2 Misconceptions: Life got way better for everyone during the Industrial Revolution. People discovered farming 12,000 years ago. Farming made it possible for people to stop hunting and stay in one place. They developed cities and governments and religions and culture. Sounds great? Recent studies show that actually, no, for most people, it was a bad idea. People died earlier. They didn t get as good nutrition as before. Diseases got worse because everyone lived close together. Life got way better for some people: the kings, the leaders, the priests, and the powerful families. But not for everyone; for
3 most people it got worse. This is when we start talking about the social hierarchy. Some people are on top; most people are on the bottom. The same thing happens in the Industrial Revolution. We start talking about classes. Karl Marx is a man from Germany in the 1800s. He is famous as the founder of Communism. He writes a book called Das Kapital that describes capitalism. He is not happy with capitalism; he is critical of capitalism.
4 Rewrite 1. Karl Marx is the founder of capitalism. 1. Karl Marx is the founder of Communism. 2. Karl Marx loved capitalism. Karl Marx loved Communism. Karl Marx writes about classes. He writes about the bourgeoisie who are on top. They own everything and do little work. The bourgeoisie are what we call the upper class.
5 He writes about the Proletariat. They are the workers. They do all of the work but they own nothing. They get little money and are exploited. Karl Marx creates the ideas of Communism. It is also called Marxism. Complete 1. Who is on the top of the social classes according to Marx? The bourgeoisie 2. Karl Marx created the ideas of what? Marxism.
6 Communism becomes the opposite of Capitalism. After World War II, the big struggle is between Capitalism and Communism. This is the Cold War between the USA and the USSR. The USA is capitalist; the USSR is Communist. Rewrite 1. The USA is communist. The USA is capitalist. 2. The USSR is capitalist. The USSR is communist.
7 Complete 1. The major struggle is between the USA and the USSR is Communist The ideas of Communism are: Capitalism causes injustice (it is not fair) The Proletariat does all of the work and gets nothing The Bourgeoisie does none of the work and gets everything The Proletariat will realize that they are being oppressed (taken advantage of)
8 There will be a revolution The Proletariat will take over the factories and kill the Bourgeoisie The Proletariat will redistribute the wealth equally In other words, the workers will take over the factories. But when they are in control, they will share the profits. They will share instead of the owner getting everything. But why were the Proletariat so angry? Life is unfair, right at least they had jobs!
9 Rewrite 1. Capitalism causes justice. Capitalism causes injustice. 2. The Proletariat are rich people and owners. The Bourgeoisie are the rich people and owners. 3. The Bourgeoisie are the poor people and workers. The proletariat are the poor people and workers 4. The Proletariat will follow the mandates of the factory owners.
10 Misconceptions: Life got way better for everyone during the Industrial Revolution. The working conditions during the Industrial Revolution are bad. They make working 3 jobs at McDonalds, Walmart, and PetSmart seem easy. These are the problems of the Industrial Revolution: -bad working conditions in dangerous factories -child labor: kids working in factories instead of studying -abusive owners: factory owners did whatever they wanted to their workers
11 -pollution and dirty cities -the end of traditional cottage industries -enclosure and the loss of traditional farmland Complete What are the problems of the industrial revolution? 1. Bad working conditions in dangerous factories 2. child labor: kids working in factories instead of studying 3. abusive owners: factory owners did whatever they wanted to their workers 4. pollution and dirty cities 5. the end of traditional cottage industries
12 6. Enclosure and the loss of traditional farmland Working conditions are bad: There aren t safety regulations; people die at work and nothing happens. Bosses do whatever they want. Salaries are low. Children work. People work 15 hour days, 6 days a week. There are lots of stories about working conditions and we aren t going to focus on them. Pollution is terrible. Many people in England die of a disease caused by lack of sunlight because they never go outside. They work in a factory all day. When they go outside, they can t see the sun because of all the black smoke. There are no vacations. There is no education. People hate living in the city but they can t leave because there s no work back home on the farm.
13 Summarize How are working bad conditions? There are not any safety regulations so because of this Bosses do whatever they want. The pay low Salaries and they allow children to work. Due to all the excessive working in the factories the workers got sick because of lack of sunlight and lot of pollution. The working conditions are bad the workers don t have any vacation, children s were not going to school because they have to work in the factory. Because of all this people detest living in the city because of everything but they can t go back to the farm because there is not work to do there and the city seems to be paying a lot.
14 Cottage Industries: Traditional society ends: Before industrialization, people shared a lot of things. They shared land. There was always common land for people to farm on. Industrialization causes inflation: things get expensive. Land gets expensive. So nobody shares land anymore. This is called the Enclosure Movement. Landowners put fences around their land. They kick the poor people off. They move to the city. It s the same with cottage industries: People used to make their own clothes and tools. This is what a cottage industry is: A little business like making horse shoes or clothes or whatever. Not anymore. These industries end. Factories are it. Either work in a factory or die. Summarize 1. How do traditional industries disappear?
15 The traditional industries disappear a lot faster. Before industrialization, people have and share a lot of things lot of things. They shared land. There was always common land for people to farm on. The industrialization cause the cost of food and other items price s to increase. Because things got expensive land owners decided not to share anymore this process was called the enclosure movement. Due to this process many land owners fence their land and lot of poor people were kicked out. After they were kicked many left their country because there was no work. Let s think about El Salvador. Before industrialization, there was always work.
16 Anecdote: Frijol the Farmer Let s imagine the story of Frijol the Farmer. Frijol is born in a small town in 1950s in San Miguel. His family works for the local big boss, Elias. They are farmers. As long as they work on Elias fields, they can have a little garden for themselves. They survive and are pretty independent. They share with other people in the town if there is bad harvest. People help each other. There is work. Then one day, a group of Americans come. They work for a guy named Ray Krock. They buy all the land in Frijol s town. They put up a big fence. No more sharing the land! It s too valuable! These Americans bring a bunch of cows over. They
17 Make a beef-processing factory. Cows eat corn; cows get fat; cows go to the factory. In the factory, the cows are killed and ground up into little beef patties. Frijol looks for a job at the factory. They reject him! Sorry, there s no work. We already hired 50 workers. We don t need more. Go back to whatever you were doing. Frijol can t go back to what he was doing. He doesn t have land. So he goes north to the USA. He gets a job working in a place that, by the way, is owned by a guy named Ray Krock. It s called McDonalds, and their specialty is little patties of beef made in Central America.
19 Summarize 1. Summarize the story of Frijol the Farmer-- frijol lived in a small town called San Miguel. They are farmers. They farm on lands for people and they have a little land for themselves to survive on. Sometimes things are really bad like a bad harvest so they would share with people in the own. Basically they support each other. One day a guy name Ray Krock Came to the town and bought all the lands in ray s town. He open a beef-making factory but before that he put a fence all around the lands and said no more sharing because the lands were too expensive to share. Due to this many people were out of jobs especially Ray. Ray apply for job at the new beef-factory unfortunately they rejected him because the factory was fully with
20 50 employees. Frijol decided to leave town to North of U.S.A to find another job. He left and found a job at McDonalds which is own by Ray Krock. Misconceptions: Workers in the 1800s did nothing about their bad conditions! If you a worker in the 1800s, what would you do? What is the answer for you? Many workers are just happy to have a job. But many feel they should do something. Some follow the ideas of Marx. They want a revolution. They want to kill the factory owners and take over.
21 But others want to negotiate. They want to make a deal with the factory owners for better conditions. One man alone can t say much; but a whole bunch of men can They form unions. Labor unions are groups of workers like 500 workers. They make demands like more money or safer work or Sundays free. They make demands and if they don t get what they want, they have strikes. Strikes are when workers just stop working. Imagine if you have a bad teacher, and everyone in the class just puts their head down. Just heads down, everyone, 90 minutes. This
22 causes a big problem. That is a strike. That is what Labor Unions do. They have some successes but not a lot. What really shakes things up what really changes things is when the Communists get their revolution? They get it in the strangest country, though Complete 1. Who are fighting against the economic dominance of the bourgeoisie? 2. The workers are fighting against the economic dominance of the bourgeoisie. 3. What are bourgeoisie
23 Bourgeoisie are the rich people who own the factories. Misconceptions: The USSR is the Communist Revolution that everyone wanted and expected. Karl Marx expected that England or Germany would have a Communist Revolution. Communism should have happened in an industrialized country. But it didn t. It happened in Russia.
24 Complete 1. Where did Karl Marx expect revolution? Karl Marx expected the Communist Revolution to happen in an industrialized country. 2. Where did Revolution occur? It happened in Russia.
25 Russia in 1917 is a country of farmers. But they have a Communist Revolution. And it succeeds. And they become the USSR the first and strongest Communist country in the world. The wannabe Workers Paradise. The revolution occurs in Russia, even though it shouldn t. Rewrite 1. Russia is a country of workers in The Russia is a country of farmers in The Communist Revolution occurs in England. The Communist Revolution occurs in Russia 3. The Communist Revolution should have occurred in Russia.
26 The Communist Revolution should have occurred in England. How does this happen? Russia is ruled by kings. The kings are called Czars. The Czars are from the same family as the kings of England and Germany. They are the Romanavs. They believe in Divine Right monarchy, even though nobody else does. They still think they are the FATHERS of the farmers. True/False 1. Czars believe in divine right. True
27 2. Russia is ruled by Czars. True. 3. Russia is ruled by democracy. False
28 But Russia has big problems. First of all, yeah, it s big. It s a huge country with a massive population. Most of the population is poor. They are given their freedom years before. But in the early 1900s, they want to know what happens next. When do they get something? Russia also shows weakness. Again and again, they lose wars. The biggest thing is that they lose to the Japanese. No European country loses to non-europeans; and the Russians lose to Japan. People blame the king.
29 Rewrite 1. Russia is perfect Russia is not perfect. 3. Russia wins the war against Japan. Russia lost the war against Japan.
30 The king is useless. We ll call him Czar because that s what people called him. His name is Czar Nicholas II and he has no idea how much people hate him. Czar Nicholas II believes that people think God supports him. He goes into World War I thinking that people are happy to die for him. He is wrong! Czar Nicholas II is a weak leader; World War I is a horrible war. There are major revolts. There are many groups who want to take over. The biggest group is republicans. They support Enlightenment ideas of voting and democracy. They are called the Whites. They lose. The Whites lose to the Reds. Who are the Reds?
31 Complete 1. Who is the leader of Russia during WWI? The leader of Russia during WWI was Czar Nicholas II 2. What do the people think of Czar Nicolas? The people hated Czar Nicholas II 3. The Republicans are represented by what color? They are represented by the white. 4. Who do you think the Reds are? The red are represented support the ideas of Karl Marx.
32 The Reds are Communists. The Reds support the ideas of Karl Marx. They want to end private property and make an equal society. Their leader is Vladimir Lenin.
35 The Reds are called Communists. They are also called Bolsheviks, which means the minority. The Bolsheviks slowly get more and more powerful. Their leader is great; Vladimir Lenin wins the important battles.
36 Rewrite 1. The Reds are Republicans. The Reds are Communists 2. The leader of the Reds is Doesteyvski. The leader of the Reds is Vladimir Lenin. 3. The Reds are also called the Mensheviks. The Reds also called Bolsheviks
37 Soon, they depose the Czar and kill the Royal family. All of the Royals die. There is a new government. It is a Communist government. It is the USSR. Complete 1. What happens to the Czar? He was killed. 3. What is the name of the new country? It is the USSR.
39 Communism is very strict. There are strict rules about how to conduct yourself. Karl Marx did not believe in war. He believed that war was only to the advantage of Capitalists. So, when the Communists win, they make peace. The revolution of the Communists is called the Russian Revolution. It happens in In The new country USSR wins the war. Next, Lenin has to figure out how to make a Communist country.
40 Le L
41 USSR is complicated. It can t be Communist right away because there are no factories. Communism depends on factories; the workers take over the factories and make an equal society. Rewrite 1. The new country is capitalist. The new country is communism 2. The new country wants to continue WW1. The new country wants to win the WW1 3. The name of the new country is USSR 4. The new country is capitalist. The new country a Communist country.
42 4. The USSR can t be 100 percent Communist because there are no factories.
43 Lenin starts by taking over everyone s property. But there is a problem. The rich people leave and Russia becomes poor. So he makes some reforms. They are capitalist reforms. This is the New Economic Policy (NEP), which moves away from Communism. USSR is poor. Millions of people die of starvation. The leaders can t decide on whether to be Communist or Capitalist. It s a poor country.
44 Complete 1. The first leader of USSR is called Lenin 2. Lenin starts his plan by doing reforms. 3. The plan of Lenin is called New Economic Policy (NEP). Josef Stalin takes over after Lenin dies. He is Communist and Totalitarian. He focuses on industrialization, at the cost of everything else. Stalin does whatever he wants. He forces people to move from place to place. He forces farmers to melt their plows into steel so they can make industrial products. Stalin is a dictator. The idea of Communism or the workers paradise becomes confused.
45 Summarize 1. How is Stalin different? He is a dictator, he focuses on industrialization, he does whatever he wants, and He forces farmers to melt their plows into steel So, what of Communism? What of the USSR? We look at this country now and we call it Communist. We call it a country that wanted to make everyone equal. But that s probably not true. USSR showed the growth of Russian nationalism. USSR was never ready for a Communist revolution.
46 Communism requires Industrialization. Russia was all farmers. Communism requires equality. Russia was a dictatorship. First, Lenin. Then, Stalin. And till the end one leader over all. So, what countries followed Marx and became workers paradises? Where did Labor Unions strike back against the owners? Labor Unions probably had the most success in the USA and other capitalist countries. There was a time in the USA when factory workers are middle class. They live in Detroit, work factories, buy cars and houses, go on vacations, and live good lives. This is most likely because wages get high enough because profits are good and prices are low. We ll probably never know. But Communism failed. It failed from the
47 beginning. The Workers Paradise never happened because the Revolution happened in the wrong place.
48 9* Complete 1. What are labor unions? 2. A labor union is when all the worker come together to strike for a better working condition. Summary True/False 1. Communism was a success. False. 2. Communism created a Worker s Paradise. False.
49 3. Russia was a good place for the Communist Revolution. False.
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