Logical Fallacies RHETORICAL APPEALS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Logical Fallacies RHETORICAL APPEALS"

Transcription

1 Logical Fallacies RHETORICAL APPEALS

2 Rhetorical Appeals Ethos Appeals to credibility Pathos Appeals to emotion Logos Appeals to logic

3 Structure of an Analysis/Argument Arguments operate under logic Your argument will fail if it is not based on logic An argument is only valid if its conclusion follows logically; from a combination of the rhetorical appeals

4 Fallacious Ethos Argument to a person attacking a person instead of an argument Example: "You say I shouldn't drink too much, but you drink every day." The validity of the argument (drink less) can't be based on the behavior of the person making the argument. Instead, the validity of the argument should be evaluated on its own terms separate from the person making the claim. Appeal to Anonymous Authority: Using appeals to nonspecific groups (e.g., doctors, scientists, researchers, and so on). For example, "Research shows that all women are inferior to men." Or, "Studies indicate that all college students binge drink." Neither of these statements offers a specific credible source, so both claims lack authority.

5 Fallacious Ethos Argument from Authority: Claiming to be an expert and, on that basis, to be deserving of trust. It's important to remember that there are different kinds and levels of expertise: My weekend cooking class doesn't make me an authority on recipes, though I can honestly say I've studied cooking. So, I might be an authority on some elements of cooking, but not all of cooking. When faced with an argument from authority, it is important to investigate the credentials of the speaker or writer. Appeal to Authority: Using a statement taken out of context as authoritative support. For instance, it would be fallacious to use Malcolm X's declaration "by any means necessary" to justify an oppressed group's violence against police officers. Such an assertion ignores the context, and therefore the complexity, of Malcolm X's statement. Argument from False Authority: Using an expert in a specific field as an expert in all related fields. For instance, if I am writing a paper about heart disease and I quote my chiropractor, then I would be making an appeal to fallacious ethos; despite being a doctor, he/she is not an authority on heart disease. Check your SOURCE

6 Fallacious Pathos Argument by Dismissal: Rejecting an idea without providing a reason or explanation for its dismissal. Argument by Emotive Language: Using emotional words that are not supported by evidence and/or are unconnected to the argument being made. For example, in abortion debates regarding a woman's right to choose, the argument sometimes shifts from a discussion of medical or legal rights to a graphic description of the abortion process or extreme analogies between abortion and genocide. Planned Parenthood funding Appeal to Pity: Drawing on irrelevant personal experiences or feelings in order to produce a sympathetic response.

7 Fallacious Pathos The Slippery Slope: Suggesting that a particular argument or course of action will lead to disastrous consequences without offering evidence. This fallacy usually produces an emotional response. A common example is the assertion that legalizing gay marriage will lead to polygamy, bestiality, and/or pedophilia.

8 Fallacious Logos Straw Man: Intentionally misrepresenting your opponent's position by over-exaggerating or offering a caricature of his or her argument. It would be fallacious to claim to dispute an opponent's argument by creating a superficially similar position and refuting that position (the "straw man") instead of the actual argument. For example, "Feminists want to turn men into slaves." This statement fails to accurately represent feminist motivations which can be very diverse.

9 Fallacious Logos False Dilemma: Assuming that there are only two options when there are, in fact, more. For example, "We either cut Social Security, or we have a huge deficit." There are many ways to resolve deficit problems, but this statement suggests there is only one. Hasty Generalization: Drawing a broad conclusion based on a small minority.

10 Fallacies Logos Cum Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (With This, Therefore Because of This): Confusing correlation with causation that is, thinking that because two things happened simultaneously, then one must have caused the other. For example, "There has been an increase in both immigration and unemployment; therefore, immigrants are taking away American jobs." This statement is fallacious because there is no evidence to suggest that immigration and unemployment are related to each other other than that their rates increased simultaneously.

Lemon Bay High School AP Language and Composition ENC 1102 Mr. Hertz

Lemon Bay High School AP Language and Composition ENC 1102 Mr. Hertz Lemon Bay High School AP Language and Composition ENC 1102 Mr. Hertz Please take out a few pieces of paper and a pen or pencil. Write your name, the date, your class period, and a title at the top of the

More information

This fallacy gets its name from the Latin phrase "post hoc, ergo propter hoc," which translates as "after this, therefore because of this.

This fallacy gets its name from the Latin phrase post hoc, ergo propter hoc, which translates as after this, therefore because of this. So what do fallacies look like? For each fallacy listed, there is a definition or explanation, an example, and a tip on how to avoid committing the fallacy in your own arguments. Hasty generalization Definition:

More information

Video: How does understanding whether or not an argument is inductive or deductive help me?

Video: How does understanding whether or not an argument is inductive or deductive help me? Page 1 of 10 10b Learn how to evaluate verbal and visual arguments. Video: How does understanding whether or not an argument is inductive or deductive help me? Download transcript Three common ways to

More information

Argument and Persuasion. Stating Opinions and Proposals

Argument and Persuasion. Stating Opinions and Proposals Argument and Persuasion Stating Opinions and Proposals The Method It all starts with an opinion - something that people can agree or disagree with. The Method Move to action Speak your mind Convince someone

More information

Christ-Centered Critical Thinking. Lesson 7: Logical Fallacies

Christ-Centered Critical Thinking. Lesson 7: Logical Fallacies Christ-Centered Critical Thinking Lesson 7: Logical Fallacies 1 Learning Outcomes In this lesson we will: 1.Define logical fallacy using the SEE-I. 2.Understand and apply the concept of relevance. 3.Define,

More information

CHAPTER 13: UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE. What is persuasion: process of influencing people s belief, attitude, values or behavior.

CHAPTER 13: UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE. What is persuasion: process of influencing people s belief, attitude, values or behavior. Logos Ethos Pathos Chapter 13 CHAPTER 13: UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE What is persuasion: process of influencing people s belief, attitude, values or behavior. Persuasive speaking: process of doing so in

More information

2/21/2014. FOUR WAYS OF KNOWING (Justifiable True Belief) 1. Sensory input; 2. Authoritative knowledge; 3. Logic and reason; 4. Faith and intuition

2/21/2014. FOUR WAYS OF KNOWING (Justifiable True Belief) 1. Sensory input; 2. Authoritative knowledge; 3. Logic and reason; 4. Faith and intuition FOUR WAYS OF KNOWING (Justifiable True Belief) 1. Sensory input; 2. Authoritative knowledge; 3. Logic and reason; 4. Faith and intuition Argumentative Fallacies The Logic of Writing and Debate from http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/fallacies.html

More information

Fallacies are deceptive errors of thinking.

Fallacies are deceptive errors of thinking. Fallacies are deceptive errors of thinking. A good argument should: 1. be deductively valid (or inductively strong) and have all true premises; 2. have its validity and truth-of-premises be as evident

More information

Practice Test Three Spring True or False True = A, False = B

Practice Test Three Spring True or False True = A, False = B Practice Test Three Spring 2015 True or False True = A, False = B 1. A sound argument is a valid deductive argument with true premisses. 2. A conclusion is a statement of support. 3. An easy way to determine

More information

14.6 Speaking Ethically and Avoiding Fallacies L E A R N I N G O B JE C T I V E S

14.6 Speaking Ethically and Avoiding Fallacies L E A R N I N G O B JE C T I V E S 14.6 Speaking Ethically and Avoiding Fallacies L E A R N I N G O B JE C T I V E S 1. Demonstrate the importance of ethics as part of the persuasion process. 2. Identify and provide examples of eight common

More information

How To Recognize and Avoid Them. Joseph M Conlon Technical Advisor, AMCA

How To Recognize and Avoid Them. Joseph M Conlon Technical Advisor, AMCA How To Recognize and Avoid Them Joseph M Conlon Technical Advisor, AMCA Fallacies are logical errors that weaken arguments Commonplace Can be persuasive to the uninformed Can be driven by agendas or strong

More information

Fallacies. It is particularly easy to slip up and commit a fallacy when you have strong feelings about your. The Writing Center

Fallacies. It is particularly easy to slip up and commit a fallacy when you have strong feelings about your. The Writing Center The Writing Center Fallacies Like 40 people like this. What this handout is about This handout discusses common logical fallacies that you may encounter in your own writing or the writing of others. The

More information

Logical Fallacies. Continuing our foray into the world of Argument. Courtesy of:

Logical Fallacies. Continuing our foray into the world of Argument. Courtesy of: Logical Fallacies Continuing our foray into the world of Argument Courtesy of: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/fallacies.html What is an argument? An argument is not the same thing as a contradiction..

More information

Common Logical Fallacies

Common Logical Fallacies Common Logical Fallacies Effective arguments rely on logic and facts for support, yet speakers and authors, whether intentionally or unintentionally, can mislead an audience with a flaw in reasoning. Readers

More information

Practice Test Three Fall True or False True = A, False = B

Practice Test Three Fall True or False True = A, False = B Practice Test Three Fall 2015 True or False True = A, False = B 1. The inclusive "or" means "A or B or both A and B." 2. The conclusion contains both the major term and the middle term. 3. "If, then" statements

More information

Logical Fallacies. Continuing our foray into the world of Argument. Courtesy of:

Logical Fallacies. Continuing our foray into the world of Argument. Courtesy of: Logical Fallacies Continuing our foray into the world of Argument Courtesy of: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/fallacies.html What is Fallacy? Fallacies are defects that weaken arguments. First,

More information

I. Claim: a concise summary, stated or implied, of an argument s main idea, or point. Many arguments will present multiple claims.

I. Claim: a concise summary, stated or implied, of an argument s main idea, or point. Many arguments will present multiple claims. Basics of Argument and Rhetoric Although arguing, speaking our minds, and getting our points across are common activities for most of us, applying specific terminology to these activities may not seem

More information

English I Pre-AP Unit 5

English I Pre-AP Unit 5 English I Pre-AP Unit 5 Rhetoric:The art of using language purposefully. When trying to argue and persuade someone of something, we think carefully of how we might best achieve our goal, and we pick particular

More information

What an argument is not

What an argument is not Expectations: As you go through this information on argumentation, you need to take notes in some fashion. You may simply print this document and bring it with you to class. You may also take notes like

More information

How Thinking Goes Wrong Twenty-five Fallacies That Lead Us to Believe Weird Things

How Thinking Goes Wrong Twenty-five Fallacies That Lead Us to Believe Weird Things How Thinking Goes Wrong Twenty-five Fallacies That Lead Us to Believe Weird Things From Chapter 3 of Why people believe weird things by Michael Shermer 1 Announcement Starting next week, class will meet

More information

2. Public Forum Debate seeks to encourage the development of the following skills in the debaters: d. Reasonable demeanor and style of presentation

2. Public Forum Debate seeks to encourage the development of the following skills in the debaters: d. Reasonable demeanor and style of presentation VI. RULES OF PUBLIC FORUM DEBATE A. General 1. Public Forum Debate is a form of two-on-two debate which ask debaters to discuss a current events issue. 2. Public Forum Debate seeks to encourage the development

More information

What is an argument? PHIL 110. Is this an argument? Is this an argument? What about this? And what about this?

What is an argument? PHIL 110. Is this an argument? Is this an argument? What about this? And what about this? What is an argument? PHIL 110 Lecture on Chapter 3 of How to think about weird things An argument is a collection of two or more claims, one of which is the conclusion and the rest of which are the premises.

More information

II Plenary discussion of Expertise and the Global Warming debate.

II Plenary discussion of Expertise and the Global Warming debate. Thinking Straight Critical Reasoning WS 9-1 May 27, 2008 I. A. (Individually ) review and mark the answers for the assignment given on the last pages: (two points each for reconstruction and evaluation,

More information

Logical (formal) fallacies

Logical (formal) fallacies Fallacies in academic writing Chad Nilep There are many possible sources of fallacy an idea that is mistakenly thought to be true, even though it may be untrue in academic writing. The phrase logical fallacy

More information

Some Templates for Beginners: Template Option 1 I am analyzing A in order to argue B. An important element of B is C. C is significant because.

Some Templates for Beginners: Template Option 1 I am analyzing A in order to argue B. An important element of B is C. C is significant because. Common Topics for Literary and Cultural Analysis: What kinds of topics are good ones? The best topics are ones that originate out of your own reading of a work of literature. Here are some common approaches

More information

persuasion: character

persuasion: character persuasion: character In the rhetorical tradition, there are three modes of persuasion: appeals to ethos (character), appeals to pathos (emotion), and appeals to logos (reason). This handout will help

More information

Purdue OWL Logic in Argumentative Writing

Purdue OWL Logic in Argumentative Writing Contributors: Ryan Weber, Allen Brizee. This resource covers using logic within writing, including logical vocabulary, logical fallacies, and other types of logos-based reasoning. This handout is designed

More information

Writing a Persuasive Essay

Writing a Persuasive Essay Writing a Persuasive Essay First Steps Develop essential questions surrounding your topic! Research! Articles from credible Internet sources, books, journals, magazines, etc. Evidence Evidence should support

More information

Logical Fallacies. Define the following logical fallacies and provide an example for each.

Logical Fallacies. Define the following logical fallacies and provide an example for each. Logical Fallacies An argument is a chain of reasons that a person uses to support a claim or a conclusion. To use argument well, you need to know 1) how to draw logical conclusions from sound evidence

More information

Hello, AP Scholars! Welcome to AP English Language and Composition.

Hello, AP Scholars! Welcome to AP English Language and Composition. Mrs. Mary Vargas ~ C05 AP English Language and Composition Summer Read Assignment 2016-2017 Toms River High School North Old Freehold Rd. Toms River, NJ 08753 mvargas@trschools.com * vargasgooden913@gmail.com

More information

ARGUMENT AS INQUIRY: QUESTIONING A TEXT

ARGUMENT AS INQUIRY: QUESTIONING A TEXT ARGUMENT AS INQUIRY: QUESTIONING A TEXT Adapted from Reading Rhetorically (A Reader for Writers), 2nd edition by Virginia A. Chappell and Alice M. Gillam and Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings,

More information

Argumentation. 2. What should we consider when making (or testing) an argument?

Argumentation. 2. What should we consider when making (or testing) an argument? . What is the purpose of argumentation? Argumentation 2. What should we consider when making (or testing) an argument? According to Toulmin (964), the checking list can be outlined as follows: () The Claim

More information

3.2: FAULTY REASONING AND PROPAGANDA. Ms. Hargen

3.2: FAULTY REASONING AND PROPAGANDA. Ms. Hargen 3.2: FAULTY REASONING AND PROPAGANDA Ms. Hargen PROPAGANDA Persuasion that deliberately discourages people from thinking for themselves. It relies on one-sided or distorted arguments. HASTY GENERALIZATION

More information

Logic and Nosich s Elements

Logic and Nosich s Elements 1 Logic and Nosich s Elements Most of you have learned something about logical fallacies (PHG pp. 37-38, WA ch. 5, and many other sources). These are traps in making a point that disconnect or misuse the

More information

2016 Philosophy. Higher. Finalised Marking Instructions

2016 Philosophy. Higher. Finalised Marking Instructions National Qualifications 06 06 Philosophy Higher Finalised Marking Instructions Scottish Qualifications Authority 06 The information in this publication may be reproduced to support SQA qualifications only

More information

ARGUMENTS. Arguments. arguments

ARGUMENTS. Arguments. arguments ARGUMENTS Arguments arguments 1 Argument Worksheet 1. An argument is a collection of propositions with one proposition, the conclusion, following from the other propositions, the premises. Inference is

More information

CRITICAL THINKING. Formal v Informal Fallacies

CRITICAL THINKING. Formal v Informal Fallacies CRITICAL THINKING FAULTY REASONING (VAUGHN CH. 5) LECTURE PROFESSOR JULIE YOO Formal v Informal Fallacies Irrelevant Premises Genetic Fallacy Composition Division Appeal to the Person (ad hominem/tu quoque)

More information

Relevance. Premises are relevant to the conclusion when the truth of the premises provide some evidence that the conclusion is true

Relevance. Premises are relevant to the conclusion when the truth of the premises provide some evidence that the conclusion is true Relevance Premises are relevant to the conclusion when the truth of the premises provide some evidence that the conclusion is true Premises are irrelevant when they do not 1 Non Sequitur Latin for it does

More information

Rational Argument: Detailing the Parts

Rational Argument: Detailing the Parts Rational Argument: Detailing the Parts A persuasive argument has four key components: the writer's claim the writer's use of logical reasoning and evidence in support of the claim the writer's calculated

More information

Straw man fallacy examples in politics 2015

Straw man fallacy examples in politics 2015 Straw man fallacy examples in politics 2015 Search In philosophy, the term formal fallacy is used for logical fallacies and defined formally as: a flaw in the structure of a deductive argument which renders

More information

Rhetoric = The Art of Persuasion. The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos and logos began in Greece.

Rhetoric = The Art of Persuasion. The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos and logos began in Greece. Rhetoric = The Art of Persuasion The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos and logos began in Greece. Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher. Literally translated from Greek, the word

More information

AICE Thinking Skills Review. How to Master Paper 2

AICE Thinking Skills Review. How to Master Paper 2 AICE Thinking kills Review How to Master Paper 2 Important Things to Remember You are given 1 hour and 45 minutes for Paper 2 You should spend approximately 30 minutes on each question Write neatly! Read

More information

Everyone likes to argue!

Everyone likes to argue! The Argument Essay Everyone likes to argue! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kqfkti6gn9y https://www.ted.com/talks/daniel_h_cohen_for_argument_s_sake#t -7565 The Argument Essay The basic structure of an

More information

Ethos. or the ethical appeal, means to convince an audience of the author s credibility or character.

Ethos. or the ethical appeal, means to convince an audience of the author s credibility or character. Ethos or the ethical appeal, means to convince an audience of the author s credibility or character. An author would use ethos to show to his audience that he is a credible source and is worth listening

More information

TOK FALLACIES Group 1: Clark Godwin, Kaleigh Rudge, David Fitzgerald, Maren Dorne, Thanh Pham

TOK FALLACIES Group 1: Clark Godwin, Kaleigh Rudge, David Fitzgerald, Maren Dorne, Thanh Pham TOK FALLACIES 2016 Group 1: Clark Godwin, Kaleigh Rudge, David Fitzgerald, Maren Dorne, Thanh Pham 1. Argument ad Ignorantum Definition: Concepts that have not been proven true or false but are used in

More information

1. To arrive at the truth we have to reason correctly. 2. Logic is the study of correct reasoning. B. DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS

1. To arrive at the truth we have to reason correctly. 2. Logic is the study of correct reasoning. B. DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS I. LOGIC AND ARGUMENTATION 1 A. LOGIC 1. To arrive at the truth we have to reason correctly. 2. Logic is the study of correct reasoning. 3. It doesn t attempt to determine how people in fact reason. 4.

More information

Philosophical Arguments

Philosophical Arguments Philosophical Arguments An introduction to logic and philosophical reasoning. Nathan D. Smith, PhD. Houston Community College Nathan D. Smith. Some rights reserved You are free to copy this book, to distribute

More information

In view of the fact that IN CLASS LOGIC EXERCISES

In view of the fact that IN CLASS LOGIC EXERCISES IN CLASS LOGIC EXERCISES Instructions: Determine whether the following are propositions. If some are not propositions, see if they can be rewritten as propositions. (1) I have a very refined sense of smell.

More information

(i) Morality is a system; and (ii) It is a system comprised of moral rules and principles.

(i) Morality is a system; and (ii) It is a system comprised of moral rules and principles. Ethics and Morality Ethos (Greek) and Mores (Latin) are terms having to do with custom, habit, and behavior. Ethics is the study of morality. This definition raises two questions: (a) What is morality?

More information

Logic Practice Test 1

Logic Practice Test 1 Logic Practice Test 1 Name True or False 1. Implying is said to be analogous to hearing. 2. Opinions can be mistaken, but knowledge cannot. 3. According to the book, whatever a person thinks is true is

More information

Alan Shlemon. Stand to Reason

Alan Shlemon. Stand to Reason Tactics in the Defending Faith Alan Shlemon Stand to Reason www.str.org Ambassadors for Christ 2 Corinthians 5:20 Knowledge: an accurately formed mind Wisdom: an artful method Character: an attractive

More information

Physics 496 Introduction to Research. Lecture 2.0: Tools for the Scientific Skeptic (Based on a talk by Lance Cooper)

Physics 496 Introduction to Research. Lecture 2.0: Tools for the Scientific Skeptic (Based on a talk by Lance Cooper) Physics 496 Introduction to Research Lecture 2.0: Tools for the Scientific Skeptic (Based on a talk by Lance Cooper) Critical Evaluation Scientific papers and research presentations, when well done, are

More information

Logic & Fallacies. An argument is, to quote the Monty Python sketch, "a connected series of statements to establish a definite proposition".

Logic & Fallacies. An argument is, to quote the Monty Python sketch, a connected series of statements to establish a definite proposition. Introduction Logic & Fallacies There's a lot of debate on the net. Unfortunately, much of it is of very low quality. The aim of this document is to explain the basics of logical reasoning, and hopefully

More information

Causal fallacies; Causation and experiments. Phil 12: Logic and Decision Making Winter 2010 UC San Diego 2/26/2010

Causal fallacies; Causation and experiments. Phil 12: Logic and Decision Making Winter 2010 UC San Diego 2/26/2010 Causal fallacies; Causation and experiments Phil 12: Logic and Decision Making Winter 2010 UC San Diego 2/26/2010 Review Diagramming causal relations - Variables as nodes (boxes) - Causal relations as

More information

Unit 4. Reason as a way of knowing. Tuesday, March 4, 14

Unit 4. Reason as a way of knowing. Tuesday, March 4, 14 Unit 4 Reason as a way of knowing I. Reasoning At its core, reasoning is using what is known as building blocks to create new knowledge I use the words logic and reasoning interchangeably. Technically,

More information

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY. Refuting opposing arguments

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY. Refuting opposing arguments ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY Definition Organization Supporting our ideas Refuting opposing arguments Language Sample argumentative essay Definition: In this kind of essay, we not only give information but also

More information

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Exam Name SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Draw a Venn diagram for the given sets. In words, explain why you drew one set as a subset of

More information

Philosophy 12 Study Guide #4 Ch. 2, Sections IV.iii VI

Philosophy 12 Study Guide #4 Ch. 2, Sections IV.iii VI Philosophy 12 Study Guide #4 Ch. 2, Sections IV.iii VI Precising definition Theoretical definition Persuasive definition Syntactic definition Operational definition 1. Are questions about defining a phrase

More information

Logic in Argumentative Writing

Logic in Argumentative Writing Welcome to the Purdue OWL This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/). When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom. Logic in Argumentative

More information

1 Chapter 6 (Part 2): Assessing Truth Claims

1 Chapter 6 (Part 2): Assessing Truth Claims 1 Chapter 6 (Part 2): Assessing Truth Claims In the previous tutorial we saw that the standard of acceptability of a statement (or premise) depends on the context. In certain contexts we may only require

More information

Appeal to Authority (Ad Verecundiam) An Appeal to Authority is a fallacy with the following form:

Appeal to Authority (Ad Verecundiam) An Appeal to Authority is a fallacy with the following form: Appeal to Authority (Ad Verecundiam) An Appeal to Authority is a fallacy with the following form: 1) Person A is (claimed to be) an authority on subject S. 2) Person A makes claim C about subject S. 3)

More information

THE ALLYN & BACON GUIDE TO WRITING

THE ALLYN & BACON GUIDE TO WRITING THE ALLYN & BACON GUIDE TO WRITING SEVENTH EDITION JOHN D. RAMAGE, JOHN C. BEAN, AND JUNE JOHNSON PART 2: WRITING PROJECTS CHAPTER 13 WRITING A CLASSICAL ARGUMENT Chapter 13 Learning Objectives In this

More information

All About Arguments. I. What is an Argument? II. Identifying an Author s Argument

All About Arguments. I. What is an Argument? II. Identifying an Author s Argument All About Arguments PHI 1700: Global Ethics I. What is an Argument? In philosophy, an argument is not a dispute or debate; rather, it is a structured defense of a claim (that is, a statement or assertion)

More information

Rhetorical Appeals: The Available Means of Persuasion

Rhetorical Appeals: The Available Means of Persuasion Rhetorical Appeals: The Available Means of Persuasion Aristotle defined Rhetoric as the available means of persuasion. But what are these available means? Think about it this way: what are the various

More information

Christian Discernment

Christian Discernment Christian Discernment We are confronted with ethical choices and moral complexity. We must apply biblical principles to these social and political issues. And we must avoid the pitfalls and logical fallacies

More information

Charles Saunders Peirce ( )

Charles Saunders Peirce ( ) Charles Saunders Peirce (1839-1914) Few persons care to study logic, because everybody conceives himself to be proficient enough in the art of reasoning already. But I observe that this satisfaction is

More information

The Philosopher s World Cup

The Philosopher s World Cup The Philosopher s World Cup Monty Python & the Flying Circus http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92vv3qgagck&feature=related What is an argument? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kqfkti6gn9y What is an argument?

More information

Chapter 5: Ways of knowing Reason (p. 111)

Chapter 5: Ways of knowing Reason (p. 111) Chapter 5: Ways of knowing Reason (p. 111) Neils Bohr (1885 1962) to Einstein: You are not thinking. You are merely being logical. Reason is one of the four ways of knowing: Perception Language Emotion

More information

We begin our discussion, however, more than 400 years before Christ with the Athenian philosopher Socrates. Socrates asks the question:

We begin our discussion, however, more than 400 years before Christ with the Athenian philosopher Socrates. Socrates asks the question: Religion and Ethics The relationship between religion and ethics or faith and ethics is a complex one. So complex that it s the subject of entire courses, not to mention the innumerable books that have

More information

False Alternatives (Hobson s Choice)

False Alternatives (Hobson s Choice) Logical Fallacies Fallacies are standard forms of flawed reasoning that seduce and often persuade us, but that are not logically sound and will lead to faulty conclusions. False Alternatives (Hobson s

More information

Tutorial A03: Patterns of Valid Arguments By: Jonathan Chan

Tutorial A03: Patterns of Valid Arguments By: Jonathan Chan A03.1 Introduction Tutorial A03: Patterns of Valid Arguments By: With valid arguments, it is impossible to have a false conclusion if the premises are all true. Obviously valid arguments play a very important

More information

Socratic and Platonic Ethics

Socratic and Platonic Ethics Socratic and Platonic Ethics G. J. Mattey Winter, 2017 / Philosophy 1 Ethics and Political Philosophy The first part of the course is a brief survey of important texts in the history of ethics and political

More information

Logic Chapter 3 Practice Test Matching: Match each of the following concepts to the most accurate definition.

Logic Chapter 3 Practice Test Matching: Match each of the following concepts to the most accurate definition. Logic Chapter 3 Practice Test Matching: Match each of the following concepts to the most accurate definition. Fallacy Arguer uses a threat to convince the audience. Bandwagon Arguer arouses desire to be

More information

Lawrence Brian Lombard a a Wayne State University. To link to this article:

Lawrence Brian Lombard a a Wayne State University. To link to this article: This article was downloaded by: [Wayne State University] On: 29 August 2011, At: 05:20 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer

More information

Adapted from The Academic Essay: A Brief Anatomy, for the Writing Center at Harvard University by Gordon Harvey. Counter-Argument

Adapted from The Academic Essay: A Brief Anatomy, for the Writing Center at Harvard University by Gordon Harvey. Counter-Argument Adapted from The Academic Essay: A Brief Anatomy, for the Writing Center at Harvard University by Gordon Harvey Counter-Argument When you write an academic essay, you make an argument: you propose a thesis

More information

The Persuasive Speech

The Persuasive Speech The Persuasive Speech INTRODUCTION: Most of the writing of the American Revolution was public and political; much of it was also persuasive in nature. Patrick Henry's "Speech in the Virginia Convention"

More information

Sebastiano Lommi. ABSTRACT. Appeals to authority have a long tradition in the history of

Sebastiano Lommi. ABSTRACT. Appeals to authority have a long tradition in the history of Sponsored since 2011 by the Italian Society for Analytic Philosophy ISSN 2037-4445 http://www.rifanalitica.it CC CAUSAL AND EPISTEMIC RELEVANCE IN APPEALS TO AUTHORITY Sebastiano Lommi ABSTRACT. Appeals

More information

Introduction to the Study of Fallaciousness

Introduction to the Study of Fallaciousness CHAPTER 1 Introduction to the Study of Fallaciousness 1 Strong and Weak Arguments Arguments have a range of types and employ a diversity of devices, from those that press a historical case using causal

More information

An Analysis of Artificial Intelligence in Machines & Chinese Room Problem

An Analysis of Artificial Intelligence in Machines & Chinese Room Problem 12 An Analysis of Artificial Intelligence in Machines & Chinese Room Problem 1 Priyanka Yedluri, 2 A.Nagarjuna 1, 2 Department of Computer Science, DVR College of Engineering & Technology Hyderabad, Andhra

More information

Logic Fallacies. Copyright 1995 Michael C. Labossiere,

Logic Fallacies. Copyright 1995 Michael C. Labossiere, Description of Fallacies Logic Fallacies Copyright 1995 Michael C. Labossiere, In order to understand what a fallacy is, one must understand what an argument is. Very briefly, an argument consists of one

More information

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. by Jonathan Edwards

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. by Jonathan Edwards Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God by Jonathan Edwards Think Think about a time you tried to change someone s mind. Did you use a gentle approach, scare tactics, or something in between? Have you ever

More information

Essay #4: Rogerian Argument

Essay #4: Rogerian Argument Rogerian Argument 1 Oklahoma City Community College Summer Session 2015 English 1213: English Composition 2 Essay #4: Rogerian Argument Quotes: When will mankind be convinced and agree to settle their

More information

The Art of Persuasive Writing

The Art of Persuasive Writing The Art of Persuasive Writing Forms of Persuasive Writing Advertisements Editorials Speeches Propaganda Reviews Blogs Persuasive Essays Forms of Persuasive Writing Advertisements try to convince you to

More information

With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.

With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. Big Idea: Reading for Argumentation ANCHOR STANDARD: Reading #8 HANDOUT TWO Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevancy

More information

COACHING THE BASICS: WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT?

COACHING THE BASICS: WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT? COACHING THE BASICS: WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT? Some people think that engaging in argument means being mad at someone. That s one use of the word argument. In debate we use a far different meaning of the term.

More information

Intro: The Toulmin Model for Arguments

Intro: The Toulmin Model for Arguments Intro: The Toulmin Model for Arguments The Toulmin Argument The twentieth-century British philosopher Stephen Toulmin noticed that good, realistic arguments typically will consist of six parts: Claim:

More information

Bias, Humans Perception, and the Internet

Bias, Humans Perception, and the Internet Bias, Humans Perception, and the Internet What are your favorite conspiracy theories? Moon landing hoax Vaccines cause autism Climate change is a hoax Chemtrails are a thing Politicians are all Reptilian

More information

Refutation Paragraphs

Refutation Paragraphs Refutation Paragraphs The refutation paragraph is normally found ONLY in argument essays and argument research papers; it is also known as the concession paragraph. When students are writing an argumentative

More information

How persuasive is this argument? 1 (not at all). 7 (very)

How persuasive is this argument? 1 (not at all). 7 (very) How persuasive is this argument? 1 (not at all). 7 (very) NIU should require all students to pass a comprehensive exam in order to graduate because such exams have been shown to be effective for improving

More information

Logic & Fallacies 1. Table of Contents

Logic & Fallacies 1. Table of Contents Logic & Fallacies 1 Table of Contents Logic & Fallacies... 1 Introduction... 2 What logic isn't... 3 Arguments... 3 Propositions... 4 Premises... 4 Inference... 4 Conclusion... 5 Implication in detail...

More information

Sentence Starters from They Say, I Say

Sentence Starters from They Say, I Say Sentence Starters from They Say, I Say Introducing What They Say A number of have recently suggested that. It has become common today to dismiss. In their recent work, Y and Z have offered harsh critiques

More information

Prentice Hall United States History 1850 to the Present Florida Edition, 2013

Prentice Hall United States History 1850 to the Present Florida Edition, 2013 A Correlation of Prentice Hall United States History To the & Draft Publishers' Criteria for History/Social Studies Table of Contents Grades 9-10 Reading Standards for Informational Text... 3 Writing Standards...

More information

Exhibit C. Sample Pediatric Forensic Informed Consent Form (Longer Version) {Insert Letterhead} INFORMED CONSENT FOR NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

Exhibit C. Sample Pediatric Forensic Informed Consent Form (Longer Version) {Insert Letterhead} INFORMED CONSENT FOR NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT Exhibit C. Sample Pediatric Forensic Informed Consent Form (Longer Version) {Insert Letterhead} INFORMED CONSENT FOR NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT {insert attorney or other retaining party}, has referred

More information

Topic III: Sexual Morality

Topic III: Sexual Morality PHILOSOPHY 1100 INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS FINAL EXAMINATION LIST OF POSSIBLE QUESTIONS (1) As is indicated in the Final Exam Handout, the final examination will be divided into three sections, and you will

More information

Vitriol in Gay Marriage Debating Hurting Everyone. President of Understanding Same-Gender Attraction, an unofficial Brigham Young University

Vitriol in Gay Marriage Debating Hurting Everyone. President of Understanding Same-Gender Attraction, an unofficial Brigham Young University Tony Lamph English 1010 Rhetorical Analysis Essay July 1, 2013 Vitriol in Gay Marriage Debating Hurting Everyone This is a personal essay written by Adam White, a Mormon and gay man who is the President

More information

Index of Templates from They Say, I Say by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein. Introducing What They Say. Introducing Standard Views

Index of Templates from They Say, I Say by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein. Introducing What They Say. Introducing Standard Views Index of Templates from They Say, I Say by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein. Introducing What They Say A number of sociologists have recently suggested that X s work has several fundamental problems.

More information

GENERAL DEPOSITION GUIDELINES

GENERAL DEPOSITION GUIDELINES GENERAL DEPOSITION GUIDELINES AN ORAL DEPOSITION IS SWORN TESTIMONY TAKEN AND RECORDED BEFORE TRIAL. The purpose is to discover facts, obtain leads to other evidence, preserve testimony of an witness who

More information

I. What is an Argument?

I. What is an Argument? I. What is an Argument? In philosophy, an argument is not a dispute or debate, but rather a structured defense of a claim (statement, assertion) about some topic. When making an argument, one does not

More information

The Art of Persuasive Writing

The Art of Persuasive Writing The Art of Persuasive Writing Forms of Persuasive Writing Advertisements Editorials Speeches Propaganda Reviews Blogs Persuasive Essays Forms of Persuasive Writing Advertisements try to convince you to

More information

Critical Reasoning for Beginners: Four. Marianne Talbot Department for Continuing Education University of Oxford Michaelmas 2009

Critical Reasoning for Beginners: Four. Marianne Talbot Department for Continuing Education University of Oxford Michaelmas 2009 Critical Reasoning for Beginners: Four Marianne Talbot Department for Continuing Education University of Oxford Michaelmas 2009 Last week we learned how to analyse arguments and set them out logic-book

More information