2 Geography of Religion Geographers see that the process by which one religion diffuses across landscape may conflict with distribution of others Geographers observe that religions are derived in part from elements of physical environment Religions modify landscape
3 Religion Key Issues 1. Where are religions distributed? 2. Why do religions have different distributions? 3. Why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns? 4. Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups?
4 Geographers and Religion Religion interests geographers b/c it shapes cultural landscape Geographers study spatial connections in religion: distinctive place of origin extent of diffusion processes by which religions diffused practices and beliefs that lead some to have more widespread distributions
5 Key Issue 1: Distribution of Religions Universalizing religions Christianity Islam Buddhism Ethnic religions Hinduism Judaism
7 World Distribution of Religions
8 World Distribution of Religions
9 World Distribution of Religions
10 World Distribution of Religions
11 World Distribution of Religions
12 World Population by Religion Fig. 6-1a: Over two-thirds of the world s population belong to Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the single largest world religion.
13 Think like a H.Geographer: What questions might you ask about this data?
15 What is an ethnic religion?
16 An Ethnic Religion is religion that primarily appeals to one group of people living in one place.
17 Hinduism and Buddhism EQ: 1.What are the main beliefs of Hinduism? 2. What are the main beliefs of Buddhism?
18 Where is Hinduism distributed? List the countries Why/How did Hinduism spread there?
20 Hinduism Background Information Hinduism is a polytheistic religion that started in India. Sacred Texts: Vedas, Ramayana, Bhagavad- Gita There is no single founder of the religion. Hindu beliefs are a combination of the beliefs of the early Indus Valley peoples and the Aryans.
21 Hinduism 97% in India 2% Nepal 1% are dispersed around the world appropriate form of worship for any two individuals may not be the same does not have a central authority or a single holy book Vishnu: 70% largest number of adherents Siva (protective & destructive god): 25%
22 Hindu Gods Polytheistic: Hindus believe in many gods; gods can be in many forms, including animals and humans; Brahma - the Creator Vishnu - the Preserver Shiva - the Destroyer
23 Main Beliefs of Hinduism Reincarnation: after death, souls are reborn into another form; reincarnation is determined by karma and dharma; Ahimsa: moral principle of nonviolence; Hindus believe that all things are aspects of brahman, therefore they should be respected;
24 Main Beliefs of Hinduism Karma: all the actions of a person's life that affects his or her fate in the next life; People who earn a good karma are reborn at a higher level of existence; Dharma: the religious and moral duties of an individual; duties vary according to class, occupation, gender or age; by obeying one's dharma, a person acquires merit for the next life
25 Karma = actions Dharma = duties
26 If you obey your dharma and have good karma you will be reincarnated to achieve moksha.
27 How does the caste system influence Caste System = social classes into which you are born and cannot change; after death, Hindus hope to be reincarnated into a higher caste; each caste has its own dharma; Hindu beliefs?
30 Sacred Animals / Rivers: cows, elephants and other animals are viewed as sacred; the Ganges River is the most sacred river to Hindus;
32 Holidays: Diwali
33 Holidays: Holi
34 Buddhism Background Information Buddhism started in India by the Buddha, or Siddartha Gautama Founder: Siddartha Gautama = an Indian prince who sought to eliminate suffering and devoted his life to achieving nirvana;
35 Buddhism 3 rd of the world s major universalizing religions 350 million adherents mainly in China & Southeast Asia Three main branches: Mahayana: 56% (East Asia) Theravada: 38% (SE Asia) Tantrayana: 6% (Tibet & Mongolia)
36 Main Beliefs of Buddhism Karma Dharma Reincarnation Buddhists believe in NO GODS; the Buddha was not normally viewed as a god;
37 Main Beliefs of Buddhism Eightfold Path / Middle Way the right way; making the right decisions, actions, effort, etc.
38 Main Beliefs of Buddhism Four Noble Truths = Life is full of suffering Suffering is caused by desire Eliminate suffering by eliminating desire Eliminate desire by following the Eightfold Path / Middle Way
39 Main Beliefs of Buddhism Buddhists do not believe in the caste system; Buddhists believe that anyone, at any time, can achieve nirvana; Nirvana = the goal of every Buddhist; spiritual enlightenment; Ahimsa = NON-VIOLENCE
40 Spread of Buddhism
41 BUDDHISM Accurate count of Buddhists difficult, b/c only a few people participate in Buddhist institutions Someone can be both Buddhist & a believer in other Eastern religions Buddhists in China and Japan believe at the same time in an ethnic religion
42 Confucianism Confucius - a philosopher & teacher in Chinese province of Lu Confucianism - prescribed a series of ethical principles for orderly conduct of daily life in China
44 China before Confucius The Yellow Emperor Xia and Shang Dynasties 2070 B.C B.C. Zhou Dynasty 1046 B.C B.C. Spring and Autumn period 770 B.C B.C.
46 Confucius Born in 551 B.C. died in 479 B.C.
47 Confucianism Concerned primarily with restoring social stability and order What is the basis of a stable, unified, and enduring social order? a system of social and ethical philosophy only when character is cultivated are our families regulated; only when families are regulated are states well governed.
48 Confucianism li rituals, norms, institutions, or mores the outer, conforming aspect of Confucianism ren humaneness, love, kindness, benevolence, or virtue the inner, reforming aspect of Confucianism
49 Li Rites, ceremonies, proper behavior, and good manner performed in good faith, with everyone keeping to his or her proper role universal harmony no need for physical sanctions, laws, or punishment
50 Ren Relationship between "two persons extension of filial piety to all human beings each role in the hierarchy of social relations had clearly defined duties reciprocity or mutual responsibility
51 Five relationships father-child ruler-subject husband-wife elder brother-younger brother friend-friend
52 Confucianism Persecuted in Qin Dynasty 221 B.C B.C. promoted by later rulers
53 It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.
54 Life is really simple, but we insist on making it complicated.
55 Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.
56 When anger rises, think of the consequences.
57 It is more shameful to distrust our friends than to be deceived by them.
58 To see the right and not to do it is cowardice.
59 Daoism (Taoism) Lao-Zi (also spelled Lao Tse)- organized Daoism. Daoists seek dao (or tao), -means way or path. Philosophy: Dao cannot be comprehended by reason and knowledge, because not, everything is knowable. many sects followers embraced elements of magic
60 Shintoism Ethnic religion of Japan originally worshipped forces of nature (ex: sun, moon, trees, animals, etc.) Eventually deceased emperors and ancestors became more important gods than nature still thrives in Japan no longer official state religion. Torii Gate: Shintosim symbol that marks the entrance to a sacred space. Represents the transition between the finite world and the infinite world of the gods.
61 AFRICAN RELIGIONS 12% of Africa are animists Animism- plants, rocks, forces of nature have conscious life and spirit 1 supreme god & many other gods under him Orally transmitted Losing ground to universalizing religion
62 Three Main Religions 3 main universalizing religions: 1. Christianity 2. Islam 3. Buddhism Universalizing Religions Subgroups. Branch: large & fundamental division w/in a religion Denomination:division of branch that unites number of local congregations Sect : relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
63 Christianity 2 billion adherents (largest world religion) most widespread distribution Three major branches: Roman Catholic Protestant Eastern Orthodox Christian Branches in Europe Fig. 6-2: Protestant denominations, Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodoxy are dominant in different regions of Europe a result of many historic interactions
65 The Eastern Orthodox Church 16 th century: date established Location: E. Europe & Middle East collection of 14 self-governing churches More than 40% belong to Russian Orthodox Church
66 Christianity in Western Hemisphere Western Hemisphere: 90% Christian 5% other religions Roman Catholics: 95% Latin America, compared w/ 25% in North America North America, Roman Catholics are clustered in: -SW & NE United States -Canadian province of Québec Protestants: 40% in N America
67 Christian Branches in the U.S.
68 Christianity in Western Hemisphere 3 largest Protestant denominations in U. S: 1. Baptist (largest Protestant) 2. Methodist 3. Pentecostal -followed by: 4. Lutheran 5. Latter-Day Saints 6. Churches of Christ
69 Smaller Branches of Christianity Two small Christian churches survive in northeast Africa: Coptic Church of Egypt Ethiopian Church Armenian Church: (origin: Syria) important in diffusing Christianity to S. & E. Asia btw 7 th & 13 th centuries Maronites (clustered in Lebanon) another example of small Christian sect that plays a prominent role in political unrest BOTH had regional conflicts!!
70 Islam 2 nd lgst world religion Followers: 1.2 billion people predominant religion of Middle East from North Africa to Central Asia ½ of world s Muslims live in four countries outside the Middle East: 1. Indonesia 2. Pakistan 3. Bangladesh 4. India
72 Branches of Islam Two important branches: Sunnis:83% of Muslims/largest branch in most Muslim countries Shiites: 16% of Muslims/ clustered in a handful of countries (Iran & part of Iraq)
73 Branches of Islam
74 Islam in North America & Europe
75 Judaism Founder: Abraham 1 st monotheistic religion Mostly in Israel & US Israel 1 st majority Jewish state since biblical times Jesus born a Jew
76 Judaism Judaism plays a more substantial role in Western civilization REASON: Christianity and Islam are rooted in Judaism
77 Geography of Religion Geographers see that the process by which one religion diffuses across landscape may conflict with distribution of others Geographers observe that religions are derived in part from elements of physical environment Religions modify landscape
78 Religion Key Issues 1. Where are religions distributed? 2. Why do religions have different distributions? 3. Why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns? 4. Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups?
79 World Population by Religion Fig. 6-1a: Over two-thirds of the world s population belong to Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the single largest world religion.
81 Ch. 6 Key Issue #2 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions??
82 Origin of Religions Universalizing religions - precise places of origin, based on events in the life of a man. Ethnic religions -unknown or unclear origins, not tied to single historical individuals. Specific events also led to division of universalizing religions into branches.
83 Origin of Christianity Founded upon the teachings of Jesus
84 Origin of Islam Traces its origin to same narrative as Judaism & Christianity Founder: Prophet Muhammad He was visited by angel that revealed to him the real will of Allah
85 Conflict Between Jews & Muslims God promised land of (Israel) to Abraham s descendants Abraham had 2 sons: Ishmael & Isaac HAGAR ABRAHAM SARAH Ishmael Isaac Muhammad Jews
86 Origin of Islam Quran: holiest book in Islam Sunni (majority) & Shi'ites They decided to follow different leaders after the death of Mohammed
87 Origin of Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama- founder of Buddhism Later called The Buddha the enlightened one
88 Origin of Buddhism Theravada- older branch of Buddhism -believe they are closer to Buddha s original approach -believe Buddhism is a full-time occupation (become a monk)
89 Origin of Other Universalizing Religions Sikhism & Bahá I - founded more recently than the other 3 Founder of Sikhism: Guru Nanak -traveled through South Asia around 500 yrs ago preaching -many people became his Sikhs-Hindi word for disciples Strong opposition from Shiite muslims in Iran
90 Origin of Hinduism, an Ethnic Religion Hinduism no specific founder existed prior to recorded history Aryan tribes from Central Asia invaded India about 1400 B.C. & brought their religion
91 Diffusion of Religions 3 Universalizing Religions: diffused from specific hearths (places of origin) to other regions of the world. Ethnic religions: remain clustered in one location **All 3 hearths in Asia** Christianity & Islam (SW Asia) Buddhism (South Asia)
92 Diffusion of Christianity Diffused through a combination of: 1. relocation diffusion 2. contagious diffusion 3. hierarchical diffusion
93 Diffusion Paths of Christianity in order Spread mainly by hierarchical process 2. Contagious expansion in Europe 3. relocation to European colonies
94 Diffusion Paths of Islam-- Spread mainly by contagious diffusion through 17 th century through Asia, North Africa. Now world s fastest growing religion spread by both expansion and relocation diffusion.
95 Diffusion Paths of Different Forms of Buddhism. Origin in Northern India; different forms spread by expansion & hierarchical diffusion outward blended in East Asia (syncretism). Hinduism later reclaimed dominance in India
96 Lack of Diffusion of Ethnic Religions limited, if any, diffusion. lack missionaries Diffusion of universalizing religions comes at the expense of ethnic religions
97 Mingling of Ethnic and Universalizing Religions Universalizing religions may mingle with Ethnic religions. African religious ideas & practices merged with Christianity.
98 Judaism, an Exception Romans forced Jewish diaspora: Jews lived among other nationalities Other nationalities often mistreated them Jews of many European countries forced to live in ghettos During World War II Germany killed many Jews Many of the survivors migrated to Israel 10 % of the world s 14 million Jews live in Europe
99 Holy Places ethnic religion: derive from distinctive physical environment of its hearth ex: mountains, rivers, or rock formations universalizing religion: holiness associated w/ founder s life. Making a pilgrimage to these holy places is incorporated into rituals of some universalizing & ethnic religions.
100 Holy Sites in Buddhism holy locations important events in Buddha s life. locations of Buddha s principal miracles. Buddhist Temple in India
101 Mecca, Islam s Holiest City Associated with Prophet Muhammad life Holiest city is Mecca- 2 nd most holiest location: Medina Hajj: Mecca during Hajj
102 Hindu Holy Places closely tied to physical geography of India pilgrimage - act of purification organized into a hierarchy Ganges River Specific Mountains
103 The Calendar Ethnic religion- holidays based on distinctive physical geography of homeland. Universalizing religions- major holidays relate to events in life of the founder rather than to the changing seasons of one particular place.
104 The Jewish Calendar Judaism is classified as an ethnic, religion in part because: 1. its major holidays are based on events in agricultural calendar of religion s homeland in present-day Israel.
105 Issue 3: Organization of Space Places of worship Christian worship Places of worship in other religions Sacred space Disposing of the dead Religious settlements Religious place names Administration of space Hierarchical religions Locally autonomous religions
106 Christian Churches critical role in Christianity expression of religious principles environment in the image of God attendance at collective service of worship considered extremely important Many Gothic churches had crossshaped floor plans
108 Muslim Mosques not viewed as a sanctified place location for community to gather together for worship. organized around a central courtyard
109 Hindu Temples important religious functions take place at home w/in family. Temples: built to house shrines for particular gods Congregational worship is not part of Hinduism
110 Buddhist & Shintoist Pagodas Pagoda- prominent & visually attractive element of Buddhist & Shintoist landscapes. not designed for congregational worship.
111 Burial Christians, Muslims, & Jews - bury dead in designated area called cemetery. China: Traditional burial practices have removed approx. 10% of land from productive agriculture -cremation encouraged
112 Other Methods of Disposing of Bodies Hindus - practice cremation Cremation - was the principal form of disposing of bodies in Europe before Christianity Cremation could also free the soul from the body. Exposure Burial at sea Cremation near Taj
113 Hierarchical Religions hierarchical religion - well-defined geographic structure organizes territory into local administrative units. Roman Catholic Church organized into an administrative structure -accountable to Pope in Rome. Pope Archbishop Bishop Diocese Monsignor Parish Priest
114 Roman Catholic Hierarchy in U.S. Catholic Church divides U.S. into provinces headed by archbishops. Provinces divided into dioceses, headed by bishops
115 Latter-Day Saints exercise strong organization of landscape.
116 Locally Autonomous Religions Some universalizing religions self-sufficient Ex: Islam and Protestant
117 Local Autonomy in Islam NO religious hierarchy NO formal territorial organization Strong unity within Islamic world maintained by high degree of communication & migration Ex: pilgrimage uniformity fostered by Islamic doctrine offers more explicit commands than other religions
118 Protestant Denominations vary in structure from autonomous to somewhat hierarchical. Autonomous denominations : Baptists & United Church of Christ -organized into self-governing congregations. Presbyterian churches: intermediate degree of autonomy. Episcopalian, Lutheran, & most Methodist: hierarchical structures -comparable to Roman Catholic Church.
119 Chapter 6 Key Issue #4 Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups
120 Religion vs.government Policies Religious groups oppose policies promoting social change conflicting w/ traditional values Islam: affected by conflict btw. religious values & modern society Sharia Law
121 Taliban vs. Western Values 1996: gained power in Afghanistan Imposed very strict laws inspire by Islamic values Banned leisure activities Believed they were called by Allah to purge Afghanistan of sin & violence 2001: U.S. led coalition overthrew Taliban
122 Hinduism vs. Social Equality Hinduism promotes a rigid social structure The Caste System British administrators & Christian missionaries helped fight the system System was outlawed but still pervades in society
123 Religion vs. Communism Religion challenged in 20 th century by rise of communism Communist government pursued antireligious programs role of organized religion in Soviet life reduced church buildings & property nationalized & could be used only with local government permission religious organizations prevented from conducting social & cultural work
124 Religion vs. Religion Fundamentalism-... Conflicts occur (at) boundary btw two religious groups. 2 longstanding conflicts: 1. Middle East 2. Northern Ireland.
125 Protestants in Northern Ireland 1937: Ireland became independent 26 northern districts with large Protestant populations chose to remain part of the United Kingdom.
126 Religious Wars in Ireland 87% Roman Catholic 46% Protestant Protestant: majority in N. Ireland -preferred to be part of Protestant United Kingdom Roman Catholics in N. Ireland: victim of discriminatory practices -IRA: formed to fight discrimination -UDF: formed in response to the IRA
127 Crusades between Christians and Muslims -Purpose: recapture Holy land from Muslim conqerors -over 150 year period
128 Jews vs. Muslims in Palestine 1947: U.N. Divided Palestine into 2 independent states Jerusalem: was to be an international city open to ALL religions & run by U.N. 1948: Jews declared independent state w/in U.N. Boundaries
129 Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel The day after independence several neighboring countries invaded Israel 1949: armistice signed that divided control of Jerusalem
130 Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel UN partition plan for Palestine in 1947 contrasted with the boundaries that were established after the War. Major changes later resulted from the 1967 War
131 Jerusalem Contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
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World Religions Religion Religion is a belief in a supernatural power of powers that are regarded as the creator and maintainers of the universe. Three are three main types: 1. Monotheistic: a belief in
WORLD RELIGIONS Mr. Booth World History 2015 5 Major Religions Christianity Islam Judaism Buddhism Hinduism + Confucianism/Taoism 5 Categories of Religions 1. Monotheistic Belief in one God (Christianity,
Religions of South Asia 2500 250 BC Hinduism gave birth to Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism Christianity Jesus Christ, son of God the Bible Islam Muhammadlast prophet to talk to Allah t he Quran Do you think
WORLD RELIGIONS Mr. Booth World History 2015 5 Major Religions Christianity Islam Judaism Buddhism Hinduism + Confucianism/Taoism 5 Categories of Religions 1. Monotheistic Belief in one God (Christianity,
Religions of South Asia Hinduism Sikhism Buddhism Jainism Hinduism Historical Origins: Hinduism is one of the world s oldest religions and originated in India in about 1500 BC. Scholars believe that it
India Notes The Indian Civilization The study of Ancient India includes 3 time periods: Indian Geography The 1 st Indian Civilization began along the River now located in the country of. Many people know
Ancient India Geography Of India India is called a subcontinent. Subcontinent: a large landmass that is smaller than a continent India is separated from the north by the Himalayan and Hindu Kush Mountains.
Chapters 4 & 9 South Asia The first agricultural civilization in India was located in the Indus River valley. Its two main cities were Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. Its writing, however, has never been deciphered,
Introduction: Belief Systems Humans have always expressed a need to understand natural phenomenon and to answer questions regarding their way of life and what happens once they die. These needs resulted
Hinduism and Buddhism PURPOSE OF SECTION: Explain the development and impact of Hinduism and Buddhism in India and subsequent diffusion of Buddhism. Hinduism National religion of India ॐ Based on variety
Religious Unit Chapter 3 Section 2 and 4 Chapter 6 Section 3 and Chapter 10 Sec. 1 HINDUISM Is a collection of religious beliefs over time It is based on shared views 1. Religion liberates the soul from