1 Cultural Patterns and Processes Unit 3 Essential Question: How do cultural patterns and processes vary across the planet?
2 The Meaning of Culture Culture-the way of life of a particular people. Language, religion, food, and music Culture and ethnicity are often intertwined What is ethnicity? What is the difference between race and ethnicity? It is important to remember that geographers look at trends over time and analyze the patterns of cultures.
3 Material Culture Anything that can be seen on the landscape Built environment-how people impact the landscape (seen)
4 Nonmaterial Culture Anything that makes up culture that can t be touched Language, religion, myths, superstitions
5 Folk Culture Practice of a particular custom by a relatively small group of people in a specific area Makes a place unique Passed from generation to generation, usually through oral histories Folklore-stories passed from generation to generation Values and legends
6 Good vs. Evil Folklore
7 Popular Culture Opposite of folk culture, this is the practice of customs that span several different cultures Folk culture could potentially become part of popular culture, if its popularity grows. Folk Culture Popular Culture
8 The Cultural Landscape Natural Landscapephysical Earth (field of physical geography) Interactions of a group in relation to their own cultural practices as well as to the values of a society as reflected through artifacts and architecture.
9 Adaptive Strategy How a person adapts to a new culture
10 Music and Culture Musical styles and lyrics can tell a geographer a lot about the culture in an area. Religion also plays a key role in musical expression. Radio stations give information about the listening habits of people. Folk songs- describe a group of people
11 Food and Culture Favorite and least favorite foods describe people and their culture. Where a restaurant is located relative to a food source can determine the menu. Our diet depends on the agriculture around us.
12 Baseball and basketball have spread worldwide from the US Hierarchical diffusion World s most popular sport? Hooligans- fans who incite violence at football (soccer) matches. Racial, religious epithets Sports and Culture
13 Architecture and Culture Societies are based on family structures, which are typically some time of house. Home can be the foundation for culture Folk housing is constructed with materials that are nearby Usually depends on climate
14 Architecture and Culture Indigenous architecture-any structure on the landscape that is not built by a professional craftsperson or artist. Different regions focus on different parts of the house. Muslims have a special wall that faces Mecca
15 Architecture and Culture 3 Styles in the US New England Saltbox, 2 Chimney, Cape Cod, and front gable and wing styles. Middle Atlantic I house- 2 stories with gables on either end Lower Chesapeake 2 stories with chimneys located on both sides.
16 Architecture and Culture Anglo-American landscape Township and Range System Folk landscape-what people perceive the landscape to be based on their cultural notions of an area. Traditional architecture-structures built as area was being established Ex: traditional architecture of a city would be the original industrial plants established as the city was founded.
17 Language and Culture Ability to communicate with others orally and/or in writing. Unites and divides Language in school: US vs. European countries Monolingual country-has only one official language in which all gov. business is conducted. Multilingual country-has more than one official language. Linguistic diversity-learning of more languages Language extinction-as young ppl move out of a local area, the elderly are the only ones to continue to use their language. After they die, the language disappears.
18 Lingua Francas A language used as a common tongue among people who speak diverse languages, often to conduct business What is the current lingua franca? What was the last lingua franca? What do you think the next lingua franca will be?
19 Learning Languages First skill: Ability to speak and sound out the words Second skill: Ability to write the symbols that are connected w/ each sound or meaning Third skill: Comprehension
20 A form of a language that is unique in sound, speed, syntax, and vocabulary Isoglossboundary of a dialect You guys vs. You uns vs. Y all Dialects
21 Pidgin, Trade, and Creole Languages Pidgin- Mixture of language Very simple grammar and vocab. Allow trade and interactions to occur Can become an entirely new language\ Trade-made-up language that is used by ppl who want to trade. Each party learns the modified language to communicate Creole-stable language resulting from the blend of two or more languages that often does not include features of either. Broad choice of vocab
22 Language Families Groups of languages organized by common heritage Language subfamilies- smaller groups of languages within a language family Language groups- ppl. Whose languages are descended from a common tongue French and Spanish (Romance languages)
23 Languages and the Landscape Toponyms-different place names Tells us a lot about the culture of a place and people
24 Religion and Culture Value system that people place on themselves and others based on a spiritual or divine aspect of the world. Religion can impact the world s landscape and the cultures of billions. Faith-belief in things that you cannot see or prove.
25 Religion and Culture Monotheistic-One god Polytheistic-Many gods Ethnic religions-person is born into the faith, little to no effort is put forth to convert others. Universalizing religionsmembers actively try to covert others
26 Religion and Culture Atheists-do not believe in any god Secularist-person who wants to separate religion from all aspects of society One thought on religion vs. atheism by British celebrity Ricky Gervais
27 Major Religions of the World Buddhism Hinduism Christianity Islam Judaism
28 Christianity World s largest religion Monotheistic, universalizing. 3 Branches: Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox Symbols: Cross located within the church Steeple of the church points upward towards Heaven. Cross usually on top of steeple
29 Christian Beliefs Jesus Christ: Born on Earth Died on Cross Resurrected Showed that all Christians can be saved The Bible Old and New Testament Old: Israelites, Moses, Abraham, David. Before the coming of the Savior New: life of Jesus and foundation of the new faith Holy Trinity: God, Son, Holy Spirit
30 Structure of Christianity Catholic Church Pope Cardinals Bishops Priests Protestant Church Pastor, Minister Orthodox Church Patriarch
31 Denominations Branches of a religion that differ on specific aspects of the principles of the religion Catholicism is the oldest and largest branch Martin Luther created the Protestant Reformation which broke away from Roman Catholicism Lutheran, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, etc.
33 Islam Second largest religion. Starting to gain on Christianity Muslims Mostly live in the Middle East, Northern Africa, Southeast Asia Universalizing, monotheistic Shares some of the major people with Christianity and Judaism
34 Islam Islam believes that Jesus was a prophet, but not the main prophet. For Muslims, this person is Muhammad. Muhammad was spoken to by Allah (God) and wrote down Allah s word in the Koran. Koran is the Islamic holy text.
35 Islam Muslims worship inside of a mosque Minarets-towers that extend upward toward Allah The leader of a mosque is an imam. They lead prayers at different times of the day
36 Beliefs of Islam Five Pillars of Islam: 1. Shahadah: There is only one God, Allah When you accept the creed of Allah, you officially become a Muslim 2. Salah: Prayer must be done five times daily facing the city of Mecca 3. Zakat: Taxes must be paid directly to the poor and needy or the mosque 4. Sawm: One must fast during Ramadan 5. Hahjj: One must make a pilgrimage to Mecca once during one s life
37 Salah and Sawm
39 Denominations Shiites, Shiahs, Shi a 15-20% of Muslim population Conservative Interpret the Koran literally Sunnis make up the largest percentage of Muslims Liberal Looser interpretation of the Koran
40 Denominations Shiite Muslims live mainly in Iraq and Iran Sunni Muslims live in the rest of the Middle East, Northern Africa, and Southeast Asia Theocracy-state ruled by religious leaders Religion plays a key role in the administration of the country Koran plays an important role in the institutional laws of society Islamic theocracies are ruled by Sharia Law Do not separate church and state Based on Koran and teachings of Muhammad. Fundamentalism-literal interpretation of a holy book, urges strict behavioral guidelines to comply with basic principles of religion See this in Christianity.
41 Judaism One of the oldest religions Not just a religion, but an ethnicity
42 Judaism Worship inside of a synagogue The Star of David is a major symbol in the religion. David was one of the major leaders in the faith
43 Beliefs of Judaism Ethnic, monotheistic religion God figure is Yahweh Jewish bible is the Tanahk, based on the Torah and the Talmud Rabbi leads the service on Saturday
44 Distribution Majority of population lives in the US along the East Coast Israel was founded in 1948 as a homeland for the Jewish after WWII 14 Million Jews live there today
45 Denominations of Judaism Ultra-Orthodox/ Haredi Isolated Avoid modern society (sin) Orthodox Can live within society Believe that the Torah s message can change with the times Reform Believe Torah is open to continuous interpretation Reconstructionist Personal autonomy over customs Humanistic Belief in Jewish roots, not Yahweh as a supernatural figure Flexidox Very liberal, but still keeps some practices (kosher, Saturday as holy day)
46 Jewish Holidays Passover Biblical Story Rosh Hashanah Reflect on sins Yom Kippur Fast Atonement
47 Monotheistic vs. Polytheistic Monotheistic Belief in one god figure Believers will go to heaven, nonbelievers to hell Zoroastrianism Belief in Zarathustra as father of religion and in the concept of both good and evil. Core of Western religions Mostly in Iran and India Polytheistic Many gods
48 Hinduism Oldest religion on Earth Ethnic religion You can practice, but you are only Hindu if you re born into a Hindu family Majority in India 3 rd largest religion
49 Beliefs of Hinduism 3 primary deities Brahma Shiva Vishnu Practice faith in a temple Vedas-holy texts Reincarnation
50 Deities Triumvirate: Brahma Created the universe Shiva Destroys the universe Vishnu Preserver of Earth and universe
51 Buddhism Focus on elimination of desires through meditation No focus on a specific god Instead: personal devotion of the individual follower. Located in East Asia, Northeast, Southeast Asia Universalizing but Syncretic religion: combining 2+ faiths into one belief system
52 Buddhism Pagodas Individual rather than congregational Not social Burn incense to release spirits/meditate
53 Beliefs of Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama Prince who lived in Nepal He left his palace and observed the poverty in the region and was disgusted. He lived a life without material possessions Nirvana: enlightenment
54 Beliefs of Buddhism 4 Universal Truths All living beings should experience and endure suffering Suffering leads to the desire to live, which leads to reincarnation The goal is to leave the suffering of this Earth perpetuated by reincarnation Nirvana can be achieved through practicing the following eight steps: Rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, meditation.
55 Other Universalizing Religions Sikism One god formed as a rejection of India s caste system. India Bahai No class distinctions, equality Africa
56 Christian religion, but distinct differences between Mormonism and other sects of Christianity Founded by Joseph Smith, prophet of God Continued by Brigham Young Mostly in Utah Mormonism
57 Mormonism Book of Mormon: used in addition to Old and New Testaments Polygamy-marriage of one man to more than one wife Outlawed the practice, excommunicates anyone who practices this Some groups still do this and call themselves Mormons.
58 Other Ethnic Religions Animism Luck and spirits Shaman is a leader who intermediates between the supernatural and real world Can remove evil spirits Southeast Asia, Africa
59 Confucianism Based on teachings of Confucius China Focus on relationships, makes up the major societal rules of China Feng Shui/Geomancykeeping flow of energy in harmony
60 Daoism Release of personal desires Lao Tzu China Things happen that cannot be explained by rational thought Mystical understanding of the harmony of life
61 Shintoism Japan Polytheistic and Monotheistic Nature is divine or holy Rivers, mountains, etc have spirits Ancestors play an important role Official religion in Japan in 1900s
62 Sacred Places & Spaces Sacred spaceslocations with significant meaning Taj Mahal: built by Muslim prince as a mausoleum for wife Ganges River: Hindu holy river; bodies are burned and scattered over river Death and how to care for the dead
63 Conflict Battles fought in the name of religion happen frequently Why is this ironic? Interfaith boundaries-fighting over the boundaries of people of different faiths Christians vs. Muslims Iran vs. Israel Christians vs. Christians Muslim Pakistan vs. Hindu India Nuclear Weapons 9/11 and other terrorist attacks (worldwide) Northern Ireland: Protestant vs. Catholic
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