor widows. As ordinry histories go, the historicl books of the

75 Lesson IX THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN 73 Old Testment re fr from complete, but for the purposes of God nd the reveltion of His grce nd truth the books re fully nd richly complete: To mn, to ntions, to the church, every chpter is lesson; nd the history, studied in the light of the lw nd prophets, is to be pplied to life under the guidnce of the Gospel. Divisions of the History The gret dividing points of Hebrew history fter the Exodus re: (1) the entrnce into the promised lnd; (2) the estblishment of the kingdom under Sul ; (3) the divisions of the kingdom; (4) the cptivity of Judh ; nd (5) the close of prophecy. I. From the Settlement of Cnn to the Division of the Kingdom. Settlement to Sul. Books: Joshu, Judges, Ruth, I Smuel Sul to Solomon. Books: I nd II Smuel, I Kings 1 11, I Chronicles, nd II Chronicles 1 9. II. Divisions of the Kingdom to the Cptivity. Books: II Kings 12 25, II Chronicles III. Cptivity to the Close of Prophecy. 1. Cptivity. No historicl books. Informtion in the propheticl books of Jeremih, Ezekiel, nd Dniel. 2. Restortion. Books: Ezr nd Nehemih. Esther dels with personl story in Bbylon. Joshu Author. Unknown. Joshu the source of most of the informtion. Time Covered. Entrnce into Cnn to the deth of Joshu, bout 25 yers. Contents. Story of the conquest nd settlement of Cnn. Fulfillment of God s promise to Abrhm nd his descendnts regrding posses sion of the promised lnd. 6

76 74 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I Divisions (for generl view nd memory work) I. Conquest of Cnn, II. Division of the Lnd Among the Tribes, III. Joshu s Frewell Addresses, 23, 24. Outline (for reference nd study) I. Conquest of Cnn, God s chrge to Joshu, Spies t Jericho, Mirculous crossing of the Jordn, 5:1 3, Preprtions for the conquest, Conquest of centrl Cnn, 10:15.. Cpture of Jericho, 6. b. Sin of Achn nd the defet t Ai, 7. c. Conquest of Ai nd reding of lw t Ebl, 8. 10: Conquest of southern Cnn, 10: Conquest of northern Cnn, 11. d. Gibeon spred. Long dy of bttle t Beth-horon, 9:1 8. Summry, 12. II. Division of the Lnd Among the Tribes, Description of the lnd, Allotment of the lnd, First division, five tribes, 17. b. Second division, seven tribes, 14 cities of refuge, nd Levites, Misunderstnding bout the ltr t the Jordn, 22. III. Joshu s Frewell Addresses, 23, First frewell ddress, Second frewell ddress, 24: Deth of Joshu, 24: Buril of Joseph s bones, 24:32, 33. The Conquest of Cnn Joshu hd been the trusted helper of Moses for forty yers, during the entire wilderness wndering from Egypt to Cnn. Hving been born in Egypt nd hving lived there till he reched mture mnhood, he hd hd rich experience nd trining before being ordined, some forty yers lter, s Moses successor to led Isrel into the Promised Lnd nd tke possession of it. The gret test of his life hd come when he with Cleb demonstrted fith in God by recommending the immedite conquest of Cnn, t which time they were lmost stoned to deth by the unbelieving Isrelites. Besides

77 Lesson IX THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN 75 his gret fith in God nd proved obedience, his outstnding tlent ws tht of militry ledership. He ws gret generl, s he hd lredy demonstrted in the victorious conflict with the Amlekites t Rephidim, s well s in the Est-Jordn cmpign before the deth of Moses Wht ws needed fter Moses deth ws militry ledership combined with bsolute fithfulness to God This rre combintion Joshu furnished to n unusul degree. Hence he ws publicly ordined by Moses before the high priest nd the congregtion in Shittim, nd received privte consecrtion nd chrge from Jehovh in the tberncle. The chrcter nd history of Joshu, s reveled in the record of his work in the book bering his nme, re very instructive. In the first plce, the Spirit of God ws in him. Although he hd the full promise of success from God, yet he received direct chrge from God to be strong, of good cour ge, nd very courgeous. In other words, zel nd devotion were necessry to success. Joshu hd the right combintion of experience, tlent, intelligence, zel, nd fith to mke gret nd successful leder of Isrel nd servnt of God. He relized fully tht pryer nd dediction to God were nec essry. Hence before the conquest of the Cnnites (fter Jericho) he solemnly renewed the dediction of himself nd the people to God, nd in times of emergency sought by pryer specil blessing nd help. In return God gve him specil tokens of His presence nd blessing, s t the crossing of the Jordn nd the cpture of Jericho. The militry progrm of conquest ws very simple nd ws effectively crried out except for the temporry setbck t Ai, due to the covetous deed of Achn. It ws s follows: The permnent cmp ws estblished t Gilgl est of Jericho in the Jordn vlley. From here Jericho nd Ai, strong fortresses of the enemy, were conquered. Then in two cm pigns, one in the south with the gret victory of Beth-horon where the dy ws mirculously lengthened to complete the victory, nd one in the north with the gret victory of Merom, the generl conquest of the lnd ws completed. Joshu blundered, however, in three points: (1) in mking trety with the hethen Gibeonites ; (2) in not occupying the citdel

78 76 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I of the Jebusites, lter Jeruslem ; nd (3) in not conquering the Philistines. This left strong enemy forces in the center of the country, nd tended to seprte Judh in the south from the other tribes in the north, nd probbly ccounted in prt for the lter clevge between the tribes which led to the division of the kingdom. A totl of seven yers ws occupied in the conquest. A brief summry of the conquest is given in Joshu 12. The high points in the story of the conquest re the vic tories over Jericho nd Ai. Two things stnd out in the cpture of Jericho: the mircle of the flling of the wlls, nd the prt plyed by the hrlot, Rhb, who ws sved for her service to the people of God nd found plce in the ncestry of the Redeemer. The story of Ai is vluble becuse of the lesson (Achn) tht unconfessed, hidden sin mong God s people will prevent the power of God from working nd will render service ineffective. After restitution hd been mde victory ws gin possible. The conquest of the lnd ws, however, not the equivlent to dispossession of the hethen inhbitnts by the Isrelites; unfortuntely the lnd ws not wholly occupied, but only for the most prt the centrl hill country. The Jordn Vlley nd the costl plin remined in the hnds of the enemy until the time of Dvid. Even in the occupied territory the Cnnites were not completely driven out or exterminted. The remining groups were constnt source of irrittion to the Isrelites nd led them into idoltry nd sin. The pln of God hd been complete extermintion of the Cnnites for this very reson. Isrel needed to be kept pure, nd they needed n object lesson in the wful consequences of sin. The Cnnites were ferfully wicked, steeped in idoltry, licentiousness, nd cruelty. They were themselves invders, nd not the originl inhbitnts of the lnd. There cn be no criticism of God s instructions which mde Isrel the instru ment of holy God to punish sinful people, so fr sunk in corruption tht there ws little hope of recliming them, where s they were only source of pollution to Isrel s it ws. It is only regrettble tht the commnd ws not fully crried out. During the conquest ll Isrel ws ssembled t Mt. Ebl

79 Lesson IX THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN 77 nd Mt. Gerizim in the hert of the lnd, where ll the lw ws red, including the blessings nd cursings pronounced by Moses in Deuteronomy, nd ll Isrel ccepted the lw. In the conquest we hve the finl triumph of God s people, nd the fulfillment of God s promise. Just so the church my expect t the end of time to enter the promised lnd of eternl rest, triumphnt, possessing the fullness of the slvtion nd redemption promised by God to His believing children. The Division of the Lnd Among the Tribes Cnn ws to be the home of Isrel s tribes from hence forth. The distribution ws mde under Joshu s direction by lot, prtly t Gilgl, nd prtly t Shiloh, the lrger tribes receiving lrger portions. Reuben, Gd, nd hlf of Mnsseh lredy hd their llotments est of the Jordn. The Levites received no tribl re, but insted forty-eight cities out of the whole lnd. Specil grnts were mde, like Hebron to Cleb, nd Timnth-serh to Joshu. Six cities of refuge for inno cent mnslyers were estblished. The districts ssigned for occuption hd to be conquered fully by the tribes, work which Joshu strongly encourged. During the llotment the tberncle ws set up t Shiloh, where it remined until Dvid brought it to Jeruslem. The Frewell Addresses of Joshu The nobility of chrcter nd true piety nd devotion of Joshu re beutifully portryed in the two frewell ddresses which he gve to Isrel shortly before his deth. The first one is touching ppel to Isrel to love the Lord nd serve Him obediently, bsed upon reminder of ll tht the Lord hd done for Isrel, nd reinforced by promises nd thretenings. The second ddress is of similr nture nd ws given t Shechem. It briefly recounts the history of God s mercies from the time of Terh on down nd centers in n ppel to Isrel to serve the true God choose you this dy whom ye will serve ;... but s for me nd my house, we will serve the Lord (Josh. 24:15), nd leds to renewed covennt of obedience to the lw of God. A stone of witness ws set up t Shechem s memoril to the covennt. Als, how soon both the stone

80 78 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I memoril nd the covennt were forgotten nd with wht disstrous results! Joshu hd tried to commit Isrel for ll time to fithfulness to Jehovh, but he hd tried wht is impos sible. Ech genertion must mke it own decisions nd stnd the test itself. Joshu s ppel quickened for the moment the loylty of the leders of Isrel, but when his ssocites nd friends were gone things chnged for the worse. Questions (For Review nd Discussion) 1. Why did the Jews cll the historicl books the former prophets? 2. Give severl chrcteristics of the historicl books. 3. Nme eight men who wrote portions of the historicl rec ords used in the historicl books. 4. In wht two respects ws Joshu gret? 5. Nme the three steps (cmpigns) in the conquest of Pl estine by Joshu. 6. Wht were Joshu s three blunders, nd why were they serious? 7. Wht lesson my be drwn from Achn s sin t Ai? 8. How were the Levites provided for in the llotment of tribl lnd? 9. Wht chllenge did Joshu mke to Isrel just before his deth? 10. Study the ccompnying mp nd locte the different tribes, cities of refuge, etc.

81 rtf ) To Mt..Lebnon _^ 3 jjlpkt. HOLMOH p /NAPHTALI A jmisrephoth-mlm \ r A C U m / «eh«tm /\OrlLX\ I / / / ^^yntf d#ilroy# «f north * rn» 1 v _ BLjf Vod b *«m nimxl 1 hsoi or Llsh DAN Th» tril>«of Dn conifuorod Ihlj north nereth country bocuio ih«u lnhoritnc * Is south Conn bod b *o too mil, fjoshu 1IM7) Thn Jo* mi conpuud th conqu * «t of ll tho ic * 1 t * r * <4 p+opl * «1/or * Mt. Lebnon l lh» north to Ml. Hlok Is tho south. (Joshu 11:17) Mdon Z 1 ipfetxut/ Cr^JrS^A^/ZEEULUN; ft dojlrox^4 V r or ' VP > tu,sh l Aphek i I JokneiS t \ / I ^ 'JISSACHARJ Megiddo ru. ft MANASSEH (Est) MOIM hd dolmrtod Tnch / Beth-sh ll Ihs immy Ulb it»1 tho Jordn rlrsr. MANASSEH (West) *B / KT. r^xsji&r! J ' c^sl. ii, ' V.J d-j t / i «*r VW tf EPHRAIM r Cod destroyed 1 B I wll ol.. 8 VJencho / / A ( I larirlini/ J Aii Hi! r Giiqrs tuppoisd loction! GAD ^Beth-noron / Ammonites fs&wbjig ṅljr TAMTKT «bel-shittim / i. KUO / i 7 / / REUBEN M ^ s«5k5 ROM. UIM * Th * 0 mot# ll th# SIMEON How the tribes entered PALESTINE V *?Debit nd their lter boundries. Jofhun s expeditions of conquest b Scle of Miles o % 30 An * Ard % o fto donqutrd ll Plces of qumhonhls loction omltud KT. HALAX V - r loction U Kdssh- brom uncertin t / 4 SE I R / r» o * t % 4* I t I it <1 V Lsw & I 4 = 2 #

82 Lesson X The Period of the Judges (Judges, Ruth) Judges Author. Unknown, possibly Smuel. Time Covered. 400 yers (?) from Joshu to Smuel; with Smuel bout 450 yers. Acts 13:20. Contents. Experiences of Isrel with disobedience, sin nd delivernce under vrious judges, with stories illustrting conditions. Divisions (for generl view nd memory work) I. Trnsition from Joshu to the Judges, 1:1 3:6. II. Stories of Thirteen Judges, 3:7-16. III. Two Stories Illustrting Conditions in the Trnsition Period of I, Outline (for reference nd study) I. Trnsition from Joshu to the Judges, 1:1 3:6. 1. Occuption of the lnd by the tribes, 1:1 2:5. 3:6. 2. Introduction to the period of the judges with spiritul lesson indicted, 2:6 II. Stories of Thirteen Judges, 3: Othniel, 3: Ehud, 3: Shmgr, 3: Deborh nd Brk, 4.. The Song of Deborh, Gideon, Abimelech, Tol, 10:1, Jir, 10: Jephthh, 10. Ibzn, 12: :6 12: Elon, 12:11, Abdon, 12: Smson, III. Two Stories Illustrting Conditions in the Trnsition Period of Division I, Mich s imge worship nd its estblishment mong the Dnites, 17, The sin of the men of Gibeh nd its punishment, Selections for Reding: Chpters 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9,

83 Lesson X THE PERIOD OF THE JUDGES 81 Trnsition from Joshu to the Judges The Book of Judges tells the story of conditions in Isrel from the deth of Joshu to the time of Smuel, the lst of the judges, who prepred the wy for King Sul. It tells the story s record of the spiritul life of Isrel nd gives us in dvnce the generl pln into which the entire story of the centuries from Joshu to Smuel will fll, with the lesson which is to be lerned from it. This dvnce explntion is found in the sec ond chpter of the book fter brief sttement of the ctul occuption of the llotted tribl districts by the tribes. The genertion who hd worked with Joshu nd who hd been inspired by his fithful ledership were both courgeous nd fithful nd were much better thn their murmuring nd obstinte fthers in the wilderness. But grdully the zel for Jehovh cooled, the lws were trnsgressed, the people went fter strnge gods, nd sin took deep root. We pss into the Drk Ages of Isrel s history. Judges 2:7, 10-12, grphicl ly tells the story, And the people served the Lord ll the dys of Joshu, nd ll the dys of the elders tht outlived Joshu, who hd seen ll the gret works of the Lord, tht he did for Isrel.... And there rose nother genertion fter them, which knew not the Lord, nor yet the works which he hd done for Isrel. And the children of Isrel did evil in the sight of the Lord, nd served Blim: nd they forsook the Lord God of their fthers, which brought them out of the lnd of Egypt, nd followed other gods, of the gods of the people tht were round bout them, nd bowed themselves unto them, nd provoked the Lord to nger. A number of resons probbly ccounted for this trgedy. After the genertion died which hd n experimentl knowl edge of Jehovh s gret work for Isrel, the rising genertion ws not tught the glorious deeds of Jehovh for His chosen people. The precepts of the lw were not fithfully implnted in the home. The worship of God ws neglected, nd s igno rnce nd indifference spred, the shrp distinction between Isrel nd their idoltrous neighbors disppered. Insted of destroying the hethen they kept them s slves nd begn to intermrry with them, nd consequently idoltry cme in.

84 82 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I But in ddition to the religious filure nother serious mis tke ws mde. The tribes hd pledged themselves to help ech other in time of need. But soon ech tribe becme so busy cultivting its own territory tht it did not listen to ppels for help from the other tribes in times of need. Occ sionlly there ws united stnd ginst the enemy, s t the time of Deborh, nd then there ws glorious victory. But, in generl, ese, luxury, licentiousness, nd indifference broke down ntionl unity, nd wekened their powers of defense, while the Cnnite inhbitnts of the lnd, grdully growing stronger, either ided the foreign powers who ttcked Isrel, or themselves, s in the cse of the Philistines, becme strong enough to ttck Isrel gin nd gin with repeted success. The uthor of the Book of Judges presents his story s cycle of four stges tht kept repeting itself : (1) Isrel for sook Jehovh for other gods ; (2) Jehovh in nger sent n enemy to enslve them ; (3) in their distress Isrel cried to Jehovh for delivernce; (4) Jehovh in mercy rised up leder to deliver Isrel from the oppressor. This victorious leder then becme judge for the reminder of his life. Ech genertion filed to lern from its predecessor the lesson of postsy nd destruction, nd so the story repeted itself. During this period locl government seems to hve been in the hnds of the princes of the tribes nd the elders, with no ntionl government. The judges were primrily militry leders, who temporrily exercised generl uthority over lrger res, but t no time over the whole of Isrel. A totl of thirteen judges re nmed in the book, six mjor judges nd seven minor ones. Since the territories over which they ruled, or the tribes which they delivered, were seldom the sme, there is no wy of determining exctly how long the period covered by the book lsted. We re not to think of the thirteen judges s successors to ech other except in few cses. A list of the judges with their tribes nd the enemies from which they won delivernces, is given below. To the thirteen nmed in the Book of Judges, the two of I Smuel ( Eli nd Smuel) re dded to mke the list of judges complete. The six mjor judges were Othniel, Ehud, Brk (nd Deborh), Gideon, Jephthh, nd Smson.

85 Lesson X THE PERIOD OF THE JUDGES 83 List of Judges* Judge Tribe Enemy 1. Othniel Judh Mesopotmins 2. Ehud Benjmin Mobitesi 3. Shmgr Judh (?) Philistines 4. Brk (& Deborh) Nphtli (& Ephrim) Cnnites 5. Gideon W. Mnsseh Midinites 6. Abimelech W. Mnsseh Midinites 7. Tol Isschr Midinites 8. Jir E. Mnesseh Midinites 9. Jephthh Gd Ammonites 10. Ibzn Zebulun (?) Ammonites 11. Elon Zebulun Ammonites 12. Abdon Ephrim Ammonites 13. Eli Levi Philistines 14. Smson Dn Philistines 15. Smuel Levi Philistines In generl the judges were men of bility nd ledership, whom the Spirit of God chose nd endowed with courge nd power. Some were men of fith nd high chrcter, others seem to hve been quite ignornt of the lw of Moses, nd severl hd low morl stndrd. The best known of them, Smson, is by no mens wht he should hve been. We re to think of the judges, not s prophets or techers, but rther s specil men ppointed for definite purpose, nmely, mili try success nd government. God hd to use the men who were vilble nd do the best He could with them. The fults of these men re not for moment whitewshed or condoned, heroes though they were. We mrvel t wht God cn do with wek vessels. Wht kind of men re we furnishing Him to work with tody? The gret God is, fter ll, limited in the work of His kingdom by the men whom He hs to use s His workers. Glimpses of the Leding Judges 1. Othniel drove out the Mesopotmin invders, who hd oppressed Isrel eight yers. In his youth Othniel hd won the hnd of Cleb s dughter by his brve nd successful ttck From Smpey, Syllbus for Old Testment Study, p. 91.

86 84 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I on the strong town of Kirjth-sepher. Josh. 15: The Spirit of Jehovh cme upon him one dy s he ws meditting on the sufferings of Isrel, nd he drew his sword nd chsed the invders out of the lnd. Judg. 3: Eglon of Mob mightily oppressed Isrel for eighteen yers. Ehud, left-hnded Benjmite, resolved to ssssinte the cruel king nd free his people from the Mobite yoke. He drove shrp sword through the body of the king, nd then destroyed his rmy completely. The Bible tells the story of Ehud s deed without either prise or censure. Judg. 3: Deborh, prophet nd femle judge, possessed inspi rtion, skill, nd courge. In emergencies God sometimes uses women to do work ordinrily committed to men. Deborh is perhps the gretest chrcter described in the Book of Judges. Whether seted under the plm tree in the hill country of Ephrim, or going with Brk t the hed of Isrel s rmy, or singing the prises of Jehovh for the victory over Siser, she is picturesque nd noble figure. She ws the wife of Lpidoth, nd clls herself mother in Isrel (Judg. 4, 5). 4. The story of Gideon is fvorite with both young nd old. God found Gideon discourged nd timid ; but led him first to stronger personl fith in Himself nd then by degrees brought him to the point of ttcking the host of Midin. Gideon t first hrdly dred to ssil idoltry mong his own people; but when he hd once mde beginning, by breking down the ltr of Bl nd cutting down the imge of Astrte ( hethen goddess) beside it, the Spirit of God gve him courge to gther n rmy ginst the invders. Jehovh stripped him of ll his rmy but three hundred brve men nx ious to drive out the plundering Midinites. By skillful night ttck he routed the Midinite host, nd then pursued the foe until victory ws complete. The story bounds in drmtic scenes. Gideon seems to hve been uninstructed in the Mosic lw, like most of the militry leders of the troubled period of the judges. He mde costly golden ephod, which becme n object of worship to his fmily nd to ll Isrel. He lso took mny wives. Though refusing to ccept the office of king over Isrel, he yet lived in royl stte. Judg Jephthh delivered the Isrelites est of the Jordn from

87 Lesson X THE PERIOD OF THE JUDGES 85 the inrods of the Ammonites. If one stops to consider the story of Jephthh's erly life, he cn well understnd how such rude chieftin would mingle with his devotion to Jeho vh much of hethen ignornce nd superstition. When diplo mcy filed with the king of Ammon, Jephthh went out to bttle, fter hving mde rsh vow (perhps in secret) tht he would offer up s burnt offering the person who should first meet him out of the door of his house, if he should return victorious. It ws wrong to mke such vow, it ws wrong to execute it when mde; but Jephthh felt in honor bound to keep it, even though it ment the scrifice of his only dughter on the smoking ltr. Some think tht Jephthh did not literl ly scrifice his dughter but condemned her to lifelong celibcy. We cn no more defend this scrifice thn we cn defend Smson s immorl cts. The Spirit of Jehovh clothed Jeph thh with power in bttle, nd used him s deliverer of Isrel, so tht he hs plce mong the heroes of fith. Judg Smson ws mixture of strength nd wekness. How often must his pious fther nd mother hve wondered t his strnge tstes nd peculir deeds! He gmbles nd plys prc ticl jokes nd gives the reins to his niml ppetites. He is not strong enough in his morl life to resist the chrms of the Phil istine women. One chets him out of the secret of his riddle, nd nother betrys him into the hnds of his enemies. Here we behold Smson the wekling. When the young lion rors ginst him, he rends the fierce best s he would rend kid. When the Philistines shout gin him, ropes nd thongs re snpped like threds, nd he leps mong them nd slys thousnd men wth his own hnds. In despertion, the blind hero pulls house down upon himself nd his foes, tht he my be venged for the loss of his eyes. Here we behold Smson the mighty mn. Judg The finl four chpters of the book give two trgic stories to illustrte the conditions of Isrel bout the time of the deth of Joshu, just before the time of the judges. The position of the stories t the end of the book, fter the story of Smson, is misleding. In the first story we re surprised to find grnd son of Moses officiting s priest before grven imge. So soon ws the second commndment broken by priest. The

88 86 BIBLE SURVEY COURSE Unit I second story tells of n immorl outrge tht led to wr which lmost exterminted the tribe of Benjmin nd left it wek nd smll tribe forever fter. Ruth Author. Unknown, possibly Smuel. Time. Probbly lte in the period of the judges. Contents. The experiences of Mobite womn who ws converted to the Jewish fith. Purpose. To inspire to fithfulness. Outline I. Nomi s Sojourn in Mob, with Deth of Husbnd nd Son, 1:1-5. II. Return of Nomi with Ruth to Bethlehem, 1:6-22. III. Struggle of the Two Women with Poverty, Helped by Boz, 2. IV. Ruth s Bold Act, 3. V. Redemption of Nomi s Property nd Mrrige of Ruth, 4. It is refreshing to turn from the drk picture of Isrel pre sented to us in the Book of Judges to the beutiful story of Ruth contined in the short book tht bers her nme. This chrming story is true one, not fiction, nd is given to show tht the religion tht ws the peculir precious possession of Isrel could nd did produce chrcters of fith nd noble con duct s well s beutiful home life. No doubt there were other chrcters s noble s those of Nomi, Ruth, nd Boz, nd no doubt there were other homes s ttrctive s the ones these persons represent. The heroine of the book is Ruth, who surpsses in fith nd devotion both Nomi nd Boz, lthough both of the ltter were noble chrcters. Ruth must hve been converted from pgnism to the worship of the true God by the beuty of the lives of the fmily into which she mrried. Her chrcter is reveled in: (1) her willingness to give up her ntive lnd nd people to remin with the worshipers of God ; (2) her devotion to her mother-in-lw, not only in ccompnying her, but in supporting her fter the return to Bethlehem ; (3) her indus trious, modest, fithful, ffectionte life in Bethlehem. Ruth ws model dughter nd becme model wife. The women of Bethlehem were right in their estimte when they sid to Nomi tht Ruth ws better thn seven sons. The second hlf of the book is love story deling with

89 Lesson X THE PERIOD OF THE JUDGES 87 the courtship nd mrrige of Boz nd Ruth, the gret-grnd prents of Dvid. The fct tht the book closes with the gen elogy of the ncestors of Dvid gives good resons for the thought tht the story is included in the Bible becuse of Ruth s reltionship to Dvid. Here the mercy of God is shown to be broder thn the rcil nd blood limits of Isrel, for the blood of Ruth, the foreigner, flowed not only in the veins of Dvid but lso in the veins of Dvid s greter Son, the Mes sih. In the second hlf of the story we see not only Ruth s fith in God, but lso her fith in good men. Boz, too, is n exmple of virtuous mn, with high regrd for virtuous womnhood, nd for the duties of son to his mother. So we see in the Book of Ruth lives tht were good nd pure nd true. Such lives re beutiful nd ttrctive to mn nd plesing to God tody s much s they were three thousnd yers go in Bethlehem. My the story of Ruth who went through every test nd ws fithful continue to inspire men with the purity, beuty, nd power of sweet home life. Questions ( For Review nd Discussion) 1. Wht ws the typicl succession of events in the time of the judges? 2. Wht two fundmentl resons might be given for the repeted postsy of Isrel in the time of the judges? Why is it impossible to know the exct time covered by the 3. Book of Judges? 4. Nme the six mjor judges nd tell something of ech one. 5. Why did Ruth choose the people of God rther thn her own people? 6. Wht lessons of home life cn be drwn from the Book of Ruth? 7. Wht reltion ws Ruth to King Dvid?

90 » m SSFS 35 Ar - v! - f \^* v / ' * f V * I * «V - / / I *.. '. 1., / ' *. * - ^. A f ', X. '. < 1 x.. j. 4. V * V * *- # 4 * * r * *.* l i» * * X * * *.» * f. * - -. * * X / A V > «% /- * t m * * C»... - ' ' I ' - * V 4 4. / '. 4 s ««A 9.T.r 4. * * i- ' r.:. * * * / ' * ' * % f y * -. *.* * - * * ' I - * -. - %. * * %. * > ' l» -.» *s -,V V - % 1 E&L. -.w. &JL2&. ' V., - ft.. ; ' f I I fc *.,. -. * - V /.. - f > * ; w, 7 * < i

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