I. T W O R E V O L U T I O N S I N R U S S I A I I. F R O M L E N I N T O S TA L I N I I I. L I F E I N A T O TA L I TA R I A N S TAT E

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1 I. T W O R E V O L U T I O N S I N R U S S I A I I. F R O M L E N I N T O S TA L I N I I I. L I F E I N A T O TA L I TA R I A N S TAT E

2 I. TWO REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA A. Backwards Russia pre territory stretched from Eastern Europe to the Pacific Ocean 2. in 1897, a census revealed that Russians were a minority in their own country. a. Poles, Finns, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Latvians, Turkic peoples and many others

3 I. TWO REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA A. Backwards Russia pre compared to Western Europeans, Russia was backwards; dominated by: a. landowning nobles, b. priests, c. and an autocratic Tsar /Czar 4. Bloody Sunday in 1905 a. Moderates fired upon by Czar forces b. Festering working class : some legislative reforms a. Peter Stolypin as Prime Minister b. Duma parliament Too little, too late

4 I. TWO REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA B. The March Revolution 1. Long-Term Unrest a. revolutions had succeeded in the past and the threat of revolution was always present for the Romanov family b. one of the largest factions, or small revolutionary groups, were the followers of the teachings of Karl Marx i. based on the proletariat the growing class of factory and railroad workers, miners, and urban wage earners. c. to counter this, Russia enforced censorship and employed secret police forces

5 I. TWO REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA B. The March Revolution 2. Impact of the Great War (World War One) a. Problems facing Russia: i. ran out of resources, ii.. factories could not produce enough goods, iii. transportation system broke down, iv. many soldiers without weapons, v. and poor leadership b. Tsar Nicholas II takes his talents to the front c. Czarina Alexandra was left to run the government; not competent i. Russian public outraged by Rasputin s perceived closeness to the Royal family

6 I. TWO REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA B. The March Revolution 3. Collapse of the Romanov Dynasty a. in March 1917, Tsar Nicholas II abdicates i. riots over food shortages and battlefield atrocities b. liberals lead a new republican nation but did not withdraw from WWI i. Alexander Kerensky c. granted natural rights and religious freedom Too idealistic d. revolutionaries continued to meet in soviets councils of workers and soldiers dominated by the Bolshevik socialists

7 I. TWO REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA C. Lenin and the Bolsheviks 1. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov a. born in 1870 to middle-class parents b. adopts the name Lenin as a revolutionary c. his older brother was hanged for treason when he was Early Career a. arrested and sent to Siberia for being a Marxist demonstrator b. thereafter exiled to Switzerland but worked tirelessly for a revolution

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11 I. TWO REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA C. Lenin and the Bolsheviks 3. A New View of Marx a. Lenin adopted Marxist ideas to fit Russian conditions b. since a mass of urban workers did not exist, a dictatorship of the proletariat would rule in their best interest i. official political party named Bolsheviks meaning majority 4. Lenin Returns from Exile a. Germany slips Lenin back into Russian during WWI in 1917 via secret train i. Germany sees an opportunity to weaken its enemy

12 I. TWO REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA D. The November Revolution 1. The Bolshevik takeover a. Lenin, Trotsky, and other Bolshevik political revolutionaries promised Peace, Land, and Bread April Thesis b. in November 1917, armed factory workers joined mutinous sailors and attacked the provisional government i. its no use, we give up. No bloodshed member of the provisional government 2. with the Bolsheviks (Communists) in charge: a. took over governments in other major cities outside Petrograd b. Moscow became the new capital c. ended private ownership of lands and distributed lands to the peasants d. workers were given control of the factories and mines i. the new sickle and hammer flag represents this ideal

13 I. TWO REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA E. Russian Civil War 1. Russia quickly made peace with Germany with the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk a. gave up huge amount of territory and population 2. civil war raged for the next 3 years a. the reds communist forces (formerly Bolsheviks) b. the whites counterrevolutionaries loyal to the Tsar i. Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia break free 3. the Allies of WWI intervened in the civil war on the side of the loyalists a. the reds rallied behind nationalism and urged Russians to drive out the foreigners B. the RED ARMY led by Leon Trotsky 4. the Romanov Royal family was assassinated

14 I. TWO REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA F. war communism 1. the official policy adopted by the new communist government a. government took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads b. peasants were forced to give surplus crops to starving Russians in the cities c. Russian army was totally rebuilt under Trotsky's leadership

15 I. TWO REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA G. a costly triumph 1. by 1921, the Communists were solidly in control, however, a. millions dead from the war b. millions more dead from starvations and pandemic c. immense job of rebuilding ahead

16 I. REVIEW Provide evidence to support the following statement: Russia was a backwards nation when compared to Western Europe on the eve of World War one. According to Marxism, who are the Bourgeoisie and who are the Proletariat?

17 I. REVIEW TIMELINE Lenin arrives in Petrograd during WWI Lenin leads the Bolshevik takeover of Republican government led by Kerensky; November Revolution Russian Civil War ends Russia enters WWI Bloody Sunday Tsar Nicholas II abdicates throne; beginning of March Revolution in Russia Russian Civil War Begins Peter Stolypin 1 st Prime Minister and Duma parliament created Liberal Republican government founded in Russia with Alexander Kerensky as leader Rasputin murdered

18 I. REVIEW TIMELINE Bloody Sunday 1905 Peter Stolypin 1 st Prime Minister and Duma parliament created 1906 Russia enters WWI Rasputin murdered Dec Tsar Nicholas II abdicates throne; beginning of March Revolution in Russia March 1917 Lenin arrives in Petrograd during WWI April 1917 Liberal Republican government founded in Russia with Alexander Kerensky as leader July 1917 Lenin leads the Bolshevik takeover of Republican government led by Kerensky; November Revolution November 1917 Russian Civil War Begins Nov/Dec 1917 Russian Civil War ends 1921/2

19 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN

20 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN Main Idea: After Lenin helped Russia recover from the civil war, Stalin established a brutal Communist dictatorship in the Soviet Union.

21 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN A. Building the Communist Soviet Union 1. Lenin s first task was to rebuild Russia after WWI, two revolutions and years of civil war 2. Lenin s Communist Government a. created a constitution in 1922; both democratic and socialist b. elected legislature; suffrage for anyone over 18 c. ALL political, resources, means of production would belong to the workers and peasants

22 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN A. Building the Communist Soviet Union 2. Lenin s Communist Government d. most of the former Russian Empire became the USSR i. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ii. multi-ethnic state of European and Asian peoples Сою з Сове тских Социалисти ческих Респу блик

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24 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN A. Building the Communist Soviet Union 2. Lenin s Communist Government e. in reality, Russia and Russians dominated f. Communist leaders replaced the royal family as rulers i. created secrete police forces to censor and enforce the party s will

25 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN A. Building the Communist Soviet Union 3. Lenin s NEP (New Economic Policy) a. allowed for some capitalistic ventures (small businesses) b. communist government still operated the mines, large industries, banks, foreign trade, etc c. peasants were allowed to save/sell their extra crops i. all this SAVED a collapsing economy ii. improved the standard of living d. only supposed to be temporary

26 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN B. Stalin s Rise to Power 1. Lenin suddenly died in January 1924 a. body not buried b. displayed for 65 years in Red Square 2. USSR / communist party in a power struggle a. Trotsky and Stalin are most likely

27 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN B. Stalin s Rise to Power 3. Leon Trotsky was a brilliant Marxist thinker, skillful speaker, powerful writer and a main architect of the Bolshevik revolution 4. Joseph Djugashvili, (Stalin) was none of these things a. a shrewd political operator and organizer behind the scenes

28 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN B. Stalin s Rise to Power 5. born to a poor family in Georgia 6. was studying for priesthood before the revolution became more important 7. joined the underground Bolshevik movement in 1900 a. Took the name Stalin, means man of steal b. organized robberies to get money for the communist party c. spent time in Siberian exile 8. became the General Secretary of the Communist party in the 1920s and built a loyal following

29 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN B. Stalin s Rise to Power 9. Lenin disapproved of Stalin, favored Trotsky or other 10. Stalin outmaneuvered Trotsky a. Trotsky fled in 1929 and was assassinated in Mexico in 1940

30 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN C. Stalin s 5 Year Plans 1. acknowledged that Russia had always been technologically behind 2. in 1928, issues first 5-year plan to turn the USSR into a modern, industrial power a. aimed at building heavy industry, improving transportation, and increasing farm output 3. created a Command Economy in which to achieve this a. where government officials make all basic decisions as opposed to the free market of capitalism

31 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN C. Stalin s 5 Year Plans 4.Mixed Industrial Results a. set high-production goals for industry and transportation i. rewards for success, punishment for failure b. despite producing more, the workers and famers standards of living declined steadily c. wages were low and consumer goods were scarce d. central planning was inefficient causing shortages of necessities and comforts e. quantity over quality instead of the other way around f. the USSR continued to do well in heavy industry, but failed to match the capitalistic west in consumer goods

32 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN C. Stalin s 5 Year Plans 5. Revolution in Agriculture a. took away the small plots of private lands from Lenin s NEP b. forced peasants to live on state-owned farms known as collectives i. large farms operated by peasants as a group, not individually c. the communist leaders of the USSR told the collectives what to farm, when to far, how to farm and, of course, how much to farm i. major surpluses needed to support the growing number of workers in the booming heavy industries d. creation of MASSIVE factories because of TOTALITARIANISM, not COMMUNISM

33 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN C. Stalin s 5 Year Plans 6. A Ruthless Policy a. many peasants resisted the USSR collectives i. some slaughtered their own animals and burnt their own fields b. Stalin looked to destroy the kulaks, or wealthy peasants i. Stalin confiscated their lands and sent them to Siberian work camps ii. if peasants were thought to have under-produced, the government stole from them iii. terrible famine was the result c. close to 10 million peasants die from these ruthless policies d. grain production increased slightly however, meats, fruits and vegetables were in short supply i. feeding its massive population would always be a problem for the Soviet Union

34 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN D. The Great Purge 1. purge = to rid of whatever is impure or undesirable; cleanse; purify 2. despite having absolute power, Stalin became obsessively paranoid that rival party leaders were plotting against him a. begins to remove Old Bolsheviks in the communist party b. targeted old army heroes, industrial managers, writers and even ordinary citizens 3. held massive show trials between a. forced confessions of disloyalty b. at least 4, but probably closer to 6 million Russians were purged c. gulags 4. the Great Purge strengthened Stalin's power, but weakened the Soviet Union a. new communist leaders were loyal more to Stalin than to the ideals of communism

35 II. FROM LENIN TO STALIN E. Soviet Foreign Policy 1. between 1917 and 1939, the Soviet Union pursued two very different goals in foreign policy. 2. as communists, Lenin and Stalin hoped to bring about a worldwide revolution where the have-nots will overthrow the haves 3. USSR also wanted to protect themselves by making alliances with other nations a. these two policies cannot coexist; they contradict b. Communist International (Commintern) was created to help aid communists in other nations overthrow their governments (the Red Scare in America) c. but the USSR also wanted to join the League of Nations d. most nations begin to break off agreements with USSR

36 III. LIFE IN A TOTALITARIAN STATE Main Idea: Stalin turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state that regulated every aspect of the lives of its citizens.

37 III. LIFE IN A TOTALITARIAN STATE A. An Age of Totalitarian Control 1. Karl Marx predicted that the state would disappear in a true socialist state a. the opposite came true under Stalin 2. Stalin created a totalitarian state a. in this form of government, a one-party dictatorship attempts to regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizens 3. Terror a. to ensure obedience, Stalin's Communist party used secret police, censorship, violent purges, and terror i. no American sense of personal privacy b. total censorship of the media and art

38 III. LIFE IN A TOTALITARIAN STATE A. An Age of Totalitarian Control 4. Propaganda a. using modern technology, the USSR bombarded the public with relentless propaganda b. ALL praised communism and ALL denounced capitalism c. promoted extreme nationalism d. created communist heroes e. Cult of Personality

39 III. LIFE IN A TOTALITARIAN STATE A. An Age of Totalitarian Control 5. War on Religion a. again, based on Marx, atheism became the official state policy i. atheists believe in no god b. communists clashed with the Russian Orthodox Church c. communists replaced religion with communist ideology i. writings of Marx, Lenin and others became the sacred texts ii. the tomb of Lenin and other monuments became their holy shrines

40 III. LIFE IN A TOTALITARIAN STATE B. Changes in Soviet Society 1. Communists drastically transformed Russian ways of life 2. but instead of creating a paradise of equals where everyone is the same, they just replaced the Tsars as the ruling majority 3. The New Elite a. leaders of society were Russians lucky enough to join the Communist Party b. other leaders included industrial managers, military leaders, scientists, and artists and writers who worked FOR the government c. the elite enjoyed privileges not available to all others i. best apartments, vacation homes, better cars, good shoes, etc.

41 III. LIFE IN A TOTALITARIAN STATE B. Changes in Soviet Society 4. Social Benefits and Drawbacks a. most people did enjoy more benefits than before the revolution (but that s not saying too much) b. free education for everyone c. free medical care, free day care, inexpensive housing and public transportation and recreation d. still a comparatively low standard of living e. with urbanization, crowed living conditions f. bread available, but shortages of meat, veggies and fruits

42 III. LIFE IN A TOTALITARIAN STATE B. Changes in Soviet Society 5. Education a. children were forced to attend the new communist schools b. students were taught and indoctrinated i. taught useful skills and knowledge but ii. also taught the glory of atheism, collectivism, and love of Stalin c. created Communist youth groups to groom future Communist leaders

43 III. LIFE IN A TOTALITARIAN STATE B. Changes in Soviet Society 6. Women in the Soviet Union a. Communist Feminism i. Zhenotdel abolished in 1930 by Stalin Ii. Top Down vs. Bottom Up a. women won equality under the law b. gained access to education and a wide range of professional jobs

44 III. LIFE IN A TOTALITARIAN STATE Main Idea: Stalin turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state that regulated every aspect of the lives of its citizens.

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