JOURNAL OF THE BOMBAY BRANCH OF TIIE. > ROY AL ASIA TIC SOCIETY (NEW SERIES) l:ll>itbd BY CONTENTS. ..\UDgior'a Report on Bombay.

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1 Vol VII. Noe. l & :? JOURNAL OF THE BOMBAY BRANCH OF TIIE. > ROY AL ASIA TIC SOCIETY (NEW SERIES) l:ll>itbd BY D&. V. S. SUKTHANKAR, M.A., rn.11. (Borlin). A.. A. A. FYZEE, DLA. (Cantab.), Bar-o.i-Law. PRoJr. N. K. BHAUWAT, 11..t.. W. lvuow: More on Biography of Ruzbibo.n Al-B11oqli CONTENTS l I Sir 0HARLEA FAWOE'l'J': Gerald..\UDgior'a Report on Bombay. Baun NoTB: Pe.i\oho.mahadabde. in Rlljutaro.ngi~i. By PAo&tA NATH BllATl'AOJIARYVA '8 R111vrswe or BooKs : Otylon z11r Zeif. ckjj Kiin1'.g,, Bhw1anefo &ihu urul Fmnz X<1111!TR, (H. Him.ii); The 4-faratlia Raja11 of 'l'csnjore ( H. HerlWI); Kampili and Vija!Janagara (.H. Here.a); ij.janlaa (N. K. Blmgwe.t ) ; A V oyc1up. lo Surat i1& the year 1689 (M. 8. CommiAAario.t.); Auastya in Tamil L<1nd8 (K. G. Kuoda.ngar); 'I'he Origin of tlaivimi a11d i/.8 Ilisk ry (V. ['. V nidyo.) 52 IN MRMOBtAM: Dr. R. Zimmermann, S.J. 63 Prooeedinga (Annual Report).. 64: List of Meuibem and l<'ellowe 89 PoBr.IsHEn D'i TUB SootETY AUOCTRT Hl31 8 Lo~UON AOllNT: ARTHUR PROBSTHAIN 41, Great RWl861! Street, London, W.C. THE TillBS OY INDL\ PllK.'iS, llllmba.y

2 BOMBAY BRANCH OF 'I'll~ iaopal itstattc ~ottetp. MANA IN<l COIDUTfEE. PruMhnJ: Sm GovINo DINA.NATH Ml.DOAONLUt, KT., l.c.8. Viu-Pruidenla: V. P. VA.JOYA, FJ!q., R.A., Bar-at-Law. P. V. KArnc, Eeq., M.A., LL.M. s. v. BUA..'ml.RlUR, Eeq., B.A., LL.B. The Rev. J. McKENZIE, M.A. Hmwrary 8ecrdary : J. s. 'I'ILI..llY I Esq. Honorary Financial 8taefary: B. K. WAGLE,.Eeq., B.A. (Ca.ntab.) Me111bera: Bir.TIVANJJ JAMSUBOJI lfolll, KT., Prof. H. D. Vm.AN~, M.A. C.I.E. J. E. ASPINWALL, Eiq. Prof. P. A. W AlllA, M.A. M. D. ALTEKAD, Esq., :rtla. a. v. AollARYA, Esq., B.A. DEWAN IlAnAoun KiusuNALAL MouA..'I LAL JHA.VEBJ, M.A., LL.D. A. A. A. FnE1t, Eeq., M.A. (Cantab.), LL.B., Bar-at-Law. 0. S. 0Ut1R\"E, Esq., M.A., P;i.D. Prof. A. B. GAJBNDIU.G.AOltAR, M.A. Prof. K. T. SBA.II, B.A., B.Sc.,.Biu--at-Lnw. Prof. R. D. CuoKsJ, M.A. Prof. V. A. GAnmL, lf.a. Tho Rev. Fr. H. Hirn.As, S.J. R. C. GoFPIN, F.sq., M.A. A. FolllUNOTON, Eaq. c. w. A. TURNXR, Eeq., C.I,:E;., l.c.s. L. M. B. RBlDUN, ~LA., Pu.D.!t1. R. VA.JUL, Esq., B.A., LL.B.,.Bar-at-Law.

3 J OURNAL 01" THE BOMBAY BRANCH OF THE ROY AL ASIATIC SOCIETY (NEw S1mCES} EDITED HY DR. \'. S. SUKTH.ANK.AR, ~I.A., l'll.d. (Berlin). A. A. A. FYZEE, M.A. (Cnntab.), Bnr nt-law. PROF. N. K. llhagw AT, ll,a.. VOLUlllE \'II 1931 PunLrsnEu BY TUR SocmTY AUGUST 1931 LoNllON AGENT: ARTHUR PROBSTH..:\IN 41, Greo.t RUBscll Street, London, W. G. TJrn TWES OF INDIA PRESS, DO~lDAY

4 TABLE OF COKTEKTS. NEw ::lemes, Vor.. VII, 1!)31. ARTICLES. PAGE Moro on Biography of Ruzbihnn Al-Ilnqli. By W. IVA!WW Gcm.l<l Aungier's Report on Bombn.y. By Sm CHAR.}J8 J~Awc1~ , KT., I.C.S. 8 BRIEF NOTE. Pnnchnnmhii.Sllb<ln in Rajatarangi1.ii. By PADMANATH BllATTACllAHYYA 48 HlfflE\VS OF BOOKS. Ceylon ;mr Zcit <les Kiinigs Bhuvunckn lliil111 un<l Fmnz Xnvers, 1 ii39-l5ii2. By Tm: REV. Fn. H. HEHAS, S.J. 52 The )lnrnth.a Rajns of Tanjorc. By THE Rt:\'. FR. H. Ht:RAS, 8.J. Knmpili nn<l Vijaynnngarn. By TnE RE!, Fn. H. HER,\S, s. J. Ajo.nthii. By PnuF. N. IC Il11AGWAT, :\LA. A Voyngc to Slll'nt in the Yenr llis!l. AgnaLyo in Tamil Lnu<ls. The Origin of Saivi11m and its History. By Pnor. )[. S. Co~DIISSARIAT By l'no11. K. G. KuNnANGAH, M.A. By V. P. VAIDYA, Bar-n.t-Lnw 5-l 56,jg (jq Gl In Momorium: Dr. H. Zimmermann, S.J. Proceedings (Annual Report, Hl29) List of Members an<l Fellows ( !)

5 JOURNAL or nm BOMBAY BRANCH Ol' THE ROY AL ASIATIC SOCIETY \'ol. vn 1931 NoA. 1 & 2 :\!ORE ON BIOGRAPHY OF RUZBIHAN AL-BAQLI. BY w. lv.l.'iow. In the Joumal of the Asia.tic Society of Bcngn.1 for 1928 {in reality issued only in September 1!}2!l), pp , I lmvo published n. note on a. fragment of n biographical Persian work den.ling with the life an~ miracles of the fumous Sufic saint of Shiraz, Abu Mul)n.mmn.d Rtizbihan b. Ahl Na~r al-bn.qlr al-pasa'i (d. iu the beg. of :\Inl;umam 606 A. H., or micl. July 1209). The fra.gment which contained only 36 leaves and formed only n. small portion of the whole work, was found by me in Shiraz in October All my search for more portions of the 11ame copy was fruitless. Leaving Shiraz, ho\vever, I asked my fril nds to try more in this direction. Quite recently one of them has sent to me n.nother portion of the same copy, only nine leaves, fortwiately belonging to the beginning of the work, and containing much valuable infonna.tion a.bout it. and about it~ author. I bclie\'c it. is worth while to publish these details here. The title of the work is omitted in the copy, though on f. 6 there arc two lines left blnnk in the pl11ee in which it Hhoul<l appear, after the wordi:; " 11 a ml m-i-in kitii.b..." Most probably it wah something like Sfrnl-niiw1-i-Slwykli Riizbihan, because t.he author uses the expression of sirul-n~ma in the se~e of l

6 2 TV. hanow ' hiography,' as on f. Gv, where it is used twice in connection with the Shikh himself. 1 In my preceding pn.pcr I have shown that the work couhl not have been compiled bpfore G78 A.H./1280 A.D. In this fragment, on f. Gv, it is stated plainly that the compiler was asked to write the book 9J yea.rs after the death of the Shikh ~i. i.e. in or about 700 A.H./ beg A.D. It. \va.s clear that. the author was n. gren.t-gmudson of the Shikh. 3 He gives here (f. Gv) hii; own name as Ihr11.hrm b. Rflzbihan. Thus l1is full name wn.s Ibr!l.hTm b. Shaykhi'l-Isl!l.m ~a.clri'd-din Rflzbihan b. Fakhri'd-d1n Al.1ma<l b. Rflzbih!ln. As may be seen from this fragment, the work had (probably after the usual doxology) an introduction giving a brief mention of clifterent famous Sufo; of various parts of the Islamic world ; after this there is &. p.~gc (f. ijv) on t.llc circumstances of the composition of tho book, and on the distribution of 1mbjects in it (ff. G-Gv). The seven babs, into which it was llivitlcd (besides the conclusion, klwtm, mentioned in the fragment. described in the preceding paper), dealt with : 1. On the Shikh"s birth and early c"reer (here is a mistake, and in the margins it is written only: ~u; ~..)_,!,,.) 2. On the great shaykhs who were conteruporo.ries with Ruzbiha.n 4 (.l; j y,, I r la..,s ~Lt... ;1 I( I } j ;.) ) 3. Ou his inst.ruction o.nd miracles ( ~:;. = L.. I/, I:!.!~~}.)),1. On his teachings with regard to tafsir, ~mlitlt, etc. ( w_r.f J ~ ~ J ;!...iu j I r..jji_,; Jj ) 1 As he snys (Uh ): J ~...! / ~ )~...,.t.. U ~fr... Loi x.i.. ~ r1') j V, ftt; and further on: W t.1.i..) / l:.ji_...,,....ili ~ ~.\... lj =.ft"' AH he so.ya (C.5v) : J='f) ~ = li J j I JI... ) [e. J J,_i j I ~ " 8ce my preeecling pn per, pp. 354.:JUii. It mo.y Le from thii; ehnpkr of the present work t.lrnt.jnmi Ima derh cd the uiogmphies of BOID() nssoeiatea of the Shikh, given in the Nafa{uilu' l UllS (cf. my preceding pnpcr, J>. 3a3),

7 More 011 Biography of Ruzbilmi hl-baqli 3 G. On various instructive ~nn.t.tcrs taught by him to his associates ( '-:-' ~ I y. iii f.i..,c..1.; I_,; ; ~ ) G. On children and grandchildren of Ruzbihan. aml on some virtues of the (author's) father, Slmykhu"lfalam ~adrn'l-millat wa'd-din Ruz)ihan ath-t.j1ani ash Shaykhu-'th-thani..Jo):., ~ b ~' J ~JI JI /j ) ~) l:ft..1.11,.iw Ii.l..D r L. JI I~ ; I/; y, y~ ~ La; j I Ctlill ~I...SHiJI 1.:1Y.jJ) 7. On Shik!1's death ( ~ = _r:i:o.. =~;, )~) Thus the two fragments contain only portions of the first, third, fourth, a.ncl seventh chn.ptern. The present fragment opens with the concluding portion of a note on a shaykh who cliccl in 282 A.II./895 A.D. Then foll '\" shaykhs of KhomHan: Abu Yazrd Bis~anli (d. 261/SiG), with a reference to his pupil, Al.1mad b. Khaqruya.. Then Abu"l-Qasim Ibrahrrn h. ~lul.in.mmacl Ra had hi (d. 367 /977). On f. 1 v is mentioned Abu l~afs Xishii puri (<l. 26 1/8i7) ; Abu Bakr b. Mul.in.mmad al-wasii1, who was n n.lly from ~Iarw (cl. 3:l0/932); Abu Ali FucJn.yl h. 'IyacJ (cl. 187/80:~) ; Ibrahim All'hn.111 (cl. 161 /778) ; Abu ~amid Al)mad KJ1acJruya. Balkhi, mcnt.ioued above ; the date of his death is wrongly given as :W-1;'819. Ab1Yl-Qasim Qushayri, as the aut.hor says (f. 2), ir not mentioned in the Risiila. (whose?), nor in the J:'abaqfU (whose, Sulami's or 'Abdu'l-l11h Afi.?ar(s?) 1, for the same reasons as Abu Sa'id h. Abr'l-Khayr 2 1 The compiler speaks vaguely about some k11t11b-i-maslui'ikl1 \f. l ), or simply kutub (f. :Jv) which he pcrns<'d, ALout this Rfa ri/1t nothing can Le gathered from the prci!cnt fmgmpnt:. ",J' I' I {' 2'.) ye JU lmi) i J 1.:J ~ ;.) ~j i_,r.i.o =~ ).) J. 2 It would Le int<'rceting to tin<l whether he hns in view one of thr t\yo liiogrnphics of Abfl f'11'icl, which u.rc still prcdcrvccl and havo Leen cditc<l by the late Pr. V. ZhukO\ ski of St. Petersburg, i.e. the A.mir11't-tawbirl /i 111aqamat Slwykli A/ii :5'a itl (composc cl between 5;i3 nncl fi99 A. H., i.e. ll[i8 and 12U:J; publ. St. Petersburg, IS9D), and another, shorter one, composed much cnrlicr (publ. St. Pctersuurg, lsd[)), under the titl" of l;lriliit 1m s11khc111iill i Slwykh A/,U 811'iJ.

8 4 H'. Iua e.n<l Ahirl-l:fas::m Kharqanl 1, i.e. hcc111rnc there were special biographies (sfrat-nii:ma) rlcvotecl to t.hem n.nd their a;i;socin.tes. Among the shaykhsof Ira11 n.re mcutionecl (f.2v) Sirri,.Tun.ay<l, Niirl, Il.m 'A~ii, etc. Sufi.a of Fars (f. 3v). They arc innumemble ; the author only can mention n) less than 200 of those who performed miracles, like A).unad b. Yal;iya, Abii'l-'Ahbas Shiriizi, Mu.l;u1.n11nad b. Khalil 8hirazI, Abt! 1\Ian~iir ShirazI, Abii Yusuf Y e.'qub ShiriizI, and their associates. Amongst them Abii 'Abdi'l-lah b. i\iul.111.nunad b. Khafl f ash-shiriizi has produced mo.uy works (f. 4) ; he died in 371/981-2, in ShiraL. Abu Isl.uiq Ibrahim Sha.hryiir al-kb.zirllni has converted to Islamism seveml thousands of Gabrs ; he died in 126/1035. AbU 'Abdi'l-lah ~luhayn b. Al.11nn.d o.1-bay~iir (cl. 363/!17:~- 1). AhU :\:Iul;iammn.d Ja'fo.r al-ijacllulha (<l. 360/970-1). Abii'l-Qiisim ~affiir of Shiraz (cl 372/982-:J). Abii'l-1:.fasan Saliba {or Siil-i-bili?) of Bayqa (d. 300/912-3). After these early Sufi;; the author immediately mentions hi:i great-granclfather, Ruzbihan, the ' ShaHal1-i-Fars '. As the portion of the first bu. b of the book which is preserved in the present fragment is rather interesting and typical of it11 contents, style and language, it seems U8cful to give it here i'.n t:efniso. In the present quotation all the peculiarit.ies of orthography of the origim~l Manuscript are preserved o.s far as possible, an<l only olwious la1is11s culam are correcteil without special note. It is rc111arkable that the i<jafa. is very mrely marked both after a a.ncl ii., -such cases are exeept.iorn; ml;]wr than rule. It is diilicult to believe that the i1,afa wai,1 usually omitted in pronunciation. Another peculiar feature of this.mu.nu8l'.ript is inconsistent use of rlh instead of d. Intervocalic d/i. appears to be not so frequent o.s dh at the end of the final syllable, both after IL long or short vowel. Also inconsistent is the USL' of the forms of the relative 1 It is dillicult to find whethl'r the o.uthor 1illuck s to the work, with tho t.itlr. o[ N'llrrc.'l-' 11/fl.111, dealing with tho 1ml1ject, pmborvud in I\ defective copy in tho Ilritieh!\luscum (Or. 249), und recently published with a Hu~im1 trnnslntion liy E. Bertels in lra11, vol. IlJ, l!j2!1, pp It is noteworthy thnt the author mentions nothing nljout.al.10u1.d-i-jaw aud his biographies which already existed nt ti.mt time.

9 JltJrc rm BingmJJlt / nf R11:bill{m al-bagli pronoun kt:: ki anrl H n.rc used intliscriminn.tcly, n.nd occn.si01rnlly k, in the usual combination t'lumii.nk(i). The modal prefix: mfis usually written scpn.rn.t.ely from the verl>, but bi- n.lways toget.lier 'vith it. It seems plmuiiblc that all these ;ascs of incorn1ist.cncy nre due entirely to t.he scribe's int.roclucing in t.lrn process of t.mnscription different usages, newer than those which were followed in the Mnnuscript from which he wrote t.hc present copy. \J".l.f (!} l11 jj; y lhi ~ I '"1:!- fol ~ '--') 4-o.11-"' [ L 6 v] J,.Jl;.),4.~ JI J ~... ljl~ =l+4i jl ~,.S 'djy, l-1 ;J ';....i.111,.fj.r+.'".:;.,.) ~')) '~I JJ~ J w )f" )~,.&l~j ur. I) '.)y, " " jt r r ) r.).1"! rt t... ) i;r..,. I. ),iij! ) ~.u,... ).) r'lai ~w...' i..:, ;... r )i.l) 'xjr, Jl... )~' Jl~ J '? "}I J ' ~ l... J }.-e \o.sj ~; '-:-' j,.c;i. I>"" ) J J J / ~) ~ J t.w_,;, J4J ~Uc l"!..l~ JI 0 th!- ~f J )I 1.:.1!...t _,~ =1..l,~,,;t~~...04; Jl.::... l~l;j L..1.)~ ~l~ ~itli:.; = l.o..i4.. [ f. 7 J j I ""''I.::... I ~ t... I ' l1 ~ ; ~ t~ ; l...t IJ! t:f9 = j J J J lqj I,f ~ ~,s.i..t r _,i... cj t.t;... JS; 4---.P.I g;; :? i fo.w.-e ;- ~ls' i.;,j J...; ~i:' l~ ) j J ~ J-1...J... ~ cj ~) j, ': _ r r... I t.:". - 'l c).j7- ~ ~ loo.sf '-"" ) i_!( '+' "" 1:.' '-it v- J..lJ.).1"! ~ P.- J.).,,=... 4.i.! i~ r.)*j,,..) ~ ~1.) r.l~; :1~ ~ j I ~ 1:1 I) j ' ~- t~ 1:1'4. ;~.) ;,_.r...l;, l ~._f rii.4.. cl,j) I~ Lwt ~ r~r. I..!" ~ ;J 1.:.1~ _, 1.:.11s'~_,..r J ~) ~ ) l J..l-it _,.(...s""..l..tuj' 1.:.1 ~ I ' ~ W.1...1"" I) ~ _,.i.. 0~ ~ J..el:i.. c..s~.j If ~ ~jl 1 ~I li}-c =le i:.r-~,_,;i.j..o ;,J,j, Y~ ~ f. =~) ~tu, r~; e_,i~ ~ I!i22 A. H./1128 A. D. 2 Tho Comn, Chap!. LXXIV, ul. 3 Here ~.

10 6 ff. /tytj1()11l J~ r.,k ~~ J r1;;,) lt 1) L!)Ti r~1;.it~... Jt;b jl rk J4, r~;. J'- ~ J ~ i:.r: 1.:.'.r.'", r.i.! cl:! jj u"' ~ t~ f LI" u.j ~ L..,j l._!t k' ds' ' <l..t JC l.l; I J"' ~ jljt ~If. jl...}1~ ~<tk' is~ '~-~~,J ~l..i u j [ l'. 7vJ i,_;..j:... i..::,...:1 li1 i <4il u) IJ T i:, Y. \.. # l;.:r"' ).) 1,,,,1i':.:. L; u ~I J,:I '~ ~J'..i: c.:.r i ut.1~j, ~ u)j"" )IJT L:Jl,;1 ~~ j Y J j.j(~ j ~.) I) ~,a~ ' j.4.- j l...sfj..)'"'~ lj tj) 1...5" L:.' is.., ":-'u ':,_,...i T-;;u ~_;..,_, ~ ).) ~ ~ 'L:J~~ =lfc,.pc \:!"' j. ;-. ~J 1.:-i l.i: \:!"' r. ), 1 ids' u lj.) Y. J r, '--:?,. ~; J... c]:!_;b L:F j~, f'- 1.1.i I fl r 1,).,~JC./.:..) j.j J ' J / ' i ll...j I,~ ' i..i.~... J.J.4:... '"="'I.hi.111 ~~..., ~..., tl.±1 w;, J t; r:, J? 'L:Jt~ r:r-1 ~.o..r &.),,.j JJliJ cjl)l ~ ~IJ 1:.1~ y~. ri:j(~ 01)1 ti.a J )~ J.""'~ r,) I J' w ' r~... /!. is.j# &t,.j =~~; t l.jjl,.( ~fo 01 ~ jl J i..:;,... )11~ ~ u~ J :: ~is/;,) Jt... ~ J ~.Jl ' t:j u: ) ),) ro J ' J...i: ~ ~ '$,) r- r.,;.f- ~ [ f. 8] ' 0 ).J l,y 1.:.'' f.:'! 0,) I j I,:; ~ 0 i J ' j.r. '$ j )f t.:j I).) cj LL-1 IJ 0 T..-b I t l.jjl cj I cl:!;... ~Li;., '.)_;S J, W.JI._/ ~'" v-f J ij. ),o.. ~..., lab cj i ltr _,..( ;"" j..h,) j ') l.s.l.i Jr....!"-o.r. is./ l..s I,J "::'"ct IS' is Is' Y' j r i ~ J ; 1..,S',) Y- ) y..b J.._;.r-- J ' i I ); ~.Ji.f.... }~ ) 1_,j I...s""l ~ ~JI~ :.)..i...t j~ r )I ~ i.:..j~ J ~.,..vl,. ~ '.tk.tl11 ""' J ;_,.a.lo i.:r..._;i.l.:i....,.., ~ ; J,) r )'; u; 4... b ~; 1 It ie interesting thn.t tho scribe (or the author}, eystcmatically writes double!jy in such cn.sc, cf. f, o.~1icmrayi, r1wl<iyi (~I J.J : ~) ~ ). 2 Tho mnge of Bri.mu is situn.tod to tho North-Enat of Shiraz.

11 cl'- I ~,s ~.}... i l!) T j j? ' I I':! b.,;.. ' i:f.i... r1u & ) li ).).tll I LI" Ll; ~.::..!...c I j ).. ~.:I J ' ~ I cj-=>.. 41 J I 1-f I 1 ~ b lu 1!>",.t~ l!)..i~.a..j1 )..) d jy, l!)t._/::' blu 1U1 ;..) ~y.fl r:>-j)...s"' Jl.Jt.) ;! u;y....p~ ~~T ~ w;l+...j;fc,.r b~; )..) tj~... ) ~ ),.Y.~,.D~ j_,1 isu} ) [f.8vl..1.ijy =J ~.J ;1 j ~ f \ "; '-.-..::i b::.. 1:f.1 I <1~ I.),..;, f ~ i.:;....., t.l:i.. c)~ '~l..i.il Yft ;.....r. l;j..,..._ J;[~ o~,..i... T.J~~~ 1 ) ).) ol:i.. J j y,,l!..i.r J I J::'.) ; j I J j _,i i t.;.j..i..ll. I.);!._:, J F' " ~ ~ cl~ I J '.1.i.i..t <lt.r" l!l I fle '~ i:ft).) J,!j..1.i ~ i tj..i L-o r..s; <l; y ~ cj 1j I J ~ j I;!:.! J, I 1:.1 ~ i...:; I ;.J~, -:'~ r..s)'"j j,)} \.:f I~~; 4 ~f"' I; Jft' '~I ~ 1-:' r. ~ J '~,~ JtlJ ~) i.:1t.i,ajli.j"" ~... r..s4j, I JI c1....:;..,.1.ji; J j_,...l; J ~_,..u,... ~ jl,. ~ '..iil.1.il,.._ -' I '.l..t W 1 t..,;., :...:... r ~ w ---=- ~ '....s v ~ I 1 J ~,.Ji~ 1 ) j ri-j).t1j 1 LI".,), r. ~._µt::i) L..r i ~ j I.) ;, T.:),; f ;.) ~.).f l!) I _,i cj T.) I.J..i...} ~...; T j I l)jl J..)l)JI._j:.i.~I ' i=..>wt::i; c.1_,jl ' ily J Lf. ~)I d.) w I t w... I I.:) '4 1.:1 I~ ; I ' r..s;,) 1:.14-! ).J...-,...1 I j Y. J)I ~ l:!-"'-1 J 'r..s.))lj ~J ~ ~~ jw -.=...;, r..sj; )t....z. J. 1T J w.)f ;~1 r!/, jr. ;~.J ujr...}l..:;:j u; Y.r r..s,).r. I':!/ ;i; T ;1 J j_,1 1.); I':!:) l:j 1.JJ.~ ~ I r..s..)/._j') J ~.i..t I ~!._;.J j ~ 1... i;' ~ Li.:-- j.11,s yrts' is!s' J '~.i..t.),j 1.:11.!..i C)T.J4.-- Lf-f;4.- r cj L.ti I ;.),fa~ ~I ~; 1,; t:.'.j~.._fj.j ;r LI; ~,t. l!!.i 41'=,/ 11/y, 1! ouo A. H. / l IU4-5 A. D. A simill\r miradc is narre.tl-d l\uout nn early Chishll sh11.yk~1. J I._µ.i 7

12 GERALD AUNGIBR'S REPORT ON nmmay. TVitli an I11trod11clio-n aml Annotation.<; By Sm CHARLES FAWCETT. Introduction. Administration Reports o.re a nmrkecl feature of officialdom in India., ancl may in<leccl be described as the bane of life for those who have t.he duty of compiling or reviewing them. Against the trouble nncl e)qicnse of their production is, however, to be eet off their utilit.y for stn.tistico.l and many other purposes ; and each of them generally contributes something to the stream of information culminating in the Report of the Moral, :Material and Economic Progress of India, which must be one of the oldest " Annuals " in existenc.e. In fo.ct the origin of such Administration Reports lies in much greater antiquity than is generally known or suspected. It mny almost be said t.o he coeval with the introduction of British rule in Bombay, the first EngliHb Colony in Indio., for the Instructions 1 issued in 1662 by King Charl~s II to Sir Abra.ham Shipnum; as the Governor-Designate of the Island after it wn.s handed over by the Portuguese, included a direction that he should "from time to time, as often as opportunity can he had, gi, e an nccount to us of the condition of our so.id lrlancl and of the affairs and inhabit.ants thereof." In the Public Record Office at London there are e:ll..-tant long letters of Sir Abrnh1un'B successors, Humfrey Cooke and Sir Gervnse Lucas in 1665 to 1667 regarding the state of Bombay and their administrn.tion of its affairs ; but it was not till after the transfer of Bombay to the East India Company in 1G68 thl\tr we find a seasonal regularity in the submission of full and detailed accounts of the Island and its progress, which so.vours of the modern annual Administration Report. Sir George Oxendcn, the first Governor un<ler the Company, paid a short visit to Bombay in February 1669, and gave his main 1 Public Record Office, C , Vol. 40, folio 131, ropri.nt.ed in Dr. Shnfo.nt Ahmad Khan's " Anglo-Portugue11e Ncgotio.tions" etc. p. 52.J.

13 Gerald A ungier' s Report on Bom,pa.y 9 attmtion to the settlement of t.he milito.ry side of its government, which wr~s then of supreme importance. He died in July 1GG9. His successor, Gerald Aungier, has been 'veil called the " true foundl'r" of Bombay. He spent a month there in the early part of 16i0, in the course of which he dealt firmly with the serious <lissen~ions t.hat had broken out during Capt. Y 01mg's Deputy Govl'ruorship, and laid the foundations of proper Civil und.tudicio.l administration. B~1t he was unable in t.ha.t short period to carry out his extensive plans for the improvement of conditions on the ls1and, and his main work was done during his!mbsequent stn.y of over three years from June 1672 to September ln the interval between his two visits, the Deputy Governor 11ud his Council had failed to show anything Ii.kc the energy that cho.ractl'rized.aungier. Their" Consultation-Book" was "very thin" 2 and the Court of Directors complained of the " very brief and unsatisfactory" reports 3 submitted by them. The Court. gave orders in March 1G72 that "for the future we doe expect; and require a full and large Accompt of " all affairs on the Isla.ml 4 Aungier had the pen of a ready writer and needed no stimulus of this kind. He cert.n.inly gave the Court no reo.son to complo.in of any want of fullness or thoroughness in his reports and proceedings. In December 1672 he sent home a very long letter 5, which he describes 11 as " n. large Account of your Island Bombay", o.nd introduced the novelty of attaching separate reports by ea.oh member of his Council as to his particular " imployment " (or portfolio, as we would call it now). Almost exactly o. year later Aungier not only despatched the usual " General Letter " dealing o.t length with all current affairs affecting the company's trade and wellare in Bombay n.nd the various factories, over which he presided, but also "humbly 1 Sir William Hunter's History of British IndiG," Vol. II, p. 214; "Keigwin'.i Rebellion" by Rny and Oliver Stmchey, p. ll. Fnct.ory Rccorda, Bombay, Yol. 6, p. 38; O. C. 3722, p Letter Book. Vol. 4, p lb. p c a Factory Record!, Bombay, Vol. 6, p. 63,

14 10 Sir Charles FaPl'cclt prcscntc1l " a full stn.tist.icitl anil descriptive account 1 of the IslmHl and its inhabitants. fort.illcation.<j, syiitcm of government, trnde resource'>, etc. In cffoct. it i!'i the earliest British Administration Hcport relating to Irnlia. 'l'hough there arc no less th:m three contemporary copiefl of it in the Records of the India. Office. t.his report wits not fodhcomin.g in Bombay when Sir JauH'R Cmnpbcll prep11.roll his " l\faterials," Vol. X...X\'I of the Bombay Gazetteer:!. A tmn1>cript of it wae, however, among the copies of documents that Miss E. Sainslmry made for the Bombay Gonrnmcnt:i, and l\lr. S. JI. Edwa.rdcs hns m1e1l it. in compiling his Gazotteet of the Town and Island of Bombn_v. Ext.mets from it (in which some lil.jerties a.re taken with the actual text~) arc given at pp. G3-i0 of volume II of thi,; work, a.ml those no 1loubt contain some of the sa.lient. and most interesting parts of the Report. But it appears t.jrn.t the whole of it ha!-! never been published ; arnl most. writer8 on Bombay in the seventeenth century seem to be unawa.re of its existence. There arc many good reasons for remedying this omission. It is contemporaneous with the first pnrt o[ Dr. Frycr's 5 wellknown " Xcw Account of East Inrlin. and Persia", and is on many points more authoritative. It~ publication will enable a comparison to be made lrntwccn the two accounts of Bombay, which will be useful to historian.-;. The discussion it conta.irn> about the advisability of Recln.mation from the Sea is of pertinent interest in dew of recent dcwclopments in Bombay ; and though the ltirge pnrt o[ the Report devot.ed to FortiHco.tions has lost its old-time importance, it may help to throw further light on the former topography of Bombay a.nil problems such as the history 1 0. C. 3!HO. Dr. DI\ Cunha in Tlte Origin of Bomba!f, ll. R. A. 8. Journal, HlOO Extra Number, rmys it rcsemblos the Tombo or report made by Simao Botelho in A 11imilo.r, though much shorter, A<lministmtion Report wo.s submitted by the Deputy Governor, John Petit, in Jo.nuo.ry 1077 (App. E. to Keigu,1in'1 Rebel.fio11). Seo Appcnclix A in Piut I. Cf, Home :\Use. Vol. 50. t These uro, however, immn.torinl except in one inhtanco mentioned in note 83 to tho H.eport. ~ Dr. Fryer was one of the Company's doctol'll from 10i2 to 1681 o.nd Wl\S the mc<lico.l ollicer in Bombay in

15 Ocralcl Amigier's Report 011 Bo11tbay 11 of the twrnrl recently discovered under the site of the nminline terruinm1 of t.he G. I. P. R11ilwil.y. The portion which clea.ls with offences against religion ancl moralit.y, such as " breach of the holy sn.bbat.h, prophanenesse, swearing, drunkcnnesse n.ncl other licentiousnesse ''gives a glimpse ofthcausterity n.ncl vigilance, with which Aungier attempted to reform the English inhabitants of the IHland. In short the Report. well repays pcrusnl. It. is writ.ten in the dignified and forcible style t.hat characte~izes all his writings ; and t.hough Anderson's crit.icism 1 that he was too fond of religious plmmcs may be well founrlcd, it must. be remembered t.hat th.is was characteristic of the time in which he Iivell. His comments hrwc a ring of Binccrit.y and evince t.he moderation n.n!i wisdom, which uttrn.ctcd the esteem of his contemporaries. The annexed copy of his Report on Bombay in December 16i3 is taken iv:rbatim from ilhe transcript of O.G contained in Vol. 50 of the Home.Miscellaneous series in the India Office except for some slight alterations in t.he punctuation, made t.o bring it more into accord with modern usage. It. has ulso been compared ";tl1 the contemporary copies in any ca.-.1 where a doubt. a.<j t.o a name or ot.her word has arisen. 1 " The English in Western lndiu," p. 202.

16 REPORT BY GERALD Au"'NGIER ON BOMBAY IN DECEMBER (N.B.-The references in tlie foot-notes are to the following books, unless otherwise stated :- Amlc-rsoil.-The English in Western India. Campbell.-1\foterin.ls, &c., Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. 26. Douglas.-Bombay and Western India. Eclwardes.-Gnzettecr of Bombay City and Island. Foster.-The English Fact.ories in India, F ryer.-a new account of East India. o.nd Persia. (Hakluyt series, 1909.) I01an.-The Anglo-Portuguese Negotia.tio1111, relating to Bombay, Malabari.-Bombay in the Making. Stracli.ey.-Oxford Hist-0rical Studies Vol. 6; Kcigwin's Rebellion. 0. C.s, L<!t.ter-Books, and F.R.s, refer to records in the India Ofiice). MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOURS, 15th December In this pa.per we humbly prcsent unto you a schcame o.nd Karra.t.ive of your Island Bombay wherein severall particulars wee treatc of may seeme improper for a letter, yet they a.re not a.ltoget.ber unworthy your knowledge. The Island Bombay lyes in 18d: 10m: north latitude 1 bounded on the North with the Island Salsctt, on t.be East wit.h the Island Caranjah 2, and the maine land o{ Dec1m, on the South with the 11igh laud of ClrnuP, on the West with the Ocean. It 1 The correct lotitude is 18 55' N. 2 This islond is no douht Rpecinlly referred to hc~uso of its then notoriety nncl im1iortance, in view of the dispute between the Compnny nncl the Portuguese O\'Cr the lntter'e levy of custom dues at Thnna. noel Cnmnjah on oil boots pmsing there to or from Ilomboy. 3 This wn.a l ho nearest. Portuguese possession on the con.st to the South.

17 Gentlcl A tmgitr' s Report '~ Bo~way 13 containes nbout 10 miles 1 in lengt.h nnd neme 4 in bre:i.clt.h. By the breaches nncl overfio\vings of the Ren in severall places it seemm1 to make four 1:1111all 1Rlo.n<ls 2 in Spring tides, whioh nt low water arc passnble for nmn or beast, to wit, one the Colleo 3, or Olcl WonL'l.n '11 Island~ ; the scco111l containing the Cassabem" or Palmero GroYe of Bombny, the towne of l\fazagon, Pare!, Moibcm'1, Sion 1 Fryer (l,li7) in hi11 descript.ion of Bombay gives the length ns 8 mile11 " t.al<ing iu Oki Wonum'e Island." Similnrly, Humfrey Cooke's report of 3nl :\larch 106;) gives the length ns 8 wiles nnd the brcodt h ne u! (Klmn 408). Aungier'e e:itimnte is nearer Edwarde'e statement of tho present dimensions ns about 11! miles long by :J to 4 miles broad (l, p. 2). : Ptolemy 1k'>!cribcd Dombn.y as one of n group of seven islnml11 (Heptnnosin). Aungier rl'duces this number to four, by combining ( l) Colnbn and Ohl Womu11J1' lsluud, nml (2) the three Ielande conto.ining (a) Bombay, (b) ~fozagoon, u.nd (c) Po.rel, Si.on nnd Dharnvi. 3 Now known ColabB. In l0i2 it waa acquired by the Compnny under A1mgier's Convention, where it is nlso styled " Calio.., This nu.mo was probbbly de1frcd from the KoliH or fishermen, who Ii ved on it. 4 This wna the name given to the amo.11 island, which WM tho pn.rt of Coln.bu. ne1ue6t lo llomlmy ; n.nd it wwi commonly used to de9ig11ate tho whole of Colnbn. Old WoU1a11" ir supposed to be n. corruption of tho Arabic " Al Om:mi," meaning the deep sea. fishers. ~ This corresponds to the Portuguc'Se " Co.znb,;," a.nd Mu.rnthi " Kaebn," i. e. tho chief sin.lion or lwll<lqun.rtere. Later 011 (p. 10) Aungior t.mnelates it into " 8hire." This should IJC.Jfocllem, which ie the spelling of the place in two other copies of this H.eport in tht lndin Office. It probably COrre.ipond:i to Jlurlier. which is U1entioncd in Uuptain Gury':i rent rolls in connection with n ferry (Foatcr, tl!j, mul the Indian Antiquary, Vol. 54, p. <!) nnd to.ji1t11cl111111, which was ordered to IJo forlifie<l in June 10i2 (F. R...\lisc. II, l:iu) and where a guanl-ho11ho was erected in 1682 (F. H. Dom. IX, li; Strnchey, Gi). The mm10 seems to have diaappea.rcd, and ita exact llituntion is uncertain; but it ih mentioned IBtcr on in Aungicr's report (n. 1. J>.2i) :JB adjacent tun fonl, aimilo.r to those at 8ion and llnhim. Agnin (n. :J. p. 22) mc 11 tion ie mmle of wm1t-0 inundnu~l ground bordc>ring 011 lloehem and Sion, so t.l111t it was probbbly in tho nl'ighboul"11ood of J\latungn, between which nml Sion there was n. Iorgo picco of inundated hmd na shown in old mops of llombuy such o.s Xielmbr'11 of li0-1 (Edwardes, I, 155), Cnptu.in Tu.te'e of 182!J uml Murphy's one of 184:1 (E<lwordes, I, IU2; Cnlllpbell Pt. Ill, p. 64!l). Jt:dwurdCB, in Io.ct, in his rnproi.luction of this [msilllge of Aungier's report, boa holdly suh. atitutcd.mcrtu11un for Muc!iem (Ill. p. G5). Fryer (i, HiS n.nd 15(1) mcntionh.l\i1111chum/ju)/ M ono of the sc\ en isln.nda in or about Bombay H11rl>our u.111! as being to its north Ride. Willin.111 Crooko toay:i (Fryer, i, 158) tlui.t h..ithl'l.fo

18 H Sir Clwrlcs F<w ccll and Darnvee 1 ; the third containing t.jw Cassabern or Palmero wood of l\fahim: the Hh the Hilly ltilaud of Ycroly 2 The r;f a by the sai<l hrcachrs hath rat.en 11p :Lbout one thir<p and that t.he beht and richest. part. of t.he Island, which yet by industry, 11nd some chr~rgc is recoverable and would prove of gren.t itdvantagc and security to the wholc: 1 The aire according to the scvcrnll srn.hons of the ycarc is equal to that of Surat and Bron.ch, which arc Pst,cemcd the most salubriomi places of all India, u.nd exceeds that of the Port.uguese Country on t.be niainc''. no sntisfcwtory explanation of.jl1111d111111lmy h118 been found, but tho i;imilarit.,v of nome points to its connection wit.11 this l\iochem or ~Iunchum. A vario.nl of t.ltc no.mo \\'RB Jlocki111bo, m1 ih Rhown by nn order of 22nd.Ianuo.ry 1117:1 Umt the" pn.ssttgcs," or ferrying rights, ofl\ioohimho and Sion Hhould be auctioned. (F. R Bom. I, IQ). Thi!! explains the 111lix bay," which Fl'yer lms added to 1llunch11m, prohnbly on the annlogy of Trombay or '!'rurnhay, which wns called Trumba by Humfrey Cooke (Khan, 4GO) and '1'11ru111lm hy Sirnno Botelho (b":dwnnlcs, I, :ll, n. B). Fryer, therefore, probnbly used the no.mo to clcnole the northern portion of Ilo111b1iy, contniuing Sion and Mnhim, ns well as Munchmn. And ia it not po.~siblo thnt.lfot1111gr1 is a corrupt.ion of Mu.11ch11111grion (villn.gc) by n phonetic nubstitution of I' for ' ch' t I put this suggestion forwnrrl, as Echm.rdea,;ays (I, 20) that no trustworthy origin of t.11e nnmc }fotungn has yet been discovered." " Since \\Til.ing the nbovc, I have come ucross an cni.ry in a Bombay Account. book (.Journal) p. 11, clo.tcd 1st AuguHt 1722, whioh mentions 'tho low grounds a.bout the villt~ges.mr1nt11g 11, Sion, Vo.daln nncl Casso.by.' Tho nnme Jlnutugaon distinctly favours the n.hovo s11gge11tion, both by the ' n' precrcling t.ho ' t' which corresponds to Urn ' n' of }fuuchum and by the 1.ern1ino.t.io11 ' gnon ' insten.d of ' gn. '. Dharn.vi, between l\fohim and Riva. Fort. 2 Worli. 3 Fryer (i, 175) put<! the loss of lnnd nt. 40,000 acres; but this seems an cxcchsivo estimate. A survey of Hi7:1 put t.hc loss nt nbout 473 ncrcs (F. R. Misc. II, 87, 88), but this wu.s prohn.bly confined to the ' Gre:tt Hrench.' 4 Thia auggcstion is amplified and discm1sed later on (pp ). The e:qwricncc of Auugier o.nd his collco.gucs waa necessarily very limited. By " tho Portuguese Country on the muine" is meant the neighbouring tcrrilorie~ of Bassein, Tlmna. and Handru., which the Port.ugucsc acquired (with Bombay and Mnhim) in 1534.

19 The monzoon or winds gener!llly rnling are the North En.gt and South West., which divide the years between them. The Ko. ca.st monzoon raignes from Oct-0bcr to the end of l\ia.rch, the So. west from Aprill to the end of September, yet in the mont.h of Aprill and 1\Ja.y as also in August and September the winds are very Yarh\ble, ancl [there arc] often mimes and violent gusts, 1 which renders those months subject to chronica.ll and dangerous dis{'ascs, as well among t.he Nati, es a.s Europea.ns 2 The &as arc navigable ten months in the yeare, to wit, from August to l\jay inclusive ; the raines begin often in 1\~11.y but sett not in violently t.ill June and then continue to the end of September with frequent. intermission of fair weather; after the int.crmission of the fi.rst mines in 1\fay or.june and after their tot.nil ceasing in October, the airc and water arc unwholesome, by reason of the crude J>estiferous vapours exhaled by the violent heat of the sun into t.he a.ire rm<l vermin created in the wells and tanks, which renders those months most sickly to the Inhabitants, and m1pecially to the Europeru111. The ground t.hough gcucmlly stony is by the laborious industry of the Inhabitants nrncle very fertile and would bring forth nil sorts of gminc which India affords, but the Husbandmen finding their greatest profllt. to arille from rice and coconutts have employed as it were all t.he land therein ; it produceth all sort,i; of trees for timber and fruit., all!:!orts oi plants, roots and veget.ables necessary for the use of man for 1mstenauce, health, pleasure or proffit, 119 successfully and in as great abundance as any part of India, which we have rxperiment.etl by a garden 3 raised this yeare neare tho Castle, the produce whereof doth sufficiently evidence the Jruitfullncssc of the soile. 1,\ungier no 1lo11bt refers to the sudden storms known us " Elephantns." " On t.hr. ouwr ham! Dr. Dird, then Chimrgcon at Ilombny, in n report to Auni;:ier in llli3 (0. C. 3730) nttribut.ed the g1'l'at mort.n.lity in Bomlmy m11i11ly to the " irregularity nnd intewpcrnnce" of the Engli!!hwcn, coupled with 1~ complete dio;rcgard of the commonest precaut.iom! in illness. er. Fryer"i; description (i, JG.)) of the garden atto.chcd to tho lllllllol' house o( the Lady of the Island," Donna Igncz de '.\lirand11, on the spot where the Ar;icnnl now!!land!! bd1ind the Town Hall. 15

20 16 Sir Charles Fawcctl The water ncrire t.he Sen. is somewhat brackish, but otherwise very sweet, ttml as wholefiome as that o[ Surrat, or ri.ny other part in India. The Island for bet.i.er order's sa.kc is dh iclecl into two small Shires, to wit, nomlmy and l\fohim. 1 The Shire of Bombay conteines the faland Collco, the townes of Bomb:i.y :rn<l l\fozagon and Pardi, wit.h the sc\ emll Parishes of Pallo~, Deirno::, Gregoff 1 and VnlP uncl )lochcin. The Shire of }fohim conteiues the towne of l\fahim, Sion, Da.ravee and Veriee-, \Vit.h the scverall parishefl o[ Sidv11cao11 7, St. l\lichooll 8 &c. Precincts. The 'l'ownes o[ Bombay and l\fahimu are very populous by Bomlmy wa.~ divided into ihe same two ca.;mle1:1 in ti.to Portuguese time, but the disirilmlfon of villn.ges, etc., dilicrcd (Hee Edwords, Riso of Bomboy, p. 72). Fo1 inhtltncc Pore! is here plu.ccd in the Bomboy SubdiYision, whcrenll it more nn.tumlly appcnrs in tho alahim Sub-division in tho Po1tugucse 1trra.nge111cnta nn<l in thl' division of t.l1c lslnn<l for juris<lictionn.1 purposes under tho orders of 2nd Felmmry Hl80, citcll Ly Malaba.ri, p " Now known 11s Apollo. It is nlso mcnl;ioncd in Aungier's convention n.s one of tho boundn.ricff of the Isln.nd Colio. Tiii' dorivn.lion of the nnmo i~ undoterminccl ( Echmrcles, I, p. 25). 3 This umy bo identical with Dero11g, whlch in mentiono<l Ly Bumcll, who comnmn<lecl Dongri, Fort n.ncl wrote in l i' lo. ' Girguon. 6 Thill ir probn.bly Co..vcl (spelt Cavcll or C;wnll by Burnell), one ot tho originnl sctt.lcmcnt.~ of Kofi fisherm<:n, who were converted to Christia.nit.y during tho cm. of Po1'tngucsc rule (EdwnrJcH, I, p. :JS). " This is probably a mist,'.lkc for ~lochem, which is t.hc wny in which the no.me is wri ttcn in ono of the three copieh in the lndit1 Office. The fact, tlmt it is given U.8 IL parirh of Pnrel supports the suggestion in foot-note 8 ti.tat it wos in the neighbourhood of J\Io.tung11.. Gary's Hont-rollN (Fostur, 00) also placed " :Mucher " between l\fo tuugi1 n,nd Pu.rnl. 7 This was nnmccl n[t.o1 t.110 Church of No1;si1 Senhoru. clo. So.lva,.ao nt Dadn.r, which wos built in 15!JO and repn.ircll in 1858 ( rn<lwarclos, III, p. 2ij0). 8 Tl.to church of f;t. J\lichml in l\lnhim nlso st.ill exists nm! is said to lm\c been Luilt about lii40 (Edwflrdcs, II, p. 3Ci). o l\fahim is fillid lo ho.ni been formerly thr! 111\lll" Of the whole fahtncl nml the pince when tho King':; Comt wa!l kepi in the time of il.ll )fohommc<lnn rnle (sec Khnn p. i:i:ll ). A custom-house wo~ l'~t.n hli:>hed there both umlc1 Portuguese nncl EngliHh mle.

21 I Gerald.At111fjict's Report 011 Bombay 17 Merchants, trndesmen and artificers of all Rorts, being the chiefe ports of Trade, which by the confltlx of Inhabitants and Strnngers sensibly encrl"aseth through God's grl"n.t. blessing, notwithstanding the notable discourai:tement of the warr 1 ; the other townes aml Parishes n.re well inhabit.eel but not populous as t.he forinei. The people and Inhabitants on the Isln.ncl mn.y be reducnil to the following hl"n.cls, to wit, Chri!!tiaIL<J, Moors, 2 Gentues.: 1 Under the Christian name are contcincd CatholiC3 of the English church, nml catholics of the Roman church, the former in the tnw light, free use l\ml cmjoyment. of the cvrmgelicall blessing, if their lives ancl prnctice were arl'iwernble thereunto; of thesti there are very few insomuch t.lmt their number is even despicable, but we hope that God will encourage your hearts to plant and strengthen your hopefull Island with a more plont.ifull Colony of Engli'lh, for its greater security, increase of Trncle and promot.ing o[ the true religion ; the latter t.hough very numerous, yet most of them blacks, unhappy in t.he blirulness wherewith their Priests enchant. them, poore yet. cont.entctl in tucir way. The English arc employed in Tmde ancl the Militia, the ot.her Christians are occupyed chiefly in planting of the grouml ; some few in trade 1md too many of t.liern as Souklicrs in your g1uriso11, for pure want of Eugli.~h prot.estants, to keep wn.tch and defend the Isla.ml, to our noe mean trouble continua.ii care and iribet urity. The romish Christians luwc line faire churches on the Island, the English not one lls yet., but we are intended by Gotl's ble&-1ing to bui!tl one soe soon as we h:we your order, arnl soe soon a~ the wn.rr will give us leave.~ 1 Aungicr must hero rder to U1c wnr between Aumngzcbc nm! :-:ihivuj i rotbl'r than the Uutch war of I 6i2-'1. Thi' latter only o.flccte<l the " con!lux: o( inhabitants" on mrc ocea~ions like that o( the thn n.tenctl attack of o. Dutch fleet in February IGi:J. J\fohomml'Clans. The term c!l!nc from tho Portuguese, whoso contt\ct in tho Pcnimml1i had been with the!\lusulnmna of Mtrnrito.nin, nml cousl" 1111ontly called nil lllahomrnrjrms Mo11ros (lfobson-job:lon, 581). Hinilus. The word i.i a corruption of the Portuguese Ge11tio, 11. Gentile or heathen, which they applied to the Hindw in oontri\ distin~tiou to the J\lo 1ro.~ or :\[oars ( lfob~on-.johson, :IU7). The foundations of t.hih Church, which i!i the present Co.thcclrnl, were laid under Aungicr's directions, but for Wl\nt of sufficient funds tho building was not complctccl till l i 18. For a detailed l\ccount sec App. D to Keigwill'a Rebe/li m. 2

22 18 Sir L'luulcs Fawcett Among the :\loon arc sevcrall SPcts :Lml C L:'\t~. differing n.ccording to their N:Ltion from whence they come ; they a.re not very numerous as yet but sensibly incrcas(!d. Some few oltl lnho.bitants arc employed in the lands and others doc buy posse.s Hions ; most arc employed in Trade, supplying the!hlancl with provitions, going to Sea in ships and other ves.'lclls as lascars or marines, haberdashers of small wares, weavers, ttlylors, bakers, fnnit.hs, arnl other hanclycra.fth, very useful and i111lispcn~bly necessary t.o t.hc Islancl. The :\'Ioors hnve two places of their worship, one at Bomba.y, 1 the other at l\in.him, 2 which latter i-; the tomb of one of their famous Peers or Saints there buried, much frequented in the month of October by pil~rimagcs macle thcrmmto, u..c; well hy t.he nati\'cs 11s by all t.lw Inlrnbit.ant-s of th11 neighbouring parts, who come thither wit bout. armcs, or if they bring any, they arc securccl cluring their Htay, being five days, when a publiquc faire is kept :Lt :\fohim to the improvement of trade~; during which time strict. guards arc kept at sai1l place. Under the name of n~ntucb nrc scvern.11 casts, to wit, B:1nya1rn, Bmhmaines, Purvoos,: 1 Sinays,~ Bamlarcens,r. Corumbeens, 11 Coolys, 7 &c. 'fhcsc are \'ery numerous in their respective casts and increase clnyly in respect of the liberty they have in the exercise of their persuasions (either totally denied or much restrained in other parts). Of these the Brahmines arc employed in th c offices of the Gent.ue Idolatry and some of them in Trade; the Pour\'oos arc farmers of lands and receivers of rents ; the Banyans arc solely tukcn up with trade, either for themselves or Brokers for others ; the Sinn.ys employ ' Tuia wu.s probn.bly the origins.i Jo.ma. J\fosquo of Domba.y, which was situated ncur Dongri Fort (Edwurdca, III, p. 311). Thie ie the well.known shrine of the ;\1uho.mm11dn.n Suint ~fokhtum Fnkih Ali Paru, who died in Tht> n.nnu11i fair is still 11B frequented ns it WILi! in Aungicr'a time. It is held from tho 13th to tho 22nd of tho Musalm11n month of Mndnr, and though originully fixed in tho cold season pa88cs through the various months of the yror (Edwnrdes, Hf, p. 303). 3 Pm.bhus. ' Shenvis. Illumdaris. Kunbiil. 7 Kolis. The term Cool!J n.ppea.r to be deriycd from this race or caet-0 in West.cm India (Hobson-Jobson 24!J).

23 Gerald A ungier' s Report on Bo1h.ba themselves in!anus and also in t.rade; the Corwnbeens arc tillers and movers of lands as well the rice as the Coconuts ; thl' Bandarcens are occupied about the Tocldy trees, 1 selling toddy [n!lll] distilling Arrack, called Phoolc rack, 2 which yields the Compa.ny L consi1lernble revenue ; they are also good sol<liers, 3 stout., faithful! arnl lowrs of the Englisl1. The Coolys arc the gencmll fishermen of the Island, yielding a good revenue to the Company, and other useful anrl indispensible services; these arc as it. were the Company"s ~laves, barely unwearied labourers ancl lovers of the English, the better sort of them employing themselves in trade and gro\ring rich thereby. Of the Gcntue cast are many hamlicrnftnwn, goklsmit Im, coppersmiths, hlacksmiths, carpenters, turners, \\ cavers, ba.kcrs, &c., of whome the grer~ter plenty there is 1 he more will tl1e IHl:md flourish. The Gentues have three places of their \rnrship, one at. Bombay,~ one at )fohi.tu/' the other at. Balkaser r, 1Yhith1 r they goe to Pilgriurnges and wash on ecrtein solemn dayes but not. often. There is also nnother P~Lst. of people railed Percee;;, 7 which are those who Hieing the cruilt;y of their 5 first promotccr:> (of) the )fahometen religion in Persia, 1 Pnlmyra. or!''.llm trcei'. Eclwnr<les (Gazettc<>r, IT, GI.I) tran.sln.tcs thih n.s )(howra spirit; but rlid mhowm trees grow in Ilomlmy then nny more thnn now? It seems l!l')re prolmlle that it is the i;trongest dislillntion from toddy mentioned un l :r its corruption Fool"t1 R!lck" in Hoh~on-Job~on, :J56. 3 The Commissioners who took o\ cr Bomuu.y from Ca-ptain Young in )Qt)!) stated that there wero :I~ Bhun<lnris, "each imying one aera.phin per me:nscm 1md obliged to ser\ e rui armed soldiers ut their own cos ta and chn.rgca." (Fo~tcr, 2-lfi). ~.\gain Aungier in his General letter of 21st Decemuer (0. C. :3722) wrote Umt" their duty is that 30 of them <l11ylio aro to wuito at the Fort to attend armed at your GO\'emor or Deputy C:O\ ernor's order," t.l1c only cost heing " one Co11te of Perpetuo.na.<J yearly for each man." ~ This was prouably the original shrine of ::llumuo. Devi, from which Ilomhny is h lie,-ed to take its name, and which is known to have stoorl near the Phnnsi Tala.o or Gallows Pond, a site now inclndc<l in the enclosure of tho Victorin Station ( E<lwardes, I, p. 21 and lll, p. :J57). There is no infomiation IL!! to the identity of this shrine. The temple of Wnlkeshwar, the "Snnd Lord," uuilt about 1000 A. D. Edwar<les, III, p. :159). ' Parsis. Bic. In the other two copies the words arc more correctly given ae tho firat promoters of."

24 20 Su Cl111rlcs Fa>t'Ccit settle themselves in India, whcffe they rnjoy their old rights anrl custonrn unmolcstej, their religion being very ancient left them by their great prophet. ZL'rtusht, 1 differing from all others in thes~ parts of the worltl. They arc an industrious people o.ncl ingeniotb in trade, therein thry totally c mploye t.hcmselves; there are at present hut few of them, hut we expect a greater number lmveing gratifietl them in their desire to!mild a lmrciug place for their dca1l on t.lu' Islancl.2 All provlliions and sustenance necess:ny for life arc procureabl.~ at Bombay, to wit, all sorts of come and gminc for man and beast ; thrrc ih beife, mutton, veal, lamb, podrn, heru1.'i, ducks, gee;;c, fish, &e., very good in t.hcir kind and sullicient quant.itys to b1~ gott ; but not all the produce of the Island it.selfc, tho greatest. part. hcing brought in from the neighbouring maine anrl hlan1b, for t hn people are soc much increased Hince the English settler! thereon that its owne product cloth not feed halfe the inlmhitant.s; and indred what Colony, Plantation, Citty or mart. of trade is then' in the world tlrnt more or less doth not need the lls.<>istancl! and commerce wit.h forra.ignc parts for ib11mpply, even in nr.ccssaryh for lifo, 11.!I wcll ns t.hose for pleasure. pricfo or lmmry. Tlw famous and phmtiful CiLtys of London a111l Amsterdam, cannot well maintain themsplns without. it, much ll H.-; the poorc and narrow limitl'<l Islancl Bombay, yrt as poore narrow limited as it. is, we im'. bold to affirme t.lmt. if all the wn.st over Howen grounds were recoverecl (which is certainly fon.siblp) a.nd well m::mured, there would in few yrars by God's blessing be rice ancl other grnine, sufficient to maiutaine the Inhabitants, were they double the number they now are, and that wit.bout. helpc from formigne parts; arnl for other provisions there will never be want. soc long ns we have ptjn.ce with our neighbours. Only this i8 obserrnblc, and not to be wouclerc(l at., thut as the people encrea~p HOt'. provisiom1 grow proportionablc dcare, which we find by daily PXpcricnce, all sorts of provisiorn~ being double the price they Wl'rc' formerly, and will yet grow dcan~r Zoroaster. 1 Un thc' :lr<l October 1673 Aungicr and hi~ Council granted a. p~tition o( the Par.ii inhnbitnnth of the!dlnnd to he given a. piece of ground on 1lala.lmr Hill, 011 which to build a t.omb (F. R. Bomba.y Vol. 1.!H). Thie ih presumably tho oldest. of the RC\'en Towcra o( Silence or d111d1111as, rf. Edwa.rdeH, III, :rng.

25 Geralcl Aungier's Report on Bombay 21 and dearer every yearc as the Island incl'en.seth in tro.de, which we pray may not be cli11pleasing unto your Honours, for though you will find the expense of house keeping gren.t in your bookei;, yet we hope n.lso that you will find your publick Revenue an<l trade increased to n. greater proportion and a11yantagc. ~ow as to the said wast grounds above mentioned, it is necessary that your HonourR be satisfied, where they lye, what extent of ground there is, what probrlbility there is of recovering them, what t.he charges thereof will amount to, what prolfitt will accrew thereby. TheSt' wast grounds lye in Revero.11 places by means of three breaches, which the Sea hath made in the lshmd; whereof one very large the ot.her two smaller. Your Surveyor Colonel Herman Bake ~ hath drnwn a large ump of your fain.ml with great paines, care and ingenuity, wherein you will find the said places markrcl n.nd nie1lsnre<l for your greater satiscact.ion. 3 Tho gren.trst bren.eh is marked with and lycr between the point. of Gregon or Balkasscr hill, and the sout.hcrmost point of Veroly,~ contcining about i:'jo geomctricall pn.ces in breadth at t.l1e place where the sea enters between the two billr; ~ the ground 1 This prophc'c'y ho.s ht C'n o.mply fullille<l ; and cvc'll o.s e.o.rly 11s Captain Kl igwin compltiincil of the grrn~t rise in prilx'r of provi11ion~, sec Kcigwi11's Rcbdlinn, 74, 75. Col. Dake \1'118 n German, who wa.s gmnte<l n pu ge in one o( tho < 'ompn.ny'11 ships to Snro.t in 1070 (Court Minutes ol.jun. 11th, 1070). Jn Aungicr n.ppointcd him Engineer n.nd Surveyor for Domlmy. Ho married an Engli11hwomun on lhe Ielarnl (0.V.!1760). Ho was pcr1mnally h<'ard by t.110 Court. regn.rrling the fc11bo.bility of Rcclo.mo.tion in Bombay in lli75 (Lct.t,er Book, Vol. 5, 2fl2). He diccl suclclunly in 1070 after hi~ 111t11rn to India. It \\'BR uxph1ined in 11 11ubscq11mt letter that, owing to Col. Bake hn.ving fn.llcn ill, t.hii; mn.p wn.11 not reo.dy. (O.C. :J!JlO). This ulso explains the blo.nks in thi11 p1trt of the Report. ' Between Girgnon or \ValkC'shwar Hill and the southern point of Wurli!Hltmd, i.e., nt ~l1tl11~l11kshmi. 'fhc great extent of this breach can be seen from the l'ltm nt p. 78 of Keigwi11's Rcbellio11. ~ 'l'he blocking of this hreach wo.a lil'!lt suggcqted by Sir George Oxenden in November 1068 (Foster, 78); but the reclamation wn.s not c.'\rried out unt.il the Homby Vcllo.nl wn11 constructed. Edwardes'Ga::dleer (ll,p.121) t111ys this wn.s during the o.dministrntion of Governor Hornby ( ), but according to Dough~~ (Bombay a11d We.!lern ilulia, i, 140) it wo.ir built about 1752, some twenty yen.rs before Homby'e time. The work waa in

26 811 Charles F<lil'Cclt O\"erfiowC'n and swa.llom'<l up by this breach contcins The RPrornl brrach is rnarhd and lyes hetwren the norther point of V croly hill 1rnc~ 1\lahim, &c., paces in brradth ; t.hc ground ovcrflowcn by this hreiwh contcinrs The third breach is marke(! awl lyes between :\'fahim rmd Dara\'N', &c., paces in breadt.h ; the ground on,rllowen Ly t.his Lren.eh ; all which you may please to observe iu the Mid nmp, whrre they arc exactly layd clom1e. Now a.s to the probabilit.y of recovering this ground and stopping all said hre:~chcs, we never yt t heard or observed it. to he doubted by any but that it may be by industry dfocte1l, but as t.o t.he computation of die charge and the proffitts thereby to accrew, the opinions have he( n various, a!! generally it lmppcns in imch cases according to the clifferent 11<>ntimeuts a.n<l projection!! of those who pretend to knowledge in such publirk works. \\'hcrdore to S ':uch and examine the matter more exactly nnd to the encl your Honours may h:we a more ample account from the union arnl concurn nee of rn;rny judgments, your Prm1ident. lmt.11 thought. good to appoint Hi CommissionerH, consist.ing of nil the members of your Councell nnd ot.liers the most able and intelligent. persons in your service, to scn cigh t.l1e said brcache!!, to clrawe an account of what chargo must be la.id out in do.ming them up, 11.ml also to calculate wha.t (the) proffitt a.1111 Hevenue of sn.id hrnds will nmount to when fully recovered in order to answcre and restore the said charge, what benefitt will arise to the publick goocl thrreby, together with wha.t damage or prejudice may succeed to other parts of t.jie Isla.ncl where the Sen. mn.y probably nmkc a new breach ; 1 touching all which particulars wee humbly refcrr your Honours to tlw report of the a1~icl Commissions accompanying t.hrsc ; ::: where a.lso you will rend there!lince touching another parcel! of wa.st ovrrflowen ground bordering upon )fochem 3 and Sion, which is also recoverable with fact going on for \"cry many ycnn; bcforo ilff complotion, a.nd Campi.mil givc11 tho long 1ieriod of for it;i lmilding (Bom. Gu.z., Vol. 26, l't Ill, 648). 1 This must hu.ve been tho first of the numerous Committees aaacmbled in Bombu.y to consider the 11ubjl ct of Rcclnm11tion. 1 This wns in fact not forwanlc<l, ns it wu.s dolayed by Col. Bako's illn088 (O.C. 3!HO). 1 Seo foot-note 6, page 13.

27 Uc-raid Au-iigie-r's Rep:1;-t on Bombi1!1 23 like c~"pcmee ; o.nd when you luwe tlwroughly weighed the chnrgc and prof1tts of the whole, we humbly rcfcrr it t.o your wisdome to resolve and to st.rengt11en us with your orders t.ouching the following pn.rticularslst.-whcther the designes be worth undertaking or noc. 211c/.-If to be unclerta.keing (as we hope it. will apperc) whether you will please to engage them and be at the whole charge thereof yoursch es, or whether you will leave it. to n.nothcr, whether your servants or freemen or inlmbitants who may be willing to misc a common st.ocke at their owne charge (and) Risigo 1 to co.rry on said designc, they enjoying the whole profitt thereof, paying only quit rpnt t.o tlw Company. If your Honours demand our oppinion touching these mot.ionk we humbly answer to the first, that we judge t.he clcsigne as fca!:liblc, and worth the undertaking, for wherca.s we observed that t.he peoplr. by rco.son of the WLLrr were di.'lheo.rtcncrl and thinking of securing their Estates abroad, your Presidcnt, 2 l\ir. Gmy 3 and Capt. Slun.. i:on,' out of their zealc to the public good, and to let the people sec how little we concerne oursekes for o.ny attempt from the Enemy, were determined to undortakc the recovery of a parcel! of about 500 acres, a!i you \viii finde in our Conimltation books ; and its also mo.rked in the map before mentioned, but the Siddy's fleet. foiling just at the time int.o Negoto.n~ Bay, from whence the lubourers were to come, hindered the designe ; nor shall we now 1 Ito.Han for rh1k. 'fho 111oru usual form of tho word in English WM ris(ju. Gt:'rnld Aungicr. llbtthcw Gray. He w1111 Sccrotary to the Council o.t Surat from lll5!l to 106!1, nnd Deputy Govenior of Bombay for 1\bont six monthii in loio. Since then he hn.d been sen ing os B Ml!mber of tho Surnt Council. Co.pt. John Shn.xton wn11 sent out by the Company in 1671 to comm11ud t.hc go.rrison troops at BombBy, and became Dc11uty Go~emor of Bomba.y in Dccembl'r In August 1Ui4 ho WM euhpendod on a eh11rgo of fomenting mutiny Bmong tho troops, e.nd waa com icted of eome of tho cho.rgcs o.gainst him at n. trial held in November lll74. Ho WM thou ecnt home, but died shortly after his 11.rrivo.l. 1 Nagothn11. Aungicr in October 1Gi3 had reported to tho Company that tho Siddi designed to build a. Fort on o. little iele.nd in the Ne.gothDa River to blll1'8sll Bombo.y (O.C. 3872).

28 Sir Cl1arlcs Fauoccfl C>nter upon it till we know your pleasure, for the tea.rmcs arc somewlrn.t to hard, in respect of the quarter part paysul1~ at t.hc end oe 40 years. To the Second we n.uswere that., if the de!lignc be profitable, wl1y should not the Company undertake it mther then others, for 'tis certain that except the honournble Company doe undertake and be :i.t the chn.rgc either for the whole or the grcat~st part. t hemsrlves, the great and maine breaches will never be m~ulc up ; for none in lndin. o.re able, or will be willing to deposit soc great n. summe of money to be laid out for such a workc ; but if it be le~ to freemen or inhabitants, &c., they will only undertake t.o recover some few small parcells, which will not cost much charge, ]raving the muine designe totally unaffected. These nrc our present thoughts of the whole matter, 11nd we prny God 1lirect your Honours in your Councells and <let.erminations thereon. t As to the trade of Bombn.y, t.hough our gencrall letter treat.s somewhat of it, yet we shall here also discourse thereon, what it was, what it is at. present, and what hopes we have of its improvement hereafter. 'fhc Trade of Bombay before the English settlement was very inconsidcrnhle, consh~t.ing only of coconuts a.ml c.a.irn,!! which then yielded very little, during the time 'twas ma1mgcd by the King's Governor it increased not much, but when your Honour!! happy Government wn.s established trade begn.n to take root and ~pring out., and Rpread its branches to forreigne parts. At present n very industrious and go.infull tru.cle i~ driven Ly the Country merchants to Su.rat, Broach, Camba ya :i.nd Gogo, as also to Dnbull,: 1 Kelsey, 4 Rajo.porc 5 and Goa, to ::'olocha, Persia, Scind1\ 6 Bussom, 1 Aungicr's l].(1\-ice was wl'll founded, as shown by the history of ReclRnmtion in Bombo.y. But tho Comp1\ny wns 11aiur11\Jy clit1inclincd to omho.rk on tho large expcmliiurc invoh ed, n.nd in 16iii and 1676 they merely authorized private persons undertaking the work (Letter Book, Vol. 5, pp. 259, 262.) 1 Coir. 3 Dabhol, a port in tho Retnngiri District. ' Kelehi, about la mill's north of Diibhol. Raju.pur in the Ru.~no.giri Di11trict. A factory wu.s established here, but WOB given up prior to 1671 u.nd WM not rc estabhshcd till a.fu!r tho treaty '1-ith Shivaji in 16i4 (Andcreon, 164, ii). 1 Sind. There had for a long time IX"Cn considerable trade with Sir.d, o.nd there wna a factory n.t 'l'ntto. for ahout 30 years till 1602.

29 Gera.la Aungier's Report on Bdmba!/ 25 with salt, coconuts, ca.iro, beetlnut, rice, elephant's teeth 1 bought from ":'\fosa.mbique, broad cloth, lead, sword bln.1les and some other Europe goods, of which latt.er t.here is greater consumption t.jwn formerly ; of Europe goods were disposed last yl'ar in Bombay tioo pcpl'c$ of broad cloth, 3000 maunch1 lead, all the Pcrput.uanes 2 and serges, nil the swore! bladps ; which goods though they yield litt.lc or noe profitt., yet "tis a goocl beginning and foundation laid for a future profiti~blc Trade. This yeure we hope t.o put off yet greater quantit.y of Europe goods, if we are not disturbe1l by the warr with the Dutch, 11.ml more by cont.inned disiention bet.ween the Mogull and 8evngee, who (though prosecuted by Sea and Land) by his policy and coumgc ma.intaines himsclfc valiunt.ly and grows 1fayly more and more powcrfull ; but in t,hc meantime all trade is in a manner obstructed both by SL'a and Land by reason of the Armys and Fleets abroad on both side!!, so th1~t though we labour "ith great 1liflicultyes, yet blehsed be God your Ishmd increahct.h by little and lit.tie. Now the great hope wn have o[ improvement of this trn<lc hereafter is in respect to a grl'a.ter consumption of Europe goods arnl t.he procurcing of consitlrrable quantitys of goods and druggs proper for the Europe markets, to effect which we are endeavouring all waycs possible to opl'n a secure way of trade to the Island (from) Cit.t.ycs of Decan, to wit,.tunccr,: 1 Orungaba.nd,~ Ha.ybn.g," Hubily, 11 Viza.porc, 7 which when we shall bring t.o efiect. (for we t.rnst God's ble~<jing will in time assist us tlwrein) we doubt not hut to put. of nrar as great. a quantity of Europe commoditys in Bombay and the neighbouring part!! as we 1 'J'hiu wa.s then 11 common cxprt"esion fur ivory, und corrcepondh to the 8mtHkrit ibliu-riu11l11 und Hebrew l'!ie11-l111/1m11, 1~ppc1~ring in the passage in I KingH, X, 22, n.bout Solomon getting " i>ory und npcs and pea.cocks" from Ophir. A kind of woollen twilled clot.it much exported from England to tho Etuit. in the seventeenth century (llob.~on-jobson, ) Junnar in the Poona DiRtrict. Auro.nga.bud. A villo.ge now in t.he Kolhapur State. It was formerly a tradecentrc for pepper (cf. Foster's E11y/i,,h Factories i11 I 11dia, , }l)l. 234, 2411). HuLli. 7 Bijnpur.

30 26 Sir Clwr:es Fawcett doc in Sumt, and that without int.erfcring wit.h or lessening the consumpt.ion of Raid goods in Surmt ; 1md also to procure from s:ii1l placc:s sullicient quantitys of cloth awl drugs proper for Europe ns will Incle 3 or 4- good ships a yearc. \Ve also rlesignc when we ha\'p peace to cl rive a good trade to ~Iocha, Persia, Bussora, Sincfa 1 and Patan, 2 ancl the )falclivacs and l\folalmr Con.st, from whence we shall he supplied with mirrh, aloes, olibanum,: 1 coho~ sect!, t.inkall, 5 scna, 11 reel e:uth, 7 carmania 8 wool, putehock, 0 skines, corrycs, 10 pepper and Cordamons 11 anrl ot.hcr goods proper for Europe and t.hc Sout.h Seas, ancl that at as cheape an1l rather che1tpcr rn.tcs then they cost you in Surmt ; but thb; will be FL work of time, patience and industry, ::i.s.sisted hy the di,,ine blessing, which we pray may never faile our just and upright endeavours and cares in your service. In the next place we shall t.rc:at of the natural strength or weakness of the Island in respect of its defence and security against n forreigne enemy. The Island Bombay lying low and the Se;l having made many Bays a.ml inlets there into, rcnjers it open n.nd insecure to t.lu~ 1 Si ml ; sco note ii, pngc 2-l. This may he Po.tan in the Baroda. State, Lut the context makes it more probable it WM outsidu lndin. Possih;y it refers to Pat:mi in,fo\'11 where the Compnny hnd n factory till 1G::!3, or more proh;~hly to Pntnni in the l\laln.y Penineulnr on the Gulf of Sin.111, which wns then n. "eta pie port for Sumt Hhipping" (Cnpt. Hamilton's" Nrw Account of the East Indies," Argon1mt Prc89 edition of 1030, Vol. II. 84). 3 An aromatic gum resin, formerly used na a medicine, but now chiefly ns incense. ' Coffoo. Fryer nlso calls it Coho or Coho1.. Boro.x from Persian tinkar (llobson Jobaon, 023). 0 Scrum. 7 Red ochre. Co.nnnnin. was the no.me of an ancient province on the Persinn Gulf. Tho fragmnt root of tho pln.nt Costus, a product of the Ilimnlayo.s in tho vicinity of KMhmir (llobso11-jobson, 744). 1 Cowries. These were at one time imported into England in considemble quantities for uso in the African slave trade (HolJ11on-Jobs1m, 270) 11 Cn.nlnmoms.

31 I Uemld Aungie r's Re1wrt on Bomba,11 27 invasion a.nd a.ssa.ults of any forrcignc enemy, that can by hi:i power make himselfe master of the Sea; besides which t.hcre arc three much more dangerous places, to wit, fords or shoalr.s in t.he ri\ er or arm of t.he Sea which encompasscth the Island, b.v which hor:i.~ and men may pa.sse to the falallll on foote at. low wat.cr. One of t.hese places is at Jiochem, 1 the second at Sion, thr third at )fa.him ; those of Mochem and Mahim a.re more difficult. a.nil dangerous to be passed, the river being there l:irge n.1111 wicle a111l full of mu1l, but that at Sion is cn.sily fordable, being s1rnd.v and a lit.tfo 1fo1hrncc over, which is the reason t.hat a small w1ltch is const.1int-ly kept there to prevent the soultliers or ot.her mnle content.!\::! :ulll fugitive'> from running away, notwitlrntantling whidr, we cannot tot.n.lly prevent it. Now your Honoun1 ma.y plemic to remember that. some proposa.lls have bin formerly made you, that a.ii the said inlct.s and landing places, which are about l:! in 1mmber, might be fort.iii.eel in order to render the J sll\nrl more secure ; but w1 give no such mh ise, for having vicm 1l a.nrl seriom1ly consirlerl'd all the said places, round the Isla111l, we judge such n. designc unneccs.<1a.ry being of 1\ va.st charge, a1hl when done would rcr1ui11 more souldiers, gunns and anununit.ion to maintainc then evi~r we slrnll be t\hlc to spare ; and in such caf!c the place11 soc fortilied would prove more ad\ antageous to a.n cnem,v then to us, so tha.t. we have tot.:i.lly laid aside those thoughts ; only 1Lt l\fahim n.ntl Sion we judge it highly necessary that sma.ll platforms be raised of carth, 3 wir.11 a line or parapet and guanl houses to shelter our men, which will be finished with no gren.t charge, nor will re1p1irc much cx:pcnee of men or ammunition to maintain. We int.end 1ilsoc in th1.i river or fords of!\in.him nncl Sion to sinke some qmmtityrs of sharpe cr:i.gcrl stones, some pieces of old timber!!tuck with spikc:i n.ncl n'lilcs, anrl to have a good number of crows feet nncl spik bi\ll:i in rco.cliness to gall eit.lwr horse or foot. that shall cndr1\vour to pass t.ho!lc fords, which together with your immll frig1\tts and boats well ma.nnccl, will we trust be sufficient to prevent the sudden surprize of any enemy's 1 See note 0, p&gc I :1. 1 Malcontents. 3 Edw1mlcs in his extract.a from tho Report (G:i.zctteer, Il, p. Cl7) wrongly turns this into ; pln.tforma. hn.vc been mised."

32 28 Sir Cliar!cs Fwccett landing in said placcs.1 Now we have gn 1\ter apprehern;ion of danger from an Europe enemy then from any of our Inilian neighbours. As t..o the latter we resolve never to quarrel with them, but. mt.her to ende1wour an universall pea.cc with n.ll the princes of India, for soe your policy n.n<l interest requires for t.he better carrying on of your Trade ; and t.hough many times by meanes of violent Hcizurc!I, confiscations, plun1lering!i a.ml cleprecli~tionh of your Estatt~, and unjm;t obstruction of your lu.n<lo.hlc commerce, we may have occa.sion of controversy wit.h some of our neighbours, yet we hold it grcr\ter prudence to 11ccommo<le suoh diffcrcmoor peacably if pos!lible rnther than t.o fall i..nto an open wa.rr or hostility ; and as to an Europe enemy we wi.11 endeavour t.o strengthen ourselves the bert Wfl can n.ncl trm;t that God'B good providence will protect us anrl t.hn.t you will pleabc in your great. w~~1lomc to supply us with men and arms sulllcient to oppose them. The Castle of Bombay \vhen finished will be of great Btrengt.h and 11ecurity to the Towne and to the whole hln.nd. It lies upon a neck of lund conveniently laid between two B:\ys ; it is a quadmngular fort, whereof three points command the port, and the two small Bn.y11 ; the fourth with two of t.lrn others commn.nds the Towne, and the plaine before the Castle. It i11 of a small circumference o.nd im'gularly built, through the ignomuce of the Engineers who drew the line 11.ncl In.id the foundation at first, the longest. curtainc to lundward being not above 58 paces, but it is very!ltrong 11.nd being smn.11 will require fewer men to mnintnine it.. The wall in height to landward is 27 feet, in breadth 25 feet,, consi!lt.ing of nn outw1ml and inward wall of stone and a terl'pheene 2 of cart h ; the two curtaines or platforms te Hl'a\\'ll,rd are in height about :.!O feet., in breadth 42 feet, on which mn.y be mount.e1ln.bout 36 pieces of or<lr.ance, be!lides those on BastionH. Three Bn!ltions arc alre11dy finished, sufficiently!lt.rong and cn.pncious, on which 11.rc mounted 50 pieces of ordnance, in comple11t n.ncl well made carriages 1 It WM off ~In.him thnt the Dutch fleet in February 1673 thren.tencd n. lu.nding (0.C. 3700) ~nd precaut.ions there were nntumlly thought ndvienbll'..fi\'c other guu.rd-housee were erected in (Keiuwi1i'8.&belli011, 67). 2 Terreplein. Thi11 denoted the upwu.rcl eurfu.ce o( o. rampart. behind the parapet, on which the guns nre mounted.

33 Gerald Awi!Jier's Report on Bdmbay 29 beeides those on the platformes ; the other R~stiou to sea.w;ml will not be finished t.ill next yearc for want of materialls, soo that when the Fort is complea.ted there will be 40 guuns ready mounted thereon. 1 Within t.he fort there a.re powder roomes sufficient to conteinc 2,000 harrells of powder with shott anll other ammunit.ion neces.'>11.ry, together with convenient Armorys, Grnrn~rys for come, flesh, fish, bisquet and ot,her stores nccess'.l.ry for life. About the middle or centre of the Fort is the Governor's house, built formerly by the Portugalls but was burnl'd by the Arabs of )fosc.i.t when they surprized and tooke the Isla.ml from the Portugc:-ic in 1umo 1661 ; 2 soc that when t.lie EnglL->h tooke possrs.-;iou of the Island there was litt.lc more than the Walls left, 3 but since it came into the Company's lmnds it hath bin much r~paircd. The front is faire ancl bcautifull enough, but the roornes wit.bin arc not soc well contrived as we could wish either for lodging or other accommodation, rl't hy tlcgrecs we arc endeavouring to rcnrlcr it more and more C<\pacious, for roomc is much wanted in it for many necessa.rys which t.imc will supply.~ Uncler t.he Wallll :ue milled lodgings for the soulclicrn with Corps 1lugurml, &c. One grosse error commit.tcrl hy the Engineers who drew the first line of the Fort, was in not taking in the faire and b\rge tanke or spring of frcsl1 water now without. the wall about luo pa.ccs, which easily might. lmve been taken in, with the :-in.me or rather less charge then now the ForL will stn.ncl in ; besides which they damed up a good spring of water, now closed aml coverell under one of thci R1stio1L'i, which c\ ill t.hcy rcmedyetl by milking a large tanke or cestcrnc for mine wr.tcr at. no small charge ; which though ci\pacious enough and yearly filled by the mineg, yet mllllt not wholly he rclyecl on in regard ii; 1 Fryl'1 's uccount, which was Inter, bri\ cs 120 pieces of ordn1111c ~!IJI mounted on the Fort, bcsich-:1 GO licldpi;-cei on ca.rringc.~. ready for lll!c oulsidu ( i, 170). ~ Tho " Great HonHc" us it was styled, wus nl~o l.j1m1t in tho ntl11ck on Bon}bny by nn Anglo-Dutch flcc't in Octobor 1U2G (Foster, !1, p. 14:1). 3 In his Geneml Letter to the Company, rl1~terl 15th Dcccmbt r llh:i (0. C. 3!107), Aungier dcscrihcs Boruba.y, when tho Compa.ny took po;i.~e~sion, o.a 1~ wild clcspico.blo t>lo.co without Fort, house, ground or miy convl'llioncy, lodginµ; or u.ccommodu.tion for the necesso.rys of life, much lcsso for dcfcnoo or IDC'rchandizc ". ' Fryer also makes tho same complaint (i, 171).

34 30 Sir C'lwrles Fn1rCl'/l may he fipoile<l anrl broke hy Gmnaclocs, 1 soc t.hat except we can Jirul another Hp! ing which we arc not tot.ally out of hopes to effect, there will be a ner1 ssity of making some other cistcrnes to hold mine w:iter wi1 hin t.hc Fmt in case of a siege. Another grossc c rror committed by t.l1c firi;t builderi; w:ls in not Rinking a tlitch or mote about tlic Fort when they first rai:wcl the wall ; from 'vhich clitch tlwy would h:we been supplyed with stone 1mlllcicnt to builcl the ouhrnrcl ajhl innl'r wall, and with earth to fill t.hc temi.pheene:! between. wlwrpas they were constrnined to bring the stone ancl 1 arth from 11 f:ir greater distance at. vast. cxpcncc of money and time 1md :rernll rs till' making of the ditch or mote a double charge to the Company.: 1 Without the Cr.st.le are rnised a fause bray~ 20 foot. from the wall, r..tlll t.wo home workcs ;'' the para.pct of tlrn fausc bray is G foot high ancl 3 foot. broad ; one of the 110rnc workes ih rnn out from t.lic north-west cnrt"ainc aml will be lg foot high :irnl 14 foot broad ancl encloset.h the tanke or spring of fresh water above mcnt.ionctl ; t.he other home workc is carried out from the fiouth-west curtaine of the 1mmc height n.nd hrcaclth, both which will be of gren.t strength arnl security to t.hc li'ort., antl will kccpc an enemy at such clisbincc that, their Grn.na1loes will not doc much mischicfe soc long as we can maintainc them. Those \Vorkcs of the fa.uhe bray and hornc workes are but. new bcgtm; for 1p1ick<'r 1lisptitch nncl to save charge they arc ma.de m~.ly of earth ancl to be covprcd with tnrfc, \vhich the mines will in ti.me sett.le ancl 1 H nml-grrnu.<lc.'l. Gramulo is the SpuniAh form of t i11Hilc, so nn.mc<l from its likencs.~ to n pomegronnl<>, being filled with eombwtihlt's U'I that. is with scc<lh (Skeat's Elymo[ogical. DicJio11ary, 183). 2 Sec note 2, page Auugier and his Council on 23rd April lui5 sa,nctione<l an attempt hy one John Crantham to hla..<1t o.wny the ruck with gunpowder in order to m11kc a mote round the Fort. (F. H.. Bombay, Vol. II, p. lio). But aeeorcling to Burnell, though the work Wll-'I begun, it wo..'! Hnbsequcntly n.bandonc<l. ' A emu.ii earthen moun<l, derived from French f au.qse, false, aml lm1fr, nn outer wall or Hcrccn (litcm.lly a child's dinper). ~ A " horn-work " is <lefine<l in the Oxford Dict.ionnry ns a " singlcfront.cd outwork, t.lic hend of which consists of two <lcmi-hnstion.~ connected by 11 curfoin and joined to the main body of the work by two pn.rnllol wing8. ]t. is thrown out t() occupy a<l\ n.ntngrous groun<l which it would hr\'o been inconvenient to include in the origino.l enceintc-."

35 Gerald Aungfrr s Report on Bombn!J :n render a.s strong ag:1inst :1ny hat.tcry n.s the wall of t.lrn Fort itself c. L A ditch also is snnkc without tlic said home workcs, out oi which the earth is t<1kcm to misc them, which will render t.ltcm the less c.lrnrgeahle ; these two home workcs will clcfcnrl t.]ic two Bays on Pach side of the Fort, and hinder an enemy from l11ncling t.11cir men. Before we ]rn.(l news of the Dutch Fledc coming a.gninst the falancl 1 he last yen.re, we hn.tl begun 1inother outworke of cn.rth, c:mnon proofc, contcining one large Bastion and two h:dfo 1111.stionR, with ;~ 1litch without it, out of which Lhe cmth was taken t.o raise the workc, the line was clr:l\l'llll paces from l'hc Fort. 'l'hc chiefc designc therein was that we might. have roome to sholt.er n.rul pl'otect the merchants n.ml inhn.bitants of the Towne with their goods in e[lsc of any suddain surprizc from an Enemy ; wherein abo wn.rchouscs n.ncl storehouses for come and provisions might. have bin built., as well for the Companys n.s for the merchants, in rcgnrd the Fort is soc narrow n.nd strpight, limited, that it hardly contcines roomc enough for tlw G,1,rrison snuhlicrs, with n.mmunition anrl stores necessary ; but being but-. newly begun, the ccrtcin information of t.he powcrfull Dutch Hect corning against us, caused us to demolish it, n.n<l to bring our workc into it narrower compas!lc, the coconut trees usctl thereon being employed to raise the horne workes IJcforc mentioned ; but, we doc not tot.lily lay a~idc tlmt goorl clesigne, 2 for some care mu st be taken of the merchants security, ot.herw isc upon e\ cry noise of war they will forsake the Island. 3 ' On the other hand Fryer ~ays (i, :l0-1) that Capt. Shnxton quarrelled wit.11 Aungi<'r o\'er their utilit.y, and descrihe" them 1i.q " P11llii;iuldcs in , so contri\ cd that they were r11tlll'r a 111cnn:1 to take than to defend it (tho Fort), which afterwards were nil washed away hy the lt11imi." ~ According to Bmnell, some works incl11ding " a large 1111gul1Lr covered way with ha111p1cts" were suljhcquently raised on the lnnd-hide of tho Fort, n.j1ll it hn..~ been HUrmiRcd that. the old t11nncl reccnt.ly diaco\"ered on tho site of the pt cscnt main-line terminus of tho G. I. P. R1dlwn.y formed part of them. 3 Tims Aungicr in '.\farch 1Gi3 (0. C. 3760) wrote to the Comp1my: " The common people upon t.hc nuiso of the Dutch flccto generally flcdd a'.my into the neighbouring p11rtes, insomuch th11t the Island was left quite nnkccl, nnd of nccr 4,000 Christinns which wcro >crcd on this Island there remnyned few more thnn 200, und those ruiscml>le followcre kept against their will."

36 3~ Sir Charles Fa'll~cett The l!!land is happy in sevemll B1\yA and H1wcm1 for 11\1ipping, for t.heir security against t.\ir violence of the Sen. and weather, o.s also in Docb to h11le 1 thmn ashore, to clean and repaire them, toget.her with very convenient places to build ancl bunch Hhipp:i und ves!lells from '100 to 40 tons burthen. The great Bay or Port ih certainly the fairest, largest and securest in all these part!! of India, where 100 i;a.ile of ta.ll i;hipps nmy ricle ull tlrn yp1ue safe, wit.11 good momge, the Bay being la.nil locke1l ugainst ull winds but the South, a111l hy west, and 80. West, which though it. blows violently in the mine times, yet for these two yearei1 pa.st.!!hips of 400 tons luwe wintered, onr against the Fort continuing a.lloat all t.lw minl'h. In the small Bay to t.hc northward of tlw Ca.st.le ships of 400 torn~ have bin haled m1horc to repn.ire, there being 15 foot water at. the Spring!!, but thi!! Bay ha.th bin almost spoih"?d by the improvirlenec of t.hose who first hegan to build the Port, who broke the rocks which kcept of the violence of t.lw Sci~. and carrie1l away t.he stones to t.he li'ort, 2 whereas t.hey might have had t.hem cheaper out of the 1litch arnl mote ; this evill we are enclcn,vouring t,o remc<ly by castmg mor<: stones there to kcpp of the Sea, nn1l secure the ships, which will be a worke of time. In t.hc les..<;1 r Bay to the nort.hward of the Fort ships of 300 tons may bn lmle<l ashore, to repaire aml lye dry..at. Mnzagon ships of 200 tuns may he haled ashore, also nt a place called Drungo" t.hcre is n.n excellent Bay where 50 sailc of 200 tuns a pcece ma.y winter and rt)pairc very ~ On thu olht'r ha.ml Ute Conuni611ioncr11 who took ovur tho government oft.he hlnml from Cnpt. Young on the l:jth Novemli11r, lguh, <lc'cli\rod tha.t " nmny roelrns in the mouth of tho 1mmll hny bl!ini.; l.jrokcn, tlrn entmnro thereunto is much clcurcd. " (i'o.~ler, 2 l6). a 'l'hi11 is pollllibly n corruption of Tromhl\y or 'l'rumlmy, l\li it was 11omctimcs 11pc)t.. The 11uustitution of lj for T i11 easily L'Xplirn~lilc; Urns Ni.lset.tc Wll.'l sonwtimrs SJ){'lt ~fal7.ede" (Kli.a.n, ;118). Tim ll!rmina.tion " go" instead of bny"' mny he dur to the fact that Tromlmy W<L'I then a.lso known ns Barngnon" or " Ba.mgonc" (ib. 481, 51!1, ;1:10), 110 Trongo or Dnmgo!Ill\)' hnvc hl'cn a. eomposite \ a.ria.t ion. This sugg1'>ltio11 ih supported by Fryrr's l\lnp o( Bombn.y, which shows " thl Hiding Plaeo for Winter" nea.r Trombn.y.

37 Gerald.Attngier's Repo'fl on Bombay 33 safely. For small frigatts, 1 Gora.bs 2 and other vcssells there aro very mo.ny places, insomuch that if there were 500 so.ile or more of them, there would be roome enough for them to ride either afloat or hale ashore with safety, soe that the Island (is) o.s it were by Providence appointed a mart for trade and shipping to which we pray God grant increase. The Government of the Island now established is managed in this following order, a.c; it respects religion, the oivill authority, administration of justice and the Militia. Religion~ is obscnred ancl promoted by all the English in the purity and freedome of the Evangelicall doctrine used in England. The Lord's days are strictly observed iu the pious exercise of morning and evening prayer, and preaching of the word, which for want of a church 1 is performed in the Gallery of the Governor's house a.t the Fort. Churchwardens arc appoint~d chosen yearly, for examination of the lives and conversation of t.he people, taking notice of all disorders in religion, breach of the holy sabbath, prophanessc, swearing, drunkenuesse and other licentiousnesse, the offenders wherein are citecl and warned in every Session., 5 and when found guilty arc severely punished according to the nature of their crimes. 0 In tho week <la.yes morning and evening prayers a.re duly per(ormed ; a.t solemnc times the Holy sacraments arc aclminist.rcd, and 1 This word origina.lly meant a light and swift galley for river work, a.ml wa.s extended later to larger v~. ' l\iore gcncmlly called " Grabs ". They were smo.11 vessels much used by corsa.ire. The no.mo is Bllid to be derived from Aro.b. ghoriib, o. raven (Hobson-Jolison, 3!11). 8 Gront 11trcse was lnid by tho Company on tho performance of religious worship by o.11 their F11-0tom, etc., and this pn.ssage a.grecs with tho contempomnoolls account of the Surat factory given by Strcynshn.m l\iast:.cr, which is quoted in full in Yule's Hedge's Diciry, Vol. ii, p. cccli, a.nd pnrtly in Ro.wlinson's British Bcgi1111i11gs in Western India, p ' See note 4, pn.gc 17. A 'l'he Judge of tho Court of Judicature, George Wilcox, in n report do.tcd 15th Junua.ry 167-1, eimiln.rly writes: "Wee hold n.sc11sio11s every month.,,... Sabboth brcn.kere, con mon swearers, common drwllmrds a.nd unclcnncsec we proceed (o.ga.inst) by infonnation of tho churchwardens, oonstn.bles nnd other officem who a.ttend there with their prcscntment.h." (0. c. 3!130) Wilcox so.ye tho.t the genera.i punishment was by fines. 3

38 34 Sir Charles Fa.wccll according to the emergency of 11.ffoircs, do.yes of publick fast and humiliation u.ncl of tlmnksgivin.g 1 arc set apa.rt by authority and reverently performed by the Congregation. The chicfe authority resides in t.he President and Councell of Surro.t, and in their absence in the Deputy Governor a.nd Counccll for the Islund Bombay. The President being now on Bombay, the offices of Government are thus administered ; the President employs his time in an universall cu.re and provident oversight over all the Island, strictly observing the proceedings of all officers and offices under him, as well military as civill, keeping them to t.heir respective dutys and execution of charges, without interfering or litigious clashing or intrenching the one upon the other to avoide confusion. He is also so seriously circumspect in endeavouring to keep peace, love and amity among the English themselves (which is his most difficult labour considering the turbulency a.ncl uncharitableness of some tempers) 2 as also between the English and the Inhabitants among themselves, divided in their sevcrall ca.'lts and interests. He al.so tu.ices care to prevent all violence or disorders offered to the people in genera.ll from the English or Portuguese souldiers, to receive and answere petitions, seeing right and justice impartially administered to all. He also holds a constant laborious correspondence with all the neighbours Governments, to wit, the Moors, Sevagee and the Portuguese, whose Countrys enclosing and as it were shutting the Island Bombay, we arc forced to keepe o. faire yet troublesome understanding with them in their several! languages ; but the Portuguese give him 1 'l'hus a Tilanksgiving Day WILB appointo<l on St. Stophon's day, 1672, ~o oolobrot,o a victory of the English Fleet over tho Dutch. Auugier's description of tho Procession held on tho.t occo.aion is reproduced in Edwardes' Gazetteer, II, Groat trouble hnd been caused by dissontious among tho English on tho Island, and in a. later lotter (0. C. 4051) Aungior inveighed ago.inst thoso " turbulent spirits, who take delight to doe mischief, partly for tho love of diascntion, and partly of vo.ino glory, to be estoomed eubtlo, politick, iloctoring follows, who give their tongues tho liberty of such foulo langonge against your President o.nd tho Minisrors of your Govommcnt that m<>dcst men blush to hear it." Aungicr dealt with them with o. strong hand, and 1''ryor (i, 170) praises him for hnving knit " a disaffected and incongruoua Counr.il " into " a bond of at least soeming friendship".

39 Gerald Aioigi'.er's Report on Bomba!/ 35 the greatest disturbances, among whom every fida.lgo 1 or Lord of one Towne is a. petty Prince, a.ncl requires a.s much state a.nd cermony as the Vice Roy of Goa. Besides nil which your President supervises your trade in genera.ii over nll your Factorys in the Presidency, is.5uing out orders for the sale of your goods received, a.nd providing commoditys for Europe, the paines wherein will be better knowne in our Consultation Booke and Coppy Bookes 0 letters then ca.n be here cliscribed. Your Deputy Governor Captain Sllllll..-ton 2 ha.th charge 0 your Treasury, receiving and paying all moneys due and keeping strict account thereof ; to him also is committed the care of the Militia, and Garrison soul<liern, seeing them daily exercibecl and good watches keept in nll convenient places on the Island, which requires his constant pa.ines a.nd vigehmcc ; he also overseas the workes nnd labours within nnd without the Fort, hastening them what possible and preventing any e:.\.-traordinary charge. Your Accountant Mr. Child 3 hath n laborious charge in setting a.ii your accounts, which by his pa.ines arc now reduced to a. good order and method, examining nnd auditing the generall disbursements of the Garrison, Fortifications, Shipping, Bunder Building, Housekeeping and other publick expences, all which we endeavour to retrench and reduce to ns narrow a compasse as we can ; to him is also recommended the oversight of all the armes, powder, ammunition and other stores belonging to the Island, to prevent all embezlement and unnecessary wast. Your Atturncy at Law l'iir. James Addames 4 ib employed in the Revenues and 1 The Portugueeo form of Hidalgo, the lowest order of nobility. It is enid to be derived fromji//10 de a/go, "S011 of someone". 1 See note 4, pngo John Child, o. faotor who becnme President and Governor in He mnrried u. dnughter of Cnpt. Shu.xton in He Wll.!! a. factor, who ha.d come out in 1668, and wa.s Customs-officer for Bombay nod u. :Member of Cow1cil during Capt. Young's Deputy-Governorship in Thero were quarrels between the two, and he subsequently ch1u-ged Capt. Young wi~h the murder of hie wife. An inquiry was held in Janunry 1670 by Aungicr and a special Council, who held the charge was not ma.de out. Both Young nnd Adame were sent home with B view to further proceedings there; but none were taken and Adams returned to Bombay in 1671 (Foster, 252, 253). The next yenr on the opening of the Court of Judica.ture, he we.a appointed Attomey-at-LBw to look after the Company's LBnd Revenue i.nterost.e, a.s mentioned in thi.e pa.eso.ge.

40 36 Sir Charles Fawcett LMcls due to the Company on the Island, to see the Company be not wronged in the rights and priviledges belonging unto them ; a.nd in case any doubt or scruple doth a.rise between the Company and the people in respect of right or title, his ollice is to hold, plead, defend and claime your right in a legal way in your Court of Judiooture; he also searcheth the ships for the preventing and discovery of private Trade, and to his charge is committed the supplying your Garrison with all manner of provision and victun.lls neces.'lll.ry to kccpe by, o.s stores in case of necessity. Your Warehouse keeper Mr. Ustick' takes care of a.ii goods received and sould, as also of all commoditys bought a.ncl ma.de here for Europe, keeping an account of their quantitys rmd qualitys, weight and dementions, whose duty is to procure tho expenco of Europe rmmufo.otures and to increase the qwmtitys of goods and manufacture.<> made and procurable on your Island. The Judge of your Court of Judicature.M:r. Wilcox 2 ho.th a full and laborious enployment in that office, a.s we havo lo.st yea.re advised, 3 and to his ca.re is also committed the regishir for probate of wills, and inventorys of de.ad men's Estates, which with other dutys necessary attending his place doth fully tu.kc up his time. The~ a.re all of Councell to your President, with whome he meet.~ in councell 3 <la.yes in each wceke cxc~pt sicknesse or other accidents prevent, to wit., Munday, We<lnessclay and Fryday from 8 till 12 in the morning at the toll of the Castle bell, to consult of the general! a:ffaires of the Government and other necessnry 1L1foires, wherein o.11 matters as well of Government o.s tro.de are 1 Mr. Stephen Ustick, a factor and Lieutenant of one of the Garrison Companies. llr. George Wilcox and some other factors hnd been eolcctcd by the Company in 1670 on o.ccount of their legal experience, o.nd be ment.ione in his Report of December 1672 that he had been o. clerk in the 00.ico of the Prerogative Court. He was selected by Aungicr to be Judge of the Court of Judico.turo that WDB established on 8th Augu11t 1072 (Khan, 404, ii) 1 Thie wo.s in his long General letter of 2let December 1072 (0. C. 37f. ~) 1vith which wns sent Tu. Wilcox's first Report (or" Hcmonstnmcc" o. it was then styled) which is reproduced in KJrnn'e Anglo-Portuguue Negotia 0118, pp

41 Gerald Aungier's Report OJ& Eomhay 37 publickly tmnslatcd 1 and registered in the Counccll Booke by your industrious Secretary Frau~is Day 2 'l'he administration of justice and common right is managed in yom Court of Juclica.ture, now held in a roome nccr the Fort, 3 till a more convenient place can be built for civill causes, one or two dayes every week, to witt, Tuesdays and Thursdays and for cl'iminall once every month, where your said judge l\&. Willcox assisted by four justices of the peace, whereof two a.re of Councell, 4 doc assist 6 to hearc and determine nil causes civill and criminall. Wherein all the natives and inhabitants arc highly satisfied, except the Portuguese, who out of affection to their own religion and nation, and disinclination to your Goverwnent, will never be satisfied though they enjoy ne\rer soe great priviledges, but still hanker after their old way of Government though it was most 11rbitrn1-y and tyrannicall, 0 but we doubt not time and better experience will open their eyes and convince them into a better reason. The Militia, as we before acquainted you, is committed to Captain Sho.xton's oversight ; the two Garrison Compo.nys during this time of war are raised to 200 men in each Company, whereof about 100 arc alwaycs employed in your Frign.tt.s; the rest lforided into four divisions keepe constant watch in their turnes at the Castle, tho Guard being relieved every morning, aud the Guard dismounting arc duly exercised every morning, which renders them good fine men ; besides \vhich there are three other 1 Sic. It is n mieta.ke for lra118acted, which nppcnre in the other two copies. Ho wne e. Ie.ctor, who bad come out with Goorgo Wilcox in Thie wm tho Cnatoms-bouso, known ne tho "Guild-hall" (0. C. 3!130). The Court ant t.l1ere till 1676, e.nd e. year later it wne moved to the building known l\e " l\fapln. Por," which still exista in Dombo.y, ace Edw1mloe' Ouzetteer, II, 212. In June 1072 Bombay was divided into four " bundredi!" of Bomhn.y, l\lahim, Maze.gaon nnd Sion; and five English Justices were nppointcd, of whioh two W 1re for Bombay. Capt. Slw.xton e.nd!\ir..!de.ms were tho two mombecs of Council (F.R. Misc. II, 139.) Sic.? ait. As to tho Portuguese a.dminietmtion of justice, eee!'lfalabe.ri'a Bo111bay i11 the Maki'llfl, pp

42 38 Sir Cluules Fawcett Compa.nys of Militia. on the Island, to wit, one o.t Bombay, one at Ma.him and one a.t.maza.gon, consisting of Portuguese bla.ck christia.ns the Officers whereof o.re kccpt. in pn.y, being most English, for the better instructing and initiating the people in the use of their armes, wherein they arc very ignorant n.n<l as yet a.verse unto. These three Compa.nys will ma.kc in ull about 400 fire armcs, besides ltmces, but they will serve only to make a shew, for we have already proved that noc tmst is to be given them when we come to service, 1 for we can put greater confidence in the Moors, Bau<lareens2 and Gentuc sould.iers then in t.hcm not only for their courage, but for t.heir affection and good will to the English Government. These several! Coropanys are exercised once every month at least., and the Officers kcepc constant watches every night in their several! precincts, for the preventing surprihcs a.ml robherys, where unto by reason of our neighbourhood to the Portuguese Country this Island is very much exposed. The publick revenues of the Island though increased much of what t.hey were yet doe not answer the publick charge in respect to the warr. The whole amounts to ncer 70,000 Xeraphins, 3 the part.iculars whereof your Honours will find at lo.rge express~ your genera.ii books of which the Colliarys~ or right of fishing in the open Bays of Bombay, l\fazagon, Vcroly 5 and Parell arc still pretended to by the Portuguese, who formerly enjoyed it as a right belonging to them ; but we 8Lall not part with anything therein till we have full orders from you. We arc in hopes of 1 Anngior rofcrs to the visit of 11 Dutch fleot in Fcbru11ry l07:j. In a. letter nbout it to the Compnny (0. C. 3760) ho wrok1: "Nor cnn weput1111y the lenst con!idcmcc in the Portuguese iuhnbitn.ntll of thir Ishmd, whose timoronhness a.nd disloyn.lty to the English Goverrunent wa.~ much nppamnt, somo saying thoy could not, others they would not fight or us.'' Jlhnndn.ris. 1 Zemphin or Xerapbin WIUI originnlly the nu.me of a. silver coin, formerly current in Goa and other E116tom pnrta. At this time (IG73) in Dombny 13 Xern.phins were worth nbout H.s. to (Foster, 52n.) This word is obviously derived from Kali. In Capt. Gary's rent rolls for Dombay the" C.Olouria or fishennen'e t.ribut.e" is mentioned, n.nd this wa.e prosuma.hly n tax levied on tho Kolis for permibbion to fish in the waters round the Isla.nd (Foster, 68): Aungier suece&!!fully thwarted the Portuguese pretensions. 6 Worli.

43 Gerahl A ungier' s Report on Bo'/JU:xly 39 increasing the Revenue in your customes, stankei or farme of tobacco, Arrack and wine licence, n8 also by the mint, 2 as we have formerly advised when it is thoroughly sctled, and when we are well supplyecl with silver, copper n.ncl Tinn from England to carry it on. The publiek charge of the Island now in this time of warr, for GarriMn chargr!i, fortification, the Militia Officers, shipping, &c., is exc~ssive, as before we have hinted. You will find the particulars at large described in your Bombn.y Books of account.s. Our care is most Beriou!lly and conscientiously employed in retrenching and lebscning the said charge what possibly we can ; when it slmll please Goel to bless us wit.h peace we doubt not to bring them within the publick revenue, but till then it cannot be expected, considering t.jw weak condition of the Island at present, and great power of the encmy. 3 We luwe 11clviHccl yom Honours in our letter of tho 23rd October of our treaty ancl conclusion of peace of Scvagce which tho' fully agreed on between his Envoy and us, is not yet signed and conformed by Sevagec himsclfc, in regard he bas bin absent, necr three month!! from his country, being gon with an army of 25,000 men into t.11c King of Vizapore's Country, where he hath robbed and plundered many rich townes, and 'tis said he is fallen into the Country of Carvack 4 or Canara t-0 get more plunder in' those rich t-0wne:; t-0 bearc the charge of his army. At his returnc we shall proocecl to have the saitl treaty confirmed, which we noc wayes doubt but he will doe. 5 Our whole proceedings in this affoire are at large c:x.1)res.<;cd in a narrat.i\ e apart, sent in double coppys 1 Portugue~o r.q/11nq11c, n. monopoly. The so.me wor<l 11ppenrs as, " eln.nek" in Cnpt. Gary's N'nt-rolls (ib.) Capt.. Gary first. proposed the minting of coins at Ilombay in 1608, and n. mint. wns c11t11hli11hccl four years ln.ter (Foster, 52). In hit1 Genera.I Letter to the Company of 15th December 1073 and a" pereonn.l memorial" in.january 1674, Aungier explained in cletn.il the neccseity for tho excess expenditure n.ncl the advantn.g<"i the Islnnd Imel gained by it (O.C. :3007 rind :302\l); but this did not prevent his being censured for extmvn.gunce nnd n.cc1111ed of n. demire for" grandeur" ( L. ll. Vol. j, p. 165), a charge which he repudiated in pa.thetie and dignified hmguugc (0. C. 410:1). Cf. A1111u/ey of Surat a11d His Times, pp '? KJU war. It Wll8 confirmed by 8hivnji at Rnigarh in April (Andcraoo, IG4).

44 40 Sir Charles Fawcett by these ships, whcreunt-0 we humbly rcferr you (as to) what satisfaction he hath promil'led to give us for all that. he robbed a.t Rn.japore, I as well from the Compn.ny ns from particular men ; wherefore we intreat. yonr order how it shall be proportioned when we doe receive the sum agreed on, out o( which we shall deduce nnd mnke good unto your account whnt e~qiences we have bin at. for manadging and concluding tm.id trerlt.y. The remainder is to be proportioned between yourseh es ancl the person!! concerned in said losse. We have already advised that in plundering Citty of Hubily, he hath robbed about 8,liOO pagodas 2 of your Estate there also, but. he will acknowledge noe such thing, and will not make satisfaction for it, in regs.rel there were noc English there to own u.nd protect s1~icl goods ; yet we hope in time to bring him to some composition and allowance for that also, for he is much a friend to our nation, if to any, and exceedingly desires our trade o.go.ine in his ports. And in trut.h his Ports of Rajapore, Dabull, Kelcy, &c., arc of exceeding and indi11pensable necessity for the trade of Bombay, for they will in time when your Fn.ctory>i are well settled there, yield great quant.itys of goods of all sorts proper for Europe, cheaper then we have them at Surra.t or other places ; whereof we have now sent some musters:i for your perusa.11, the prizes~ whereof are charged as they will stand in brought to Bombay, being about 25 per cent. dearer tl1en they ma.y be had at Ro.japore. Besides we have hopes that the trade into Sevagees Country will consume quantitys of Europe commollitys and particularly be uscfull for consumption of copper pice, and Tinnys or Tinn Buclgrookesr. in great qui.ntitys, which will pro\ e of noc meane benefit and advantage to your mint, and (save?) 1 The l\fohrattas had raided Hui.iii and ltajapur and destroyed property in tl1e Company's factories o.t those places, I.Jut it was not till 1084 that Capt.. Kcigwin succeeded in nrrnnging a treaty with So.mlihnji under which ho a.greed to pay do.m1igcs (Keigwin'a Rebellirm,!JS, 9). For the history of this word soo llob~on-jobmn, 652. Fryer (ii, 129) gives the \'alue oa equivalent to 3~ Rupees. Thie means" enmplee ", cf. Fryer, i 215. ' Prices. 5 Portuguese bawr11cco. These were among the coinb current in Bombay then, o.nd 16 liudgcrooke went to 0110 picc (Foster, 62). For further details ace Keigiuin's Rebellion, 32, e.nd f/obso11-jobsa11, 121.

45 Ge-rald A ungi"er' s Rc~potl on Bbmbay 41 cxpcncc of the manufactures of tirm. Moreover Scvagce promises himselfo to setle a wearhouse o[ his mcrclmuts in Bombay for the putting of great quantityb of goods which he hath lying by him, which will also increase the trade of your port and your H.evenue in customcs of said goods. These and many other com1idcmtiom1 for brevity's s:drn omitted caused us the 11ooncr to h1111ten our treaty of Peace with him, which we trust yom Honours will confirmc and well approve of, accepting it as a well pleasing 11nd aclv:rnta.gious service to you. Had we continued to cmbarguc 1 his mercha.nt,..; vessells, probably we might have got morn from them to pa.y for your lossc ; but such violent proceedings are not pleasing to Goel, nor to you, nor hn.vc we any order from you as yet to t:1ke that course ; nor is it consistent with your honour or interest to right yourselves that way, except when absolute necessity requires, when j 11Btice i8 utterly denied, and your estn.te totally preyecl upon and COIL'lumcd without hopes of rm1t.itution. In such ca.re we as formerly advised doc humbly beg your order to doe you right by force and not otherwise ; but in this your Honours may glory t.jmt you luwe brought Sevagec to tcarmcs of restitution for his robbery of yom Bstate, which neither the great :Mogull nor the King of Vizaporc nor the Portuguese were ever yet able to doc, 11.\1 whose Count.rys he hath suffioiently robbed. In our last years letters 2 overland we gave your Honours an account of the unworthy flight of Sr. Alvaro Pires of Mazagona and Ute greatest part of the Portuguese and other inhabitants, upon the arrivall of the Dutch fleete.~ The desertion was soc 1 This means" impound", cf. cmliarque111e11t obsolete for" omlmrgo." 2 Tho letter wua dated 18th March 1672 (old style), and so is rcforrccl to us ono of " In.st year," though the date ( according to tho present ohrouology ) WllB 18th March, Ho wllb tho holder 0 the well-known l\fazagnon Estate, originally gmntc<l in 1548, sec Malalmri, :173. ' In Fcbru1\l'y It; was on this occasion th11t (miye Orme) Aungier exerted himself " with tho calmness 0 a philohopher 1in<l the coumge of a centurion." Fry01 (i, 170) writes," tho Dutch nttempting to Rurprize tho JHlo.ndcrs, found them o.nd tho Fort in 110 good o. condition that thoy wore glad to betake thomsolvce to thoir Boats without any Booty, and tho next do.y hoisted so.il.s (for, said they, Dombo.im boen as stark as do Deel)." Seo also Anderson, 125.

46 42 Sir Cha.rle.s Fawcett generall nnd senndo.lous that we judged it necessn.ry pmdence to let the people know our resentment thereof ; the sen.ling up of t.heir houses nml putting a. seeming embnrgo for the present, on t.beir lands wns the only ca.use that brought them back to the Island. All returned, Alvaro Pires excepted, to the number of 10,000 a.nd upwards, and upon their submission and promise never to run away ago.inc their lands and houses were immeclio.tely restored without the lenst fine or punishment ; for in truth it was a time to shew clemency, pitty ancl moderation to a poore miserable, dist.ra.cted, trembling people. But Alvaro Pires, finding his honour concerned, full of that pride ancl subtlety inherent in the Portuguese Fidalgoes of India, though he was in greatest fault, took a contrary course ; for inst.edd of submitting himsclfc he defyes your aut.hority, clisownes himscue a subject of his l\fajcsty or that he owed any fealty to him or service to you, though he ha.cl before taken the onth of fidelity, 1 and which was worse he makes his applications to the Gcnern.lls of the French 2 (and) Portuguese fleets, to the Captain of Basseen and the Vice Roy of Goa demanding justice of them, casting most sea.njalous reproaches against the Nation and against your Govermucnt in the presence of the French Admirall, and all the Portuguese fidl\lgoes. Whereupon we found ourselves necehsita.tcd to call him to n publick tryall,3 for tlw more publick vindication of the justice nnd modera.tion of your Government, and the integrity of our proceeding ; but he not appearing as clisowning a.uthority, we thought fit, to proceed to sentence, which was this, that for his deserting the lslt\nd in time of danger, disobedience to nuthority bre1lch of severall Proclamations, ingratitude and notoriously false sca.n<la.ll<i cu.st on your Honours 11nd the nation, nncl your authority here, he wo.s rendered 1 He took this oath on 2:1rd September 1670 (0. C. 4:178). a This wae Mons. Barron, one of the Dirootors of the French factory at Surn,t, who wn,s in command of 4 ships thn.t had come to Bombay a few dn.ye beforo tho arrival of tho Dutch fleet (0. ( ' n.nd Kh1Ln, 5:13). 3 The jurlgc, George Wilcox, was W!ked w euhmit n. report regarding the lcgnlity, or otherwise, of the Signor n.brcnting himself; e.nd this being against him, it woe ordered on 2nd April Hl7:1 th11t he should be summoned to o.ppca.r before the Governor and Council within 40 du.ye (F. R Bombay, Vol. I, pp. 27, 28 ). ' This WW! on the 10th l\lay 1673 (F. R. Bombu.y, Vol. I, pp. 48, 49).

47 Geraul Aungier's Repo.h mi Bombay 43 incap11ble of bearing o.ny office civill or military on this Island. As to his Estate we thought not. good to meddle with it, but have mo.de his mother dcposita.ry or trustee t.hcreof till your Honours pleasure and sentence be knowne concerning it, to whome,,.e have hwnbly referred it ; for a.~ we never intended any scisurc or confiscation of his Estate, but only desired to make him sensible of his misdemeanors and upon his submission to receive him a.ga.ine into our favour, 1 soc he having given use soc high provocation by his indiscreet proceeding, we hold it. necessary to let the world see that. we would maiutninc your right and honour. And n.s to his EHta.tc we therefore ho.ve referred the judgment, thereof to your Honours, first bccm1se all finall acts of justice or clemency belong unto you, secondly to convince the Portuguese tlmt our proceeding aimed not at n covetous seisure or confiscation, but rather at the vindication of our int<-git.y allll moderation, thirdly because, if in your wisclome rmcl clemancy you shall t.hink good to restore his E1:1t.atc unto him on his submirsion and returne, it may Le a lye 2 and obligation of gratitude on the Portuguese Government to C)l..-press t-heir sense of your generosity, by requiring a more c-ivill and peaceable behaviour from the Port.uguesc our neighbours. Of whose ill neighbourhood violence, m1uriou;; dealing with all the inhabitants of this Island in seifling their goods (and) imprisoning tl1eir persons on o.11 frivolous pretences we have much to complaine, cspecio.lly at the pa!!ses of Tannah and Caranjah,:1 where they force from us excessive rates, even what they pleo.sc in 1m arbitrary way for custome, aucl mo.ny times when 1 Thie pnshnge well illuatra.tes the justice and modemtion wit.11 which Aungior comlinccl promptn.ction mul firmness in dealing with clisaffect.ion or contempt of the Company's authority. HiM foresight nnd clctcrminat.ion wcro fully vindicated, for nftcr a long fight, which cndccl in 1077 with the Privy Council referring Alvaro Perez tot.he BombBy Court of Judicature for rcdrcs~ he mndc n." humble petition" to the Company, admitting rniaconcluct and begging for pbrdon. Upon this eubmi88ion being publicly repeated in the Court of Juclicnture in 8eptcmbor 1678, he was given n. frco pardon nncl hie estntc was rcstored to him. (K/1an, : F. R. Bombay, Vol. 2, pp. 30, 31) ' Sk.? tye. ' Thie wos one of the main disputes with the Portuguese o.ftor tho cession of Bombo.y. A full account of the clocumcnta rein.ting to the controve111y is contained in Dr. Khan's A11f]lo-Port11guue Negotiatio11s,,e:c.

48 Sir Charles Fa.wcelt they thinke good doe stop all sorts of Timber or provisions from coming to us, all which we judge it prudence to wiuke at at present in respect. to our warr with the Dutch, least 1 they should assist the Enemy agaiuat. us, which they are (for) envy and emula.tion's sake too much inclined to, concerning which we with great earnessnesse expect your order. In fine the whole affaire touching Alvaro Pires is drawne out in a narrative by it.selfe, which we humbly recommend to your perusall and censure with his protest and our o.nswere, that it may be presented to hi.q Majesty in case the Portuguese shall make any noise at Court concerning it. 2 AB to ~Ir. Sterlings 3 nncl Mr. Everdens 4 concerns, what we have discovered to be due unto them is brought in your cash and their accounth entered in your books. For :l\lr. Sterling& account is clue 7..cr. 500 and for :\lr. Everdens account. Zer. 262 : 2l: GOr: which you may please to make good to their respective reln.tions. AB to Mr. Portman's 5 and Mr. Davis's 5 account and remaines, we intreat you to be referred to your Genero.11 from Surrn.t. We observe your Order touching Bills of Exchn.uge dra.wne from hence rmd hereafter shall make them payn.ble :30 dayh after I Lest. ~ Aungior, realizing that Alvaro Poroz would to.kc tho mo.tter homo and get the PortugnCBe Government to " make a noifl.1" o.l.iout it, took great trouhlo to put his caso fully before tho Company, rmd tho n.nswe1 ho rofore to wo.e dmwn up with the nssisbmco of Judge Wilcox,.Mr. fomch Adams, o.nd two Portuguese gentlemen (F. ll. Bombay Vol. I, pp. 104, 114). 'l'ho Company rceponded, aml on the 11dvico of thoir solicitor, outlawry pro ccedings wcro taken against Alvaro Perez in the Court of Judicaturo in 1076 Lotter llook, Vol. V, p. 182, and 0. C. 4378). ~ Tho report now proceeds to deal with eome tlcra tlll\t were left ovor from tho General Lotter to the Company. Tho H.ov. Ju.lllos Sterling WIMI ono of the two.ministers sent to Berni.Jay in He was appointed one of the Commiseionem for t.aking over Bomlio.y from Co.pt. Young, and en.med groat pro.iec from Aungier for his piety and prudonce (Fw/er, 240, 244, 255). Ho died in November 1670 (F. R. Surat, Vol. 105, p. 96.) ' This w11e prolio.lily tho Mr. Phillip Eversden, who, I.icing o.n Apothecary by trade, wo.e appointed in Fcliruary 1670 an Assistant to the Surgeon iu tho making of medicines (F. R. Bombay, Vol. 3, p. 46). The to.king of the nccount in tho c of both these estates he.d been referred to tho Judge (0.C. 3722). 1 ThC8C may be tho l'rlr. Thomas Da is aud Mr. John Portman, who wero ecnt from Surat to Qucda, in 1669 (Foaler, 180).

49 Gerald.AU?igier' s Report 0>1 1 Bombay 45 discharge and arrhrall of the ships on which they arc sent. We also to.kc notice of your prohibition touching Cochn.nealc, and the mulct. you have lo.id upon it n.nd shn.11 govcrne ourselves accordingly. We have considered your prudent order for the expencc of woollen manufactures that coat.s might be given to your souldiers on the lsland gratis, wherein your goodness n.nd generosity is manifest towards them, but seeing you have bin pleased to leave the matter to us, we have thought good to suspend your donative unto them, in regard the chargo would be great, n.nd for that we hod answered the mninc of your dcsigne by a former order passed in Councell of the 15th September, that all Officers soldiers rnilit.o.ry, o.s also your Factors, Writers, sto.ffe Officers, peons, lo.scars, and other servants in your po.y should take 1 j6 part of their wages in cloth perpetuanes or other English woollen manufo.ct.urcs ; which order though at first gave some disgust, yet by the sober reasons which we gave, by the modern.to price which we set on the goods and by our ownc cxamplo we have in the mo.inc prevailed to make it passe, soc tho.t we hope we ho.vc complycd with your order as to your principal! end, and we trust it will have a good influence on the e:\.11cncc of woollen manufactures in time, and as to the d_onative we reserve it for some necessary occasion, to be bestowed in case your souldiers by some eminent service in this warr, if the Enemy doe attempt us, shall merit soc great a favour. Our Consult.at.ion booke you will find somewhat large, for we consider t.hat at this great. dl<ito.nce we arc from you it is necessary your Honours should know t.hc whole method of our proceedings and those reasons which guide us in passing the scvcro.11 orders registered therein, and for your greater light and case we have ordered an alphabet or index. to be drawnc t-0 said Connccll bookc, 1 to t.he end you mo.y the more readily turne and find out any particular matter wherein you desire to be satisfied. The ohn.rgcs of your Smith Shop, armorer's Shop, Cooper's Shop, Bunclcr expcnce and moodys2 shop we have reduced to a ccrteine standing rule and order, which before was (ir)rcgularly managed to your great 1 These In<lcx!'!I appear in the Consultation Book.a o.vailable in the Indio. Office from JlJ odi, housc-etmvnrd.

50 46 Sir Char"lcs Fawcett charge and losse ; und though you will observe thnt the present nllowa.nce established is high, yet we pray you not to be offended, for in your first cst.nblishmcnt it. is prudent to give some encouragement that your people mny live comfortl\bly, which afterwards ns we sec occa.tion we shall reduce, when there nrc more plenty of workmen of ench trnde. Besides this course will prove a gaine to you for the Iron, cordage and stores of a.ll sorts delivered out to them arc sold to t.l1cm at a. reasonable profitt, au<l a. greaterconsumption will by this means be caused of them; for our earnest ambition is to see 0.11 honest profitt in your bookes for every particulo.r thing you send us, to the end the full a.mount of your gencrall disbursements may be the more clearly clemonstmted, a.nd that those charges which 11ppeo.re unnecessary may the more easily being knownc, be retrenched. It would be too teadious here to discourse on those debut.cs we have had touching increase of trade, priviledgc to strangers, 1 raising your Revenue, correspondence with our neighbours and other matters wort.by your notices, for they will nll fall under your eye and censure in said Councell Booke 2 ; wherein we bcrcech you to direct us in whnt we have don amissc, and to strcngt.hen us with your wiseordersandinstructions, for we fen.re we have erred through inexperience in matters of some weight which arc beyond our reach. Your books of Accounts on the Island are also large and e~1lressive in each respcct.ive Journal! parcel!, and your Accountant Mr. John Child designed to reduce those confused heads of Garrison stores, Garrison charges, fortification, &c., into some better method and order ; but receiving the accounts late, and the warr, sicknesse and other impediments intervening, ho.th superseded his good and laborious intention this yea.re, which by the next ships you may expect. The Register of wills and Inventorys (and) proceedings of 1 On tho 10th November 1073 it wo.a ordered by tho Govomor and Council that nil settlers ahould have " freedom from u.u dobta formerly contracted in foreign parts and before their coming to the Tulo.nd for the torm of 5 years beginning from the day of their first arrival", after tho expiration of which they would become liable for such former debts (F.R. Bombay, Vol. l, p. loi). 1 Copies of the ConBultation Rooke were regularly eont home.

51 Gerald Aungfrr's Report on Ifoinba.?/ your court of.tu<licature 1, a.re also la.rge, and we hope will be very satisfactory, wherein you may please to peruse the whole series of what hath passed in those affaircs. What other books o.nd papers arc sent you will find mentioned in the lists of the respective pacquct, whercunto we rcferr you, for we have we feare bin too teadious already; wherefore beseeching God to give his blessing to this your Island and to us in our respective charges, that we may obtain mercy to prove faithful! in our trust,, and find favour and acceptance in your eyes, we romaine, Your Honours most humble servants GERALD AUNOIER JOHN SHAXTON JOHN CHILD GEORGE WILLCOX, J.urns ADAMES BOMBAY, 15th Dec FRA..~CIS DAY. Seery. 1 Unclcr tho orclors of the Company these were sent homo n.nnuo.lly, but unfortunately they are all now missing, except those of and 1720.

52 BRIEF NOTES Pcinclwmaldi8alxla. in Rajalarangi1Ji While dealing with the Copper Plate Iruicriptions of Bhii.skara Yarman King of Kamariipa. (Cir A.D.), I came a.cross the word Paiichamahafabda a.nd was in quest of its mco.ning. I found the word in one of the Gupta. Inscriptions of Dr. Fleet, where (at p. 296 ct.~cq, of Corp. lnscr. Indicarum Vol. III), the late Doctor dealt with the term at great length ; and what I could gather from his note was that the term signified b.ig sounds of five musical instruments (though not the same five everywhere) n.nd that the personage who got this nppellation (1'..f!., Prii.pt.apo.nchamahiifahdn.) was allowed to make public appeamncc with the band composed of those live musical instruments which of course made a great noise (mahasa.bda). I also ca.me ~ross the tem1 (Panchanmhafabda) in Rajatara.ngiQI of Kahlano.: and Dr. A. (now Sir Aurel) Stein in his " Ko.hlano."s Chronicles of the Kings of Kasmir" (an annotated translation of the Ra.ja.tarangiQi) rendered Panchama.hii.snbda. (in verse MO of the 4th To.ranga.) into English, as " Five offices distinguished by the term " Great" (p. 133, Vol. I): by which he meant five such posts as' Ma.hapmtihii.ra, etc., etc.' Dr. Krishna Svami Aiyo.ngar of l'\laclra.s, however, in an article headed "Panch111naha5abda. in Raja.tarangii;iI " published in the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the H.oyo.1 Asiatic Society, (Vol. I, N. S. No. 2, 192[;, pp ) has disapproved of the interpretation of Dr. Stein, and with much ingenuity has demonstrated that even here PanchamahiiSo.bda signified five great t1oundi; of mut1ico.l instruments and nothing else. I am of opinion that the learned gentleman has not been correct in his interpretation. The word Pancharno.hiifabdn. occurs thrice in the same Taranga (IV) of Rajat.arang4J,i in verses 140, 512 and 680: and it is a pity Dr. Aiyangar did not apparently see the other passages, especially verse 680 ; he has only confined him;oelf to verse 140 (and verses before and afier it).

53 Tn.sya Panchanmhiisa.b1liin jyiiyiin UtpahLko' grahit Anye jagrhire'nyiini karnmsthanani matulal.1 II 680. But in order to get n. full import of t.he verse, its previous one should al<io be quotc1l: Padmotpalalrn Kalyiiqa Mamnm Dhammail.i S!l miitnfoi~ Baln.ka.l.i palyamanobhut prthivjbhoga hl1agihhil The tra.m;jution of wrses 67!) a.nd G80 is n.s follows :- The young (King) wu.s being nurtured by his maternal uncles Pa.clma, Utpalalm, Ku.lyiiqa, ~famma a1hl Dlrnmnm who shared (with the young King) t.he enjoyment of (the power over) earth (i. c., Kingdom) Verse No. GSO is as follows:- The Elder one Utpal:1lm took the (King's) Pa.nchamahii bdas (I'.. c., the ftvc offices with '}faha' prefixed to them) and the others took other offices (i.e., posts of administrative works) I hope t11e interpretation of Panchamahafobcla, as made above, can, with no ingenuity, be rendered otherwise, nncl certainly the Senior of the five ambitious gu:mlians of the King (i.e., Utpalalrn) would not lulvc been stttisfiecl with mere sounds, however big, of w h:ltsocvcr 111 usical irn;tru menfa. The term as occurs in verse No. ih~ can be interpretecl any way; but none can dare ffi)' that evlm here the word Pa.uclmmahiisn.bda docs not mean five karmusthanas (olliecs) as is clearly the meaning in verse G80. 'fhe verse is :- 1\fontri P11i1ch111111tha::i11bd1Lbhiijrm11m jn.ga ti bhuja ~1 Tasmin J a ya pure kottc.j n.yn.cln.tto vy1ullui.mna~j II 512. J1Lya<latta, the?.finistcr of the King, who was rec1 pt~lde of l'anchamahaiabrlas, built a. t.emple in the fort of Jayapura.. 5lj. Xow let us come to verse Xo. HO; hut t.hc :mhscqucnt three verses should nlso be quote1l for the proper under;;ta.n<ling o[ it. Prital.i 1'11nchanmha:fahd1llihajawL1h t[l1h vymlllclltt~ Ya.fovarnHLnrparh tam tu sa111ulumudapii.~ayat II HO. sal.1 Ash tadasauanmpa.ri praksiddhana 1h tacluclhlmvaih l\urnrnsthanail_i sthitih pra pta ta.tal.1 prabh rti panchahhil.i II Ml.

54 fill nri(:f Nr1tes MahaprntihfLrn11icJa ti<1 111ahium.mlhi, igrnlml.i l\lu.hiisvasiilapi 11mhiLliLa1JcJ.t1.garnsdrn pafwha.11m\j 11 l-12. Mahiviat!lmnu.hhugasd1etycta yn.imbhidhal_t sritid.1 S<ihi111ukhya ycshval1ha.v1mua.dhyak~hiil.1 prthivibhujal.t l\ 1 1:3. Tm nslation. l:h~i11~ plrn.hl'tl Ile (King Lalil-aditya) ma1le him (:\'litra.s:mn:m) t.ht> rccipil'nt of the fi\'e 11u1ha:fab<las, but Le uprooted King Yaso varman (of Ka11yak11hja.). (UU.) From that. time forward, over the eighteen (pohts), that had Leen crca.t.ecl hl'fon., (a i:ntpcrior) stancling was obtained hy (1.ho~P) five places t.hat hall (thmi) their origin from him (King). (Bl). (Viz.) Mahaprat,ihampiqi1. [piqit-pi9m (vidc vcrhe '18G Taranga IV) meaning spat] the MaLasamlhivigrnha, l\fahafrasalii., :\laht1- hhii l).diigiim 11ml the fifth ( l-12) MahiLHii.cllu.mnblmga also, with whid1 these tlcsiguations were couuectcd, over which (places), (even) the rulprs of earth hea.cle<l by Sal1it:1 hect me (in eourhe of time) the pre11iding ofliceni. (1 13.) Apparently, by these clchignations (etii.l) alihiclhal1) <HI' mcaut the pai1clmmahl\fabdas bestowed upon :\'litmfarmau, and the e11u111emtion of t.he pla.ceh, i111111c1liately after the bestowal of the great honour, coulrl not but have reference thereto. l\lorco\'er, Mitmfarm:m (who did a very great service menl.ionecl in the preceding verseh Nos. 1:n-1:rn) ho.cl been a Srndhivigrnhilrn of t.hc King o.ncl unless he was mn.rle an olfo:cr presiding over ;\fahii.smulhi, igrnha (along wit.h other sit11: tiom1) he would have been mortified on finding himself t,huh belittled rather than have felt any pleasure on gct;tiug a chorur of hollow sounds. I notice that Dr. Aiyangar has made mueh of ' s: ' before l\1ahasiuulhivigrah:1 (in verse H2) ancl he H:Lys that; '' it refcrli t.c> IL Homet.hing aln~ady rcforrecl and Hecms to imply tlrnt, l\'lit.m ~n.mmn had been made a umhf1-;antlhivigra.lm by being given the right of pa.f1chamal1afalicb (p. :H2, B.B.H..A.S. Vol. I, N. S.. No. 2). It is enough to state h1~rc in refutation of his surmise that 11w.has1mdhivigrnha is a. place only ( vide my tm1u;lo.t.ion of verses H2-I rn) ancl not: dcsignat.ion; :mcl that, the' sa' is merely a word to complete t.hc foot of the vcn;c allll ha8 therefore no

55 Panclta111altii.8abda in Ilrljatarrtii.'li~ii GJ mraning at all (like 'hi' 'vai ', etc., which coul<l not; be UHecl at the hrgiuning of a foot). To Hnm up: here, in the verse HO, t.bc term Pai1cha11mha:fab1la has the meaning of five Karmasthnuas :~'> iu verse li8u. As reg:mls Pa1i.charnahafabda occurring in olhcr pash:~gcs, as in t.]ic Gupta Jru;criptious, or in the l\mmrchc I wmript.io1rn, l have no objection to its being iutcrprctc<l I~'> itlcntieal wit.it PanchamahiL vadya; in fact it appl nrh to lllc, (.]iat the trrn1 has a <liftcrcnt mcaniug in a <liftcrcut part of the country: in Kasmir, for instance, it meaus fh-c olliccs with the adjective ' ~fahi1 ' prcflxed thereto, :m<l in Dcccau it may signify five great Houn<lH oi 111usic1~l inhtrumcnts, varying in variotll:i places. 27th October 19:1u. PAD:\IANATllA BllA'l"l'AUll,\ltYYA.

56 REVIEWS OF BOOl\S C1~YLON z111 Zeit. cles Kijnigs Bhuva.ndm Bfdm uncl Frn.m: Xavers IG:JU-}i')!:i2. Quellen zur Geschichte tler Portugicsen, sowie <lcr Frnnziskaner-und J esuitcnmihsion auf Ceylon im Urtext hernusgegeben 1m<l erklart von G. Schurharnrncr uml E. A. Vorctzsch (2 Volumes.) Verlag cler Asia. Major, Leipzig, 'l'his is a collection o( Port.ug11esc letters referring to the Sinha. Iese King Bhumnelrn Balm aml the famous mi1111ionary Francis Xavier, dating from Xovcmber 15:3() down to Fclmmry l!:i!:jo. 'fhere let.ll'rn were unearthed by Fr. SchurLa.uuner from the Lisbon Archives of the T:>rre do Tombo. It is not. necessary to go carefully through the t.wo volume.'> in order to appreciate the value of thih pullicu.tiou. A collect.ion of U2 eont.empornry documents is to be wclcome1l by all Rtudent.s of t.he history not only of Ceylon but evnn of India ; for these lette::s often refer to t.he affairs of the continent, specially those of the Western Coast. 'l'he letters a.re critically cdit,ed with copious and erudit.c noter. But wlmt chiefly enhances the value of t.his work is t.hc historical int.rocluct ion written by Fr. Sclmrhamnll'r. The period selected by him ( rn:rn-1550) is one of t.hc most event.in! periods in the history of U1'ylon. The Portuguese were formally calle1l to Ceylon by King Bhuvancka. Balm, the king of KoHe, who clu.imcd ovcrlordship over tl1c whole island from very ancient timc B, and who is styled hy the Portuguc i;c "t.he King of Ceylon." Hitt hrothcr ~liiyadunnc, kin;! of Sitavalrn, w1mtcd to dispossess Bhnva1wlrn of his kingdom. On this oceasiou the PortuguPBe entered ~nylon in grcn.t numbers to aid Hhuva11elrn. Tl1is was t.he lu ginning of n scrier of drn.matic cv1~ut8 in wl1ich t.lw kingh of.foffna, aud Kandy Look a prominent imrt. In thn meantime Bhuvanelm, in view of the increasing power of the Portuguese in the i~larnl, broke his n.llegiancc wit.h them n.nd mn.de an tl!liauce with l\'tayinlunnc against the King of Kandy aud the l)ortugucse. The latter sent two considerable expeditions to their ally, the King

57 o( Kan<ly, hut finally t.his ruler won ovpr hy the threats and admonitions o[ Blrnvaiwlrn Bahu, joinccl t.he nntimml cause against; t.hc inva(fors. This increase of po\wr of l-hc King of Kotte was viewed with suspicion by his brot.lu r Jlaya<l11nnc, who finally turnrcl to t.he Porl.ugnesc for hrlp, and rcceivcrl from t.lwm a substantial incrrase of t.errit.ory at. the expe11sps of Ilhuvancka. The latter 011 the ot.hcr hand was not idle. With 11plcncli<l promises, which afterwards were not always fulfilled, he finally obtained a Port.11- guese army agn.in<it. Maya<l11n11e, who was n.ctun.lly deprivcrl of his kingdom of Sit.avakn. ancl withdrew to t.hc mountn.i1111 o[ Dc11avalrn. 'fhis triumph of the Port.ug11csc encouraged them f;o proceed against the King of Kn.ncly at the special rcq11m1l; o( Ilhumndm. But. the Kandy ruler, S<!crrtly a<lvised by the treacherous Bhuvanclm, inflicted a vrry 1wrious defcaj. upon the Portuguese. During all t.his time the enmity bet.ween Bhuv:rneka and his hrot.hrr l\fayiidunne continued, when eventually t.hc former wns kilbl by a gunshot, perhaps by n hireling of l\layadunne. The Portuguese placed his young grandson, Prince Dharmapn.ln., on the throne of KotF~ arnl declared war against Mayadunnc\ Dlmrmapala's father, who had been imprisoned by the Portuguese, made goocl his escape not long aft.er, ancl bcga.n a relent.less war n.gainst these invaders of t.hc island. Such is the gloomy encl of this series of intrigues, embassies, promises, wars and murdcrn, which chn.rnctcrisc the history of f;ltc Portuguese in Ceylon. Fr. Schurlrn.mmcr has given us a very int.cresting account of this short but eventful period. This o.ppcn.rs from the letters now published by him for the lirst time, n.nd supplemented by mn.ny other documents-references to which will be found iu his crudito notes. A very exhaustive bibliography precedes his historical 111urativc, n.ncl a. complete indpx: renders the work most useful t.o the scholars of Ceylon and India. Fr. Schurhnmmcr is to be congratulntccl on t.his excellent an1l schola.rly production ; and we cn.n look fonmrd to further fruit from his assiduous labour in the Portuguese Archives of Lisbon. H. H.

58 Ucm'.cws of Books TnE l\lrn.atlla RAJAS uf TANJoRE, by K. B. RunnA'.'lr,\~IAN, M.A., Lect.nrer in Hist-0ry, l\fahn.rn.jo.'s College, Viziano.gmm, with a foreword by P. 'I.'. SrinivaHi1 Iycngn.r Avl., 111.A., r. T., Hca1lrr in Indian Ifit1tory, University of Madras. Published by the Author, GO, T. S. V. Koil Street., Mylo.pore, Madro.s, Hl28. Re. 1. ThiR ih n. pmiacwort.hy attempt. of Prof. Snbrnmanin.n, to \uit.c t.hr hiatmy of n. clynn.at.y totally ovcrlookecl by the Rcholars of 8out.11Pm India. The only history of this Dynasty is the one writt1 11 ljy Rao Bahn.clur D. B. Pn.msniH in 1!112; but tho fact of its b11ing written In l\famthi maker its circulation very smn.11. Prof. Ruhrn.mn.nian ho.s corumltecl many different Rources both Indian and foreign, but he has not cxhn.ustecl them. A Hd1olarly work rcquirrs a thorough treatment, as well n.s critical judgment nn1l impartial views. In U1is scm1e we agree witli Prof. P. T. Rrinivasn. Iyengar thn.t. "this book hn.e been written Rn ar t.o r1mhlc t.hc' intelligent teacher of history t-0 lay well n.ncl truly tlw fomula.tion of historical studies in the Tanjorc clirtrict.." (p. II). Eut historiehl methods seem to have been nheolutcly overlooked, n.s one cn.n cnsily sec while going through the documentary nvidrncc in t.he foot-notcr. The sn.rne is true of t.he hihliogrnphy (which, by the bye, should be given n.t. the beginning of t.he book, as n. thing o[ ~,lie ut.rnof1t importance). To give u. lirt. of bookh with mlnwa of authors n.nd titlea of boolrn (not. n.lwayh faithfully quot.eel) is not to MiVP t.hc bibliography of the Ruhject. 'l'hc wholo Lit.le Hhould be given, with place n.nrl yc1lr of puhlicnt.ion ; nnd oocnsionally own Rome critienl rcmn.rks y be n.clcfocl 1tbout thih or thnt laihtoricn.l Honrce or work-rcmarlrn which somct:iml'r n.rc expl'ctecl. i\lorcov11r 0111 woul<l nat.urally cxprct. Honw diff1 n 1 11ce hctwocm works conto.iniug hirtmical sources such n.s " Lockmn.n : TmvelR of.jehuits, 2 Vols." or " Foster: English Factories in Indin., 1G22- Hi23 " ; mul books of historical lit.cro.t.urc, such ns " Dodwell : Duplcix and Clive" or " Oxford History of lnclin. by V. A. Hmit.h." This lit.t.lc brochure, patiently worked over for two or three )'<'am more, C'Ollhl ha.ve )wen much improved, sincl' its main defect SPP1m1 t.o lw lia.st.incs:1 ancl superficiality. 11. H.

59 KAMPILl A~D VIJAYAXAGARA, by N. VEKKA'fA RA~L\.NAYYA, ~I.A., PH.D., MADRAS CnncSTIA~ Cor.r.1mE. Printed at the Christian Litemturc Hocict.y's Press, ~Iu.dras, 192!). The problems cliscussc<l in this little brochure by Dr. Vt1nlnt1i Ramann.yyn. are vital problems in the hihtory of the Empire o[ of Vijayanag1ua; the llihtory of the petty kingdom of Kampili, whose connect.ion with Vijayrmagn.ro. is st.ill very oboonrc ; n.jhl t.hc origin of the Ranganrn Dynasty or firnt ruling family of Vijay::magr\l'n.. The whole book seems to ha.ve been written to defend the 'l'i lugu origin of IIarihara and Bukka. There arc many poems tlmt maintain t.his; but Dr. Rn.mii.na.yya does not mention them nt. all, for he very wisely acknowlt dgc11 that they n.re not. trw1t; wort.hy docmnent.s. He claims to base his 1ugumentation mainly on cont.empomry epigra phica.l records. Y ct he soon rea.lize1l t.jiat t.hcrn is no i1rneript.ion clisclm1ing t.ju~ir Telugu origin. Hcnr.c he st1tlt11 nly assunll's t.hc o(fonsivt', so that. t.hr greatest. port.ion of his work consist in cont.ni.1licting tlw argumcnt.::i given in favour of their Katmrcsc origin a.ml of t.heir connect.ions with the ln:il, IfoyH.a.!a Emperors. How snccrs.'lf ul he has bern in his undertaking the rrn.clcrs cn.n be left. t.o decide. Sufl1ce it to sny t.hllt he clocs not. rxpln.in how lfarihnra a.nil his brothers wern at once n.cknowletlgc~<l throughout. Mysore in I:HG, the year of the de.nth of Ilalla! l. IV, as appears in B. 0., IX, lln, 47; X, Mr, 3!l; VJ, Sg, 1; M.A.R., ]!) JG, pp.!i6-57 ; Mwlm.~ Epigmpltical Record, HlOG, p. r;2~ ; J.B. B. R. A. S., XII, pp. 338, 350; etc. That. he also ovcrloolrn the relationship between Va.llnpa.-ch11p:iii.yaka, DtLllala IIl'H 1wphrw, according to E.C., X, l\lr, 10, 12, lg, 18, wit.h lfarihara I, in E.O., VJ, Sg, l ; M. A. R. HHG, p. :ii. He pays no att.ent.ion to t.hc parn.lld information given hy Fcrishta-Briggs, I, p. 427 and hy R.C., X., Cd, '1, in connection with the nwding co11ve.ne1l by lhllnla I I I, a.t. Tiruvmp:ilimnln.i for the fortificat.ion of t.lw nortlwrn frontier of the l~mpire. Finally he ignor<'s the~ Wit.rs of I-Iarilmrn I n.wl llukka I against the Telugu c-0u11t ry which arc spoken of in But.t.Prworth, /n.\cript io11.~ of tlw Nellun~ Di.~lticl, I, p. 11:3; E. 0., Ill, 'fn, l:h; V, Hn, 7, 70; VI, 1\p, 2!i, VII, Ci, 1:3; 'L'I, :Wl; X, Gd, 4G; l\lb, 158; XII, 'fp,!l; M. A. R., l!llli, p. 5!J. One is bound to agrne wit.h t.]ie lccm1cd author a.liout the

60 rule of Ifarihn.m I from Ancgonrli, which thus hr.en.me the first en.pit.al of the Empire ; but his theory of t.hc transfer of the capital from A1ll'gnrnli to Vijayn.nagn.m in t.hc time of IIiu iha.ra I, n.s propounder! on p. 3:1, is totally unfo11nde1l. Cf. Heras, Bi'g1'.-n n1'.ngs 1if l'i}ayr111ag11rn llistory, pp. 12i-1:t~. One woulu like to know how Dr. H1m1:mn.y~ a explains E.<J., V, Cn, 25G, in which it is 1~xpres!-ily lllf'btionf'd t.lmt. llukkn. I, " huilt a i.plenclicl city callerl the cit.y of victory", round t.he lfpmn.kuta hill-and t.hc rpfore sout.h of t.hc Tungahhn.dra. Dr. Ramaun.yyn. acc,'pl.s the common, but not contemporary t.m<lition of the i11ll'rve11t.iou of Viclyfirnl).ia in the foundation of the city of Vijayanagam (p. 33). It; is strange that his acute sense of eritif'ism has not detect.eel in this story one of those " myths that. have nqit. into the field of Routh Inclin.n hi11torical researeh in recent yc1m1 " (p. 2-1 ). If one impartially st.uclics :i.11 the available <loeumcmtary evidence from the l.it.h century clown to the time of the.arn.viqu l\ionarc:hs, one is bound to n.cknowleclgc that. this tradition is totally ba~ieless and uncritic.'l.i. Cf. Heras, Br.g1'.1111i 11,gs f{- Yijayrwagara II istory, pp This impartial critical spirit is what i::1 most.ly wanting in Dr. Rnmrrnayya's hook. Otherwi::1c thesl' t.wo cs~ay:> <lisclm1c much!pal'lli.ng, vast. erudition and a decided vomtion for historical flt.u<lica. H. H. hy B.u..AsAnEn, ( ~forat.hi ). AJ,u.~n,\, SnnrnANT BnA~L\NHAO RnmNIVASRAO alias P,L'<T PR..\TIKIDIII, B.A., Chief of Aun<lh. Hl30. Rs. 10. If tlierc nrc in English more thnn n dozen works dealing with and illustrating Buddhii;t Art, in Marat.hi there is an absolute hlnnk; ancl except for n couple of nrticlps on the Ajnntha and Ellorn Caves, and photos in periodicals and dailies, nnd an 1irticle or two in the l\forathi Encycloprodia, there ih not n single book that treats the question of Buddhist Art exlrn.ustively. In the Deccan, however, the Ellorn and Ajautha groups coupled with Knrln, form at once n splendid ancl highly developed collection of that nrt. The origin of Buddhist. Art is lost in obscurity n.nd ignorance, so much so that these wonders of nrt arc believed to be the work of the Panqavn::1, completed during one night or neconling

61 Ajan[ ltii m to nnot.her neconnt, completed to hcguile their time cluring their pcrio1l of exile. They arc known n.s the PaQdii-leQii C1wc~. On this background of ignorance and myth thi!i splendid volume on Aj:wtha n.ppears m1 n. luminary of t.hc first magnitu1lc. This volume begins with an introduction hy t.hc Chief of Aundh, in which I.he nut.hor tries to cvn.lnat.e such monumcnl.h ns testifying to t.lw grentncs.'i and representing the civilisat.ion of n nation. In a preface which really ih the introduction, the author \nites n note on RCulpture an1l paint.ing, as clescrihecl in ancient. Sanskrit. works and it extends over 2'1 pagps. It. is a fit.ting int.roclnction to this work, as it enables tlw reader t.o apply the knowledge dcrivecl therefrom to the monument.s of Ajanthii. The volume Jiroper is cliviclcd into 8 parts: beginning with the locntion, route, general clescript.ion n.hout t.he eonclition of the caves, t.licir carvings ancl sculpture and the frrscoc paintings; t.he latter is cliscubbecl from various points, like outline, colour, brush, anatomy, perspecth e history, women's nncl men's garments, ornaments of women nnd those of men with weapons, renlit.y, mq1rcssion and icfoal. Pnrts G, 7, 8 nrc tnkcn up by personal experiences nnd means adopted by the author to secure copies of the original. Jn nn nppencli.x, there nre quotation.q given throwing ligl1t on ihe age of these r.lwes ancl the volume ends with an exhaustive index. The volume is profusely illustrated nnd contains 80 half-tone photos printed on urt paper, nnd these by themselves form n grent feature of thir work nnd heighten its value, especially when it is remembered that tho Chief is himself a great artist. In fad the photogrnphical representation evinces accuracy nnd the author's discriminating taste. The work, a.dmimbly got Ull 11s it is, i!l a veritable addition to 1\fnrnthi litemtnre, and the l\larnt.hi rending public is grateful to the author. We wish the n.uthor had added one chapter on Buddhil!t art in relat.ion to Buddhist t.cnching, since Buddhism is the first religion to make use of art. for t.he teaching of religion. All the same, we henrt.ily cougrntulu.te the author on his having cxeoutecl the work on Ajnniha. splendidly o.nd express our thn.nks to him for having plncr.d before the public of l\iuharusirn tho grcnt.ncss of Ajn.niha with its splendid frescoes. He hns, in our opinion, renclered clistiuct service to the enuse of llucl<lh.i.sm nn<l its nrt, since with a perusal of his work one's anglo of vision towards

62 (i8 Reviews of / ii BuddhiHm uncl ith art. is sure to bp greatly modified. 'l'ho price of the book L'l quite reasonable. N. K.B. A VoYAGE TO SuRAT IN THE YEAR lg89, hy J. OvnH1To~. Edited by II. G. IlAWLI~SON, I.E.~.. Oxford Univer;;it.y Press, The history of Irnlia during thc 171.h century, particularly in its Rooio.l n.spcct, would lose a gre1lt ilt>al of it.s variety arnl not a little of it.'i interrst if it were not for tlw information sn ppli1 1l to us hy European t.rn.vellers in T111liiL as a!ho by the rccor1ls n.nd journals of the servant--, of the Emit InrlitL Company. Among the major tmvellers, who!le n.cco1mtr luwc 1111 all-inrlin Hignificance, the worlrn of Bernier, Ta.v1m1ier, Manucci n.ncl others n.re very well known, n.nd their EngliHh trn11hlat.io11h or new eclitiom1 of the Rn.me hn.vc been given to the worl1l cluring the la.ht. t.hirty )'NLrs or so by well-known schohlrh. Hut l>l flicfos thehe, we lmve n. host of otlwrh whose \Vorks have a more or less provinci1ll i11krcst, imch W. l\fondelslo, Thcvmot, Ovington, Peter Mnn<ly, Dr. Fryer, lfomilton, etc. The works of the!ilst thr1'1\ arc now rcn.clily nvail :.hlc in the lfoklnyt Society Reprint~. 'rhe first two arc yd. vny sen.rec been.use their English f'<litions wrre print"cl in the Ii th century. The same wns the c:\he with Oviugt.on's work until the publication of the book unclcr review. The Oxford University PrcsH has in recent yen.rs proclucccl n. ln.rge number of books of Inclia.n int.preht. and it. rlerpt\'l'h to be congrntuln.terl on bringing out n reprint of J. Ovington'H Voyage lo Sumi, the fmt erlition of which WILS puhlishc<l in J,onclon in HiUG. This new volume is in lm111ly form, beautifully prinkrl n.ml contains Rome excellent ilhrntmtionr. The E<litor ia Pt incipn.l H. G. Rawlinson, n. historic:ll schol1~r wl10 hn.a thoroughly familia.rihecl himhclf with a.11 the clctnils of tlw hiht.ory of the l~nglish in Western India during the 17th c1 ntm y. In a v:~lun.blc and informative Introtlnction, l\lr. RmvlinHon gives a rlct.n.ilp<l n.ceount of Ovington's life and career n.ftcr cn.rdul resen.rch in the records of the India Office and other public bodies. Ile hm1 also supplied very useful notes and an Inclex-Glos."1uy. John Ovington wn.sa.hchola.r and aelergyman who wns engn.ge1l in 1G8!) by the E. I. Company to fill n. cn..<>un.l vacancy as Clmplain

63 A l'oyage lo Surat in tli.e!/car IM9 5!) to n. ship Rn.iling for Incli<L. Ile arrived n.t Bombay where his ship was weathcrbouncl for some nionths owing to the south-west monsoon. He next procccclctl to Surat where his services were engaged n.s chaplain to the English Factory which wn.s then in need of n. minihter. Herc Ovington stayed for O\ er two years and Hpent hir time to good purpohc in collecting thoac nllltcrials about the manncra and customs of it.'i Muhammn.d1Ln, Ilrmya nnd Pa.rHi i.nlmbit:mt.s which he 1mbiu cp1cntly recorcle1l in his work after his return to Engln.ml. ThiR importn.nt account of ROllial life nncl ma1mcrh n.mong the popuhltion of Western Indi1L is both diverting and n.ccura.te. From the view-point of Anglo-Indian history Ovington's chaptern on " The Isla.1111 of Bombay" and " The English factory at l::lurnt " arc of particular interest and value. No other account exists compn.mhle wit.h his dt.'>cription of lifo in Bombay isln.ncl 240 yen.rs n.go. A 1m.<>So.ge from Principal Ra.wlinRon's Introduction will give the reader Home idea of the o.ccount. " Ovington's picture of Bombay 1\R he saw it ih a gloomy one Aungicr'H schemes of colonihation lm;i not hcen succcrscul. The sctt.lcr;; were the clr.:>g;; of humanity, clihchargecl soldiers, ' cfobauched broken trnclesmen ancl rcnegildc scmncn.' Dmnkcnncs:1, hugely clue to tlrn ' puuch-hornies,' war fearfully rife. The young women, so entertainingly described hy Ovington, who hacl hecn introduced by the Company in order to keep the Engli.-;h from alliances with Portuguese anrl natives, had proved so urnmtisfactory that mn.ny of them hail hecn deported. * * "' * The natural unhcn.lthines.'l of the islcmcl, cairned by the undraiuccl Rwam p3, 1Lcting ou constitutions uudermi llcd by chink n.n<l debauchery, made the pln.cci ' littlo better thrm a clmrnel house.' Children hardly ever fmrvived, ancl it WfLll commonly saicl that ' two mussoun.'l arc the age of a man." On the whole both stuclcnta of Indirm history as well flfl the leading public arc grateful to the publishers and to the scholarly editor for making acces.'lible this charming book of triwcl which is of :-1pecial interest to llh in the Western Pm1idency. M. S. U.

64 Ar:A8TYA IX T.\MJT. LA~DR, by '.\Ir. N. K. SIVAIL\J_\ PILLAI, B.A., 1-'.nivcrHily of M:i.drns. RP. 1. This ih an n.ttcmpt on the part. of tho author to handle the prohk m of Agastya in the South. AH IL scholar arnl historian he aptly Hays, " Where the pre-scientific recorder of facts bill t.oo 11111ch r;lrcrs on ouc human Hpiri1. rmbodiecl in a hno, as dc1;cending upon humanity from a sphere of its own, the scientific historian, grown perhaps a lit.lit~ impervious to the promptings of hrroworship, triph t.o dissect the spirit and rea<l thcrcin the rea.ctionr t.o il.h environment., t.o thc peculiar Rt.resses n.ncl pulh1 which ha.cl playccl :Lbout it and hel1w<l it on town.rd!-! its development into a full-blown p1~rso11alit.y ", anrl strictly adheres to thlli. By his posit.ive ::mn.1)1.ieal knowle1lgc he hah n.pplic1l the pruning knife t.o tlie mylhs, tmdit.ions, nnd ann.cl1ronih1ns, to cut olt the Rupcrflumrn ovcrgrowt.11 in the f xppctation of hcaut.iful llowers awl sweet fruit. I le lias also mrnmckc cl the works o( the oriental and occident.al Hcholars to gather fmfllcicnt rnnt;erial for the paper, ancl ha.<i at last irncccccll'd in arriving at the correct conclusion: "HiH trn.nhlat.ion to tlw Sout.h is a myth pure and Himple, and ca11not be nr.cepted as a fact in tl1c primitive history of the Tmnilia.1rn." (p. GI). In hif1 exodus to the Rout.h from P111icvn.ti Agn.stya went t.o Kamvim (Kolhapura), Yatnpi (Tiaclami), and finally Hettlecl clown in hir nsrama on the Pot.hiyil mount.a.in (l\ialn.y11). HiR stay n.t l\aravirn. is dcscrihecl in P11clmn.-purnl).a, Kar:tvirakha.l).4n., which fact has not hcpn touched by the author. " The testimony of Sanskrit Literature and the early Greek writers places heyonrl doubt tha.t Southern India about 100 B. C. was almost a tcrra. n.cngnita to the Northern Arya.nH" (p. 1'1), Hays the author about the DPccan. But George Biihler in hir Introduction to Apnst.amba avers. If this statement ill taken together with the above-stat.eel facts, which tencl to show that Ap11stamhiyaH were 1111d arc re Htrictecl to the south of fodia, the most probn.blc construction which c11n be put on it ih that Apa.sta111b1l declan s himself to he a Sout.h Prner." (p. XXXIV\. Ile c011clucleh; on a close exn.minat.ion of the irregular forms, in the Apm1tamlm Dh11rmasutm, "In other wonb, he musl either have livecl earlier tlmn Pal).ini or before I 1 iil).ini"s gmmmar hacl acrtuirecl qencml fame throughout India, n.11d become the stanclarcl n.uthorit.y for Smrnkrit authorr.." (p.

65 Tltc uri9in of Saii,is111 and its llisful"!j GI XLll). This Jlll'ans that the South. was colonisccl an<l Arvan. civiliimtion 1H1cl suificicntly o.clvanccd to bring out thih fa,mous Dharmasiitrn either earlier than PaQini or cont.empomneous with him. In tho.t ca.-;e, there will not be much truth in saying that the South was not known to the Arya.mi in t.he North. The Agm:1tya. trnclition in the H.u111nyn.1~a l111s been rightl.y pointed out as a suhsequent interpolation ; the Agast;ya tradition of exotlut; has been l>rovecl to be anachronistic un1l inconsistent ; the Agastya. tradition of ascribing " Sangama. Literature,'' ranging over n. wide field, from grn111mo.rnnd philolog-y to medicine, mysticism, magic and witchcraft is clismihsecl with a conclru;ive proof that the voluminous '1.Titin~s arc of a later <late ; and the,\gilstya tradition iu la.ter Tamil Lit.rmture ha'l shared the same fate. Deilication and hero-worship arc not uncommon in the South, and Agastyo. was raised to the mnk of a. divinity, and tcmpleh to him were built at Kolhapura ancl Agastisvararh in South Trn.mncore. Like Dhruva he is immortalised by the a.ssignmeut of a place in the sky as a brillinnt 8ta.r, Canopus. Fi1UL1ly, he arrives at the conclusion that, the Agast.ya tradition breaks clown completely, hecnui;c there nre iul.ernal contra.1lictio11:> in it, and Lherc is no unbroken conl.inuily of the tradition with the past. The appendices at the encl arc very inst;rnctive. K. G. K. T1rn Onwrn o:f 8An 1s::11 AND ITS llrntorty rn THB T,\MIL LAND, by K. H.. SunRAMANIAN, M.A. L'ni\ cf.iit.y of l\fatlrnh. pp. 8:!. H)2!J. The learned paper published as a supplcmeut to the 1\fadms Univcrsit.y.Touma! i1:1 a thcslli by the author which brought him the ShaHlmra. l'arvn,ti Prize of the Universit;.Y of Mn.tlrn,a. In dealing wit.h thii; 1mhject the author intrmlucch t.he all important subject of the Nagas, their legend, their supposed origin, the origin of their name and their cult.. This Sl'Clllll to he the one paper in which the import.ant 1mbjec:t of t.he Nflgm; is brought into n. s1111lll compass with as many n.ut.horiti1 1:1 as arc to be found in the litcml \lie of Southern India. But the :'.ll" aga. t.rihc 110 doubt had its origin in the ruo:;t ncglcttcd and forgot.kn mi:;t.y past.,.

66 fi2 Rcvicm~ <~( llooks even prior to the t.imc of thl' Mahabhamt mul, may hl', conkmpomn1 lj11h with the Yctlic tirnl's. We hear of t,he tribe as Ahhi in the VctlaH, aml as N agtl in the imbscttlll'llt literature a.nd at the time of Rujatarnngini. The tribe 111\H hecome mythical. The rl'hiilence of the tribe is much more so, ult.hough historians ]mvc t.ried to at.tribute ]ocu.tionh to Patala which accoriling to Home wm1 near the mouths of the lnclm1, where Alexa1ulcr the Great went, and Homctimes to the extreme Houth taking it even to Ceylon. Tlw Nag l somehow or other is mixed up with the cult of 8a.ivism. Siva. the great irrcconcilu.hlc deity ih imagined to lmve dcpc111fotl for hih ornaments on the N agas (lil.'rpenth). And the Southern lmlia SaiviB111, which bcgau with thih mixture of Goel, man a.nil Herpcnt., migmtecl to Northern lmlito, resulting in pacifying the benevolent deity, rl'clul'ing the N aga clement in Lo the Heqlcnt, aml the man has remained forgotten in the popular myth. The only remnants of this 1mmc arc to some extent found in the N agarns or just. :\.'I our aulhur Ra)'H in the N ayarh. One thing i11 very certain; this very strong mhl important tribe, whose hii;tory ih very clijlicult to tmce, Jm<l powerful ki11g<loms in cliffcrt nt po.rts of Imli1\ as testified by the names of important citieh called " Nagpur " in many parts of Iu<lia. The name is further kept up in the name of countries known as Ahichhatra and Ahikula.. Leaving this the author travels into the region of the several cults which ema.natrd from the Southern Iudi1~ Saivism mul then winds up in the prellent-day exhibitio1ib in te111plet:1, architecture, etc. The thesis is excellently written :\nd rightly deserveh the recognition of the University. V. P. V.

67 ' IN i\1el\10ria11 'I'm: lliw. 1J u. HonEJrr Z1M11m1mANr\ 8.J. :aq-~q1i:rf11 R;f Gfw.l'r<rf<tl:llf=!iifll1, 1 am:cj ~ f~1:r;:i~ <Iii~ <Iii~ <JS: 11 IL ii:i with tl1e clccpm;t sorrow Lhat \l'c lmvc t.o rncord the dc:lth of one of our mos\: distinguihltocl 111P111ben;, Hev. Fat.her Hmrn1rr ZIMMimMAN.N, Ph.D. (Berlin), S..J. Fat.her Zin111wrn1a1111 c:l111e out to India in l!jh, anti maclc Rt;. Xavier's Coll ego, Bond my, his home a-i Prufessor of Saw-1- kril;, Ifo joined our SncicLy i11 ldlf'.i and rnn'<'ll on 1.he l\ia11agi11g Co1111nittee from LDl'l t.o l!l:!!l. Since 1!1~ 1 ho wm; 011c of om Vit c-l'ro1illenl.s. lfo1 l1eallh broke clown in Hl30 and in ]\'fay last at the advice of his lloetor:; he sailull for Eurnpo. Ifc pas~ed away on Feb. 8, l\.131, at Feldkird1, Austria, at tho age of G7. A very large 1111m bor o [ stuclenb; a11cl toachcrs camo unclor the i-;pcll ofhiscnclmnting pcrsu1rnlity. A fine ::;cholar, a dcop thinker, a simple chihlliko soul, n. sincere fric11d, he wn:; loved awl rc:>pect;ecl by all "'ho c:amc in conl;:lct with him. In l!j2-1 he was offered the Fellowship or our Snciety; and now 1lrnt he i~ 110 more, we must. pnhlicly do homage to his 1110dc,~ty which pro vented him from accepting so g1 en.t. an ltonom. In life his usu:ll greeting was "Go; I lilesh you": shall we not return tho sa]ut;n.tion now, au<l pray that his soul may rest in peace?

68 PlWCEtmINGS (IF TIIE BOMBAY BHAKCII OF TIIE!\opal ~f5iatit ~ocittp. Annual Report for The year ujhler review was a very important one, being the ] 25th Anniveriiary of the Societ.y's life arnl the cclcbra.tion of the A1miversary occupier! two evenings, the ncare11t to the actual 1late of the 26th NovemlJcr that could be arrangccl on account of Hi8 Excellency's t.our in Sind. Ou t.he first 1fay, \Vednesda.y the -1th December, papers specially contributed by scholars in l ndi:1 for the occasion were read at a meeting of the Society. These have been published in Vol. VI oft.he Journal. On the secorul clay, Tlt1mlcla.y the 13th December, the principal_ gathering was held, at which His Exeellcney the Governor 11residecl. A full report of these proceedings will he found in the 12f>th Anni\ ersary Journ11l 11umlJcr (N. S. Vol. VI). His J~xccllency the Governor paid the Societ.y a special visit earlier in the year, when he unveilctl the bust of the Societ.y's first Secretary, Willi11111 Erskine, on the 13th.March. The port.mits of Sir James l\lackint.osh and Dr. Blum Daji and l'andit Bhagwaulal In<lraji h<wiug abo been set up in the lmll

69 Bombay Branclt of tl1c Royal Asiatic Society G5 outside the library, the entrance to the Society's rooms is now being ornamented in a manner worthy of its.great history aud traditions a.s well as rendered more attrnct.ive to the g~neml visitor. 'l'he portrait of Dr. Blum Daji we owe to the munificence of ::\Ir. L. S. Dabholkn.r, a member, n.ncl that of Pn.ndit Bhagwanlal Indraji to :\Ir. V. P. Vaidya, one of our Vice-Presidents, and J\Ir. T. S. Vaidya, while thn.t of Sir James J\fockintosh, o. copy of the original in the Nn.tiono.1 Portrait Gallery, London, was purchased from donn.tionh specially given by members of o.ll communities. On the l l th J\farch the Society bacle farewell to Sir Charles Fawcett, its President for 1!)28, on his retirement from the Bench of the High Court n.nd from India. The occasion w1i.s marked by an At Home given to Sir Charles and Lady Fawcett, at which about 100 membern were present, and expression wa.'i given to the very great advantage which the Society had derived from Sir Charles's occupancy of the Presidential chair cmd to the sense of its loss n.t his departure. The Society unanimously elected Shams-ul-Ulama Dr. Jivanji J. Modi, n. Vice-President and one of its oldest and most dititinguished members, to be President for the year. We regret to h:we to note the passing of two members of the Society who phlyed a lt~rge part in its lifo and schol1~rship and were well known to mn.uy members. The Re\r, Dr. Robert Scott became a member in 1882, was a member of the Managing Committee from 1893, Hou. Secretary from 1902 to 1905, Vice-PreHident from 1908, and Pm1ident in He retired from his Professorship 0 English in Wilson College nncl from India in 1918 n.nd theren ter lived mainly in Edinburgh, but kept up his connection with India, ;\nu Bombay in particular, through correspondence!lnd was very gratified at hih election n.s Fellow of the Society in His wu.!l a figure well known and very much loved and respected in Bomb1ly for over thirty years. 'l'he second name missed from our roll i!l that of Dewan Bahadur P. B. Joshi, who was n member of the Managing Committee in the yen.rs 1923 to 1925, n.ud is best remembered u.s the principal coadjutor of Sir Jumes Campbell in t.he compilation of the Bomba.y Gazetteer. In recognition of his great services to learning, a specin.l prehentn.~ion 6

70 GG Annual Re1)()rl of t.hc C;m1plwll ~fomorial Gold Medal wns made to Dewan Bahadur.Joshi in Hl23. He was active np to the last in the advancement of the cause of knowledge of Bomb:Ly and its history. A form of a.grecmcut bet ween I.he Society and the Prince of Wales Museum covering the tmnsfer of the Society's archroological, g~ological and copper-plate collections to the Museum for display has, after long discw>sion, been approved by both bodies. It ib to be regretted that for the first time in the Society's history, a member ]ms had to be sued in the courts for recovery of books not returned despite many ca.lhi and every possible private effort to arrange the matter satisfactorily. The Society won the case in the Small Causes Court and the execution of the decree is proceeding. In the coming year two more similar cases are being carried to court-a sign of the times which scarcely encourages us to allow easier terms of membership of the Society, as certain well-intentioned members of the public desire. A statement of receipts and expenditure is attached. It will be noticed that we have been able to finish the year without the anticipated deficit. Whilst this is so far satisfactory, it should be borne in mind that we have only been able to do this by utilising the balance of the Contingent ll'und. It is, therefore, necessary that efforts be again made to increase the membership, or at least maintain it at its present strength, otherwise we shall once more be faced with a deficit. Every endeavour has been made to minimise the establishment charges and these nre still being very carefully watched in order to avoid any unnecessary expenditure, but it is diilicult to see how any great reduction can be expected in this direction without affecting the efficiency of the library. Resident:- MEMDEHS. On tho roll Now Non-Iles. Hosignod 'l'mnsforrod Numhor of Oil udmia- hocomo or ccusod to the Non- Diod. Illcm hora sions. Rcsidont. l.o be ~lcm Hes. list. on hors. 1!1!: oil IO 0 470

71 Bombay Brancli of tlw Royal Asi'atib Society G7 On the roll New Hcsidcmt Resigned Transfcrrc<l Numbor of on ndmi~- become or consud lo the Dic<l. J\fomhors 1-1-2!1. Rions. Non-RcR. to be Mem- Res. list. on 1-1~10. bera. lu 20 IO 31 4 I 2 17:1 Of the 47G Resident Members, 46 arc Life-Members, and of the 174 Non-Resident Members, 11 arc Life-Members. OnITUARY. The Committee regret to record the death of the following Members:- Resident :- Mr. Narottam l\forarji Gokuldas. Prof. P. K. Tclang, M.A., LL.B. Mr. M. L. l\lehta, D.A., LL.B.,, K. M. Minocher.,, P. V. Mowjce.,, V. F. Vico.ji. Diwan Bahadur P. B. Joshi. Ca.pt. P. A. Leyden. Mr. M. S. Rutnagar. PAPERS READ AND LECTURES DELIVERED BEFORE THE SOCIETY. 23rd September A public lecture, illustrated by lantern slides, on " Indian Art and Archroology ". By Dr. Kalidas Nag. (The other papers which were read on the occasion of the celebration of the 125th Anniversary are being published in the!25th Anniversary Journal, N. S. Vol. VI.) Non-Resident:- Mr. A. S. Sa the, M.A., n.l.,, V. H. Naik, M.A., Bo.rat-Law. Issues:- LIBRARY. Old Books. Nelv Books. Looeo Poriodicale. Tot.nl. A vero.ge per working day. 25,330 13, ,469 08, The total number of iesues in the previous year was 72,515.

72 68.Anmial Re]lCn't Adrlitio-ns :- The total number of volumes aclclctl wa.s 1,203, of which 89.I: were purchasccl and 309 were prehcntcd. Books prt>sentcd to the Societ.y were received, as usual, from the Government of India, the Government of Bombay, and other Provincial Governments, as well as from the Trnstec_,s of the Parsi Punchayat Funds, othrr public bodies and inclividun.l donors. Papers and Pcriod ca1s :- A meeting of the Society, under Art. 29 of the Rules, was held on the 22nd of November for the purpose of revising the list of the papers and perioclica.ls received by the Society, and it wa.s decided- To take the following from 1930 :- (1) John O'Louclon and Outline, (2) Prabud<lha Bharata and (3) Shilpi ; and 'l'o omit the following from the same date :- (1) Times Literary Supplement (2nd copy), (2) Christian Herald, (3) Truth, (4) Bookman (2nd copy), (5) Science Progress, (6) Physical Culture (2ncl copy), (7) Hindi Punch (weekly), and (8) 'rheosophist. TnE J omt::-ial. One joint No. of the Journa.l, corniisting of numbers 1 and 2 of Volume 4, was published during the year..the following a.re the principal article8 in the number:- A. Venko.t11subbiah: Pauchatantra Studies. Nos. 2 and 3. G. N. Vaidya: Fire Arms in Ancient India. V. S. Bakhle: Su.ta.vahanas and the Contemporary Kshatrapas. Part IL Y. R Gupte: Arclucological and Historical Research. E..M. Ezekiel : Position of Woman in Habbiuical Literature. Pa.rt IL X B. "Ct.gilmr: Some Points of Contact between the Maha.- bhara.ta and the J atn.kas. Shaikh A. Ka<lir : Pernian MSS. A. Venkat~subbiah: Vedic Studies. V. S. Sukthn.nlmr : Epic Studies.

73 Bombay Bra 11ch of tlte Rr>yal.A.~d.itic So~iely 69 COIN QADINET. 94 coins were ndcled to the Society's Coin Cabinet during the year:- S01tllt India (17 Gold). Durani (1 Silver). Mughal (1i2 Silvor, 4 Copper). East India Company (5 Sih er). Sulta11s of illal1m (5 Coppor). TREASURE TaovE Corns. 787 coins were under examination and 562 were received during the year as under:- 6 Silver from the Collector of Ahmedabad. 77,,,, K asi.k. 49,,,,,, \Vest Khandesh. 49,,,, District Magistrate, Satam. 381 Copper,, Collector of Bijapore. Out of the total of 1,3 :19 coins, 503 were reported to Government ancl wit.h their approval 183 were distributed to different Institutiomi and Darbars, 20 being returned to the District Magistrate, Sati1m, to satisfy the claim of the owuer of the ln.ud where the find was discovered. 8'16 coins thus renmined with the Society at the end of the year. T11e Society's best thanks arc due to llli. G. V. Acharya, B.A., Cumtor, Archroological Section, Prince of Wales Jlnscum, Bombay, llli. R. G. Gyani, :M.A., Assistant Curator, and Mr. C. H. Siuglml, the Gallery AssiRtn.ut, for kindly assisting tho Society in cxn.miuiug the 'freasurc Trove Coins received by the Society. M:r..Achn.rya examiuccl the Non-l\fahomcdn.u coins o.ud l\'ir. Gyaui and Mr. Singhal, the Mahomme<l11u coins.

74 70 Annual Report The Bombay Branch.Abstract of Receipts and Payments Rs." p. Rs. a. p. To Blllanc~lst. fonunrv Caeh on Current Aecount Imp. Bk. of India Do. Savings Bnnk do. do... 1,200 IO 7 Do. In Office ii , To R<"ccipts. Su hmr.riplionsfu..,.icll'nt Life Members.... l,l'ioo 0 0 1,;;oo 0 0 Rl'<licl<'nt. :\lcmh<'ril ,110 II 0 Non-HMident Members.. 4,IOll , Entrnrwo Fees l,fillo 0 0 Grants: Go\ emment :J,61JO 0 0 Publicntions: Jourmil SaleB , Folklore Notes Sales Clltalogucs- Gcnrml Silla Procccd8.... ll7 0 0 In torest from in vest men ta l\[anuscripta Annul\ I II 0 Sundry &lo8- WnHt~ Paper Intorool- Oovornnumt Securities , Sllvings Bank , Roplnocrnonta I 25th Annh ersnry Fund , MnokintOHh l'ortmit lo'und Book Purchase Fund Total Rs ,022 l I Wo llllve ex11min1,'<i the llhovo nbstrnct o[ Ucccip!JI 11nd Pnymonta with tho bookb mul vouchers o[ tho Society and we hereby certify tho Hl\id 11bstmct to be true rmd correct. We hnvc nleo ascertained th11t nil t.ho securities as shown bolouging to tho Society arc hold for safe custody by tho Imperial BrLuk of India. W. BATTERSBY PARKS, A. B. AOASKAH.,.dudiJora.

75 Bombay Brancli of thtj Royal AsfruiclSociety 71 Royal Asiatic Society. J or the year ended 31st December Dv Pavmcnt. Rs. a. p. Ra. a. p. om;c- EstabliHhmcnt ,41JO 13 lo Gcncml Ch1ugo.q il4 0 0 Printing nnd Sl.ntionory , l'osl.ngo Insunmcc Electric ChnrgcR ProYidcnt Fund ContTibution.... 3, ,8:! Librnry Expt mliturc- Boolui , Indian Pcrio1licnls li 0 Foreign do ,IJ Book-hinding nnd Hcpaire , Shcl\'ing, l 'urnituro nnd Fittings , Puhlicntion At t-.Jounml l'rintfog.... l,r Cntnlogues-- llfonu.ii:ripl~ : Printing i Sceuritics pur1 hnhoo 1l11ring the year- Its. I,liOO, :J& '1 0 lnclinn Loan I.. 1, Hs. lioo, fi% Indian Loan (I ).. ;;o; 3 0 1, I 25th Annivcl'Sllry Expenses H ~lnckintosh Portrnit l 3 To Ilnlnncc on :11 st December I Cash on Current Account Imperial Dank of lnclin II Do. Suvings Bnnk do. do... 1, Do. In Office fi 6 Loan to the C!Lrupbcll.:Uemorial Fund I 2, Total U.a... 43,022 I I Invested Funds of the Society. Faco Nn.turo. vn.luo. :llnrket vnluo. H.s. Re. a. p. 3i% Govcmmont Socuritios. 33,700 22, [;~ ~ Do. 10,300 14, % Do. 1,100 1, ,100 38, ED\\TAltD PARKER, Hon. SeuellJry..A.llocntion. Rs. o.. P Roacrro Fund.. 31, Prcmchnnd Roy chand Fund 2, Catalogue Fund. 4, Sbolving Fund.. I, l, J. S. TILLEY, Hon. Find. Secrelary.

76 72 Annua.l Report. The Bombay Branch Budget. Esti RECEIPTS. TI11lanco Proccoos of Contingent Fund Ent.rnnco Fco.... Sulm. Ilc;iidont ;\iombcrs.. Non-Re.qidrnL ;\fombcrb. G~~ cmmcnt Contribution.. Salo of Joumnl ~urnbcl'l!.. Annunl Catalogues.. \Vost~ Pnper l\innuheript. Cnlnloguo8 Folkloro Kotoa.... Int~reat Suun. Rcsidl'nt. Lile 1ifomuer8 Snlo Gcncrnl C1it.nlogt1l'>l.. Rcplncomcnt h Anni l'cr811 rv Fund.. Mnckintosh l'orl1:11it..... Uook Purchnac Fund.... Deficit Ilalnnccs of other Funds.. TI111lgot Actual I Dullgct I Ila. a. p. Re. a. p. Rs. o. p. GOO 0 uoo 0 I,iliO I) 24,liOO 0 4, ,IJOO 0 1, :" l.iiio 0 38,(H;) j 7 I I,liUO 0 0 l, , , ,10( , ,GOO 0 0 :1,GOO 0 0 (I 1,004 15!l 1, fl 8 () no : l l,i04 2 II 1, i,IJ5) 0 I: I 3G,182 I 0 J,oOO 0... :JI 7 0 o:... :! , R:!U )()() ,304 II 0 Total Rs... 38, :1,!l:!:! I I 38, Ilnlanoo on 31At December 1028 Jn lurcst Crcclitctl Campbell Memorial A 8taic111cnt of.accounts for tlte Rs. n. p. 3: Tot.nl Rs

77 Bomhay Bmticli of tlte Royal Asiiu c Society Royal Asiatic Society. mates for PAY:\IENTS. Dudget l!l29. actual Dudget Dooks Subn. lndinn Periodicals., Foreign....,Journal Printing.. Rinding nnd lkpnir.i.. Printing nnrl 8111timu ry Ollicc E talili~hmcnt.. GC'ncral Chnrges.. Po~t.:1gc.... r nsunrnce.... Elcctrfr Chnrgc s.. l'rrl\ idenl li'ulul.... :i.r~~. Cntaloguo Printing Rs. n. p. i,floo Ci 0 0:-->11 0 (J 2, ,; I,2lM) 0 0 l,iioo ,iiOO 0 0 8:!;; 0 0 :1:; :! 0 0 ii>4) 0 0 2,0IH 0 0 HOll 0 0 Ile. a. p. 6, ii , ,R2i 0 0 1, I,3i , ; :~.00-! R.~. n. P ;,ono o o liuo 0 0 2,0UO 0 0 l,:! l,:!llo 0 0 1, , HOO ; l,liuo :ls,ioi () 0 38,137 4 I :rn,1:12 o o Lihrary Furniture 11111! FiLtings I :,!;;t,h :\nni\'c~nmrv Jo'unil.. ~[ackintosh l'ort..;.it.... (;o, crnmcnt. Securities ll11lnncc.. Bnlnncl'--1:!5th Annin l'sl1ry Fund BIO I 3 1, I 0 2,304 II 0 2, lio I U Totnl Its... :18,iOI ,022 I I J 38, Fund. year cmling 31st December Dlllimco oa 31st December I!l2U.. I Rs. a. p. i;;;s 12 4 Totnl Ra.. 1-li INVESTED FUNDS Face value. 6% Go\"ornrucat Loan, I 02! Rs. 4,600.

78 Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society Provident Fund. lncm-m and Expenditure Account for the year ended 31st December To EXPENDITURE. Rs. e.. p. By INCOlIE. Sundry Expenses lil 0 Member~ Subscription Amount repnid to members i 9 Society's Contribution Be.lance , Interest Total Rs... 3,61J5 3 4 Total Rs. Balance Sheet as at 31st December Members' Account. R'l. a. p. RR. a. p. De.Janco at 31st December , Add Balance for , Ce.sh e.t Bankers.. 17,4!J4 I:! IO Investments at Cost..Lua-Forfeitures transferred to Rs. 13,500 in 5% Gort. Loan Reserve Account., li,360 I IO Rcscrrc Account Tote.I Rs... li,!122 l 5 Total R.q, Rs. e.. p... l,illl l, i , Rs. a. p... 3, , ,922 l 6 ~ ~ i ""' \\To hn\ o l'lto.mincd the above accounts together with the Books and Vouchers and found same to bo corrcotly sto.ted. Wo ho.ve also ascertained that the securities relat.ing to tho inyestmcnts of tho [und arc held for safe custody by the Imperial Bo.nk of India. EDWARD PARKER, Hon. Su.relary. J. S. TILLEY, Hon. Pind. Secretary. W. BA'ITERSDY PARKS, A. B. AGASKAR, Hun. Audi/Ql'a.

79 Bcnnbay Brancl~ of lluj Royal Asiatic Society 7 5 The Annual General Meeting of the Society was held on Monday, 31st March Dr. Jiva.nji Jamshedj i Modi, President, in the Clmir. Present :-Dewan Bahadur K. l\l Jhaveri, Mr. V. P. Vaidy1i, Dr. G. S. Ghurye, Messrs. A. Farrington, IC. I-I. Vakil, C. A. 1\fochlmla, P. V. Kane, T. S. Shcjwallmr, R. A. Mehta, B. M. Tarkunde, S. V. Blmndarlmr, B. K. Wngl<', T. M. Lowji, J. C. Damvaln., Faiz B. Tyabji, V. A. Gadgil, B. A. Fernandes, S. R. Deshpande, G. V. Achary<L, C..T. Shah, H. T. Bhabha, F. W. "Willis, R. D. Cholrni, K. K. Menon, E. L. Everat.t,, J. E. ABpinwall, K.M. Ezekiel, B. R. T. Greer, ~\1. D. Alt.elrnr, A. N. Weling, A. A. A. Fyzcc, J'. H. Modi, S. V. Karandilmr, V. N. Patrnni, A. Fotiarli, Prof. A. B. Gajcndmgadlmr, Prof. C. R. Shah, Hev. Fr. I-I. Hems, Prof. R. P. Patwanlhan, Mrs. I-I. l\1. Davy, Rev. T. IHcKenzie,.Miss Sl111ntila Desai, :Major F. T. \Vright, Hon. Mr. T. E. B. I-Iotson, Miss K. H. Adcnwalln., Prof. N. K. Blmgwat, and Dr. Edward Parker. The minutes of the last Annual Genera.I meeting were read and confirmed. The Hon. Secretary read to the meeting lettera from Dr. R. Zimmermann and ~fr. T. R. N. Cama regretting their inability to attend the meeting. Mr. J. E. Aspinwall proposed and Dewan Bahadur K. M. Jlmveri seconded that the Annual Report with the statement of accounts for 1929 and the budget for 1930 be adopted. On being put to the vote, the Report, with the statement of accounts and the budget, was unanimously adopte<l. The President then deliverecl his address wherein he reviewed the work of the Society during the year under report. He saicl :- "At the encl of the Annual Meeting helcl on 25th ~larch 1926, our colleague Mr. Vakil suggested that, at the Society's Annual Meeting, ' the President of the preceding year should make a speech outlining the activities and progress during the year.' The suggelition was considered by the l\famiging Committee at its meeting on 8th April The question wa.'i postponed for the next meeting which was held on 25th June 1!)26 when the Committee left the matter to the cliscretion of the Presiclent. I stand before you to.day

80 76 Annual Re1Jort in response to the nbove suggestion nncl propm1c to so.y o. few \Vords ~-0-day. The Report, just submitted by our Secretary, has pla~ed before you n brief outline of onr work during the last year. The most outstanding event of the past ycnr was the celebration of the 125 years' Anniversary of our Society. I beg to thank our Vice Prcsiclent :\fr. Vaidya, our Secretary Dr. Pnrkcr, Mr. A.'>pinwall, and other gentlemen who helped to mnke the Anniversary function successful. The la.te Mr. IC R. Canm, one of our Vice-Presidents, presiding at the Iranian Rection meeting of our Centennry, had expressed his joy sn.ying: " No other institution in \\'cstern India ho.s rcaehecl the vcucmblc age of a hundred years." Thanks t-0 God, we can now say with greo.tcr joy. tlmt!mt year we reached the more wrwmble age of 1:2G yearii. But the value of the life of o. Society, as that of an individual, is not to be mel\surcd by the yeo.n; of its life, but by its ar.tivitier. :N"apolPon is said to have told his brot.lwr.jerome, that he woul1l rather like to sec his brother die nt an early age tlmn live a long life without activit.y. Looking to the history of the work of our Society during the past 2G years as read before us at the In.._.,t Anniversary gathering by our Secretary, we find that unclcr tho n.lt;ere<l circumstances of there 21) year11 seveml other InstitnteH, which we all welcome as our collabornt:ors, hu.vc u.risen 1mlong UH. Looking to the fact, that thus the results of the studieh of our litemry workers are divided o.mong more than one Society, I think we may su.y that we have done pretty well and t.hat we lmve well-nigh kept up our po.cc. But quantity sho11ld not he t.hc nmin criterion. Quality of paperr is the most important t11ing. To judge of that, out of curiosity, I spent this month several hours in going over our 22nd volume, which is the volume ne:xi aftrr our Centenary volume and took clown notes, giving a glimpse of our work with my observations during the period eovered hy t.hat. volume, nncl I find that we have 20 learned papers in that. volume covering various branchl's of Oriental Studies. Again, in t.his matter of comparison, we must bear in mind that latterly, we have restricted our work of research to a certain e:xient, and the nims nn<l objects of our Society since its foundation have, to some extent, changed. Sir Jam es l\inckintosh founded our Society, in response, as it were,

81 Bomba.y Brandt of tlw Royal.11f iat c Society 7 7 to a. demand from the learned world of Europe. He, in his innugnrnl speech, speaks of himself n.s " the representative of the curiosity of Europe". It was in England, before he came to Bombay, thn.t he hnd formc'd the idea of founding this Society. He 1:1pea.ks of his work iu that <lirl'ction as a "mission". From the way in which he spoke of the work of Sir William Jones in Calcut.ta in founding the Asia.tic Society of Bengal, it seems that he came with the determined object. of becoming the William Jones of Bombay. He spoke of the object of the Society's inquiries to be reducible to two classes, 1'iz., PhyHical and Mom!, using the words in a very broad sense. Among physical inquiries, he included Natural History, ~Iinernlogy, llota.ny, Meteorology a.n<l lastly Medicine. Now, we have, since scvcrnl yen.rs, left inquiries in these physical sciences t,o various other Societies o.ncl Associations. Again recently the Science Congress, held every year in the different cities of India, ch aws workers in those lines. So, our work is restricted to the second division, 11iz., moral, which word Mackintosh m1ed not in the restricted sense in which we ordinarily use it but in the sense, in which it is " contra-distinguished from physical". 1 So, looking to that fa.ct also, we have been doing fairly well. But this satisfo.ction!lhoul<l not lead us to rest upon our po.st laurels. There is one thing which should ask us to be more alert than the workers of the l!)th century. They ha.cl to work compo.rntively in a barren field, with few resources and materials at their disposal. But, now, we have more resources and ma.tcrials at our disposal to draw help from. Again, we ha.ve nowadays a proportionately larger number of workerh in various lines whose work in their!incl! comes readier t.o our help than in the case of our predecessors. Now coming to our work, during the past year, as said in our Report, we lmvc pullishl'cl together two numbers. Nos. 1 and 2 of Vol. IV of the Nt w Series, containing in all 9 learned papers. The first. paper is on' Pancha.ta.ntra Studies' by l\fr. A. VcnkatasubLiah. We Jincl that in the matter of the discussion of some nrune11 the Pahlavi version is called to help. Orient.al learning is much indebted to t.hc Pahlavi in many matters besides this. No Inclian book has gone through so many versions into foreign P. XX! of his ljiscourso, Vol l of tho '.l'ransactiona of tho Lit.erary Society, New Edition.

82 78 Annual Report hnguo.ges o.s this ljook of Panehatantra. It was Burzo (Buzorgche Mchcr), the grcnt Persian l\finister of Nomd1irwan the.just (Chosroes I, the Khosrn Kolmcl of Parsec books) who is said to have first translated it into Pahlavi and it was from his Pahlavi trn.mdation that it was rendered into Ara.hie and from Ara.hie into various languages. It. was to the court of the same Persian King Noushirwo.n that t.11c go.me of chess, di8coverecl in India, was firnt carried. It is Bil id tho t N om1h irwn.n had also got translated into Po.hla\ i by Burzo three.adhyiiyu.s of the Su.ntiparva of the Mo.habharnto.. The Pahlavi translation is lost but it is said that n. Syrian translation from Pahlavi is prescrvccl.1 The Court of Noushirwan was like an Academy, a pin.co of learning where many learned men of various c.ountrics met together. Tho story of the Seven Greek philosophers oft.ho Universit.y of Athens is well known. On being deprived of the freedom of speech in their own country, they arc said to have gone to the Court of Noushirwan of whom they spoke as "a philosopher on the thronc". 2 His no.me o.nd fa.me are said to have, at one time, charmed many great men on our side. In tho 16th century during the times of the Moguls who had come from the direction of Persia, the Gahilot Rajput princes are said to have taken pride in tracing their descent to this Persian Monarch. 3 l\fr. G. N. Vaidya, in tlw article headed "Fire Arms in Ancient India", discusses the question whether gun- Fire-Anns in 110wder and fire-arms were used in warfare in A11cien' India. ancient Indio.. Halhead, Elliot, Bohlen, Wilson and Oppert ho.ve, according to our author, said tl1at gunpowder was known among the o.noient Indians. Recently, after the discovery 1 Vienna Oriental Journal Vol. 25, p. 37 (1911). Vide l\lr. N. B. Utgiko.r's popcr on" Our Me.hiibhiirata Work" Journal of the Dhandarkar Oriental Institute, Vol. IV (1922-3), Part 2, p " Essa.ye on the Latin Orient" by Dr. W. Miller, p. 31. It ie said of these philosophers that they had become misproud in their country. "They regarded themselves as demi-gode and the rest of mankind as donkeys." 1 (a) JASB. New Series Vol. XV, No. 1. (b) Tod's Rajaatho.n "Routledge'e Ed. Vol. J, pp (c) Jarret's Ain-i Akbari II, p '1.'hie view of the descent of the Rajputs from Noushirwan is now attempted to be disproved by Mr. R R. Hilder in the Indian Antiquary of September 1027, p. 160.

83 Bombay Branch of the Royal Asfiat ic Sodety 79 of Ko.u~ilya.'!I Arthn.siistra (written in a.bout :tw B.C.) by Dr. Shamn. Shastri, to whom our Society has awarded its Campbell medal for his discovery, that work also is brought into use to support the above view. Our author says that fire-arms were used by the nncients but these fire-arms were nothing like our modern guns in which gunpowder is used for explosion, but they were eome instruments from which arrows with burning rags or something like these were thrown townrds the enemieh. After critically examining the whole question from various pointa of view, our author concludes that gunpowder 'vns not. known to the ancient Hindus. Int.his connection I beg to dro.w the attention of our members to an article in the Ea.st and West of September 1919 on "The Ancient Indin.n Navy" by Mr. S. K. Swami. The o.uthor so.ya that the art of building ships existed in India from ancient times and Indians went to Germany and even to England about 800 years before Allred the Great. Thie author o.lso says that in the 4th century A. C. they mo.nufo.ctured Gunpowder here and ueed guns. Indio.ns had guns in the time of Alexander the Grent. The ships of those times called baggla or the budyerow were 7 1 feet long, 25 feet broad and U! feet deep. Their tonnage was 150 tons. Mr. V. S. Bakhle's paper on the" Satavahanas and the contemporary Ksa.trapas" suggests, here and there, some points of comparison with the institutions of ancient Iran. Mr. Bakhle begins his paper by saying : " The system of governing during the period wo.s certainly mono.rohical" (p. 39). That wae the case in ancient Iran also. It seeme that, in the early period of all Aryan or Indo-Germnnic States, thnt wns the cnse. But their monarchy was " limited monarchy". If there was any despotism, that was of Inter growth. In the times of what we may call the pre-historic history of Iran, i.e., the history of times anterior t-0 that of which the history is determined by chronology, there was limited monarchy. Loyalty to the ruling monarch was the ruling characteristic, but the loyalty was not blind loyalty. As E.aid by Mr. Bakhle, though there wns no " orgnnised institution of state to voice forth the people's view", (ibid) still, the people " had a voice in the administration and enjoyed loco.i self-government". (ibid). I think that, that wo.s true of mo.ny branches of the o.i;icient

84 so.a:nn_ual Report A.ITnn or ludo-germanic strnk That was true of Iran a1ul that w~s true of n.noient Gernmny and even of 11.ncient Engl11.nd. In this connection I will draw t.hc attention o[ mcmberfl to my paper on "The Ancient. Germans. Their History, Const.itution, Religion, Manners and Customs", rend before the Anthropological Society of Bomlmy.1 In the case of ancient Germany, we not only see something like t.hc " Nigamasabhii or the Tomnhip Corporation" (ibid), mentioned in the K~nharata inscription at Nn.sik, but parallels of the customs of Snti, 2 prohibition of widow marriage, 1uid of intcr-mnrriage 11s prevalent in India. Of the Iuclinn administru tive divisions, referred to Ly Mr. Bakhlc, viz., De9n or R.ii~tra at the head, followed by Vi~11ya, Aharo. aml P11thn or Pn.thaka, we have a parallel in ancient Iran in its division of nmllnn., viya, zn.ntu and clangbu, the administrative heads of which were spoken of as mnanopaiti, vinmiti, zantu-paiti ond danghu-paiti. The wives of these administrators n.iro held some status in Society and were spoken of with respect as nmano-pathni, viy-pathni, zantu-patbni and clanghupathni. Mr. Bnkhlc speaks of ~laj].q.ala as being used later on, for Desn or R.a~tra. We see this in the cosc of the town of Nnosari, the head11uarters of the Parsec priesthood, which is spoken of in later documents as Nag mandu.i. Among the officers of the Court, there was the Lekhaka, whom M. Scnart and others took to be, in the literal sense of the word, a mere writer, but ~Ir. Bak.hie to.kes ns!'a high ministerial officer" analogous to our modern " Secretary to Government. ". I think he is right., because we find from the Shiihniimeh, that a navisu.ndeh, which, like lekhaka, means n writer, held a high poi!t in the royal courts of ancient Iran. Among the military officers, the Sena-pati, referred to in the paper, corresponds to the Scpah-bud of the Iranians. On the subject of the four varnus, we read in the paper : " \Vhatever the condition of the four varj].as in ancient. times, however titriet the restrictions about eonnubium and comentality 1 Journal of U.10 Ant.hropologicnl Society of Dombu.y, Vol X., pp l'ide my Anthropological Papers Part II, pp J' ic/e my Pn per on "Tho Antiquity of the Custom of Sn ti", Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay, Vol. XIII, pp. -U2-24. J'irle my Anthropolob".ieal Papers, Pe.rt IV, pp. loij-21.

85 Boml)(tlJ Branch of tho Roy<i.l Asia1~ c Socie/.y 81 during the early po.rt, at any rn.lc, of t.hc ppriotl we arc com;idcring there was umloubtcdly considerable n.rnn.lgumation between them during the regime of the foreign K.\Jatrnpas ". (p. '.HI.) These foreign k~atmpas or satmps were from the direction of Iran and so, possibly, they helped or encouraged the amalgamation. I will here draw the nttcntion of members, interested in the question, to my paper " "\Vliet.her there was Caste in Iran" 1. In ancient lrnn, there wus something like o. caste system, only as fo.r as the different profemiious or trades were concerned, but not in the matter o{ intcrdining or intcrmurriage. So, tho foreign K~atrnpn.s from the direction of Iran, perhaps, encouraged hero what they had in their own country. Mr. Y. R. Gupte's po.per on "Archroologicnl and Historical Research. Its scope in the So.tarn District" is interesting from several points o{ view. Mr. Gupte very properly says, that' Arohmology has of h~tc attracted the learned world". Thanks to the energy of Sir John :Marshall, whose no.mo with that of Lord Curzon who procnrerl for us a John i\'iurslrnll, will be long remembered. Wo reap excellent harvests in the fields cultivated by the Science of Arohroology. This pn.per crc1ites, among general reo.ders, a tl\ste for u.rohroology, which Mr. Gnptc very properly explains in its very broad sense of " the science of untiquitiea or a. treatise on n.ncicnt usa.ges, customs, architecture n.ud flo forth" (p. 82.) So one can be n. little of an n.rchroologist without holding or directing a spade for excavations. In this connection I beg to draw the attention of members to a great field for n.rchroological work in the Salsctte which is almost next door to us. "\Yhilc having o. glimpse into the work of our Society during the lo.st 25 ycurs, looking into the first volume of that period (Vol. XXII), I read in the Annuo.l Report of 1905, thl\t our Society had secured " three Hindu figures of black stone of about tho 9t.h century A.D. from Pnrjll.pur, Salsette ". Wo know, t.hat before the rise and growth of the city of Bombn.y, Salsette was the scat of commercial and ruling act.ivity an<l Parjii.pur was a seat of Government. One of our former Honorary Secretaries, the 111.tc Mr. S. M. Edwardes, who wn.s well known here for 1 Journal of tho Anthropological Societ.y of Hombny, VoL XIII, B. pp Vide my Anthropological Papers; ParL IV, pp (}

86 82 Annual RcpMl his liternry activity, was the discoverer at. Parjiipur o[ some antiquities which he himself hail exr.:watcd 1 I remember wit.11 pleasure my meeting him, one morning, at Antlheri and then at his suggestion, visiting this place of his excavations. One o[ our former mcmhcre, l\lr. Carter, possessing t.lic same literary and nnt.iquarian tastes as l\fr. Edwardca, proposed n.t one time that " a fidcl club " mny be foundeil in Bombn.y for mq>loring Snlsette from nn n.rchroologieal point o[ view, und I remember his cn.lling u. meeting in one of our rooms for the purpose. The movement bore no fruit but J beg to recommend t;lrnt some enthusin.stic young members of our Society mny ngrlin move in the nmtter and found "a Field Uluh" for amateur explorations in the Sa.lsett.e. 'l'he memhen; may clivicle t.hemsclvei; into \ll groups arnl meeting once a week or for1 nighf;, explore diltenmt parts of Salsette from an n.ntiquarian point o[ view. Salset.tc i11 rich in the matt.er of such antiquities. I tuke this opportunity to tell you, that recently, nn old Hindu temple hos been txe1wntcd by the Archreological Department about the di11tance of 1L mile from the Parjapur excavations of :\Ir. Edwardes. It gives me great pleasure to aa.y, that I had the good fort.unc to discover the plot and draw the attention of 8ir John l\fnrnhall to it. During my morning walks when I occiu;ionally lived at Andhcri for 11ome months now anrl then, I passed acrorn n certain plot on the hanks of a large tank (taliio), the surroullllingh of which made nw t.hink t.hat the place must be the site of HOlllll oh! building. gvcry t.ime I pa ssecl by t.}111.t spot., the same thought occurred to me, but I hesitated to write\ taking it that, perhaps, l mn.y he wrong. One morning, perhaps it was the psychological moment., when I made up my mind to write. I wrote n.n<l I succeeded. llut my suggestion took some time to fructify. Sir John l\larnlrnll kimlly wrote t.o t.11e Superintendent. of Archroology, \\rest.em India at Poona, who referred the matter to the Collect.or o[ 'l'lmna. I rcmembrr goin~ one morning from Bombay to meet l\lr. Carter, the then Collect.or of the district, t-0 point out. t.hc spot to him. The Superinkmlent of Archreology kindly looked into the matter, excavated nud dug out the remains of o.n old Hindu temple of o.bout the 10th or l~t h century. When, t.hereafter, I visited the pince u bout two yeo.rs ago, I was extremely glad 1 l'ide tho Ea'IL a.nd Weat of 1005,

87 Bombay Brancli r!f tltc Royal 11lsiatio Society 83 to llnd there the usual board, sn.ying thn.t I.he plot; Wtt::I nnrlcr the protect:ion of t.he :l\fonument Act. As a result, o( some of my corrcspomlence of archroological intprcst.s with the Archrcological Dcpa.rt. mcut,, I had the pleasure of ha\'ing the honour of being nominat:cd its Corrcspornling rncm bcr ; and so, I felt grn.tifictl, thn.t by my discovery of the spot, I hn.11, in my own humble way, justified my above nomin::d,ion 1. l)rof. Ezekiel's scco11<l paper on " the posit.ion of women in Rabbinical Literature" is a well-authenticn.tc1l imper, wherein the author supports l1is view of t.ltc position of women, as learnt from Hebrew books, by the stat.cmcnts of we II-known writers. The imper ih also int.ercst.ing from a Parsec point of vipw. 1 Afl.er writing t.hc above, l received only yesterday 11 le\.tcr, elated 2!JU1 ~larch, from Mr. G. B. Chumlrn, Superintemlent of Lhe Arch::cologicul Survey, \VcHtern Circle, in roply to mine of tho 28t.11 inhtnnt, wherein ho writes:-" 'l'o mo ii 11ppea.r'f1 tho tcmplo was erectocl lmtweon tho 10th and 12th Century,\, D. but Uw two rock-cut cisterns closo hy arll of much curlier elate". l\lr. Chandra kindly senc!h me also n copy of his reporl which ia in press which he Sll._\"B, will he published very shor\.ly. Hoping thut tho Report may interest some of you who may visit tho place, I give it here :- (Ext.met from the conserni.tion portion of the Anmml Progress Report of the \Vcslern Circle for t.lie ycnr l!l27-28) :- ".At t.hc suggestion of Dr. J. L :\fodi of Bombay, 11 silo of 11n 1meient ruined temple in 11. gu.rrlen nl Mulgnon, situu.lc1l :1.I; 11 distance of nboul ;J milci! from Andhcri Stal.ion on Lhc B. B. & C. I. Itailwny in tho Bombay Sulmrban ])ist.rict, was cxnmincd dcpnrtmcntully. The temple was hopele<isly dnmaged probably by tho Portuguese ns stones bl'ionging to Uw monument. are still to be seen in the masonry of the grave11 l'xist.ing in Lhe garden. Not.11ing more remains of t.11c temple except its wide basement on uneven rock constructccl of long and thick Hlahs of slones, joined Logel.her without. morto.r by clamps and dowel!<. On I.his bnhement clear ent lines c1u1 be tro.eetl giving an iclca. of U1e extent of I.he nmsonry of tho plinth. Three i;nmll relic-caskclr of copper wcro recoverctl from tho three of tho four small hollows in Llw lmhc blocks of the four corner pillnrs of tho main shrine or garhhngrilm. These casket<! contnin nothing hut earth. lt is just. possihle that the contents were taken purposely from a samadlrr'. of 11 ll indu religious teacher. ThuH, it may ho that the monument is R A1unmlhi-tcmplc huilt in memory of one whoso dead body war jn esumn bly eromated on the eabtorn lmnk of o. big lm1k standing closo to U10 west-side o{ tho Hindu t.cmple. Such relic caskets from tho g11.rhhogrih11 o{ 11 Hindu temple are unique o.s no such instnnccjb hnvc been hitherto nolicod."

88 8J Aunual Rqwrl AH TP~arrlH mnrria.~l'r will1 fon ignern, l'rof. I ~zpkiel says: "Though intermarriage wit.h 1 lw g"111.ik H wm~ forbicltlcn to the Jews, t.jw Hebrew military clas.'1 were allowed lo nmrry f orcign women cn.pturccl in clirt.ant WIHH." (p. 95.) Many of the curtoms and manners oft.lie Hebrews were similar to those of tlw n.ncient Iranians with whom t.liey Imel come into close contact. 'l'he n.bove is an i1111t.iu1ee of tlmt kind. 'l'he ancient Iranians nlso ns n. rule did not liko intl'rmo.rrin.ges with forcig11ers, hut they made exceptions in aomo co.sch and permitted Irn.11inm1 marrying foreign wives. For exu.mple C!tosrocs I embodies a condit;ion in his trcn.ty with tho Ambi; of Y cmen, after his corhjucst of that pnrt of Arn.bin., that if Irn.niaus married Arab women that will be permitted but the mo.rringe of Irn.ninn women wit.h Ara.bs will not be tolern.ted 1 Mo.s'ftdi 2 also refers to n similar custom. In the mutter of the closer cont.act of t.hc Hebrews with the ancient Iro.ninne, I may draw the attention of members to an interesting paper by Prof. Uelwtsek in one of our former Journals, entitled "Contact' of the J~s with the.as.qyrinns, Babylonians, nnd Pcrsinrn, from the Division of the HPhrew Monarchy into two kinglloms (ll.c. 9i5) till the Entrance of Alexander t.he Great into J erusalt m (B.C. 333) nnd a view of Jewish Ci,rilization". 4 Prnf. Ezekiel says of t.lie Kcthubeh or l\fo.rrin.go-deeds tho.t they were intended " to so.fogunrd the int.crests of tho bride" and a.dd!l that " it was a.{ter the return of the Jews from Bn.hylon that the ll1~hbis considered tho necessity of &ecuring the future of the girls". (page 104.) Thie then seemed to be tho rehult of the close contnct of tho Hebrews wit.ii the Iro.niaua at Bo.bylon during their captivity t.hcre. 'l'he lmninn customs, us a rulo, looked to tho l'ide my paper on the "Physical Chnmctor of tho Arnbs". (Journa.l of tho Anthropological Society of Hombn.y, Vol. XI, No. 7, pp. 72!-768. J!ide my Anthropological Pnpere, Purt Ill, pp ) Mni;omli, Tracl Ila.rbior do l\loynnnl, Vol. 1, p Journal of tho B. B. Hoyal Asiatic Society, Vol. Xll, pp. 21!J-9!l. For a brit f Summory nnd R-0viow of t.hu.t paper, seo my "Glimpao into tho work of tho ll. ll. Roynl Aeintic Soeioty during tho lllbt 100 ycnrs from a. Pnreco point of view" in my eopnrato puhlico.tion pp Vide my Pa.por "Glimpeo into tho Work of tho ll. B. Royal Asiatic Sooicty during tho Jeet 100 yenre from a. Pnraeo point of viow" op. cit. (pp of tho eopnrate print).

89 Bombay Bmnch of tl10 Royal A~iatic Society 85 interests of the bride. These marriage deeds were something like our modern marriage-trusts. This part of the pa.per will, I think, he found interesting for our modern ]awyers in their study oi the present marriage customs. Prof. I~zel.iel refers to the ancient Assyri1ms as having somo mn.rri1\ge customs similar to those of the Hebrows. I think some parallels may be found with those of the ancient Iranians. The Parsecs hnve an o]d Pahlavi book named "MacligA.n-i-Hnzar Dadistlin ". I had the pleasure of publi.illing it in facsimile with an Introduction in 1901, under tho auspices of tho Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Translation Fund in tho hands of the 'fnmtees of the Punchayet. Tho TrUBtees aro now publishing o. tramdation of this treatise by Mr. Sohrab J. Bulse.ra. This translation will be of use to Prof. Ezekiel for some parallels and I think that Mr. Bu.ISllra. will o.lso bo benefited by closrly studying Prof. Ezekiel's paper l'.n<l the original texts referred to. WI.tat Prof. Ezekiel says about a minimwn sum of 200 denati i having boon fi...xod for a virgin reminds one of the modern Ashirwll.4 or Blessing ceremony of marriage among the Parsecs, the senior oiliciating priest makes o. mention of 2000 dinars of pure white silver and two in dirams of red gold of Nishaporo (coinage) (do hazii.r cli.nii.r elm o safid avizak va do deherum-i zari-sorkh i Shehr-i Nishii.puri). I think this mention is a relic of an old Ircmin.u custom, whereby the bride-groom fixecl for the bride a certain payment-en.ii it a dowry or marriage settlement-and the above sum was either tho minimum or the ma.ximmn, more likely the lu.ttcr. Prof. Ezekiel snys thnt " Polygamy wns looked upon with clisfr.vour by the prophets and the scribes". But, in spite of that, it prevailed to some extent, and he, with the authority of Whewoll says that "polygamy among the Jews, ceased after the return from t.he Babylonian exile" (p. 108). This mo.y be pointed a,san i.nato.noe of t.he influence of Iranians at Babylon. The Iro.nio.ua of the AvestR t.imes though there mn.y, hero o.nd there, be cases of more than one " ifo under cxeeptimml cases, were, ar a rule, monogamous. Ago.in, in disapproving cclibn.cy and in believing sterility ns n curse, the I-lehrews Leid the same view as the Iranians.

90 86 Amwal Rc1wrt Prof. Utgikar,. whose deep interest in the st.ucly of the Mahabharata, we know well, in his nrt.iclc, entitled "Some point.:i o[ contact between the l\'fahabharnt.n.aml t.he Jatalms'' Mys that "some of the stories contained in the ~fahahhamta luwe been fonud to occur in some other works". (p. ll6.) He then irn1tanccs t.hc.tatalms as one of such workr. I mn.y say that. the Shahnameh of Firclnusi is another o[ such works. I remember t.hc lnte Prof. Darmcstcter, reucling, in this very room in 18H7, po.per cnt.it.h!d "The striking similo.rit.y between the cpi1mj.e in t.he ~fahabhar:lta known n.s t.hc renunciation of Yudhist.him, king of Delhi n.ml lhc rcmunciation of Kaikhosro in the Shah-nanwh," 1 and I also rcnwmbcr the late lnmcntc1l Mr. Kashinath Trimbak Tclnng, cnt.ering, nt the C'nd of t.hc po.per, " a mild cuvcat" against t.hc conc111sion come to by the Professor, that. the Indian story " was borrowc1l from Persian, either through litcrnry comiection or from ohl tmdition ". Prof. Darmcstet.cr also att.c'rnpt('([ to 11how tlrn.t. tho Persian legend was also borrowed to the laat. dctnil by the lfrbrew writer of the Scphcr Haynshar, n legc'mlnry history of the.jewish people, written in t.hc MidclleAgm1, and applied to Patriarch l~noch." 'fhe mild caveat o[ Mr. Tclo.ug drew from the pen of Prof. DarmP:. tctcr, on his return t.o Paris, 11. paper named " Point.!! de Cont.a.r.t cntrc le Mahiihhamta ct. le Shah-uamnh ". 2 Paper!! hy :Nfal1onwdn.n scholo.rs n.rc very rare in our.tonrnal. They u.re very few and far between on our siclc. So, we n.rc ghi.11 to find Prof. Surfmz contributing a paper in our.journal on " Persian Mss. belonging to the Government Collection, now dcpo!litwl in t.hc library of the Univl'rsit.y of Bombay". 'l'hc l\fss. trcn.tcd in t.hc paper were collcctccl by Prof. Surfraz, who promisc's us a clescript i\ e catalogue. Some of the l\lss. llrc', lie :mys, very mrc. One of such i:> hie Ms. No. 2 A iliii.r wa affimii:r ()WI ' ; ~.!I ) 1.c. " Trees and fruits" which describes a comet that appeared in our country in 126'! A.C. In thir connection, I will refer members, int:creslpd in the subject., lo my paper ent.itlcd " An Account. of the Comets m; given by l\fohomcdan Historians and as contained in the boolrn of I.Tour. D.D.H.A.S. Vol. XVII, Abstrnot or Procccclings, pp. 11-IV. (J'ide my Gliw11sc into tho Works of tho ll.il.r.a.s. op. cit. pp ) Joui:inl Asintique Huitiemwe Serie. Tome X, pp

91 Bm11ba.y Brcmcl1 off lie Royal Asiat~~ Society 87 the Pishinigii.ns or t.lic Ancient Persians rcfcrrml to by Abu Fo.zl ". 1 The next t.wo papers" Vedic Studim1" by l\fr. A. Venlmto.subbiah and "Epic Studies" by Dr. V. S. Sukt.ho.nlrnr 11.rc scholarly papers on strictly philological Sanskrit subjects on which I am not in 11. position to say much. They <lo e1 eclit to our Journal from a st.rictly scient.ilic point of view. Dr. Sukthanlrnr's paper is a polite reply to two <listi11guishe1l scholars who luwe sugge~tcd certain n.men<ll\tiorn1 to his readings of ct-rtain words in the text of the l\fahablarata which he edits. Wl1ile finishing my humble survey of the litemry work, done during the past year and as embodied in our.tournn.i, I beg to convey to all the len.mc1l writern, the thanks o[ the Society for kindly enriching the.touma) of the Society by t.he rcsult.s of their studies. I also t.hank the scholius who have kindly taken t.hc trouble of reviewing some publicat.ions sent to them for the purpose hy our E1litor; I conclude by wishing all prosperity and useful work to the Society during the next pcriorl of 25 years. l\foy God grant that you all live long, healthy n.nrl llf'art.y, to hear the words of encouragement and progress from the t.hl n President, the Pm1idcnt of the year Mr. K. H. Vakil, with the permishion o( the meeting, thanked Dr. Modi for his leo.rnecl review o{ the Society'H activities, and congratul:\tecl him on the healthy precedent he had Rct. The meeting thereafter proceeded to elect the Committee of Management for Hl ! the following were duly elected :- President : Dr. Jivonji Jamshedji Modi. Vicc-Ptesidcnls: Mr. V. P. Vaidya. Mr. P. V. Kane. 1\lr. s. v. m:andarkar. 1 Hon. ~fr.. T. KB. Hot.son, 1.c.s. 1 Journnl of tho U. Il. Roynl Asiatio Society Vol. XXIII pp. 147 et aeq. J'ide my Asiatic Papers, Part Ill, pp

92 88 Annual Report Memlers: 1. Dewn.n Bnhn.clnr K. l\l 8. Prof. A. B. Gn.jendrn- Jhaveri. gn.dkn.r. 2. Mr. A. A. A. Fyzee. 9. Mr. ~r. D. Alt.ekar. 3. Mr.. T. E. Aflpinwall. 10. Rev. Fr. H. Hero.s. 11. Prof. H. D. Velo.nknr. 4. Prof. P. A. Waclia. 12. Prof. K M. Ezekiel. 5. Mr. G. V. Aohn.t-ya. 13. l\fr. J. S. Tilley. G. Dr. G. S. Ghuryc. 14. Prof. K. T. Shn.h. 7. Mr. n. K. Wagle. 15. Mr. R 0. Gofiln. l\ir. Aspinwall suggested tho.t n provision should be mad<' in the Rules for inviting nominntions from members to the Mo.nn.ging Commit.tl'e nnd that these nomino.tions should be placed on t.be board in the lihro.ry at least a week before the Annual Meeting. Prof. Cfajendraga.dkar proposed tho.t a hearty vote of tho.nks he given to the Auditors, Mei''>rs. A. B. Agasko.r and W. Bo.ttereby Parks, for ho.ving assisted the Society hy auditing its o.ccounts of 1929, and tho.t they be request.ed kindly to extend their o.ssietance during the current yco.r. Mr. V. P. Vaidya. seconded the proposition which was carried unanimously. Mr. Vaidya propof>ccl a.ml 1Ylr. Bhandar1mr secondecl that tl10 following recommendation of the Managing Committee be o.cceptcd :- " Thn.t Mr. J. E. So.kl.atwo.ln be granted an exemption from payment of t.he Entmnce Fee". Carried. 'l'hc meeting conelncled with a cordial vote of thanks to the Cho.ir which was carried with applause.

93 LIST OF MEl\ffiERS OF TUE BOMBAY BRANCH OF TUE!\opal ~static :i>ocictp. t Rc11idcnt Life lfomhcrs. Non-Rcsidc-nt Members. t Non-Rc..!!idcnt Life ~fombcrs. Patron. H. E. Sir FRF.DERICK SYKES, P.C., a.c.i.e., G.B.E., K.C.D., C.M.G., Governor of Dombn.y. Members. fl025 AnnuL RAHMAN ~lorrnr&n YusuF, Ne.vhn. House, Queen's Ron.d, Dombay Annn.NKAU, S. Y., High Court V11kil, Topi\'nlo. l\lansion, San dhurat Road, llomlj11.y Anu N. FAT!tl!ALLY, Hl, Bo.nk Street, Dombn.y AcnARYA, G. V., D.A., Prince of \Vales l\111se11m, Ilomhny 1. t192a ADENWAJ,A, KAmuus11noo R., Cumbnl11' Hill, Bombn.y O. t1023 ADENWJ\.LLA, MiBB S&TIRA K., 33, Pedder H.oncl, llombn.y O AnllIKAnr, J. M., Dr. Kotbn.ri's Dispensary, Hill ltoml, llo.nclrn.. Hl20 ADVANI, P. B., M.Sc., Director of InduHtrice, Uomhn.y AoA KHAN, H. H. Sir, G.C.S.I.,?ilo.rinn. ~lansions, Bomhn.y 7. tl014 AGABKAn, ANANDRAO B., D.A., LL.B., 46F, Wnr<len Hd., Bombay ArYAn, K. S., Bombay House, Bruce Street, Dombo.y 1. 1{)()() ALLUM, E. F., Empire or India Life Assurance Co., Bombay l ALTEltAn, MADU.AV D., M.A., Loka.m11nye. Nims, Ville Parle Ar.TON, W. J. cl'., lmpcrio.1 Bank of Persia., Bombay AMBALAL SARADHAI, The Ret.rcat, Shnhiho.g, Ahmednhn.d. ti028 AMY B. H.J. HusTOl!.lT, Miss, 8, Colaba ltoa<l, Uou1bny ANnRRW, L.B., Port 'l'rust, llorubo.y.

94 no List of Jl/cmbcrs Hll!l 18!12 l!l21 1!)19 11)()() 1!121 Hl2!J Hl23 lll27 APTF., "'.nu~ S., Peerbhoy M11nsio11, lhurst Jfo11<l, Ilomlmy 4. A1 \"AUllTIAU, n. N. Amb'R Bungnlow, Khetwn.<li 12th Ln.ne, Bombn.y 4. Ann:, ~r. Il., :M.A., Roynl Inslilulc of Science, Ilombn.y 1. Asn)IK.\ll, W. K., St.o.nd1ud Oil Co., D1il111rd Rand, Ilomlmy I. Alll'INW.\LL, J. E., Elphinstone Circle, Bomlmy I. ATA llt1sajn, Il.A., E<lueat.ionlll lnapcclor, llomhn.y. A'rKJNS, H. n., Wilkin.~on, Heywood mid Clllrk, Sprott Roll<l, llnmljl\y. IlAKElt, A. H., W. H. Bmcly & Co., Churchg11te Street, Romhn.y 1. B.urnn, 'l'hc Hon. Mr. J11Htire W. T. W., I.C.S., High Court, Ilombn.y. ]!)20 BARiii.i!, S. n.., LL.Il., C1od1w11rinivn.s, D11mn.r L11ne, Ilombn.y 7. 1!127 BAHlll.E, V. S., M.A., LL. Il., 27!1, Yndogopal Peth, Sntn.m City. 1!J02 RH.MIAHEn PAN'L' PnATDlll>lll, Shrinmnt., Aumlh, Sn.tn.m DiRt.rict BAr.HmsnNA, Dr., M.A., Ph.D., J~n.jumm College, Kollmpnr. tl89.t BA!.IOW!llSA v1~ayak 'VAst:1mv, Il.A., 4GF, 'Wnrdrn llolld, B'bn.y Cl. ]!)07 BAI.I., H.P., C /o B. Il. & C. I. Ry.. Cl111rchga.tc, llomb11y 1. l!l2!l IlAI.U:IC, R C., C'?.echoloYnk C'onsulo.te, Rampart Row, Rombny IlAL.'IF.1'AR, Dr. N. R. lf.b. Il.K, 4-1, GnnulC\ i Road, Bombay 7. l!l25 BANAJI, SonAn.T., S:i.ndhurst Bldg., Mere\\'enther Hond, Bombay I. tl917 B.\Nst.:01~, Prince1<..q SAVJTRIBAI S.uu:n, Tukogunj, Indore. l!l23 IlAl'ASOLA, R. N., l\lubnrokh Mnnzil, Apollo Street, Bomhny I IlA!ffJWAU, c. n., Juhu Lnne, An<lhcri. l!l24 BA111tf:11, A. W., J..ongmn.nR Green & Co., G3, Nicol ltd., Bomb11y I. Hll!I BA1mo~, W. G., Excise DcpnrLmcnt, C1111Uc Rock. "'l!l21i IlAnn:, Dr. H.AOllUNATll A., L.RC.P. &. K, Tamporo, 1'hn.nn Dh1t. l!l2!j BAT! 1n-, C., Chnrtercd Bnnk Ilnilding, Bombay 1. 1!126 IlATC.lVAl.A, n.. n.. C/o The Bn.nk of India, Bombay 1. "'1030 J!)2!l IlA'rl,IWAI.A, Sm.I S., Kikabhoy Ilungnlow, Nnsik Ron.cl. IlAVllF.KAn, H. S., l.c.s., (Bombay). l!l30 BEAU.MONT, The Hon. JueLico Sir John, Bombny I. tl!llg B1m11, l\fre. N. E., Hohmb i\ln.nsion, l\t1u-.dmn Road, Ilombny I Ilm.oA~IVAr.A, N. H.," Bombn.y Chronicle," Bomhay 1. tj!l15 IlEI.VAJ.KAll, Dr. Snml'.4.D KnumNA, :ll.a., Ph.D., Bhnmlmrdn, Poona.. 1!128 IlR~n:..'I, Dr. 0., CzcchoslO\ nk C'on1ml11tl', 28, Rnmpn.rt l~w. Il"bo.y ]. l!l30 Il1m~Anll, A. JI., Grenves Cotton & Co., ForbeR Strc1,t, Ilomlmy ] IlE\'1~, Miss K., Queen llnry High School, llomhn.y IlnADllA, H. J., :ll.a., llount Pleasant Road, Ilombny 6. Hl30 IlllAOAT,.T. G., Advocate, High Court, Bombay. Hl22 Il11AO~\"AT, Prof. N. K., ll.a., St. Xu.vier's College, Ilombny I.

95 Bomlxiy Bmncli of the Royal Asialic Society 91 l!l30 BllAGWAT, l'. :M., ll.a., LL. ll., l\fouj Printing Prell:!, Khn.tao Wadi, Bombo.y BllANllARTCAn, Pl'of. S.S., B.A., Elpilinslono College, Dombn.y I. 1!ll8 IlUANDARKAR, SmvnAM V., B.A., LL.Il., Tn.ln Illocke, Bm1dm. rn10 BnANDARKAR, V. G., LL.B., Bho.mbunfa, Poono.. tl!ll2 IluAnUf'UA, F. F.., M.A., LL.D., C1111n.dn. Ilhlg., Fort-, Bomb11y I. tl!l!ll RnAUUOllA, 1\1. ll., Empiro of India, Lifo Oflicc, I~ol'I;, Homlmy. l!l2!) IlnAT, A. R., ll. Com., 8ar1lar Grilm, C.'\rnn.c H.011<1, Domlmy. HJ28 IlnATK, Prineip11l CL C., 111.A., :.\luhn.cl, Coln.Lo. Dist. lll28 Il11ATIA,?lfajor 8on.-1.N LAL, l.111.s., Mt. Pleu1mnt Roo.d, Ilombn.y 0. I!J20 BnAVF., S111rnu1 G., LL.B., \Vn.i, Satnra District. l!l20 BtL!ltolllA, B. A., Butlh nln rmd Knrani, Duin] Street, Bombay I. I!J23 Ilu.utolllA, ~I. D., P. 0. Box IG7, Rn.ngoon. 1!122 Bon As, :\L\HAll.:O It., l\1.a., LL. B., 46, Khotnchi Wu1li, Bomh:ly 4. 1!129 Bola, :\lis.~ l\l.\1ty, A..E., lcr FncLory, Amrit.s11r (Punjnh). *1!121 Docms, Tho Re\'. A. M., N1~msariw11p<'l.'1., Guntur District, S. I Ilor.1 0N,.T. B.. Cl., TimcR of lndin., Ilnmlmy I. l!ll l Bo~uN.JI, K. R., C.S., l\lchcr Building, Chn.wpn.ty, Ilombny 7. l!ll!j BnANIHm,,J. P., l.c.s. (Ilomho.y). Hl!H Bmoo!'I, A. K, 1'l'l<'grnph Oflice, Bombny I. l!l21 Bnomurrn1,n, Tho Hon. l\tr. Justice It. 8., I.C.S., Tiombn.y Bnmrn, A. W. C., 10, Bank :-itrect, llombo.y I. l!ll2 BnowN, D., Jamee Finla.y & Co., Esplann.do Ho11d, Domha~ "'1027 Il1tOWN', L. N., l.c.s. (Ilomhny). *1028 DunwAY,.M. W., RA., 12, Tmli Ila:r.nr, Indore Cil.y IlUTCllKR, B., Oxfonl Uni\'cmit.y Press, Bombay I. l!llii Il11TJ.Rn, H. F.., D.S.P. (Bombn.y). tl!jl!j CAMA, DAllADllAI F., 4, Pl'tldcr Houd, Dombn.y 6. tis83 CA&IA, Khu,n Il11hndur.JmIANOIR K. It., Templo Hanel, Nagpnr. tl880 CAMA, ltrnmrn K. n., Yusuf Bnilding, Espl11nn.do H.on.tl, llomh:i.y I. tl!j09 CA~IA, 1'. R N., 2:1, :\lcdow11 St.rcet, llombny I. Hl30 C.ucrmu.L, Lt.-Comdr. P. 8., I. T. S. Dulforin, Ilomlmy 10. Hll l CAM'AIN', l\lra. G. :n. S.,!ICI, 1\lun:abn.nabn.d, Andhcri. HlOO CAPTAIN, l\f. S., Solicitor, 121, E11plnnn.clo R11., Tinmbn.y I. I!J23 CnAOI.,\, l\luna~lmao A1.1CAnrlr, Tinr.nt. Law, High Court, Bombay 1. Hl28 Ctu.MnERS, E. 1\1., Craw onl.bayley & Co., Ewart llomic, Bombay l. l!l24 CnA~nA A:umunnIN MecmtALA, 10:1, l\locly Street, Ilombn.y I CtCANllA\'AllKAR, V. N., Bn.r-o.t.Ln.w, Pedder H.011.1!, Bombn.y Cl CnOKS&Y, Prof. R. D., 1\1.A., Wilson College, Bombo.y CumsTIE, Tho ltcv. G. N., ll.a., 2, Sassoon Dock Road, Bombay.

96 92 List of Members 1D22 CIIUNILAL GmnnAnL.u., 24, Chttrchg11tc Street, Bombo.y CLAnKE, A. D. hl., P. Chrystal & Co., Fort, Bombo.y. "'t1892 CoEWO, S., M.A Coour..AN, J. A., D.S.P. (Bomhn.y). l!l2b CoL1.1Ns, a. F. s., r.c.s. (Bombay). "'1005 ComnssARIAT, Prof. M. S., M.A. Oujo.rn.t College, Ahmc<ln.lmd CooPER, A. L., J. Duxbury & Co., HomLy RoiMI, llombay CovERNTON, S. H., I.C.S. (Bomhny). l!l25 Cox, F. S., Milln.r'e Timber n.nd Trading Co., Bomhn.y Conn, H. C., High Court, Bolllbny I. l!j31 CRUJOKBBANK, M111. N. B., 3, Knight HouRC, Coln.1Jn., Bomhny CunnY, J. E. P11mot.E, Government Shipping OfficC1, Bombn.y 10. tl!j21 DABllOLKAR, LAXMTK.\!(T S., Ano.ndn.kam n, Chowpnty, Bombn.y 7. tl924 DADHOLKAR, MANOESll A., Chowpn.ty, Ilomlmy DADllOLKAR, Sir VASANTRAO A., Kt., C.B.E., Chowpo.ty, Bombay DADACIIANJI, Dr. K. K., Fn.tch Mn.nzil, New Queen's Roo.d, Il'Ln.y DALAL, A. R., I.C.S. (Bomb1Ly) DALAL, l\i. n., l\forinc Villo., Colo.ho., Bombo.y 5. tl013 DAL.U., RusTOllJI D., S111~l11r's Pn.111.ce, Apollo Street, Bombay I. Hl21 D.u.v1, D. G., M.A., LL.B., 217, Cho.mi Road, Bombay D.uLunA, llineklal G., Chowpa.ty, Bomba.y DAMLE, n. R., B.A., LL.B., AcharyLL's \Vn.dn., Tha.na DAPRTARY, BALIUSAS, 13-10, :\lcdowr Street., Bombay I. Hl23 DAPllTARY, C11AKDRAKJSA.S, M.A., Dn.r-n.t-Ln.w, 109, Medows Street Bo1ubn.y I. l!j24 D.wuvALA, J.C., 74, Wo.lkcahwnr Roo.d, Domha.y DASTUit, H.P., Bo.r-ut-La.w, Presidency Mugistmro, Bombay l. tl!j20 DASTUR, Dr. N. H., Udwo.dn., Surat District DAVAll, J. S., Bo.r-o.t-La.w, 123, Eeplmwle Road, Bombay DAVAn, Dr. M. n., l'ila., Ph.D., 165, Lamington Rond, Bombay D.lVAR, l\[rs. V. J. D., Ncpco.n Seo. H.ond, Bombay Cl DAVID, D.i.vm VICTOR, 4, Queen's Ron.d, Domhny. Hl31 DAVIES, Mm. SYnn. n., J\liromnr, Coln.ho., Bombay DAVIS, 0., I.C.S. (Ilombny) DAVIS, Commnnder H. L., R. I. M. Dockynrd, Bombny l. "'1930 DAVY, Mra. H. M., (Queen'e Mansion Howl, Bomhn.y) DELA.ll'ONTA.INE:, A., Wcet End Watch Co., Esplana<lo Rd., Bomhny DE~lolilTE, Mgr. Dr. B., D.D., J.P., Cathctlml Street, Bombny DEMONTE, Dr. A., M.D., Summit Viow, Bnndm. Hl29 DENBO, W., Lloyd 'l'ricstino S. N. Co., Nicol Road, Bombay.

97 Bombay Bmticlt of tl1c Roya.l Asiatid Sociel,lf 93 l!.122 IlKSAI, Ilnt1LADUAI J., Advocate, \\'anlcn Road, Bombay 0. l!j25 DES.u, Dr. K.,J., D.A., L.J\l.,\:, S., 56, Hidgo Road, llombny O. l!l28 *Hl28 D&'>AI. ll.ra. LILAYATI. MANOALUAS, C/o Huatomji Jinwala, Solioitore, Esplnnadc Hand, Ilomlmy. D :s.u, Pro(. M. Il., Karnutnk C-01lcgc, Dlmrwnr. l!l20 DESAI, R. K., Il.A., Il.Sc. (Lond.), Ilnr-at-Lnw, Vila Parle. 1!12!) D11sAr, T. D., 31, Nnnnhhni Lune, Fort, Dombay. l!j30 D.&.<111Muxu, Dr. G. V., 1\1.D., F. R.C.S., 3D, Pcddor Roarl, Dombny 6. l!l28 DrtSllPANnE, S. H., Labour Office, Secrct.arinl, Ilombny 1. *ID:lO DEV'l.ALKAn, Prof. T. K., M.A., B.Sc., Kamnbk College, Dha.rwar. l!l2 1 DnenAYI>llAR, J. R., B.A., LL.B., Shnnti Kunj, Klmr. ID27 DwxissoN, F., Duncan St.mt.ton & Co., Fort, Domlll~Y 1. *l!j25 DIKSllIT, K. N., M.A., Archreologicnl Survey, E. C., Calcutt!\. l!j21 DJ\'ATL\, H. V., J\lahnmja l\fansion, Sandhurst lwad, Bombo.y 4. 1!)22 D!VATIA, Prof. N. n., D.A., Elphinstono Collcgo, Dombay I. *l!l25 DORAN, H.F., n. n. & c. I. H.y.. Fatobgarh, u. P. trnrn Doniu, Dr. J. D., Nal"snri. 1!)27 DosnmrrAIDtAD MuNJEE, 12-13, Dougo.11 Hoad, Bombay I. rn:m DOl"GLAS, J. D., l\lnckinnon J[ackcnzio & Co., Domhay 1. ID21 Dow, H., I.C.S. (Bombay). ID24 DUNLOP,.T., lmpcrinl ll1mk of India, Nagpur. l!l:jo EASTERllROOK, N., Hol\tley and Grcshnm, Hornby Hd., llombny. 11)24 EDWARDS, H. B., Reuters Ltd., Homby Rd., Dombny I. 1!)24 E\'ERA1T, E. L., Port Trust, Domhay I. *ID20 E\'RS, GnAVES, llanii Light RaihVl\y, Kurlluwadi, S. M. C EZEKIEL, Prof. E. M., B.A., LL.B., 14, Don Tad Croes Lano, Klmclok, Dombny 3. rn2!.l FARRAN, Prof. A. C., I.E.S., Deccan College, Poon&. l!.124 F1:n.A1m, R. L., D1wicl Snssoon & Co., Esplano.dc Rond, Dorubny I. rn:jo FERUL'.SON, J., Grcn\"CS Cotton and Co., Forbes Street, Bombay I. 102,_t FERNANDES, D. A., 66, Cnrtor Rond, llamlm, Thano. District. l!.128 FIBAN, A.,!Uulio Club, o, Queen's Rood, Dombl\y. Hll4 FLElllNO, R., Prier do SBOno & Co., Dombny I FLETOUER, T., Imperial Choruicnl lndustrioa, Hornby Roo.d, Bombay. llj2ii Fomn:s, D. N., M.A., LL.B., l\lolilnl.mnnhion, Hnmruum Stroot, Bombny l PoRmNOTO?f, A., Greaves C-0tton & Co., Forbl'11 Street, Domhay I FouNTAP.I', C. 0., Tumor l\fon ison & Co., llnnk Stroot, Bombay. HJ2S FllA.9Ell, R. D., lndo-durma Petroleum Co., Allnho.liad Bnnk Bldg., Apollo St., Bombay L llj26 1''REKE, C. G., l.c.s. (Bombay).

98 91 List of Members l!l22 }<,nencllman, D. P., Gandnm.nnn.yalm1111r, :\lnclurn. Dislrict., 8. I FtmnoONJI DonAn.11 PAD.\llJI, Hcay l'11per :\lil!h, ~faclhnva, Poona.. tl910 FyzEE, A. A. A., l\l.a. (Cant.ab.), LL.B., Bu.r-nl-Law, -13 Chnupati Road, Bombay 7. ti025 GADOIL, D. R., M.A., 1\1.Litt.., Gokhnlc lnhlilutc of Economics, Poona GAnan., Prof. V. A., Wilson Collr~L', Boml111y 7. tid27 GAJENDRAOADKAR, Prof. A. Il.,!\I.A., Elphinatonc College, ffh:1y GANNON, H., Clmrl.crcd Dank Buildin~, Bomha.y GARRETT, J. H., I.C.S. (Ilom\Jny) GtIABrURE, J. R., B.A., LL.B., Angru's Wadi, llomlmy GIIARPURBY, J.t.-Col. K. G., I.M.S., (llomlmy) GrroLAr, L. 'l'., I.C.S., (Bombay). *1022 Gnonr.wE, 1\[. H., 273, Somwnr Peth, Poonn. Cil y. tlolo GuoRPADE, Shrimant l\lu,ojillao NA:-!ASAHED, Chief of Mnclhol. tls!)l GuoRPA.DE, Shrimnnt NARA\" ANILAO Go\'JJWllAO, lchalkn.mnji. *1925 GrrosAL, J., C.S.I., I.C.S., (Bomlmy) GuunYE, G. S., :M.A., Ph.D., UninrsiLy, Uomlmy GILDER, Dr. 1\l. D. D., 1'aj Building, IIornhy ltoad, llomhay l GILLIGAN, W. B., LC.S., (Ilorulmy) G1LnoY, Mu.jar P. K., I.M.S., Hir,J.,J. Il0Hpit~11, Bomlmy GLEESON, 11. J., Kopri, Tlmnn. ])ji;t.rict. tdis OonsoLE, Prof. V. N., 000, S:ulnshiv Prth, Poona City. JD29 GoDDARU, J., Gcncrn.l.Molora (lnclia) Ltd., P. U. Rox, :m, Bomhay GonE, P. K., 111.A., Bhnndn.rknr 0. It. I1111tiL11l<', Poon". JD27 GOFFIN, R. C., 111.A., Oxfol'tl Univemily Pres.-1, ll1~llard Estate, Bombay. *1!)23 GoK.DA.LK, Rao Sa.hob A.G., Ill.A., B.Sc., Nn.sik Hon GOODALL, C. 11., Domhn.y Co., Fort, Bomlmy l. to26 GonWALA, A. D., I.C.S., (Ilomlmy) GnAnAlll, H.J., C/o G. I. P. H.y., Jnbh11l1"11-c, C. P GnEAV!lS, J. B., Greaves Cott.on Co., Forhl's ~ln ct, Bumbny I GnEl!lN, A. M., I.C.8., C11Hl:om1:1 Dc111ufotc11t., TI0111bn.y I. 192!) GREER, B. R. T., Turner l\lorrihon & C'o., flauk l"t.rcet, Bombay GnEoso::-i, TnoMAs, 11, Klrn.tav :\fonsion, Bomh"y I GuNB, J. G., Kunj1L\'nna, I..omwli~ GuNJIKAR, K. n.., 1\1.A., B.Sc., Elphim1tono College, Ilomba.y I Gul'TB, G. 1\1., B.A., LL.D., 56, l~splt1.11adc Jton.d, Bomha.y l GuPl'E, G. S., B.A., L.C.E., City Sun ey nnd Land H.ccords, Bombay GuT, GEonaE, Volkart Broe., Ilomb"Y

99 Bom71a.y Bmnclt of the Royal Asiali'.c Socidy 9ti l!l2!j G\'ANI, lt. G., M.A., l'rinc'.e of \VnleH Mui;e11111, Bombny I. HHS HA.JI, S. N., Hnr-nt-Ln.w, Scimlia Slcam Nav. Co., Sudnmn. Honse, Ilnllnrrl Est.n.tc, Ilombn.y I. tjdio l!l27 II.mm A. Ar.r, I.C.S., (Borulmy). llrnley, II. H., Secondary Training Coll!'g!', Ilomliny. }!)2[i RAmrnsn, W. H... John Connon School, Espla.nn<le Ron<l, lloml1ny I. ]{)IO HAMPTON, Prof. H. V., Knnmto.k College, Dharwn.r. l!ll7 ll.ununt, S., E. Spinner & Co., 'l'nrun.rin<l Lnn!', Homlmy 1. I!J29 HAnDMA:-1, It G., White Villo., Ellis Bridge, Ahnwdnhad. lois HAnmtEAVES, E., Wil11on Lo.thnm & Co., Ccntml Bank Building, llombny 1. trn:u lianjsllankan 0I'KArur, Pandit, J.fota ::\lnndir, Nmliad llarniui.li, A. 8., H.A., High School, Bijapnr llanren, W., Nntional Bank of Inrlin, Bombay I. 102S HAnRINUTON, D., C:rahnm's Trading Co., Bombay I HAnv1n-, G. 1~. Nationn.I Bnnk of In<lin, Bombny I. l!j26 IlASKEl.J,, I. I '., B.A., 56, Esplan111lc Road, Bombay I. l!l30 HAWKINS, R. E., Oxfonl University Press, Nicol ltoad, Bombay I IIAY\Hno, G. A., Geo. Service & Co., Hornby Ron<l, Bombay I. rn24 HAZEN, Tho Rov. W., Sholnpur. H.129 H&NoEnsos, A., Gannon Dunkerley&. Co., Chartered Bank Build ing, Hombn.y.!!125 lh:ndkllson, L. n., Oxford Univemity Prc8S, Bomb:iy. HJ26 HF.NNESSEY, J. G., C/o Thomns Cook & Son, Bomhny I H1mAs, The ltev. Fr. H., 8t Xavior's College, llomb11y. Hll7 HF.nDEnTsox, J., Jnmes Finlay & Co., Bombay I H1mmso, E.,J. C.,,JoHt Engineering Co., WitleLL Rmul, Ilombny. HHS Hoo1vALA, Prof. S. II., l\for..:ban Road, Anclheri. 1!J2'! llooren, C. T., Cnrrier Engineering Co., F2, Clivo Bldg., CnJcuLLn. 11)2!) Hoosm!'IALL\" M. VI'lllllAM, B.A., LL.D., Goohilmn, l'cchler l{m11l, Dombny. Hl27 HonLE\', W. G., Mcrcnntilo :\farina Office, Ilomlmy I. l!jl3 HonMAS.ll Amn:s1m1, L.C.K, 321, Hornby ltoad, Bombny I. l!j07 192S HoTSON, The Hon'ble Sir ERNEST, K.C.S.I., 0. B.K, l.c.s., (Bom). Hovm.1., 'l'. n.., Scottish Union & National Irumranco Co., 16, Bank 8Lrcct., Bomhn.y I. tl!jos Hum:, Tho ltc\. Dr. R. K, l\l.a., Un.ion Theological Seminary, New York, U.S.A. 1!116 Hn1rmatYs, S. E., Thomn.s Cook & Son, lfomhy Rood, Bombay I. l!j27 HUNTRn,.i\I., Eastern Telegraph Co., Bombay l. I!J26 lvou:iu1, D. D., Dhnrwnr.

100 913 List '<if lllcmbcr.~ *H12!l l!l31 l!)2g lndulkar, 8. A., Kolhn.p111. lnoram, A. n., Chartered Bank, li'orl,, Bomhn.y.!nANI, A. :\f., Impcrin.l Film Co., Kennrdy Bridgr, Ilumbny. HJl!l IRANI, D. J., l\lulln. & l\tulln, Gre11lmm Building, Ilomlm.y I. l!l25 IYER, s. R., Imperial Bu.nk or Inclil\, Bomb1Ly. l!l20 Juun, A. D., Eastcm Telegraph Co., Bombay I. Hl31 JACOD, K. G., Iii.A., New Customs, Bomba.y I. *l!j28 JAIN, l\lldanlal, Kucha Luttu Shah, Da,rihrL K11l11, Delhi. l!l27 JAL A. D. NAOROJI, T1itn. Sons & Co., Bruce Street, Bombay I. Hl28 JAMSETJ.EE, P. M. J1mrn1mnoY, Yorkshiro Insurance Co., Fort, Bombay l. *11H7 JATI!An, Pro. G. Il., l\l.a., Deccan College, Poona. tl!jhl JAYAKAn, M. R., Bn.r-at-Lnw, 3!11, Girgrium Roacl, Bombay 2. 1!12!) J EIIANOIR R. DAllABIIOY, Ratanalmw Loclge, Altamont Rd., Bomlmy. l!l2i J1mAJANI, NAN'AI. C., Borivli, Thann. Distriot. 1!131 JETIBlA.f, NARANDAS, Lnxmi Niv1is, Ln.lmrnum Road, Bombay 7. *1D2G JEWELL, E. DE Il., Surn.t. 1!)11 JnAVERI, Dewan Ilahmlur K. 1\1., M.A., LL.Il., Bombay 4. *1!124 JnoTE, R. Il., Il.A., Prirn.dieo, Shahibng, Abmedo.lmd. *l!l28 JOHNSTON, E. A. F., n. n. & c. I. Ry., Rutlam. 1!)31 JONES, A. n... Imperial Chambers, Wilson Road, Bombay I. l!lhl JoNEs, H. E., Oriental Iuaurnncc Co., Eapli11rndc Road, Bombay 1. l!l22 JONES, H.P., B. Il. & C. I. Ruilway, Bombay 1. l!l24.lones, W. T., Lewis & Jones, Bank of llruoda Bldg. Bombay 1. l!l28 Josm, :Miss CIIATURLAXMI Il., Il.A., Matungn, IlombBy. *l!l20 Josru, NARAYAN DA.I.WANT, Bijnpur. "'1!)21) Josni, V. G., Chitroalmla Press, 1026, Sndaehiv Poth, Poona City. 1U2G JuDAll, Dr. D., Kodnk House, Hornby!toad, Bombay I. 1!)02 JuDAII, S., D.A., LL.B., Examinor Press lluilcling, Fort, Bombay I. Hl31 JuNOALWAI..\, N. T., B.A., LL.B., Guzdnr Mansion, Princess Street, Bombay 2. l!j22 ludad, M. S., B.A., Sccrctn1fat, Dombny 1. l!j25 Iur.IANJI C. DAMJJ, Curarusy Dnmji & Co., Hohmb House, Homby Itoa<l, Bombay 1. *l!l15 KAMAT, 13. H., D.A., Gnncehkbin<l!toad, Poono. tl!jig KANE, P. V., ~1.A., LJ,.~I.. Angre'A Wadi, Bomlmy 4. Hll!) KANGA, Mis11 JERDAI D. B., Itcbech Street, Jacob Circlo, Dombn.y 11. l!.122 KANOA, P.,J., l\l.a., Hombo.y Houee, llombuy I. l!llll KANJI DwARKADAS, M.A., Yusuf Illdg., Esplu.no.do Rd., Bombay 1. l!l28 KAPADU, CnuNILAL A., 165, Gulahvo.di, Bombay 4.

101 Hl2!l I!J2i Bomba.y B1:a11elt of the Royal Asihtir Society 97 KAPADIA, H. :M., 31, Nanablmi Lane, Fort, Bombny. KAil.L.'ll>IIL\R, R. P., So.t.ara. l!l26 KARANDIKAR, S. V., l\i.a., Nenr BuiMing, Chnrni Ro1uJ, Bombay KARA!WJKAR, V. R., l:far-nt- L1w;, Topiwn.la Wlldi, Sn.ndhuret Ron.d, Bombay 4. 1!12!) KMIAllIALJ.Y A. SoMJim, M.A., LL.B., Har-nt-Law, Bomnnji Dlmnjibhoy Building, TI:eplanndo Homl, Bomb1Ly. I024 KATRAl<,.M. N., 37, Glmdinli :\lnnsion, Alox1Lndm Hond, Ilombn.y 7. Hl28 KEn, 0., Havero Trading Co., Dalll\ru Est.n.w, Bombay I. l!j30 KEKI AnoF.surn, Ca.pt., :\l.r.c.s., Bnngnlow No. 12!J, Mhow, C.I. l!l27 KEI.JL\R, K. H., Il.A., LL.B., Angro'e Wadi, Bombny 4. l!j27 KE1.i.An, N. C., Il.A., LL.Il., Poom~., l!j2l KERKAR, W. R., B.A., LL.B., Thmlurn1 Hnll Lnnc, Bomhe.y KEim, W., Nn.tionnl Bnnk of Indio., C-0lombo, Ceylon. tldig KESllAVRAO B. WASl'DEV, B.A., LL.Il., Nneik KETKAR, Dr. S. V., :\I.A., ~h.d., 21, Kn.hn Ron.d, Poona. l!l30 KnAKJIAR, H.rnILA.L MAYARAM, 25, Dr. Wilson Street, Ilombay KIYAN, Prof. A. K., Dcccnn Collrgc, Poona KI!ANDICF., D. N., Station Ron.d, Gwalior. ID26 KIIANNA, Vn!AYAKLAL, Nnndnlnl l\lulliok 2nd Lane, llcndon Street, Cnleuttn KnAllAll,.J. D., :\I.A., Proprietary & Fort High School, Gowolia. 'fnnk Rond, Ilombny KuArin:, L. G., B.A. (Oxon.), Chronicle Office, Ilombn.y I KnARF.GnA r, :M. P., I.C.S. (Rtd.), Mt. PlcnRm1t Rond, Bombay O KnATAO, LAXMIDAS ll., Laxmi Dlclg., Hnlln.rd Rd., Ilombny 1. tl023 K11Er1, D. G., B.A., LL.Il., 53, :Ml'dowe Street, llombny I. t1004 KIKADllA.I PnEAICIIA..~n. Share Iln.znr, Ilomboy KII'I'EK', Cnpt R. R., Killick Nixon & Co., Home St., Ilombo.y I. tlll24 KisnonDAS P. l\ia.naalllas, )foln.bnr Point, Ilombn.y 0. 1!J30 K1s11onn: 81~011 RrnnuT, So.rdnr 'flmkur, Patio.In K~noIIT, H. F., l.c.s. (Ilombn.y). 1!J23 Km.nATKAR, Prof. G. B., Fcrgnseon College, Poona KoYAJI, K. N., High Court, Bomhny. tl925 KmsuNA J1vA~Jl. Gosw.nu, Ilo.dn lfonrlir, Illmleahwn.r, Bombay 2. rn10 K111snNA~tACIIAIUAR, Rnjl\ Iln.lmdur G., Srirnngnm, KunALAYA ltaj, 30, W1~llccshwn.r ltond, Bombay O. l!j25 KunuLKAR, Dr. G. :\I., G. S. l\iedic~i College, Pnrol, Dombny l~. l!l22 KunwA, S. E., Bnr-n.t-Lnw, Wnlkeshwar Roud, Ilombn.y LAD, P. M., I.C.S. (Bombay) LA.au, Prof. R. K.., 1028, Se.do.ehiv Poth, Poone. City. 7

102 98 L st of JlJ embers l!l2\l L,u~n Goc111.nAS, lfar-at-t..aw, 15, KolhlmL T..anc, Bornlmy 2. rn2:1 L,U.Jl NAllAN.JI, Ewart Ho11Ho, Tanrn.rirnl Limo, Bombay 1. l!.118 LALKAKA, B. S., Lnn<l's End, Bnndra. 1!)28 LANDON, U., Indian Tclcgmph Dept., Bomlmy 1. "'IllO\l LATIF, HASSAN, M.I.E., A.M.I.K, H111mmkonda, Nizam's St;Lto. 1!}21 LAx11nnA!I M. SrmrKANT, K1tnji Illmvan, 81tmlhnrat H.d., Bornliay 4. HJl 7 LENCIACIIEn, W., Bombay Co., Wallace Street, Bombn,y 1. HJ27 LESLIE, G., National Bank of India, Bombay 1. l\l:io LEUUA, L., Favre Leuha & Co., Hornby Hond, Bomhay. l\l28 LEwrn, It. E., Bn,nk of Buroda Illdg., Apollo l::lt., Bornlmy l. llj24 l!l:io L~N, D. C., Alcock Ashdown & Co., J~rcm nond, Bombay. Low, F., Times of India, Bombay. Hl28 Low.fl, T. M., 177, Hornby H.011d, Bombay I. "'l!ll 7 LOYD, The Rt. Rev. P., Ilishop of Nnsik, N1Lsik. l!l2\l LucAs, W. E., B. B. & C. I. Railway, Bomlmy. HJ2:l LUPTON, F. E., Greaves Cott-011 & Co., Bombay I. *l!l24 LVOVSKY, z., Czechoslorn.k Consulate, P. 0. Box 232, Calcutta. i!j30 l\lccas1m, C. S., Mackinnon Mackenzie & Co., Bombay 1.. l!jl4 McKENZIE, Tho Rev. J., 111.A., Wilson College, Bombay 7. l!j30 l\fok.errelr., J., Mackinnon l\fockemdc & Co., Calcutta. l!j27 l\lckm, P. W., Central Telegraph Office, Bombay 1. *l!l07 1\-ilcKIE, A. W. W., I.C.S. (Bombay). *l!l08 l'.vl\c~nllan, A. l\1., I.C.S. (llorubay). *l!hd 1\-L\DAN, J. A., l.c.s. (Bombay). 1!)27 1\-LrnGA VICAn, B. R., New Queen's Road, Bornlmy. tl!j06 1\-L!.DoAVKAH, The Hon'ble,Justice Sir G. D., I.C.S., llomba.y. l!j24 MADGA\"ICAri, Capt. V. D., I.M.S., Sandhurat Road, Bombn.y 4. l!jol l\iadiu\'ji DA~IODAn THACKERSEY, 16, Apollo Street, Bombay 1. l!l27 MADO~, A. M., 4, Walton Hoad, Apollo H.cclnmation, Bombay I l\'l\.non, D. M., M.A., LL.B., Tn.tn Iron and Steel Co., Bombay Hou~e, Ilrnco Road, Ilomb1ty. l!l21 l\l\don, K.,J. ll., Pereira Hill Road, Amlhori.!!JIB MADON, ~I. P., Serene Villa, Alexandra Road, Gamdcvi, llombay 7. tl!j23 ::\faoon, l'. 1\1., l!j, Hammum Street, Bombay l. rn:io 1\-LuJA.JANI, Principal G. S., Fergusson College, Poona. l!j26 MorrA11mau ALI, MouLvI, M.A. (Oxon.), Dlrnmvi, Bombay. rn:io l\ioil\mlllad IlAZLUn REHMAN, Ph.D. (Cantah.), Ismail College, Andheri, Timmi. Dist. l!j24 }liloney, T., Mill-Owners' Association, Eeplanade Rd., llombay 1. 11)20 MANEICLAL P. RoYOIIAND, 63, Apollo Street, Bombay l.

103 Bombay Brancli of tlie Royal Asiatic Society l\ianyless, Co.pt. K. W., R.E., Power House, Kalyan. tl902 llrn.rorid.o\nxs, Lt.-Col. J. L., I.M.S., England lllasanj, R. P., Versova, Andheri l\iaster, A., l.c.s., (Bombay) llitani, G. 111., 53, Mint Road, Bomba.y llitiiew, Mrs. A. E., Cama Hospital, Bombay I lla.yenka.r, V. P., B.A., S.T.C., Wilson High School, Bombay MEARS, R. P., J. C. Gammon, Ltd., Goo. Street, Bombay I l\bjiendale, B. K., Bo.r-a.t-Lo.w, French Bridge, Bombay 7. *1931 MEIIKNDALE, V. K., M.B.B.S., D.T.M., 368 South K1U1ba, Shola.pur Mxmrnr, MD. AsADULL.UI, Asett. Controller of Stores, Jhansi, C. I l\ieiita, BHASKAR B., Ra.mdns Khimji Trading Co., Albert Bldg., Homby Road, Bombny MEHTA, C. A., M.A., LL.B., V. M. Kapoi Boa.rding, l\fodhav Bng, Bombay MEllTA, Sir CuuNILA.L V., K.C.S.I., M.A., LL.B., Bombay l1eiita, Mrs. HANSA, 23, Nepean Sea. Road, Bombay MEIITA, INDRAVADAN N., Bo.r-at-Lnw, PurehoU1m Building, New Queen's Road, Bombay MEIITA, J. K., l1.a., Indian Mercho.nts' Cho.mber, 31, l\lurzbnn Ron.d, Bombo.y I MEIITA, Sir LALLUDIIAI SAM.ALDAS, K.C.I.E., 4!l-liG, Apollo Streot, Bombay }lehta, R. A., Kalynn Moti Building, Knndevu.di; Bombny 4. *1927 MEH'l'A, RANCIUIODLAL L., Ku.rbho.ri, Vala State. *lll27 MEHTA, Dewan Bo.hndur TIIAKORRAM KAPILRAM, B.A., LL.B., C.I.E., Athwo. Lines, Surat MEHTA, V. H., S.T.C., B. J. Po.race Charitable Institut-0, Charni Road, Bombo.y MENON, K. K., M.A., Mulji Hnridas Bungalow, Dongo.rei Rd., Bom bay llinnitt,.j. A., British Jndnstrial Cable Co., Nicol Rond, Bombay MINOCilERIIOllIJI, Prof. N. D., Elphins one Collcgo, Bombay 1. *l!l30 MmcIIA.:)IDANI, B. D., 1.C.S., {Bombay). l!l27 MoIJI, J. H., Solicitor, Da.phtary o.nd Ferreira, 13-l!l, l\lcdows Street, Bombay Mom, Dr. JA&ISIIED JI\'ANJI, L.M.&S., L.D.S., Navsn.ri Chambers, Hornby Rond, Bombay I l\loo1, SnAlIS-UL-ULAMA Sir JrvANJI JAMSllEDJI, Kt., Ph.D., C.LE.. 211, Pilot Bunclcr Roo.d, Bombo.y MODY, H. P., M.A., LL.B., Cumbnllo. Hill, Bombay 6.

104 100 List of Members Hl20 MomlE, Dr. H. G., L.M.&S., L.D.S., Girganm Do.ck Road, Born bn.y MonF,.T., Volkart Broe., l!), Groho.m Road, Bombay I l\lonris, C. F., Jo.mes Finln.y & Co., Esplanade Roo.<l, Bomb11y 1. tl!ll l l\lunammad YcsuF, Sir, Kt., Amir of No.vho., Do.rye.nngnr, N. Konko.n. HH8 l\lujumuan, So.r<la.r G. N., ts;, Ko.sbo. Peth, Poona. City MULGAOKER, B. D., Gopo.I No.rnyo.n & Co., Knlbo.devi, Bombo.y 2. l!l24 MuLOAOKA.n, K. V., B.A., LL.B., Ridgo View, Vnchngo.ndbi Road, Bombay l\'1uloaokar, S. S., 80, Kurlo. Hoo.d, Andheri MuLLA, Sir Dr:ssuA F., Kt., Bo.r-o.t-Lo.w, C.I.E., 21, Marine Linea, Bombay I MuLL.4., l\lre. J\li!.IEKB.U S. F., 17, New Marino Lines, Bombny Mu:ssm, K. ::\I., Advocate, High Court, Bombay I Mu:ssm, R. F., Bo.r-o.t-La.w, Ho.Ii Mn.nzil, Hormnsji St., Boraua.y MUNSTER, J., Port Office, Ilombn.y I \lunuEBllWAR, G. P., D.A., LL.B., Snrnewa.t Buildinge, Bombay 7. 1!129 l\li;nruy, 'l'he Hon. Mr. JuHtico S. J., I.C.S., High Court, Bombny. *1!118 Muzt:MDAn, V. D., M.A., Incomo 'fax Officer, Ja.lgaon NAD1'AR:SI, ~L G., No.dJrnmi & Co., Jembulwo.<li, Bombo.y 2. l!jio NADKARSI, V. J., Kennedy llridgo, Ilmuba.y 7. *1910 NAOAllKATTI, R. S., Dhnrwar. *1918 NAIK, S. S., D.A., B.Sc., L.C.E., Kho.r ltoa<l, llnndm NAIK, V. N., M.A., Benba.m Hnll Lano, Bombay 4. tl917 NA:sADIIAI TA.LAKCIIA.ND, Ilo111b1ly NA:SAYATI, Tho Hon. Mr. Justice D. D., I.C.S. (Bombay) NANAYATI, H. D., B.A., LL.B., 80, Esplanade Road, Bombay I. *l!l31 N.\NlllliATll, S. C., M.A., Ph.D., Goknk, District Bclgaum. l!jlj NARIMA:S, G. K., 3rd Victoria Croes Lene, Mnzgnon, Bombay 10. Hl23 N.4.ltlflL\N, s. B., 113, Esplann.dc non.d, Bomba.y I NATARAJAN, K.," Indin118oci1\I Hcformcr,'' Outram Itri., Ilombn.y NAZAR, 0. II., Union Ila.nk Building, Apollo Streat, Bombn.y NAzm AllMAD, M.Sc., Ph.D. (Ca.ntrib.), Technologicnl La.borntory, Ma.tungn., Bombay N1mumun, Dr. J. S., L.M.&S., D.P.H., Municipality, Bombay I. Hl22 Nnm1:1rn11, G., Sulzer Ilrmlcrcr & Co., Hornby Rd., Bombay I. tl920 NmnALKAn, S1rnntA:ST l\ia.lojlllao :MuonoJIRAO Na.ik, Plmlta.n NomuNn, Dr. A. H., I'll.A., B.Sc., Ph.D., WilBon College, Ilombey7. *l!l28 OJL\, W. P., ~LA., LL.B., Joglckar's Bungo.low, Kba.rkn.r Ali, Thane.. Hl26 OTTO, P. A., Volkart Bl"cm., Bu.Hurd Esta.to, Bombay I.

105 Bombay Branch of the Rayal Asiatic Society PADGAOKAR, G. V., 32 B, Post Office Lnne, Bombay 4. lll27 PADOETl', W.R., D. ReU, Ltd.,! Bldg., Bombay I PAD111."E, K. A., LL.B., New Bho.twadi, Dombo.y 4. IDl6 PAGE, F. J., B. B. & C. I. Rnilwn.y, Pare), Bombay PALEK.AR, Ra.o Dnho.dur B. A., Dbarwar PALKIUWALA, Mrs. F. M., Boocher'11 Hou!K', Curuhnlo. Hill, Bombay PAI.HER, A. J., Union Insumnoo Society of Canton, Central Bo.nk Building, Bombn.y I. UllO PANDIT, A.G., Whiten.way Laidlaw Bldg., Bombay I PAYDIT, Mm. SA.RASWA.TIBAJ P., Meher HollllC, Laburnum Road, Dombay PANDIT, VEYUOOPAL RAO, N. Sirur & C-0., Dank Street, Bombny I PARAIJKAR, Prof. N. B., Mo.dha\ College, Ujjniu. rn2a PAnRKII,.MoT1LAL L., lltla., LL.D., Devgad-Bario.. rn23 PAmKII, Dr.M. K., Goclhrn., Po.uch llo.ho.111 District PARKS, W. llattkrsby, Ford, lthodct1 & Parke, llo.nk of Bo.rode. Building, Apollo Street, Dombo.y I. 102s PAllMANANIJ, Mrs. s., Il.A., n. Litt., D. Phil. (Oxon.), Ilo.r-o.t-Lo.w, lluldano. ( Bero.r ) P..i.nru, Yusu..- H.., I.C.S. (Bombay). l!ll2 PAUUCK, l\1i11s S. S., l\l.a., Ho.bib l\lnnsion, New Queen's Road, Domb1~y 4. lll21'i PAnULEICAR, H.. V., M.A., 1\1. Eel., l\iunioipnl Ollices, llombo.y I PASTA, M. G. L., Altmont Road, Bombo.y O. 11J27 PATASKAn, H. V., LL.B., Cho.lisgo.on, K Kho.11dc11h. llll2 PATICAR, 'fhe Hon..Mr. Juetice S. S., LL.Il., Hughes Roo.d, Ilomlio.y PATlLUNI, V. N., Courto.ulds (India) Ltd., Haines Roud, Bombay 11. tioi2 PATWAUIJIIAN, SnRIMANT CmNTAMANRAO Duu1mmAJ alias ArrAS.mEn, Chief of So.ngli, Snngli, S. ~I. C PATWARDllAN, N. M., Bo.r-o.t-Ln.w, Ko.iro PATWARDl!.\N, Prof. R. P., B.A. (Oxon.), Elphinstone College, Ilombo.y I P.wRI, N. P., :\I.A., LJ... B., Silloo Villa., Cirrus AYcnlll', Ilombn.y II P1msn.t, SHAXKAR S., E."l:nminer Presa Building, i\ll'clowe Street, Bombay I Pt.""TIOAll.A, D. K., Hnr-n.t-Lnw, 7, Bell Lnne, Bombay I PETIOAllA, Khn.n Iluhadnr K. J., Dy. C-01nmr. of Police, Bombay. ti922 PETIT, DrNSll.-\W.J., :Mount Petit, Bombo.y 6. tis97 PETIT, JEUANOlll ll., 350, Honihy Ro11d, llomliny I PETIT, SonAUJI C., Fmmji Ho.ll, Warden Hond, Bombo.y O.

106 102 List of 1llem"bers 1930 PETTY, J., I.F.S., Nosik PHATAX, N. D., B.A., Kandcwadi, Bombay P1coT, C., lndicm Ro.dio Tel. Co., Bombo.y I. lll30 P1TTm, MADANLAL G., Mndhukunjo., l\falo.ba.r Hill, Bombay 0. ID31 PLUMBER, :lliss N. D., Pnllonji House, New Cbarni Rd., Bomba.y. 102s PoLLocK, R. E., i.c.s. (C.P.) 1027 POOLEY, ALEX. St. P., Greaves Cotton & Co., Forbes Stroot, Bombay I PorE, J. A., I.C.S., Imperial Customs, Indore, C. I. HllO PORTLOCK, F., James :Ua.ckintosh & Co., Ajam Bldg., Ballard Eslat~. Bombay PoTDAR, Prof. D. V., B.A., Sir Parehura.mbha.u College, Poon11. 18ll8 PowvALA, R. S., 2131, Hornby Ron.cl, llombay 1. "'lll2!l l!j29 POWELL, V. N. ffolliott, B. B. & C. I. Hy., Siren. (Punjnb.) PnADIU.VALKAR, Mise K. S., 13.A., M11ntri Blocks, Laburnum Road, Bombay i. "'1931 PRADIIA..'f, D. R., I.C.S. (Bombu.y) PnADIIAN, The Hon. 8ir G. B., Bombay 0. rnou PnAouAN, R. o., LL.B., NIU!ik PRADHAN, W. B., LL.B., Clmrni Road, Bombny PRATER, S. H., C.:\l.Z.S., l\l.l.c., 0, Apollo St.root, llombay I PuRSJIOTTAM lshwardas, Garden View, Hughes Road, Bombay. trn25 RA.DADE, R. V., 131, Shanwar Peth, Poona. City. l!jl7 ItuiunoIN AHl!AD, The Hon. l\loulvi, Bombay RAJAGOPALAN, T., Audit Officer, G. I. P. Railway, Bombay. "'1930 Rux, S. V., B.A., LL.B., Kalyn.n. "'l!jl8 RAM.ASUBBA Arr.w, K. N., B.A., B.L., :\lunicipnl Office, Kinne:hi RANGNEKAR, Tho Hon'ble l\lr..justice S. S., 13.A., LL.B., Ilar-at-Lu.w, High Court, Bombay I RAO, Dewan llnhadur G. S., LL.B., llombay RAO, Prof. VnJAYENDRA K. It. V., Wilson Collcgo, Dombny RATANDAI V. T..Muw1, Lmly, Kurla Road, Andheri. f 1921 RATANSI DHARAMSI l\lorail.ji, l\lt. Pleasant Roo.d, Bombay 6. "'l!jio RAWLINSON, Princip1il H. G., M.A., J.E.S., Deccan College, Poono i RE1Tn, A. l\i., Geo. Service & Co., Homby Road, Bombn.y I REUDRN, l\lisll R., 9, l\fozgn.on Terrace, Bomhn.y R1cKWOOD, H. A., l~ire Insurance Associo.tfon, Alln.habnd Ba.nk Building, Apollo Street, Bomba.y I RODINSON, A. E., 17, Marine Lines, Homba.y. 192(1. RorEn, The Rev. H., Archbishop's Houso, Wodchoueo Rd. Bombay I.

107 Bomba.. 11 Branch. of the Royal Asiatic Societ.y 103 1!130 Ross, J. P., Anglo-French Drug Co., Yusuf Bldg., Churchgate St., Bombay Row, Dr. RAOllAYENDRA, B.Sc., 111.D. (Lond.), 27, New :\farina Lines, Bomlmy. 1!)2-1 RowE, G. C., Land Acquisition Officer, l~splann.do l'!.oad, Bombn.y l. l!j30 RuTHERl'OllD, W. S., Lewis n.nd Taylor, 2:11, Hornby Road, Bombay. *1!J28 RuTNlll, D.R., l.c.s. (C.P.) *Hl27 SADNIS, K. G., lfopsi, Dist. Bclgaum. rno2 SAnN1s, Sir ltamrnnatjmao V., In., Kollrnpur. l!j21 S,m.LATWAT,LA, J. K, Bombay Honse, Bruce Street, Bombay l. *lu30 SAKRI, S.S., Illml, Di11t. llijn.pur. 1!}20 SALDANRA, F., ~larslmll & Sons, Ilall11rd lton.d, Bombn.y l. l!j2!) SANZGIRI, Dr. V. R., B.S. (Born.), M.B. C.S. (Eng.), F.C.P.S., 9, \\'nudby Hoar!, lloml.111.y. l!j27 SASHITAL, R. V., 43-A, Chn.upati Ron.cl, llomba_y 7. I!})!) SA.THE, VAIDYA APPA SHASTRI, Kank11dmdi, Bombny 4. *1!}27 SAYED 111uNmunnIN S. MouLVI, To.dywnln Street, Poonn SEN, K. C., l.c.s. (Bombay) SETALv.w, MoTILAL C., Cl4, Nepcan Sea Rond, Bombny 6. ]!)27 SETIINA, H. D., C/o D. B. Kapadia, Engineer Bldg., Princa!S Street, Bombay 2. tl930 SETIDiA, K. B., 25, New 1\larino Lines, Bombay. l!j04 SETHNA, N. P., FerguBSon Ron.cl, Purol, Bombay )26 SETI', Ao1 K., Pedder Hond, Bombay 0. rnao SETT, 111. K., B.A. (Cnntt~b.), Bnr-at-L.. w, 101, Walkcshwar Rond, Bombny 0. l!l21 SHAH, B. C., Kn.lbadcvi ltoad, Bomb1Ly 2. Hl28 SHAH, C. J., Vijayn Jfohal, 12, Wn.lkcahwo.r Rd., Bombay 6. l!j21 SrrAH, C. It., GO\ nrdlmn Mansion, Blm.twndi, Bombny 4. thjl 7 l!j2!) SHAH, HIBALAL A., B.A., New Go.npnlnk Lnnc, Jlulji Jctho. lla.rkot, Bombay 2. SHAH, Prof. K. T., B.A., B.Sc., Bnr-1it-L11w, 45, Chowpaty Rond, Bombay SHAH, Dr. T. L., Gnyngo.te R-0ad, Barodn Sn:A.IRP, J. N., Lloyds Bank, Bombny l. l!j31 SH.L"lBHAo, T. B., LL. B., Sub-J udgc, (Bombay). *l!j28 SllA.RPE, l\libs E., Shrikrishnn Nivns, Limbdi. *11H5 SnASTRI, Prof. ll. G., Sll, RoNirnr, Poomt City. l!j22 SnEJWAI.KAR, T. S., Jngnnrmth Chnwl, 1 '1mnswadi, Bombay 2. Hl2!J SmNGNE, P. B., D.A., LL.B., Shingne Building, Snndhurst Road, Bombay.

108 104 List of Members *l!j27 SnIWESHWAILKAR, Dr. R. Y., B.A., 111.B.B.S., D.P.H., Poone.. l!jl8 SnooRJI VAJ.LADJWAS, , She.Uc Mcmon Street, Bombay. *tl917 H11non', D. D., Ammot.i, C. P. lll20 SmtOFI', J. H., Rum l\fonor, Nepean Sea Roncl, Homhny Snu'l"l'LEWORTII, G.D., Croft and Forbes, St.n.mliml Building, Hornhy Road, Bombay l. l!j2!j SLADE, :\frs. W., Pali Hill, Bnnclm. l!j L..-1, OsMAN, GreHLmm Bldg., EHplo.nadc Road, Ilomb"y 1. 1!J30 8oUANI, N. V., ll.a., S.T.C., Anand High School, Dhar, C. I. rn2:1 SOl.OMON, Principal w. E. GLAUSTONE, School o( Art, Bomba,y I SoNPAL, H. P., &r-nt-la.w, 14, Khctwo.d.i Main Rd., llomba.y 4. *l!j21 SouL&Y, H. 1'., I.C.S. (Bomlmy). *l!j14 SoTIIEllS, D. B., I.F.S. (Bombn.y). l!j28 SouTnWELL, ll. P., Lloyda HogiKtcr, Exchango Bltlg., Sprott Hom!, Bombay 1. l!j27 STACE, Lt.-Col. R. E., R.E., Mint, Bombay STELi.A., EuoENE, Wu.lie.cc Street, Bombay 1. *1022 STEWART, P. Ill., D.S.P. (Bomhu.y). l!j27 STRONACH, L. A., Graham l~oad, Bombay. tl!j19 SUKTH.U."XA.R, BuALCH.ANDRA S., M.A., LL.B., Shante.ram House, Walkeshwn.r Rood, Bombo.y 6. *l!jl5 SuKTHANKAR, V1smnr S., "1.A., Ph.D., Bho.ndo.rko.r Inatitutc, Poona. *1028 SUKTHANKAR, Y. N., I.C.S. (C. P.) 1017 SuLTANDUOY HAJIJllIOY, Alcba,r Bldg., Hornby Rd., Bombay I. *1029 SuNTHANKAn, G. P., LL.B., 9 i, Camp, Bclgn.mn. *1006 SunvnAZ, Prof. SHAIKH Annur. K.mm, 1\1.A., Dceco.n College, Poona SYlllONDS, S. L., Forbes, Forbea, Campbell & Co., Bombay TAmsBE, L. R., Boru.b11zo.r, Holicho.klo., Bombn.y T,\I,EYARKllAN, K. M. J., B11r-o.t-Ln.w, GIJ, Esplano.cle Road, Bombay TARAPOllEWALA, V. F., Bar-o.t-La.w, High Court, Bombo.y I TARAPOREVALA, VICAJI D. B., 190, Homby Rolld, Bombay \l TAnKUNDF:, B. :\I., B.A., 322, Shanwo.r Pclh, Poona. City TATA, Sir DonABJI J., Kt., Bombay House, Bn1co Street, Bombe.y 1. *1015 'l'aylon, E. Ct, I.C.S. (Bombay) TEASDALE, J. P., 'fhoa. Cook & Son, Hornby!load, Bombay. l!j28 THACKER, lit. N., 10, Ch:mdro. Bhuwnn, Ho.rvey Road, Bombay 7. *f 1014 'l'llakore, D. K., lto.opuro., Barocio 'l'nakor GoviNDLAL N., Eko.cla.ahi Bldg., Po.rokh St., Bombay 4. tl006 TnuoaE, lshwaillal N TBA'l"l'I, R. D., 55, Apollo Street, Bombay I.

109 Bombay Bmncli of the Royal.Asiatic Society 105 Hl30 THOMPSON, Miss C. C., St. Colomba High School, Alexandra Road, Bombay 7. *l!l24 Tnol\rrsON, 'Miss M. W., Mnhn.bubi lfisaion, Hyderabad (Deccn.n). HllO TILLEY, J. S., ~ln.ckenzies, Ltcl., Sewri, Bombay 15. l!j31 TmOI>KAR, R. S., M.D. (Lond.), Ana.ndashram, Hn.rvcy Rond, Bombn.y 7. *l!l23 Torm, A., Phipson & Co., P. 0. Box 2303, Calcutta. l!l22 Tmn.TNSON, Miss J., Cathedral Girls' School, Bombay I. tl!llii TmPATHI, D. T., China Baug, Bombay 4. lll29 TRIVEDI, C. M., R.A., LL.B., Diamond House, Wnchho.-Gnndhi Road, Bombny 7. Hll5 TUCKER, L. F., Eastern Bank, Bombn.y 1. l!l31 Tuns1tn, C. W. A., C.l.E., l.c.s. (Bombay). tl!l21 TYAD.JI, All!r.'I M. B., Cbo\~ty Sea Face, Dombo.y TYABJI, CA11IAR S., 9, Forbes Street, Bombay 1. HllO TYABJI, Tho Hon. l\ir. Justice FAIZ B., Bo.r-o.t-Lo.w, Bombay O. *Hl08 TYADJI, SALMAN, B.A., M.I.C.E., P. W. D. (Bombny). l!l30 Unrn, R. W., Vacuum Oil Co., Ballo.rd Estate, Bombn.y I VAIDYA, B. C., Bar-at-Lo.w, Kuntc Building, Girgaum Bo.ck Roo.cl, Bomho.y 4. *lll05 VAIDYA, C. V., M.A., LL.B., Kalyn.n. tl!l21 VAIDYA, J. S., Zandu Pho.rmo.cy, Bombay 13. *tl926 VAIDYA, Dr. P. L., M.A., D. Litt., Fergusson College, Poona.. thi05 VAIDYA, V. P., Bar.at-Law, Kirti Bldg., Forbes St., Bombay 1. 1!)21 V AXIL, K. H., B.A., LL.Il., Villa Vasant, Sn.nm Cruz VAKIL, M. R., LL.B., Bar-at-Law, 217, Clmrni Roo.<l, Bombay 4. *1923 VASYANI, Il. J., ll.a., Modern Publishing Co., Bombay 4. *1918 VAZE, S. G., Sen o.nta of India Society, Poona VEr.. U\'I{AR, Prof. H. D., M.A., Jivnnji's Chnwl, Cow Lnne, Bombay VELINKA.R, V. S., B.A. (Oxon.), Iln.r-at-Law, 56, Esplanado Road, Bombay VENKATRAO, Dr. li, N. Powell & Co., Lomington Roo.d, Bombn.y. *1906 VEN'KODA HAO, B., B.A., Office of the Consulting Architect to Government, Lnlbagh, Dcmgo.lore. *1920 VE:l!N, T. w., n. s. N. Co., :Mn.ngnlorc. *Hl24 V1.rAYARAI KALYAKnAI, Ellis Bridge, Ahmedn.bnd. *1920 VINc1rnmu.11, Sh1imn.nt ~ARAYASRAO GovTNDRAO, Nn.sik. *HJ20 V1s\'ESWA.RAYYA, Sir M., K.C.l.E., Bangalore. *1910 VonA, C. H., Ko.labhaYn.n, Baroda WADIA, A. K., Justice Shnh"s Bungalow, Pedder Ron.d, Bombay W.rnu, The Hon. :\Ir. B.. J., Bar-at.Law, High Court, Bombay.. 8

110 106 L1'st of Members 1892 WADIA, C. N., Bolio. Viet.a, Cumho.llo. Hill, BomhB.y \VADJA, FnAb!JI DossADHOY, 8, Al11ned111Lg1Lr Hoo.d, Yemwdo., Poom WAI>IA, N. J., I.C.S. (Bombay) WADIA, Prof. P. A., Hormo.zd Villa., Bombn.y W ADIA,!lh'8. PmoZA A. J., \\lildomcsr H.oo.d, Bombo.y WAIHA, Mrs. S., 18, Domnnji Petit Rt!., Cumbo.lo. Hill, Bombay Cl. Hll4 \\'AoI.11:, B. K., B.A. (Co.ntah.), ~lunicipo.i OOicc, Bombo.y I \VALCllAND HmACHANLI, Phoenix Illdg., Bn.llo.rd Estn.te, Bomb"y l. lll22 WALLACK, R. P., 16, New Quoon's Hoa.cl, Ilombo.y WALVEKAR, G. K., LL.B., Hubli, S.M.C WEDD, A. C., Lloytl Tril'fltino S. N. Co., Bo.llu.rtl Eata.te, Bombny l Wx11sT :11, J. H., Ea.stem Bank, C-Olombo, Coylon. rn22 WELll'WKAR, R. N., B.A. (Oxon.), Gujarat College, Ahmcdabo.d WHELAN, A. H., No.tionnl Bank of Intlin., Bombn.y l Wu.so~. W. B., National Aniline o.nd Chemical Co., 05-73, Argyle Road, Bombay \VonTHDIGTOS, E. G., Bomlllly Port Trust, Bombay W'!!IGHT, FRANK, B. E. S.,':_, T. Co., Bombn.y l. rn20 WnmnT, The Rev. H. K., Ahmedno.gn.r WuTHmcu, F. F., Nethorlo.nds Corn!. Ilo.nk, Homby Roo.<l, Bombo.y YA.JJSIK, I. K., Old Wo.taon Hotel Bldg., Bombo.y l. Fellows Dn. F. W. THOlUS, Indio. Office, London DR. SYL\'A~ LEVI, College do Franco, Po.rill DR. M. WINTERNITZ, Pro.guo University, Czochoslovn.kio Dn. GANOANATEI JIIA, Allo.lmbad Univcraity Dn. HEr~RICH LiiDEilS, Sybolatr e, 19, Chn.rlottenburg, Gornmny Sm JAnUNATH SARKAR, Kt., Calcutta Univcmity l\1ahamahopadhyaya VASUDEO SHASTRI AnnYANKAR, Fergusson Collego, Poono S11A~1s-1;r. ula~u Sm.T!VAJS.n JursuEnJJ ~lour, Kt., Ph.D., C.l.E., 211, Pilot Ilundor Roo.d, Colabo., llombo.y u VrsrrvANATH P. VAmYA, B.A., Ilo.r-o.t-Lo.w, 18, Co.thedrn.I Street, Bombo.y P. V. KANE, :\I.A., LL.M., Angre's Wo.<li, Bornbo.y DR. ~l. N. DHALLA, 15, R. A. Lines, Ko.mchi Sm GEORGE A. GRIEHSON, Rathfa.mham, Co.mberlcy, Surrey Pnol". N. B. DrYATIA, B.A., Elphilll!tone College, Bombo.y TnE REY. DR. D. MACKICllAN, M.A., D.D., 18, Dough~s Creacent, Edinburgh PROF. SIIAIKII AllouL KA.nm ScRFRAZ, M.A., Deccan College, Poona PROF. S. H. HoorvALA, Andheri.

111 TRA.i."'\SLITERATION OF THE SANSKRIT AND ALLIED ALPHABl:TS aj a:r.. ~... ~.. '3'.. Oi ':!;; ~. ~. ti: ~ air i 1'"...au I i5.... th ~ rj I i{ a <ti.. k ~... ijj..kh i!.. rjh I lf. f I 'l.. glur 111{ I I. u 'Q.gh q t I~. I ti I. ti. nl th I Cf I r. 'if c ~. d1~ I. r:il.... Cit I 'l I dh lq I. l \if..... j?j. n ~ e fi.....jh q p ~ "ai I~ n Ql. 71h! a; '.. ol~ i I " I bl.. bh. "' ~ r. 1) 8 ~.. s h l...:... (Anusi-ara)..... m x (Jihii..muliya)... '!! * (Anunasika) m :::::::: (Upadlm1anfya). ~ (Vit>arga).... {i s (Avagra11a)

112 TRANSLITERATION OF ARABIC AND ALLIED ALPHABETS ARABIC. --:J!.:>.!.. ~ t: t.).. a- ) z fj. 1- q'... b Lr. s 1-..I. k:, - t l v.. sh J 1_::_... dl (...". r m y--; ~ j vo. r/, (!.! ti.b kh' l:; I I n,,_... t J w u- I ~ ~ Tt 1.J::. d t c Y' y silent t i ore uoro a i, e. ii' 0. ai.au h,) dh t 9b J ) ) '1~ f.. a ~... p(i_ PERSIAN.. ch: J g Printed by II. W. Smit-h e.t the Times oflndie. Preas, Bombay, e.nd published by J. S. Tille)'', Hon. Secy., for the Bombay Branch, Roye.I Asiu.tic Society, Dombe.y.

113 Volumee. l II Ul IV \" n VII... %fqa. l U lz li l!l-!'13 U B:! 0:1-117 M.o; :...,,,.-PU BLlOATIONS FOR SALE. JOURNALS. rear '7 UHi-a2 18~1-97 1sg;.u; 19Qli-l:J ll>h 2:1 NEW SERIES. \"r:u. lll:!j lltlll! 1g~ :\0 111a1 EXTRA NUMBERS. Ko. IUA llr. llublcr'1 ~p.jrt 011 i;,1n1krlt 318!1. Ko1hmlr ( '1 :Ur. l'etcnon'e ll 1 ort. ou :! tuol:rll Ml!l:I, (181.1~3).. '4 llu. do. ( ) ~ Dn. do. (l884 8D) 11 4QA Do, do, ( 188G Qi) Otlaw of llombny. Dy llr. J, Oenon d4 Cunllll, lllou.. ODDLollllrf Mllmwlal Volumo, 1111».No. 76J. ludlsn nod lt"onlllpi Cbtouollllt)'. D7 V. D. Kc!t.lu&r ucb number 1 1.mlOI to tho 'fra uon1 of U1d Lll.w'arf t;uclolfi. llomha~ 1 Vol9. I-Jiii aud to LOO Jou111nld or Lho JI, IJ. R. A. Boolut). Voll!. 1-., Vil, w\ln n lllllt.orloa llkotch of Lllo 8ocloLy. Dy Uanput.rao l{. Tlwo.tckar, Ubrurluu....., J!'olkloro llotca com11llod and o<lltod by 11. &. B11tJ1ovcn, c.r.e.l l,o.b., from m11terlal1 DDlloat.o<l loy tho 1111.o )fr. A. M. 'l'. Juckaou, l.u.!:l., ll. vol». Vol, l-uuj11rat, Vol., U-Kuubn). &d1 volumu, Camplole Culollloaua or tho Llbmry. Part 1-Aullmnl, up to lh" ond of 101~ Part U-SobJed.a, u1 to Lh ood or 1917 CATALOGUE OF THE LIBRARY. Prim Ba. p.! 0 IJ s 0 0 II 8 IJ 2 8 IJ a a o Bl. a. p. lb B Iii II IJ 10 II IJ u... p. Ii Q l! 0 0 u 0 0 II II 10 u 0 ll 0 0 II 0, u I) Two volumot lu olo ordl!i H o o Yoarl.y Cataloguea ol tho Llbrar> ol Uw ll. B. J.L. A. Society, OAcb O 8 O Deacrlpt.lvn CatAIOiUD of Saualu)t 1111~ l'rnlalt ~nuaalpll ID tho IJbmry of t.lle Boc:loty. Compiled by l'rof '. \clankar, Jd..A., ~ul. l.... & 0 0 Vol. 11 : Bludu ljteraturo 8 O II Vol. llhv: JlllD and Vl!l'lmcular Llt~raturu.. ' O o Ducrlplh-e II.AL or An.Ille, l'.r11l4111md Unlu MA1111acrlpt1 IJ1 lbe Ubrary ol Lbe Bocloty l 8 0 BOMBAY GEOCRA.PIDCAL SOCIETY. l'rouaedloy1, Doml a.)' OcOlll'llpblCftl Society, 111:17 6' lt\30 Heb 0 B o Vo. du ,\ lt<40 1 o O 1'm11.ucU0111 Vol. Vl X, 1811-lllM~ l, 8-0- llo. do. Xl XI X, ::! 0 0 lndeit to Ula Tra.uaadlcn,. 1f lh.o llombo.)' CkOl!f'llPhlc11I Society, V()ll. I to XVIT, _ wit.ii Catalogue ol lho Ubr11.ey. Dy 1'. J. X111lllcily, lluu. llucretary,... - II --o y~ Out of l!lccll.

114 REGULATIONS CONCERNING CoNilrit~. I. A paper may be offered by any ~~ Society. Papers by Non-Me.rubers must be co& a Member.., A paper oflered!or publication should ~ r"' ready as copy for prcs11, i.e., type-written on one eid6 o ~ W8'eff and prepared in 11ccor<le.nce with regulations printed below, and l!jbould be sent to one of the Editors of the Journal.. 3. The Editorinl C<1mruittee will determine whether a paper shall be printed, and, if printed, in what form. 4. Every paper consisting of more than 10 pages of type-script or manuscript must be accompcmied by a summary not exceeding 200 words in length. 5. Contributors are urgently requested to use t.ho system of transliteration now adopted by this Society. A trnnslitora.t.ion sheet will be appended to thti first iaeue of the Journal for eve; y year. 6. Titlea of books cited should be given in full at t.he fmt citation ; thereafter reference should be made by using only Bignificant words in the tit.le, but sufficiently clearly to avoid doubt or confusion. Uniformity of a.bbre ;iatione must be observed throughout the paper. 7. Titles of articles in periodic.ala should be citecl in quotation marks ; the name of the periodicu.ls will be printed in italic. The following abbreviations for the Jottrnn.ls of the J>rincipal Otiental Societies should be adherro to :-Ep. bul., Ind. Ant., JA.., JA.08., JASB., JBBRAS., JRAS., WZl{M., ZDMG. Volume and pagination should bo indicated n.s in the following example: ZDMG. 27, :169 ff. (Zeitsckrift d~ deu1.&cl1en rnorgenlandiachtn Gesellschaft, volume 27, pages 369 and following). 8. The greatest posaihle conciseness in t.heir papers is desired of contributors, for the enke of economy. Additional printer'.e charges for alterations other than correctiodb of printer's errors must be borne by the contribut<1r. 9. The indiscriminate use of Oriental characters along with romo.n being very undesirable from the points of view of both printer and reader, only longer quotations from Oriental languages will, ae a rule, be printed in non-romo.n charact.er. IO. Thirty off-prints of an atticle are supplied to each con tributor free of charge. Further copies, if desired, may be obtained by giving due notice to the Secretary o.nd on payment of a small extra charge to cover the printing expense.a.

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