Unit 4. Reason as a way of knowing. Tuesday, March 4, 14

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Unit 4. Reason as a way of knowing. Tuesday, March 4, 14"

Transcription

1 Unit 4 Reason as a way of knowing

2 I. Reasoning At its core, reasoning is using what is known as building blocks to create new knowledge I use the words logic and reasoning interchangeably. Technically, logic is reasoning conducted according to formal rules.

3 II. Basic terminology Arguments Premises and conclusions Inductive v. deductive Fallacies

4 III. Induction A. Definitions Inductive reasoning uses observed experience to make judgments about the unobserved Inductive reasoning uses the past to predict the future Inductive reasoning assumes that nature/reality follows predictable patterns

5 IV. Deduction A. Definitions

6 III. Induction B. Significance Inductive reasoning is the most common form of reasoning we use List three examples of how you have reasoned inductively today Inductive reasoning is the basis for science Inductive reasoning works - it is pragmatic

7 III. Induction C. Three basic types 3 examples: Small pox Politics Education Public health of inductive arguments Induction by generalization or enumeration Induction by analogy Causal induction Which type of inductive argument is each of the above examples?

8 Assignment Read and annotate the two short articles Re-write each article as a standard form argument with 2-4 premises and 1 conclusion Review the paper assignment. How might these articles be relevant to the paper assignment?

9 III. Induction C. Three basic types 3 examples: Small pox Politics Education Public health of inductive arguments Induction by generalization or enumeration Induction by analogy Causal induction Which type of inductive argument is each of the above examples?

10 C. Assessing Inductive arguments Three general principles Does the argument start with justified premises? Does the argument include all relevant information? Is the argument valid? (does acceptance of the premises justify acceptance of the conclusion?)

11 Example 1 1. Carbon dioxide does not trap heat in the atmosphere 2. Global average temperatures have been shown to fluctuate widely over time Therefore: The current increase in global temperatures is the results from natural rather than man-made factors

12 Example 2 1. Global warming causes unusual weather events 2. This week s deep freeze in the central and eastern parts of the country was an unusual weather event Therefore: This week s deep freeze was caused by global warming

13 Example 3 1. Global warming leads to temperature increases 2. This week s deep freeze in the central and eastern parts of the country saw temperatures plummet Therefore: Global warming is not true

14 C. Assessing Inductive arguments Assessing enumerative arguments (3 questions) On how many cases is the conclusion based? Are the cases examined representative? Could other conclusions be drawn?

15 C. Assessing Inductive arguments Assessing analogical arguments How many times does the analogy apply? In what number of respects are the things involved analogous? What is the strength of the conclusion relative to the strength of the premises? How many dissimilarities are there between the two things being compared? Is the analogy relevant?

16 C. Assessing Inductive arguments Assessing Causal arguments Is the causal claim a good explanation for the observed correlation? (Is the correlation serial rather than causal) Is there any other reasonable explanation for the correlation?

17 Informal fallacies This section of the presentation is drawn from materials on the website of the Texas State University Department of Philosophy website. (Accessed on at

18 Ad Hominem (Attacking the person): This fallacy occurs when, instead of addressing someone's argument or position, you irrelevantly attack the person or some aspect of the person who is making the argument. The fallacious attack can also be direct to membership in a group or institution.

19 Appeal to ignorance This fallacy occurs when you argue that your conclusion must be true, because there is no evidence against it. This fallacy wrongly shifts the burden of proof away from the one making the claim.

20 Begging the question The fallacy of begging the question occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it. In other words, you assume without proof the stand/position, or a significant part of the stand, that is in question. Begging the question is also called arguing in a circle.

21 Confusion of Necessary with a Sufficient Condition A causal fallacy you commit this fallacy when you assume that a necessary condition of an event is sufficient for the event to occur. A necessary condition is a condition that must be present for an event to occur. A sufficient condition is a condition or set of conditions that will produce the event. A necessary condition must be there, but it alone does not provide sufficient cause for the occurrence of the event. Only the sufficient grounds can do this. In other words, all of the necessary elements must be there.

22 Equivocation The fallacy of equivocation occurs when a key term or phrase in an argument is used in an ambiguous way, with one meaning in one portion of the argument and then another meaning in another portion of the argument.

23 False dilemma When you reason from an either-or position and you haven't considered all relevant possibilities you commit the fallacy of false dilemma.

24 Irrelevant Authority The fallacy of irrelevant authority is committed when you accept without proper support for his or her alleged authority, a person's claim or proposition as true. Alleged authorities should only be used when the authority is reporting on his or her field of expertise, the authority is reporting on facts about which there is some agreement in his or her field, and you have reason to believe he or she can be trusted. Alleged authorities can be individuals or groups. The attempt to appeal to the majority or the masses is a form of irrelevant authority. The attempt to appeal to an elite or select group is a form of irrelevant authority.

25 Red Herring This fallacy consists in diverting attention from the real issue by focusing instead on an issue having only a surface relevance to the first.

26 Slippery Slope In a slippery slope argument, a course of action is rejected because, with little or no evidence, one insists that it will lead to a chain reaction resulting in an undesirable end or ends. The slippery slope involves an acceptance of a succession of events without direct evidence that this course of events will happen.

27 Straw man This fallacy occurs when, in attempting to refute another person's argument, you address only a weak or distorted version of it. Straw person is the misrepresentation of an opponent's position or a competitor's product to tout one's own argument or product as superior. This fallacy occurs when the weakest version of an argument is attacked while stronger ones are ignored.

28 Two wrongs If you try to justify an act/belief by pointing out in others a similar act/belief, you are committing the fallacy of "two wrongs make a right." This fallacy can occur by suggesting "if others are doing it, I can too" (common practice). Another form of the fallacy occurs when you dismiss a criticism of your action/belief, because your critic is acting/ believing in a similar way (you do it, too).

29 IV. Deduction A. Definitions Deduction - Truth preserving! Truth - What is the case Validity - Whether a conclusion follows from its premises Syllogism - A deductive argument with exactly two premises and a conclusion which uses categorical propositions to express relationships between three terms Critical Note: Truth and validity are independent! True premises may lead to an invalid conclusion and false premises may lead to a valid conclusion!

30 Anatomy of a syllogism The term which doesn t appear in the conclusion is the middle term All violists are clever All virtuosos are a violists Therefore: virtuosos are clever The subject of the conclusion is the minor term The predicate nominative of the conclusion is the major term

31 Anatomy of a syllogism Categorical propositions are assertions about classes of objects which affirm or deny that one class is included in another either in whole or in part. All violists are clever All virtuosos are a violists Therefore: virtuosos are clever It is because syllogisms always contain categorical propositions that they are often called categorical syllogisms

32 4 types of categorical propositions Universal affirmative - A propositions All violinists are talented Universal negative - E propositions No violinists are mean AffIrmo nego Particular affirmative - I propositions Some violinists are left-handed Particular negative - O propositions Some violinists are not Democrats

33 Using the definitions just provided, write three valid arguments that meet the following conditions: Two true premises and a true conclusion Two true premises and a false conclusion One true and one false premise and a true conclusion

34 B. Assessing the validity of categorical syllogisms

35 Assessing syllogisms diagrams using Venn diagrams First Draw a triple Venn diagram, numbering the quadrants as shown. Second - Label the circles of a three circle Venn diagram with the syllogism s three terms. It is customary to label the top left circle as the minor term, the top right circle as the major term and the bottom circle as the middle term. Third Diagram any universal premises by shading the areas excluded by those premises. Remember, the shaded areas are those excluded by the premise. Fourth Diagram any particular premises by placing an x either Completely within a circle if it is clear from the premises that the particular term is wholly included in the circle Or On a line if the premises do not determine on which side of the line it should go Finally Inspect the diagram to see if the diagram of the premises is consistent with the conclusion. 1 All violists are clever All virtuosos are violists Therefore: All virtuosos are clever Virtuosos Violists Clever 3 6

36 Assessing the validity of syllogisms using Venn diagrams Virtuosos Clever No No 4 No 5 Valid 6 All violists are clever All virtuosos are violists Therefore: All virtuosos are clever No 7 Violists

37 Assessing the validity of syllogisms using Venn diagrams Apples Bland 1 2 Invalid 5 Some 3 4 No 6 All crunchy things are apples Some bland things are crunchy things Therefore: All apples are bland things No 7 Crunchy

38 All syllogisms can be expressed symbolically, since each of the terms simply represents a variable A C 1 2 Invalid 5 Some 3 4 No 6 All B are A Some C are B Therefore: All A are C No 7 B

39 Nonsense words are fun, too Bingles Woot-Woots 1 2 Invalid 5 Some 3 4 No 6 All Bangles are Bingles Some Woot-Woots are Bangles Therefore: All Bingles are Woot-Woots No 7 Bangles

40 An on-line venn diagram tool can be found at: venn.cgi?exercise=6.3a venn.cgi

41 Other means of assessing categorical syllogisms Mood and figure The Mood of a categorical syllogism is the series of three letters representing each proposition (AffIrmo, nego) Thus All A are B No B are C Therefore: All C are A Would be in the Mood AEA

42 Other means of assessing categorical syllogisms Mood and figure The figure of a categorical syllogism has to do with the position of the middle term We can draw lines through the middle terms in each of these four diagrams to create a collar-like shape, like this: Accessed on at

43 Aristotle, you re the man, but don t fool with Boole!

44 Aristotle, you re the man, but don t fool with Boole! All A are B No B are C Therefore: Invalid! All C are A Mood = AEA Figure = 4

45 Ooh! Ooh! It s invalid when we do then Venn too! C A No No 5 Invalid No 6 No All A are B No B are C Therefore: All C are A 7 B

46 Other means of assessing categorical syllogisms Formal fallacies - No syllogism that commits one of the following formal fallacies is valid Fallacy of the undistributed middles - Any syllogism in which the middle term is undistributed (to be distributed means all members of a term s class are affected by the proposition*) is invalid. Fallacy of Illicit Major/Illicit Minor - If a term is distributed in the conclusion, it must be distributed in one of the premises or the argument is invalid. Fallacy of Exclusive premises - Any categorical syllogism with two negative premises is invalid Fallacy of Affirmative Conclusion/Negative Premise and Negative Conclusion/ Affirmative Premise - If an argument has a negative conclusion, one of the premises must be negative; if one of the premises is negative, the conclusion must be negative. Existential fallacy - If both of the premises are universal, the conclusion cannot be particular (Boole only) *A term is said to be distributed if it is either the subject of a universal or the predicate of a negative.

47 An now we can name the reason why this argument is invalid C A No No All A are B No B are C Therefore: All C are A 4 5 No No Fallacy of Affirmative Conclusion/NegativePremise 7 6 B

48 No Mr. Haydock, not another way to test validity! But wait, this one s so much fun... Remember that the conclusion of a valid syllogism must be true if the premises are true. So... If we take any syllogism and substitute premises which we know to be true (taking care to make sure the form is the same), if the the conclusion is true, the syllogism is valid. This is called assessing by substitution/counter example.

49 Let s try it! All A are B No B are C Therefore: All C are A All ferns are plants No plants are dogs Therefore: All dogs are ferns All Giggles are Googles All Sniglets are Giggles Therefore: All Sniglets are Googles All sharks are fish All Great Whites are sharks Therefore: All Great Whites are fish

50 Two other types of syllogism Disjunctive syllogisms Hypothetical syllogisms

51 Disjunctive syllogisms A disjunction is a statement that claims that at least one of two possibilities is true. For example: Either A or B Not A Therefore B

52 Inclusive or exclusive In common usage or is used exclusively: Entrees come with fries or coleslaw means you can get fries of coleslaw, but not both. But in logic (and computer science) or is generally inclusive, meaning that at least one of a series must be true (but both could be).

53 Disjunctive syllogisms Assuming the inclusive or, determine whether the following are valid or invalid. Be prepared to explain why you believe each statement is valid or invalid. Remember, validity means the conclusion must follow Either A or B A Invalid Therefore B Either not A or B A Valid Therefore B Either A or not both B and C A Therefore both B and C Invalid Either Fido ran away or he was hit by a car Fido ran away Therefore: Fido did not get hit by a car Invalid

54 Hypothetical syllogisms Hypothetical syllogisms are two premise deductive arguments in which (at least) one premise is a conditional (if) statement. There are two types of hypothetical syllogisms: Pure hypotheticals Mixed hypotheticals

55 Pure hypothetical syllogisms In a pure hypothetical syllogism, both premises are hypothetical statements If Gandalf fails then Godor Falls If Godor falls then the Shadow will triumph Therefore: If Gandalf fails then the Shadow will triumph Symbolically If p then q if q then r Therefore: If p then r The other valid form: If Mary comes to the party then Dale will not come If Dale does not come, then Ernie will not come Symbolically If p then not r If not r, then not q Therefore: If p then not q Therefore: If Mary comes to the party then Ernie will not come

56 Mixed hypothetical syllogisms In a mixed hypothetical syllogism, there is a conditional premise followed by a premise which registers agreement or disagreement with either the antecedent or the consequent of the conditional. The antecedent is if part of the statement, while the consequent is the then part of the statement There are two valid and two invalid forms of mixed hypothetical syllogism:

57 Valid mixed hypothetical syllogisms Modus Ponens (AA) If Legolas is an elf, then he is immortal Legolas is an elf Therefore: Legolas is immortal Symbolically If p then q p Therefore: q Modus Tolens (DC) If we are the only life in the universe, then the universe sucks The universe does not suck Therefore: We are not the only life in the universe Symbolically If p then q not q Therefore: not p

58 Are the following valid or invalid? Why? 1. If Andy is here then I am not late Andy is here Therefore: I am not late Valid - AA 3. If I am lying then Kant is right Kant is right Therefore: I am not not Lying Invalid - AC 5. If A then B If B the C Therefore: If A then C Valid HS 2. If Andy is here then I am not late If I am not late then I will pass Therefore: If Andy is not here then I will not pass Invalid HS 4. If A then B Not B Therefore: Not A Valid - DC 6. If there are monkeys then there will be trees There are no monkeys Therefore: There are no trees Invalid - DA

59 Logic and computer science Logic is an essential component of how computers work We will be doing a small project to demonstrate the connection between computers and logic from codeacademy.org

60 JavaScript basics for our project Declare a variable: var dogs Assign a value to a variable var dogs = 1.5 var dogs = rock var dogs = prompt( What is your favorite animal? ) Key concept - variables can change their value! in JS = is used to assign variables, mathematical equivalency is indicated by ===

61 JavaScript basics for our project If statement syntax if(some condition) {some action;} else {some action;} if/else if/else syntax if(some condition) {some action;} else if (some condition) {some action;} else {some action;} Key concept - syntax matters!

62 JavaScript basics for our project console.log - prints something to the console console.log( some string ); return - returns a value and stops a function return you are right!

63 Functions Functions are special variables that, when called, carry out a specific task. Function syntax var functionname=function(argument1, argument2) {instructions to be carried out be the function} The function we will write will contain some if/else statements which will return various strings. Calling a function - Functions do nothing until called. When a function is called, it will carry out its assigned task. Syntax for calling a function: functionname(argument1, argument2) The arguments in our case will be variables that we have previously defined and assigned values to.

64 Logic Unit Quiz On Monday we will have a culminating quiz on the logic unit. The quiz will count for 100 points in the minor assignments category. The quiz will be open notes You will be asked to do the following on the quiz: 1.Explain the difference between inductive and deductive reason. 2.Examine three inductive arguments and identify the informal fallacy that they commit (I will be fairly obvious here). 3.Assess whether or not two fallacies are valid categorical syllogisms using the venn diagram method and one other method (not substitution). 4.Identify whether three arguments are hypothetical or disjunctive syllogisms and assess the validity of each. 5.Briefly explain (one paragraph) why logic and coding are similar.

65 1 2 3 Arguments Therefore: Arguments Therefore:

What is reason? The power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of logic

What is reason? The power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of logic WoK 3 Reason What is reason? Webster s Dictionary defines reason as: The power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of logic and logic as: reasoning conducted or assessed according

More information

MCQ IN TRADITIONAL LOGIC. 1. Logic is the science of A) Thought. B) Beauty. C) Mind. D) Goodness

MCQ IN TRADITIONAL LOGIC. 1. Logic is the science of A) Thought. B) Beauty. C) Mind. D) Goodness MCQ IN TRADITIONAL LOGIC FOR PRIVATE REGISTRATION TO BA PHILOSOPHY PROGRAMME 1. Logic is the science of-----------. A) Thought B) Beauty C) Mind D) Goodness 2. Aesthetics is the science of ------------.

More information

What is an argument? PHIL 110. Is this an argument? Is this an argument? What about this? And what about this?

What is an argument? PHIL 110. Is this an argument? Is this an argument? What about this? And what about this? What is an argument? PHIL 110 Lecture on Chapter 3 of How to think about weird things An argument is a collection of two or more claims, one of which is the conclusion and the rest of which are the premises.

More information

Unit. Categorical Syllogism. What is a syllogism? Types of Syllogism

Unit. Categorical Syllogism. What is a syllogism? Types of Syllogism Unit 8 Categorical yllogism What is a syllogism? Inference or reasoning is the process of passing from one or more propositions to another with some justification. This inference when expressed in language

More information

In view of the fact that IN CLASS LOGIC EXERCISES

In view of the fact that IN CLASS LOGIC EXERCISES IN CLASS LOGIC EXERCISES Instructions: Determine whether the following are propositions. If some are not propositions, see if they can be rewritten as propositions. (1) I have a very refined sense of smell.

More information

CRITICAL THINKING. Formal v Informal Fallacies

CRITICAL THINKING. Formal v Informal Fallacies CRITICAL THINKING FAULTY REASONING (VAUGHN CH. 5) LECTURE PROFESSOR JULIE YOO Formal v Informal Fallacies Irrelevant Premises Genetic Fallacy Composition Division Appeal to the Person (ad hominem/tu quoque)

More information

Relevance. Premises are relevant to the conclusion when the truth of the premises provide some evidence that the conclusion is true

Relevance. Premises are relevant to the conclusion when the truth of the premises provide some evidence that the conclusion is true Relevance Premises are relevant to the conclusion when the truth of the premises provide some evidence that the conclusion is true Premises are irrelevant when they do not 1 Non Sequitur Latin for it does

More information

Venn Diagrams and Categorical Syllogisms. Unit 5

Venn Diagrams and Categorical Syllogisms. Unit 5 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Syllogisms Unit 5 John Venn 1834 1923 English logician and philosopher noted for introducing the Venn diagram Used in set theory, probability, logic, statistics, and computer

More information

1. To arrive at the truth we have to reason correctly. 2. Logic is the study of correct reasoning. B. DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS

1. To arrive at the truth we have to reason correctly. 2. Logic is the study of correct reasoning. B. DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS I. LOGIC AND ARGUMENTATION 1 A. LOGIC 1. To arrive at the truth we have to reason correctly. 2. Logic is the study of correct reasoning. 3. It doesn t attempt to determine how people in fact reason. 4.

More information

5.6.1 Formal validity in categorical deductive arguments

5.6.1 Formal validity in categorical deductive arguments Deductive arguments are commonly used in various kinds of academic writing. In order to be able to perform a critique of deductive arguments, we will need to understand their basic structure. As will be

More information

A short introduction to formal logic

A short introduction to formal logic A short introduction to formal logic Dan Hicks v0.3.2, July 20, 2012 Thanks to Tim Pawl and my Fall 2011 Intro to Philosophy students for feedback on earlier versions. My approach to teaching logic has

More information

LOGICAL FALLACIES/ERRORS OF ARGUMENT

LOGICAL FALLACIES/ERRORS OF ARGUMENT LOGICAL FALLACIES/ERRORS OF ARGUMENT Deduction Fallacies Term Definition Example(s) 1 Equivocation Ambiguity 2 types: The word or phrase may be ambiguous, in which case it has more than one distinct meaning

More information

Chapter 8 - Sentential Truth Tables and Argument Forms

Chapter 8 - Sentential Truth Tables and Argument Forms Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall Stetson University Chapter 8 - Sentential ruth ables and Argument orms 8.1 Introduction he truth-value of a given truth-functional compound proposition depends

More information

Chapter 5: Ways of knowing Reason (p. 111)

Chapter 5: Ways of knowing Reason (p. 111) Chapter 5: Ways of knowing Reason (p. 111) Neils Bohr (1885 1962) to Einstein: You are not thinking. You are merely being logical. Reason is one of the four ways of knowing: Perception Language Emotion

More information

Logic, reasoning and fallacies. Example 0: valid reasoning. Decide how to make a random choice. Valid reasoning. Random choice of X, Y, Z, n

Logic, reasoning and fallacies. Example 0: valid reasoning. Decide how to make a random choice. Valid reasoning. Random choice of X, Y, Z, n Logic, reasoning and fallacies and some puzzling Before we start Introductory Examples Karst Koymans Informatics Institute University of Amsterdam (version 16.3, 2016/11/21 12:58:26) Wednesday, November

More information

Logic Dictionary Keith Burgess-Jackson 12 August 2017

Logic Dictionary Keith Burgess-Jackson 12 August 2017 Logic Dictionary Keith Burgess-Jackson 12 August 2017 addition (Add). In propositional logic, a rule of inference (i.e., an elementary valid argument form) in which (1) the conclusion is a disjunction

More information

INTERMEDIATE LOGIC Glossary of key terms

INTERMEDIATE LOGIC Glossary of key terms 1 GLOSSARY INTERMEDIATE LOGIC BY JAMES B. NANCE INTERMEDIATE LOGIC Glossary of key terms This glossary includes terms that are defined in the text in the lesson and on the page noted. It does not include

More information

Philosophical Arguments

Philosophical Arguments Philosophical Arguments An introduction to logic and philosophical reasoning. Nathan D. Smith, PhD. Houston Community College Nathan D. Smith. Some rights reserved You are free to copy this book, to distribute

More information

6: DEDUCTIVE LOGIC. Chapter 17: Deductive validity and invalidity Ben Bayer Drafted April 25, 2010 Revised August 23, 2010

6: DEDUCTIVE LOGIC. Chapter 17: Deductive validity and invalidity Ben Bayer Drafted April 25, 2010 Revised August 23, 2010 6: DEDUCTIVE LOGIC Chapter 17: Deductive validity and invalidity Ben Bayer Drafted April 25, 2010 Revised August 23, 2010 Deduction vs. induction reviewed In chapter 14, we spent a fair amount of time

More information

PRACTICE EXAM The state of Israel was in a state of mourning today because of the assassination of Yztzak Rabin.

PRACTICE EXAM The state of Israel was in a state of mourning today because of the assassination of Yztzak Rabin. PRACTICE EXAM 1 I. Decide which of the following are arguments. For those that are, identify the premises and conclusions in them by CIRCLING them and labeling them with a P for the premises or a C for

More information

Logic: Deductive and Inductive by Carveth Read M.A. CHAPTER IX CHAPTER IX FORMAL CONDITIONS OF MEDIATE INFERENCE

Logic: Deductive and Inductive by Carveth Read M.A. CHAPTER IX CHAPTER IX FORMAL CONDITIONS OF MEDIATE INFERENCE CHAPTER IX CHAPTER IX FORMAL CONDITIONS OF MEDIATE INFERENCE Section 1. A Mediate Inference is a proposition that depends for proof upon two or more other propositions, so connected together by one or

More information

HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.)

HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) 1 HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) I. ARGUMENT RECOGNITION Important Concepts An argument is a unit of reasoning that attempts to prove that a certain idea is true by

More information

The Philosopher s World Cup

The Philosopher s World Cup The Philosopher s World Cup Monty Python & the Flying Circus http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92vv3qgagck&feature=related What is an argument? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kqfkti6gn9y What is an argument?

More information

PHILOSOPHY 102 INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC PRACTICE EXAM 1. W# Section (10 or 11) 4. T F The statements that compose a disjunction are called conjuncts.

PHILOSOPHY 102 INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC PRACTICE EXAM 1. W# Section (10 or 11) 4. T F The statements that compose a disjunction are called conjuncts. PHILOSOPHY 102 INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC PRACTICE EXAM 1 W# Section (10 or 11) 1. True or False (5 points) Directions: Circle the letter next to the best answer. 1. T F All true statements are valid. 2. T

More information

Basic Concepts and Skills!

Basic Concepts and Skills! Basic Concepts and Skills! Critical Thinking tests rationales,! i.e., reasons connected to conclusions by justifying or explaining principles! Why do CT?! Answer: Opinions without logical or evidential

More information

Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5

Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5 Lesson Seventeen The Conditional Syllogism Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5 It is clear then that the ostensive syllogisms are effected by means of the aforesaid figures; these considerations

More information

Categorical Logic Handout Logic: Spring Sound: Any valid argument with true premises.

Categorical Logic Handout Logic: Spring Sound: Any valid argument with true premises. Categorical Logic Handout Logic: Spring 2017 Deductive argument: An argument whose premises are claimed to provide conclusive grounds for the truth of its conclusion. Validity: A characteristic of any

More information

Fallacies are deceptive errors of thinking.

Fallacies are deceptive errors of thinking. Fallacies are deceptive errors of thinking. A good argument should: 1. be deductively valid (or inductively strong) and have all true premises; 2. have its validity and truth-of-premises be as evident

More information

Logic: A Brief Introduction

Logic: A Brief Introduction Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University PART III - Symbolic Logic Chapter 7 - Sentential Propositions 7.1 Introduction What has been made abundantly clear in the previous discussion

More information

Tutorial A03: Patterns of Valid Arguments By: Jonathan Chan

Tutorial A03: Patterns of Valid Arguments By: Jonathan Chan A03.1 Introduction Tutorial A03: Patterns of Valid Arguments By: With valid arguments, it is impossible to have a false conclusion if the premises are all true. Obviously valid arguments play a very important

More information

Logical (formal) fallacies

Logical (formal) fallacies Fallacies in academic writing Chad Nilep There are many possible sources of fallacy an idea that is mistakenly thought to be true, even though it may be untrue in academic writing. The phrase logical fallacy

More information

1 Chapter 6 (Part 2): Assessing Truth Claims

1 Chapter 6 (Part 2): Assessing Truth Claims 1 Chapter 6 (Part 2): Assessing Truth Claims In the previous tutorial we saw that the standard of acceptability of a statement (or premise) depends on the context. In certain contexts we may only require

More information

The Problem of Induction and Popper s Deductivism

The Problem of Induction and Popper s Deductivism The Problem of Induction and Popper s Deductivism Issues: I. Problem of Induction II. Popper s rejection of induction III. Salmon s critique of deductivism 2 I. The problem of induction 1. Inductive vs.

More information

b) The meaning of "child" would need to be taken in the sense of age, as most people would find the idea of a young child going to jail as wrong.

b) The meaning of child would need to be taken in the sense of age, as most people would find the idea of a young child going to jail as wrong. Explanation for Question 1 in Quiz 8 by Norva Lo - Tuesday, 18 September 2012, 9:39 AM The following is the solution for Question 1 in Quiz 8: (a) Which term in the argument is being equivocated. (b) What

More information

Common Logical Fallacies

Common Logical Fallacies Common Logical Fallacies Effective arguments rely on logic and facts for support, yet speakers and authors, whether intentionally or unintentionally, can mislead an audience with a flaw in reasoning. Readers

More information

What is a logical argument? What is deductive reasoning? Fundamentals of Academic Writing

What is a logical argument? What is deductive reasoning? Fundamentals of Academic Writing What is a logical argument? What is deductive reasoning? Fundamentals of Academic Writing Logical relations Deductive logic Claims to provide conclusive support for the truth of a conclusion Inductive

More information

CHAPTER 13: UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE. What is persuasion: process of influencing people s belief, attitude, values or behavior.

CHAPTER 13: UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE. What is persuasion: process of influencing people s belief, attitude, values or behavior. Logos Ethos Pathos Chapter 13 CHAPTER 13: UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE What is persuasion: process of influencing people s belief, attitude, values or behavior. Persuasive speaking: process of doing so in

More information

1.5. Argument Forms: Proving Invalidity

1.5. Argument Forms: Proving Invalidity 18. If inflation heats up, then interest rates will rise. If interest rates rise, then bond prices will decline. Therefore, if inflation heats up, then bond prices will decline. 19. Statistics reveal that

More information

PHILOSOPHER S TOOL KIT 1. ARGUMENTS PROFESSOR JULIE YOO 1.1 DEDUCTIVE VS INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS

PHILOSOPHER S TOOL KIT 1. ARGUMENTS PROFESSOR JULIE YOO 1.1 DEDUCTIVE VS INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS PHILOSOPHER S TOOL KIT PROFESSOR JULIE YOO 1. Arguments 1.1 Deductive vs Induction Arguments 1.2 Common Deductive Argument Forms 1.3 Common Inductive Argument Forms 1.4 Deduction: Validity and Soundness

More information

Handout 1: Arguments -- the basics because, since, given that, for because Given that Since for Because

Handout 1: Arguments -- the basics because, since, given that, for because Given that Since for Because Handout 1: Arguments -- the basics It is useful to think of an argument as a list of sentences.[1] The last sentence is the conclusion, and the other sentences are the premises. Thus: (1) No professors

More information

Argument and Persuasion. Stating Opinions and Proposals

Argument and Persuasion. Stating Opinions and Proposals Argument and Persuasion Stating Opinions and Proposals The Method It all starts with an opinion - something that people can agree or disagree with. The Method Move to action Speak your mind Convince someone

More information

The Problem of Major Premise in Buddhist Logic

The Problem of Major Premise in Buddhist Logic The Problem of Major Premise in Buddhist Logic TANG Mingjun The Institute of Philosophy Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences Shanghai, P.R. China Abstract: This paper is a preliminary inquiry into the main

More information

ARGUMENTS. Arguments. arguments

ARGUMENTS. Arguments. arguments ARGUMENTS Arguments arguments 1 Argument Worksheet 1. An argument is a collection of propositions with one proposition, the conclusion, following from the other propositions, the premises. Inference is

More information

Essential Logic Ronald C. Pine

Essential Logic Ronald C. Pine Essential Logic Ronald C. Pine Chapter 11: Other Logical Tools Syllogisms and Quantification Introduction A persistent theme of this book has been the interpretation of logic as a set of practical tools.

More information

I. What is an Argument?

I. What is an Argument? I. What is an Argument? In philosophy, an argument is not a dispute or debate, but rather a structured defense of a claim (statement, assertion) about some topic. When making an argument, one does not

More information

Purdue OWL Logic in Argumentative Writing

Purdue OWL Logic in Argumentative Writing Contributors: Ryan Weber, Allen Brizee. This resource covers using logic within writing, including logical vocabulary, logical fallacies, and other types of logos-based reasoning. This handout is designed

More information

A REVIEW OF THE DEAVER-FOX DEBATE. Part 1

A REVIEW OF THE DEAVER-FOX DEBATE. Part 1 A REVIEW OF THE DEAVER-FOX DEBATE Part 1 Inasmuch as I have been requested to review the Deaver Fox Debate I gladly accept. The disputants, Mac Deaver and Marion R Fox, are ministers for the church of

More information

What are Truth-Tables and What Are They For?

What are Truth-Tables and What Are They For? PY114: Work Obscenely Hard Week 9 (Meeting 7) 30 November, 2010 What are Truth-Tables and What Are They For? 0. Business Matters: The last marked homework of term will be due on Monday, 6 December, at

More information

Session 10 INDUCTIVE REASONONING IN THE SCIENCES & EVERYDAY LIFE( PART 1)

Session 10 INDUCTIVE REASONONING IN THE SCIENCES & EVERYDAY LIFE( PART 1) UGRC 150 CRITICAL THINKING & PRACTICAL REASONING Session 10 INDUCTIVE REASONONING IN THE SCIENCES & EVERYDAY LIFE( PART 1) Lecturer: Dr. Mohammed Majeed, Dept. of Philosophy & Classics, UG Contact Information:

More information

Logical Fallacies RHETORICAL APPEALS

Logical Fallacies RHETORICAL APPEALS Logical Fallacies RHETORICAL APPEALS Rhetorical Appeals Ethos Appeals to credibility Pathos Appeals to emotion Logos Appeals to logic Structure of an Analysis/Argument Arguments operate under logic Your

More information

9 Methods of Deduction

9 Methods of Deduction M09_COPI1396_13_SE_C09.QXD 10/19/07 3:46 AM Page 372 9 Methods of Deduction 9.1 Formal Proof of Validity 9.2 The Elementary Valid Argument Forms 9.3 Formal Proofs of Validity Exhibited 9.4 Constructing

More information

Denying the Antecedent as a Legitimate Argumentative Strategy: A Dialectical Model

Denying the Antecedent as a Legitimate Argumentative Strategy: A Dialectical Model Denying the Antecedent as a Legitimate Argumentative Strategy 219 Denying the Antecedent as a Legitimate Argumentative Strategy: A Dialectical Model DAVID M. GODDEN DOUGLAS WALTON University of Windsor

More information

Exercise Sets. KS Philosophical Logic: Modality, Conditionals Vagueness. Dirk Kindermann University of Graz July 2014

Exercise Sets. KS Philosophical Logic: Modality, Conditionals Vagueness. Dirk Kindermann University of Graz July 2014 Exercise Sets KS Philosophical Logic: Modality, Conditionals Vagueness Dirk Kindermann University of Graz July 2014 1 Exercise Set 1 Propositional and Predicate Logic 1. Use Definition 1.1 (Handout I Propositional

More information

Lemon Bay High School AP Language and Composition ENC 1102 Mr. Hertz

Lemon Bay High School AP Language and Composition ENC 1102 Mr. Hertz Lemon Bay High School AP Language and Composition ENC 1102 Mr. Hertz Please take out a few pieces of paper and a pen or pencil. Write your name, the date, your class period, and a title at the top of the

More information

Table of Contents. What This Book Teaches... iii Four Myths About Critical Thinking... iv Pretest...v

Table of Contents. What This Book Teaches... iii Four Myths About Critical Thinking... iv Pretest...v Table of Contents Table of Contents What This Book Teaches... iii Four Myths About Critical Thinking... iv Pretest...v 1. What Is Critical Thinking?...1 2. Decisions and Conclusions...4 3. Beliefs and

More information

Christ-Centered Critical Thinking. Lesson 7: Logical Fallacies

Christ-Centered Critical Thinking. Lesson 7: Logical Fallacies Christ-Centered Critical Thinking Lesson 7: Logical Fallacies 1 Learning Outcomes In this lesson we will: 1.Define logical fallacy using the SEE-I. 2.Understand and apply the concept of relevance. 3.Define,

More information

Directions: For Problems 1-10, determine whether the given statement is either True (A) or False (B).

Directions: For Problems 1-10, determine whether the given statement is either True (A) or False (B). Critical Thinking Exam 2: Chapter 3 PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM. Directions: For Problems 1-10, determine whether the given statement is either True (A) or False (B). 1. Valid arguments never have

More information

PHIL 115: Philosophical Anthropology. I. Propositional Forms (in Stoic Logic) Lecture #4: Stoic Logic

PHIL 115: Philosophical Anthropology. I. Propositional Forms (in Stoic Logic) Lecture #4: Stoic Logic HIL 115: hilosophical Anthropology Lecture #4: Stoic Logic Arguments from the Euthyphro: Meletus Argument (according to Socrates) [3a-b] Argument: Socrates is a maker of gods; so, Socrates corrupts the

More information

In this section you will learn three basic aspects of logic. When you are done, you will understand the following:

In this section you will learn three basic aspects of logic. When you are done, you will understand the following: Basic Principles of Deductive Logic Part One: In this section you will learn three basic aspects of logic. When you are done, you will understand the following: Mental Act Simple Apprehension Judgment

More information

1/6. The Second Analogy (2)

1/6. The Second Analogy (2) 1/6 The Second Analogy (2) Last time we looked at some of Kant s discussion of the Second Analogy, including the argument that is discussed most often as Kant s response to Hume s sceptical doubts concerning

More information

Chapter 1. Introduction. 1.1 Deductive and Plausible Reasoning Strong Syllogism

Chapter 1. Introduction. 1.1 Deductive and Plausible Reasoning Strong Syllogism Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Deductive and Plausible Reasoning................... 3 1.1.1 Strong Syllogism......................... 3 1.1.2 Weak Syllogism.......................... 4 1.1.3 Transitivity

More information

Review Deductive Logic. Wk2 Day 2. Critical Thinking Ninjas! Steps: 1.Rephrase as a syllogism. 2.Choose your weapon

Review Deductive Logic. Wk2 Day 2. Critical Thinking Ninjas! Steps: 1.Rephrase as a syllogism. 2.Choose your weapon Review Deductive Logic Wk2 Day 2 Checking Validity of Deductive Argument Steps: 1.Rephrase as a syllogism Identify premises and conclusion. Look out for unstated premises. Place them in order P(1), P(2),

More information

Indian Philosophy Paper-I

Indian Philosophy Paper-I 1 Total Question -30+20+30+35+35=150 Indian Philosophy Paper-I 1.Describe the Carvaka position that perception is the only means of knowledge. 5 2.What are the conditions for Testimony, to be a valid source

More information

Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt

Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt Rationalism I. Descartes (1596-1650) A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt 1. How could one be certain in the absence of religious guidance and trustworthy senses

More information

I Don't Believe in God I Believe in Science

I Don't Believe in God I Believe in Science I Don't Believe in God I Believe in Science This seems to be a common world view that many people hold today. It is important that when we look at statements like this we spend a proper amount of time

More information

TOK FALLACIES Group 1: Clark Godwin, Kaleigh Rudge, David Fitzgerald, Maren Dorne, Thanh Pham

TOK FALLACIES Group 1: Clark Godwin, Kaleigh Rudge, David Fitzgerald, Maren Dorne, Thanh Pham TOK FALLACIES 2016 Group 1: Clark Godwin, Kaleigh Rudge, David Fitzgerald, Maren Dorne, Thanh Pham 1. Argument ad Ignorantum Definition: Concepts that have not been proven true or false but are used in

More information

FALLACIES IN GENERAL IRRELEVANCE AMBIGUITY UNWARRANTED ASSUMPTIONS. Informal Fallacies. PHIL UA-70: Logic. February 17 19, 2015

FALLACIES IN GENERAL IRRELEVANCE AMBIGUITY UNWARRANTED ASSUMPTIONS. Informal Fallacies. PHIL UA-70: Logic. February 17 19, 2015 Informal Fallacies PHIL UA-70: Logic February 17 19, 2015 OUTLINE FALLACIES IN GENERAL FALLACIES OF IRRELEVANCE FALLACIES INVOLVING AMBIGUITY FALLACIES INVOLVING UNWARRANTED ASSUMPTIONS OUTLINE FALLACIES

More information

4.1 A problem with semantic demonstrations of validity

4.1 A problem with semantic demonstrations of validity 4. Proofs 4.1 A problem with semantic demonstrations of validity Given that we can test an argument for validity, it might seem that we have a fully developed system to study arguments. However, there

More information

Rational Argument: Detailing the Parts

Rational Argument: Detailing the Parts Rational Argument: Detailing the Parts A persuasive argument has four key components: the writer's claim the writer's use of logical reasoning and evidence in support of the claim the writer's calculated

More information

Faith indeed tells what the senses do not tell, but not the contrary of what they see. It is above them and not contrary to them.

Faith indeed tells what the senses do not tell, but not the contrary of what they see. It is above them and not contrary to them. 19 Chapter 3 19 CHAPTER 3: Logic Faith indeed tells what the senses do not tell, but not the contrary of what they see. It is above them and not contrary to them. The last proceeding of reason is to recognize

More information

A Solution to the Gettier Problem Keota Fields. the three traditional conditions for knowledge, have been discussed extensively in the

A Solution to the Gettier Problem Keota Fields. the three traditional conditions for knowledge, have been discussed extensively in the A Solution to the Gettier Problem Keota Fields Problem cases by Edmund Gettier 1 and others 2, intended to undermine the sufficiency of the three traditional conditions for knowledge, have been discussed

More information

Must we have self-evident knowledge if we know anything?

Must we have self-evident knowledge if we know anything? 1 Must we have self-evident knowledge if we know anything? Introduction In this essay, I will describe Aristotle's account of scientific knowledge as given in Posterior Analytics, before discussing some

More information

This fallacy gets its name from the Latin phrase "post hoc, ergo propter hoc," which translates as "after this, therefore because of this.

This fallacy gets its name from the Latin phrase post hoc, ergo propter hoc, which translates as after this, therefore because of this. So what do fallacies look like? For each fallacy listed, there is a definition or explanation, an example, and a tip on how to avoid committing the fallacy in your own arguments. Hasty generalization Definition:

More information

Reason and Judgment, A Primer Istvan S. N. Berkeley, Ph.D. ( istvan at louisiana dot edu) 2008, All Rights Reserved.

Reason and Judgment, A Primer Istvan S. N. Berkeley, Ph.D. (  istvan at louisiana dot edu) 2008, All Rights Reserved. Reason and Judgment, A Primer Istvan S. N. Berkeley, Ph.D. (E-mail: istvan at louisiana dot edu) 2008, All Rights Reserved. I. Introduction Aristotle said that our human capacity to reason is one of the

More information

CLIMBING THE MOUNTAIN SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 REASONS. 1 Practical Reasons

CLIMBING THE MOUNTAIN SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 REASONS. 1 Practical Reasons CLIMBING THE MOUNTAIN SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 REASONS 1 Practical Reasons We are the animals that can understand and respond to reasons. Facts give us reasons when they count in favour of our having some belief

More information

13.6 Euler Diagrams and Syllogistic Arguments

13.6 Euler Diagrams and Syllogistic Arguments EulerDiagrams.nb 1 13.6 Euler Diagrams and Syllogistic rguments In the preceding section, we showed how to determine the validity of symbolic arguments using truth tables and comparing the arguments to

More information

10.3 Universal and Existential Quantifiers

10.3 Universal and Existential Quantifiers M10_COPI1396_13_SE_C10.QXD 10/22/07 8:42 AM Page 441 10.3 Universal and Existential Quantifiers 441 and Wx, and so on. We call these propositional functions simple predicates, to distinguish them from

More information

A star (*) indicates that there are exercises covering this section and previous unmarked sections.

A star (*) indicates that there are exercises covering this section and previous unmarked sections. 1 An Introduction To Reasoning Some Everyday Reasoning 1 Introduction 2 Reasoning Based On Properties 3 Part-Whole Relationships 4 Reasoning With Relations 5 The Tricky Verb 'To Be' 6 Reasoning With Categorical

More information

Hello, AP Scholars! Welcome to AP English Language and Composition.

Hello, AP Scholars! Welcome to AP English Language and Composition. Mrs. Mary Vargas ~ C05 AP English Language and Composition Summer Read Assignment 2016-2017 Toms River High School North Old Freehold Rd. Toms River, NJ 08753 mvargas@trschools.com * vargasgooden913@gmail.com

More information

Notes on types of Arguments (for Philosophy of Science) by Justin C. Fisher

Notes on types of Arguments (for Philosophy of Science) by Justin C. Fisher 1. Arguments Notes on types of Arguments (for Philosophy of Science) by Justin C. Fisher An argument is a set of statements (called premises ) offered in support of a conclusion. Philosophers typically

More information

Theory of Knowledge. 5. That which can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence. (Christopher Hitchens). Do you agree?

Theory of Knowledge. 5. That which can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence. (Christopher Hitchens). Do you agree? Theory of Knowledge 5. That which can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence. (Christopher Hitchens). Do you agree? Candidate Name: Syed Tousif Ahmed Candidate Number: 006644 009

More information

An Inferentialist Conception of the A Priori. Ralph Wedgwood

An Inferentialist Conception of the A Priori. Ralph Wedgwood An Inferentialist Conception of the A Priori Ralph Wedgwood When philosophers explain the distinction between the a priori and the a posteriori, they usually characterize the a priori negatively, as involving

More information

The Ontological Argument

The Ontological Argument Running Head: THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT 1 The Ontological Argument By Andy Caldwell Salt Lake Community College Philosophy of Religion 2350 THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT 2 Abstract This paper will reproduce,

More information

(3) The middle term must be distributed at least once in the premisses.

(3) The middle term must be distributed at least once in the premisses. CHAPTER XI. Of the Generad Rules of Syllogism. Section 582. We now proceed to lay down certain general rules to which all valid syllogisms must conform. These are divided into primary and derivative. I.

More information

Do we have knowledge of the external world?

Do we have knowledge of the external world? Do we have knowledge of the external world? This book discusses the skeptical arguments presented in Descartes' Meditations 1 and 2, as well as how Descartes attempts to refute skepticism by building our

More information

Take Home Exam #1. PHI 1700: Global Ethics Prof. Lauren R. Alpert

Take Home Exam #1. PHI 1700: Global Ethics Prof. Lauren R. Alpert PHI 1700: Global Ethics Prof. Lauren R. Alpert Name: Date: Take Home Exam #1 Instructions (Read Before Proceeding!) Material for this exam is from class sessions 2-7. Please write your answers clearly

More information

MODUS PONENS AND MODUS TOLLENS: THEIR VALIDITY/INVALIDITY IN NATURAL LANGUAGE ARGUMENTS

MODUS PONENS AND MODUS TOLLENS: THEIR VALIDITY/INVALIDITY IN NATURAL LANGUAGE ARGUMENTS STUDIES IN LOGIC, GRAMMAR AND RHETORIC 50(63) 2017 DOI: 10.1515/slgr-2017-0028 Yong-Sok Ri Kim Il Sung University Pyongyang the Democratic People s Republic of Korea MODUS PONENS AND MODUS TOLLENS: THEIR

More information

BASIC CONCEPTS OF LOGIC

BASIC CONCEPTS OF LOGIC BASIC CONCEPTS OF LOGIC 1. What is Logic?...2 2. Inferences and Arguments...2 3. Deductive Logic versus Inductive Logic...5 4. Statements versus Propositions...6 5. Form versus Content...7 6. Preliminary

More information

The Little Logic Book Hardy, Ratzsch, Konyndyk De Young and Mellema The Calvin College Press, 2013

The Little Logic Book Hardy, Ratzsch, Konyndyk De Young and Mellema The Calvin College Press, 2013 The Little Logic Book Hardy, Ratzsch, Konyndyk De Young and Mellema The Calvin College Press, 2013 Exercises for The Little Logic Book may be downloaded by the instructor as Word documents and then modified

More information

Announcements. CS311H: Discrete Mathematics. First Order Logic, Rules of Inference. Satisfiability, Validity in FOL. Example.

Announcements. CS311H: Discrete Mathematics. First Order Logic, Rules of Inference. Satisfiability, Validity in FOL. Example. Announcements CS311H: Discrete Mathematics First Order Logic, Rules of Inference Instructor: Işıl Dillig Homework 1 is due now! Homework 2 is handed out today Homework 2 is due next Wednesday Instructor:

More information

Instructor s Manual 1

Instructor s Manual 1 Instructor s Manual 1 PREFACE This instructor s manual will help instructors prepare to teach logic using the 14th edition of Irving M. Copi, Carl Cohen, and Kenneth McMahon s Introduction to Logic. The

More information

LOGIC Lesson 10: Univocal, Equivocal, Analogical Terms. 1. A term in logic is the subject or the predicate of a proposition (a declarative sentence).

LOGIC Lesson 10: Univocal, Equivocal, Analogical Terms. 1. A term in logic is the subject or the predicate of a proposition (a declarative sentence). Pastor-teacher Don Hargrove Faith Bible Church http://www.fbcweb.org/doctrines.html LOGIC Lesson 10: Univocal, Equivocal, Analogical Terms 1. A term in logic is the subject or the predicate of a proposition

More information

WHAT IS HUME S FORK? Certainty does not exist in science.

WHAT IS HUME S FORK?  Certainty does not exist in science. WHAT IS HUME S FORK? www.prshockley.org Certainty does not exist in science. I. Introduction: A. Hume divides all objects of human reason into two different kinds: Relation of Ideas & Matters of Fact.

More information

MISSOURI S FRAMEWORK FOR CURRICULAR DEVELOPMENT IN MATH TOPIC I: PROBLEM SOLVING

MISSOURI S FRAMEWORK FOR CURRICULAR DEVELOPMENT IN MATH TOPIC I: PROBLEM SOLVING Prentice Hall Mathematics:,, 2004 Missouri s Framework for Curricular Development in Mathematics (Grades 9-12) TOPIC I: PROBLEM SOLVING 1. Problem-solving strategies such as organizing data, drawing a

More information

TWO VERSIONS OF HUME S LAW

TWO VERSIONS OF HUME S LAW DISCUSSION NOTE BY CAMPBELL BROWN JOURNAL OF ETHICS & SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY DISCUSSION NOTE MAY 2015 URL: WWW.JESP.ORG COPYRIGHT CAMPBELL BROWN 2015 Two Versions of Hume s Law MORAL CONCLUSIONS CANNOT VALIDLY

More information

Reductionism in Fallacy Theory

Reductionism in Fallacy Theory Reductionism in Fallacy Theory Christoph Lumer (Appeared in: Argumentation 14 (2000). Pp. 405-423.) ABSTRACT: (1) The aim of the paper is to develop a reduction of fallacy theory, i.e. to "deduce" fallacy

More information

Evaluating Arguments

Evaluating Arguments Govier: A Practical Study of Argument 1 Evaluating Arguments Chapter 4 begins an important discussion on how to evaluate arguments. The basics on how to evaluate arguments are presented in this chapter

More information

Argumentative Analogy versus Figurative Analogy

Argumentative Analogy versus Figurative Analogy Argumentative Analogy versus Figurative Analogy By Timo Schmitz, Philosopher As argumentative analogy or simply analogism (ἀναλογισµός), one calls the comparison through inductive reasoning of at least

More information

Syllogism. Exam Importance Exam Importance. CAT Very Important IBPS/Bank PO Very Important. XAT Very Important BANK Clerk Very Important

Syllogism. Exam Importance Exam Importance. CAT Very Important IBPS/Bank PO Very Important. XAT Very Important BANK Clerk Very Important 1 About Disha publication One of the leading publishers in India, Disha Publication provides books and study materials for schools and various competitive exams being continuously held across the country.

More information