# SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

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1 Exam Name SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Draw a Venn diagram for the given sets. In words, explain why you drew one set as a subset of the other, disjoint sets, or overlapping sets. 1) athletes and high school students 1) Describe how the sentence is ambiguous. 2) There was a 15% decrease in donations to the homeless shelter between 1996 and 2000, a year in which \$50,000 was collected. 2) Decide whether the statement makes sense. Explain your reasoning. 3) I did not convince my friend that I was right, so I must not have argued logically. 3) Create a simple three-line argument for the given form. Choose your example so that it illustrates clearly whether or not the argument is valid. 4) Denying the conclusion 4) The statement connects two individual propositions with the word and. State whether the entire statement is true or false, and explain why. 5) The sun is bigger than the moon and the sun rotates around the earth. 5) 1

2 Decide whether the statement makes sense. Explain your reasoning. 6) The argument is weak, so its conclusion must be false. 6) Draw a Venn diagram for the given sets. In words, explain why you drew one set as a subset of the other, disjoint sets, or overlapping sets. 7) beverages and soft drinks 7) Draw a Venn diagram to determine whether the argument is valid. 8) Premise: All clowns wear makeup. Premise: Bozo is a clown. Conclusion: Bozo wears makeup. 8) Analyze the situation and explain how you would make a decision. 9) The costs per day of driving to work are \$5 for gas, \$10 for parking, and \$1 for wear-and-tear on the car. Taking the train to work costs \$6.50 each way, plus \$1.50 per day to park at the train station. Should you drive or take the train?" 9) Identify the type of argument and determine its validity with a Venn diagram. 10) Premise: If you try hard, then you will succeed. Premise: You did not try hard. Conclusion: You will not succeed. 10) Decide whether the statement makes sense. Explain your reasoning. 11) Insurance policy A costs \$250 and has no deductible. Insurance policy B costs \$275 and has a \$500 yearly deductible. Candace thinks the extra \$25 per month is worth it to get the \$500 deductible, so she buys policy B. 11) 2

3 Draw a Venn diagram for the given sets. In words, explain why you drew one set as a subset of the other, disjoint sets, or overlapping sets. 12) motor vehicles and cars 12) A categorical proposition is given. If it is not already in standard form, rephrase it. State the subject and predicate sets, and draw a Venn diagram for the proposition. Label all regions of the diagram clearly. 13) All horses are animals. 13) Decide whether the statement makes sense. Explain your reasoning. 14) If "unconscious" means "not located in the United States," then Florida is not unconscious. 14) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Use braces to write the members of the set, or state that the set has no members. 15) The whole numbers greater than 3 and less than 7 15) A) {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} B) {4, 5, 6} C) {3, 4, 5, 6} D) {4, 5, 6, 7} Choose the first set in the list natural numbers, whole numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers that describes the following number. 16) ) A) Rational numbers B) Natural numbers C) Integers D) Real numbers Rephrase the statement as a conditional proposition with the form "if p, then q." 17) Being in California is sufficient for being in Los Angeles. 17) A) If you are in Los Angeles, then you are in California. B) If you are in California, then you are in Los Angeles. C) If you are in California, then you are not in Los Angeles. D) If you are in Los Angeles, then you might be in California. Evaluate the validity of the chain of conditionals. 18) Premise: If I pay my bills on time, then my credit will be good. Premise: If my credit is good, then I will become a movie star. Conclusion: If I pay my bills on time, then I will become a movie star. A) Valid B) Invalid 18) 3

4 The argument given or described involves some kind of fallacy. Identify the fallacy. 19) A television commercial shows two people who fall in love while wearing a certain brand of blue jeans. A) Appeal to ignorance B) Limited choice C) Appeal to emotion D) Hasty generalization 19) Determine whether the statement is true or false. 20) If Florida is in the United States, then all squares are rectangles. 20) A) True B) False The argument given or described involves some kind of fallacy. Identify the fallacy. 21) You should brush your teeth every day because brushing your teeth is very important. 21) A) False cause B) Hasty generalization C) Diversion (red herring) D) Circular reasoning 22) One candidate favors eliminating affirmative action programs. The other candidate states: My opponent doesn't think there's anything wrong with discrimination." A) Limited choice B) Personal attack (ad hominem) C) Hasty generalization D) Straw man 22) Determine whether the statement is true or false. 23) If a triangle is a parallelogram, then all rectangles are squares. 23) A) True B) False State whether or is being used in the exclusive or inclusive sense in the given statement. 24) The insurance policy will not cover misuse or acts of God. 24) A) Inclusive B) Exclusive Make a truth table for the given statement. The letters p, q, r, s represent propositions. 25) if q, then not r 25) A) B) q r if q, then not r q r if q, then not r T T F T F T F T F F T F C) D) q r if q, then not r T T F T F T F T T F F T q r if q, then not r F T T F F T Determine whether the statement is true or false. 26) If Florida is in the United States, then all rectangles are squares. 26) A) True B) False Use braces to write the members of the set, or state that the set has no members. 27) The integers from 4 to 8 (inclusive) 27) A) {5, 6, 7} B) {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} C) {5, 6, 7, 8} D) {4, 5, 6, 7} 4

5 Solve the problem. 28) The following Venn diagram describes the cars on a used car lot. Use it to determine how many Fords are on the lot. 28) A) 17 B) 20 C) 23 D) 30 Make a truth table for the given statement. The letters p, q, r, s represent propositions. 29) p or q 29) A) B) C) D) p q p or q F T F p q p or q T T F F T F F F T p q p or q T F T F T T p q p or q F T T 5

6 Answer Key Testname: PRACTICE EXAM #1 1) The sets are overlapping. It is possible for a person to be both an athlete and a high school students, but not all athletes are high school students and not all high school students are athletes. 2) It is unclear whether the year in which \$50,000 was collected was 1996 or ) Does not make sense. Arguing logically may not change the other person's position, but it can help the other person understand you, and vice versa. (Explanations will vary.) 4) Answers will vary. The structure of the argument should be as follows: Premise: If p, then q. Premise: q is not true. Conclusion: p is not true. The argument is valid. 5) False. Is is true that the sun is bigger than the moon, but it is not true that the sun rotates around the earth. (The earth rotates around the sun.) Since one of the individual propositions if false, the conjunction is false. 6) Does not make sense. The strength of an inductive argument is not necessarily related to the truth of its conclusion. The argument "The earth rotates around the sun because I said so" is extremely weak, but its conclusion happens to be true. For a long time people found the argument "The sun rotates around the earth" to be quite compelling, but its conclusion turned out to be false. (Explanations will vary.) 7) The set "soft drinks" is a subset of the set "beverages." All soft drinks are beverages, but some beverages (e.g., water) are not soft drinks. 6

7 Answer Key Testname: PRACTICE EXAM #1 8) The X represents Bozo. The conclusion follows necessarily from the premises, and the argument is valid. 9) Answers may vary. One possibility: Since driving costs \$16 (\$5 + \$10 + \$1 = \$16) per day and taking the train costs \$14.50 (\$ \$1.50 = \$14.50) per day, it appears that taking the train is a better option. However, you should also consider other factors. If you have a spouse who might need the car during the day, then that's another reason to take the train (that would also save you the \$1.50 parking fee). If you take the train, you might be able to read the newspaper or do work on the way to work. However, if the train tends to be crowded and you prefer being alone, then it might be worth the extra \$1.50 per day to drive. 10) The type of argument is called Denying the Hypothesis. We have p = you try hard and q = you will succeed. The second premise asserts that p is false for you, which we show by putting an X outside the p circle. However, we do not know whether the X should also be outside the q circle, because the premise says nothing about whether you succeeded. Thus, we put the X on the border of the q circle. The Venn diagram shows that the premises do not lead necessarily to the conclusion, so the argument is invalid. It is possible that, despite your not trying hard, you might still succeed. 11) Does not make sense. Candace is paying an additional \$25 per month (\$300 per year) to get a \$500 deductible. However the deductible (what you pay out of pocket before the insurance kicks in) is a cost, not a benefit! All other things being equal, policy A is clearly the better deal. (Explanations will vary.) 7

8 Answer Key Testname: PRACTICE EXAM #1 12) The set "cars" is a subset of the set "motor vehicles." Every car is a motor vehicle, but there are some motor vehicles, such as trucks, that are not cars. 13) The subject set is "horses" and the predicate set is "animals." 14) Makes sense. You might think the statement does not make sense since the definition of "unconscious" is not actually "not located in the United States"and the assertion about Florida does not, on its own, make sense. However, the only question is whether if the definition were correct, the assertion about Florida would be correct. If "unconscious" means "not located in the United States," then "Florida is not unconscious" could be rephrased as "Florida is not not located in the United States" and then, replacing the double negation, "Florida is located in the United States." That assertion is clearly true. (Explanations will vary.) 15) B 16) A 17) B 18) A 19) C 20) A 21) D 22) D 23) A 24) A 25) C 26) B 27) B 28) C 29) C 8

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