2 Key Question: What is Religion and What Role does it Play in Culture?
3 Religion: A system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities. Perceived ultimate priorities often translate into a list of things a follower should do and ways a follower should behave.
4 Classifications of Religions Monotheistic religions worship a single deity.
5 Polytheistic religions worship more than one deity, even thousands.
6 Animistic religions belief that inanimate objects posses spirits and should be revered
7 Universalizing religions religions that actively seek converts because members believe they offer belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal.
8 Ethnic religions religions whose adherents are born into the faith and whose members do not actively seek converts.
10 Indigenous Religions Belief systems and philosophies practiced and passed from generation to generation among peoples within an indigenous tribe or group. Indigenous = produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment.
13 Shamanism Community faith in traditional societies in which people follow a shaman. The shaman is a religious leader, teacher, healer and visionary.
14 Rise of Secularism Secularism Indifference to or rejection of organized religious affiliations and ideas. - Where is secularism on the rise and why?
15 Sacred Sites: Places or spaces people infuse with religious meaning.
16 Pilgrimage: Purposeful travel to a religious site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site.
25 Buddhist Stupas - 72 stupas, each containing a sculpture of the Buddha in meditation were built around 800 CE and still stand in Borobudur, Indonesia.
26 Buddhism Originated: Splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago. Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area. Core Beliefs: Anyone can achieve salvation, reach enlightenment Founder: Siddartha (the Buddha) Sacred Sites: Stupas Diffusion: Most strongly into Tibet in the north and into East Asia
27 Hinduism Originated: In Indus River Valley over 4000 years ago. Core Beliefs: Ritual bathing, karma, reincarnation Sacred Text: Vedas Sacred Sites: Ganges River Diffusion: Through South Asia and into Southeast Asia
28 Taoism Originated: In China more than 2500 years ago Core Beliefs: Oneness of humanity and nature Founder: Lao-Tsu Sacred Text: Book of the Way Diffusion: East Asia
29 Confucianism Originated: In China about 2500 years ago Core Belief: Real meaning of life lays in the present Founder: Confucius Sacred Text: Confucian Classics Diffusion: East Asia, Southeast Asia
30 Islam Originated: On Arabian peninsula about 1500 years ago. Core Beliefs: Monotheistic religion, revelations Muhammad received from Allah, Five Pillars. Sacred Text: Qu ran Founder: Muhammad Sacred Sites: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem Diffusion: Across Arabian peninsula, across North Africa, into Spain and also east into Southeast Asia
31 Originated: Judaism In Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago. Core Beliefs: First major monotheistic religion, covenant between God (one God) and Abraham (the chosen people) Sacred Text: Torah Founder: Abraham Sacred Sites: Jerusalem (Western Wall), land between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River Diffusion: Into European cities during the Diaspora, into N. America during WWII, into Israel over last 50 years
32 Christianity Originated: In Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago. Core Beliefs: Monotheistic religion, follow teachings of Jesus to achieve eternal life Sacred text: Bible Founder: Jesus (son of God) Sacred Sites: Bethlehem, Jerusalem Diffusion: Into Western Europe, and then world wide during colonialism and after.
34 Religion and Cultural Landscape
53 Western Wall, Jerusalem
59 Sacred Sites of Jerusalem Jerusalem is sacred to three major religions: Judaism (Western Wall) Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre) Islam (Dome of the Rock)
60 Hindu Burial Ceremonies Cremation People who are being cremated are washed in water drawn from Ganges river. The body is then carried to the cremation ground as prayers are chanted to Yama (God). A burial is reserved for children and people with certain diseases.
61 Buddhist Burial Practices In Buddhist practice, the deceased is cremated. A Buddhist funeral is a simple, solemn and dignified ceremony. Buddhists believe that when a person dies, rebirth will take place somewhere else according to his good or bad actions.
62 Islamic Burial Practice Muslims practice natural burial, with the deceased's body covered in shroud and with the face facing Mecca, the holiest city in Islam
63 Jewish Burial Practices The body of the deceased is washed thoroughly embalming is not permitted, the coffins are constructed so that the body will be returned to the Earth as soon as possible. coffins are made of pine wood, and have no metal parts at all (wooden pegs are used in the place of nails ceased is buried in a simple pine coffin) -mourning for 3 days
64 Christian Burial Practices Buried Headstones may include crosses or verses from the Bible. Historically, the head should be placed at the western end of the grave, this mirrors the layout of Christian churches and for the same reason, to view the coming of Christ
66 Religious Fundamentalism and Extremism Religious fundamentalism: A return to the basics of their faith found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
67 Religious extremism: Fundamentalism carried to the point of violence. Found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
68 Jihad Translates as "to struggle in the way of Allah. There are two commonly accepted meanings of jihad An inner spiritual struggle by a believer to fulfill his religious duties. Jihad also includes the idea of an armed struggle against persecution and oppression. Islamic extremists have declared an Islamic holy war against the West
69 Intrafaith Boundaries: Boundaries within a single major faith.
70 Two Major Splits in Christianity 1. Split into Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in Protestant sect split off in 1400s and 1500s
71 First Split in Christianity, 1054 CE Western Roman empire = Roman Catholicism Eastern Roman empire = Eastern Orthodox
73 The Conflict Political and Religious conflict in Northern Ireland. Lasted from Conflict was between minority Catholics and majority Protestants. Catholics wanted Northern Ireland to re-unify under the Irish government Protestants wanted to remain under the control of the British
74 Historical Background 1542 King Henry VIII declares English control over all of Ireland. A series of bloody, tragic episodes, punctuated with periods of peace would play out over the next 500 years.
75 THE IRISH CONQUEST Oliver Cromwell carries out the conquest of Ireland. 660,000 Irish people were killed. Twenty thousand Irish boys and girls were sold into slavery to the West Indies Executed thousands of Catholic Clergy
76 1845 THE GREAT IRISH FAMINE Period of mass starvation, disease and emigration Potato blight destroyed 2/3 of the potato crop 1 million deaths about 20% of the population 1 million emigrate
77 Potato blight wiped out crops all across Europe and parts of the Americas So why did Ireland suffer so much more than any other area?
78 Ethnic Cleansing? Food, from 30 to 50 shiploads per day, was removed at gunpoint (from Ireland) by British constables and soldiers. Britain seized tens of millions of head of livestock, tens of millions of tons of flour, grains, meat, poultry and dairy productsenough to sustain 18-million persons. Starving victims were offered food in return for denouncing their Catholic faith and converting.
79 1916 EASTER RISING Irish Nationalists seize key government buildings in Dublin and declare an Irish Republic
80 WAR OF IRISH INDEPENDENCE War ends with the creation of the Irish free state
81 The Creation Northern Ireland Six counties in Northern Ireland, which are predominantly Protestant, maintain loyalty to England.
82 The Troubles Begin Civil Rights movement emerges in early 1960 s Minority Catholics protest discrimination in areas of housing, employment and policing
83 Armed Paramilitary Groups form to fight for each side of the conflict Paramilitary: A group of civilians organized in a military fashion, especially to operate in place of or assist regular army troops.
84 Irish Republican Army Irish Nationalists want to reunite with the Republic of Ireland Catholic minority
85 Ulster Volunteer Force Loyalist want to maintain ties to England Protestant Majority
86 For the next thirty years the two groups would carry out a conflict of bombings, riots and assassinations.
87 Royal Ulster Constabulary RUC The North Irish Police are pulled into the conflict and are seen as supportive of the Loyalists.
88 British Military As conflict escalated British military is sent to stabilize and bring peace. Although neutral the IRA and Catholics lost faith in the military when they arrested hundreds of IRA members
91 Good Friday Agreement 1998 Peace Agreement between British government, Irish government and eight political parties from Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland remains under British control, but is more independent and a two new legislative bodies are created to give Irish Catholics more representation in government. IRA and UVF agree to decommission all weapons and address concerns through peaceful negotiations.
92 The Troubles..
94 Major split in Islam Shortly after Muhammad s death, split into 1. Sunni Muslims (the majority) 2. Shi ite Muslims (concentrated in Iran)
95 Interfaith Boundaries: Boundaries between the world s major faiths.
96 Interfaith Boundary in Africa
97 Israel and Palestine
98 Diaspora To Disperse Describes the forced or voluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place. Originally applied to the dispersal of Jews, but is now applied to any large scale population dispersal.
99 Jewish Diaspora The original Diaspora occurred after the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in CE. Jews dispersed north into Central Europe and across North Africa and Spain.
101 Zionism The movement to unite the Jewish people of the Diaspora and to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land. Zionism supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity. Opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies. Advocated the return of Jews to Israel. Seeks to protect and defend Jews from antisemitic discrimination, exclusion, and persecution that had historically occurred in the diaspora.
102 The West Bank with a the proposed security wall, parts of which the Israeli government has already built.
103 Caste System The strict social segregation of people on the basis of ancestry and occupation. Specifically in India s Hindu society.
104 Four Main Classes - Varnas
105 The Untouchables The untouchables were the outcastes, or people beyond the caste system. Their jobs or habits involved polluting activities including: Any job that involved ending a life, such as fishing. Killing or disposing of dead cattle or working with their hides. Any contact with human emissions such as sweat, urine, or feces. This included occupational groups such as sweepers and washermen. People who ate meat.
127 Diffusion of Islam into Europe large mosque in Paris, France
138 Religious Landscapes in the United States
140 QOD A. Define Universalizing religion B. Define Ethnic religion C. Give an example of a universalizing religion and three reasons that it is considered universalizing. D. Give an example of an ethnic religion and give three reasons why it is considered an ethnic religion.
144 Jewish neighborhoods in European Cities the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague, the Czech Republic
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