CIE GCE O level Islamiyat (Code: 2058) TOPICAL O LEVEL PREPARED BY: MUHAMMAD SHAMOEEL UL NAEEM EDITION 2017 THE MSUNA PROJECT

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1 CIE GCE O level Islamiyat (Code: 2058) THE MSUNA PROJECT TOPICAL O LEVEL ISLAMIYAT PREPARED BY: MUHAMMAD SHAMOEEL UL NAEEM EDITION 2017 The only pages, where the secrets of O level Islamiyat lie, you need to unearth for scoring A+! The MSUNA PROJECT Street # 6, Cavalry Ground, Lahore PAKISTAN Contact

2 PROLOGUE The Topical O level Islamiyat has been compiled from the marking scheme and reformed to the students' grasp, which is worth reading wholly and thoroughly, telling you before you give a cold shoulder to it, until you realize after the exam, that this was not worth paying no heed to, when it will be too late. These short series can be read in a few days. This book aims to motivate the student with content ever formulated to the point, and push him into the studies which he might be mistaking as arduous or somewhat difficult. The series is especially devised for O level, though everyone can benefit reviewing it. And know that this all is the extract of what you're going to study the whole year, or have studied. All the main points needed to recall are collected. Go through them before and after you complete your syllabus in school. This is wholly set up in accordance with the CIE pattern, and all the irrelevant study matter, with which the student has no concern, is totally ousted. Based up on the marking scheme, these notes are one of the best ones. Moreover you can find your preferred content confidently; the contents and the chapters are laid in concurrence with the original O level syllabus. All the best! ii

3 CONTENTS The Glorious Quran... 1 The revelation of the Qur an to the Prophet between the years 610 and The account of the compilation of the Qur an under the Rightly Guided Caliphs... 2 The use of the Qur an in legal thinking, and its relationship with the Hadiths, consensus (ijma ) and analogy (qiyas)... 3 Major themes of the Quran as contained both in the passages set for special study and in other similar passages The life and importance of the Prophet Muhammad The main events of the Prophet s life from his birth to his call to prophethood The main events of his activities in Madina, his leadership of the community there and his conflicts with the Makkans and others Prophet s actions and character The first Islamic community The Prophet s Wives Descendants of Prophet (Peace be upon Him) Companions, Ten Blessed Companions, Scribes, the Emigrants and Helpers of Prophet (SAW) The history and importance of the Hadiths The main musnad and musannaf collections The methods based on examination of the chain of transmitters (isnad) and the text (matn) of a Hadith to test the reliability of the Hadith The major themes of the Hadiths as these are contained both in the passages set for special study and in other similar passages Use of Hadith in legal thinking, and their relationship with the Qur an, consensus (ijma ) and analogy (qiyas) iii

4 Significance of Hadith in thought and action in Islam The period of rule of the Rightly Guided Caliphs and their importance as leaders Abubakr (RA) Umar (RA) Uthman (RA) Ali (RA) Articles of Faith God, including what Muslims believe about him... 2 Angels, their nature and duties Books, their contents and purpose Prophets, their character and function God s predestination and decree, its meaning and significance Resurrection, the Last Day and their significance The scope of Jihad The Pillars of Islam The declaration of faith, shahada, including the significance of what it contains Alms-giving, Zakat, how it is performed and its significance in the community Fasting Hajj iv

5 The Glorious Quran The revelation of the Qur an to the Prophet between the years 610 and 632 Q. Write an account of the ways in which the Qur an was revealed to the Prophet between the years 610 and 632. [10] *Muhammad was meditating in a cave on Mount Hira. This was when he was 40. *A being unknown to him but later identified as Gabriel appeared. *This being seized him and crushed him, and gave him the order 'Recite!' *He could not, and the crushing and order were repeated twice (three times in all). *Then the being itself recited Recite, in the name of your Lord who created, His wife Khadija (RA) took him to her relative Waraqa lbn Nawfal for an explanation of what had happened. He said the being was the Angel of the Law.) Three years after the first revelation, Muhammad (PBUH) received his second revelation, signaling the start of public preaching: O you wrapped up in your mantle: Arise and warn! And your Lord do magnify. Last verse as revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) during the Hujjat ul Wida (the Last Sermon): today have I (Allah) perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you and has chosen for you Islam as your religion. Whenever the revelation used to come Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) used to perspire even in cold. Revelation used to come with Angel Gabriel appearing to Him (PBUH), pronouncing the verses, or a bell would be rung and verses were put to Prophet Muhammad s memory. (b) Why do you think the revelation was sent to a person who could not read or write? [4] It was important because being unable to read or write shows that it would not have been possible for the Prophet (pbuh) to have composed the Qur an himself; the implication is that not being able to compose the Qur an himself, shows that the Qur an is from God. God did not want anyone else to be the Prophet s (pbuh) teacher, as that would have meant someone was superior to him in his 1

6 knowledge of God. It was a miracle of God. It was not important that he was not able to read/write because God will send the revelation to whomever He wills. Q). Give an account of the Prophet's first experience of receiving revelation. [10] *Muhammad was meditating in a cave on Mount Hira. This was when he was 40. *A being unknown to him but later identified as Gabriel appeared. *This being seized him and crushed him, and gave him the order 'Recite!' *He could not, and the crushing and order were repeated twice (three times in all). *Then the being itself recited Recite, in the name of your Lord who created, created the man out of a clinging substance, recite and your Lord is most Bountiful, who taught with the pen, taught man which he knew not Muhammad left the cave and returned home. On the way he again saw the being as a giant figure astride the horizon. He went to his wife Khadija in confusion; she consoled him and said God won t harm him when he is caring to the people. She took him to her relative Waraqa lbn Nawfal for an explanation of what had happened. He said the being was the Angel of the Law. (b) Explain the significance of the actions of the angel and Waraqa lbn Nawfal in this event. [4] (b) The angel was performing the duty he had previously performed with other messengers. He was the first to alert the Prophet to his new career. His appearance is a sign that the revelations were truly from God. Waraqa was the first to explain to the Prophet the significance of his experience. He helped him realise that he had been visited by the angel who had appeared to other messengers. This helped the Prophet understand the responsibilities to which he had been called. The account of the compilation of the Qur an under the Rightly Guided Caliphs Q. Describe the ways in which Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman were involved in the compilation of the Qur an. [10] During the time of the Prophet, the Qur an was written on pieces of animal skin and on parts of bone but mainly was memorised by the companions; during Abu Bakr s caliphate, many memorizers of Qur an (~700+) died at the Battle of Yamama; Umar, worried that the words of the Qur an would be lost due to companions dying of old age/in battle, suggested to Abu Bakr that the Qur an should be compiled into one book; Abu Bakr hesitated saying he could not do something the Prophet had not done; he eventually agreed and called Zayd bin Thabit to collect all the verses that had been written; Zayd was a hafiz himself, yet he only included a verse into the master copy once he had verified its authenticity; a committee was set up, and Umar was part of this committee; the verses were written in the order that the Prophet had given, but the suras were written on separate sheets; 2

7 this copy was verified by the committee and was kept with Abu Bakr during his lifetime, after which it passed to Umar, and then to Umar s daughter, Hafsa. During Umar s caliphate, he took steps to ensure the Qur an was taught and memorized to ensure it was not corrupted. During Uthman s time as caliph, Islamic Empire expanded. Hudhaifa reported to Uthman that people were reciting the Qur an in different dialects in different areas. Uthman ordered the companions to compile one book in the Qurayshi dialect, using the mushaf of Hafsa. Uthman checked and approved the final version. This new copy was sent around the various provinces of the expanding Muslim world. He ordered any other copies to be collected and burnt. For this he is known as Jami al-qur an. (b) The Qur an should not have been compiled in written form because it did not take place during the Prophet s lifetime. Agree or disagree with this statement, giving reasons for your answer. [4] Some would say it shouldn t have been as Muslims should not do something that the Prophet had not done as it sets a precedent for the future where Muslims can do things that were not done at the time of the Prophet. But nevertheless Muslims benefit from the written Qur an as not everyone is able to memorise it easily, or that Abu Bakr was the rightly guided caliph and so his decision is not against the teachings of the Prophet. It was written, but was not against the recited entity. The use of the Qur an in legal thinking, and its relationship with the Hadiths, consensus (ijma ) and analogy (qiyas) Q. Describe how the two main sources of Islamic legal thinking are related. [10] The Qur an is the major source of instruction and thinking. Its clear teachings are never questioned. It is always referred to since no legal teaching ever contradicts it. The Sunna of the Prophet is an authority next to the Qur an. It gives fuller teachings of what the Qur an states in brief. It and the Qur an always agree. It is taken as an authority where the Qur an is silent. The consensus of the community, ijma, is referred to when the previous sources do not offer clear guidance. It is understood as the agreement of believers on a point of faith or action. Some take it as the consensus of the first generation of Muslims, others as the consensus of legal experts. It never disagrees with the previous sources. The Prophet said, My community will never agree on error. Analogy, qiyas, is employed when the previous sources do not offer clear guidance. It involves an individual expert making a new decision on the basis of known teachings. He compares the unknown with the known and identifies the common points between them. 3

8 Some Muslims distrust it because it involves a lot of individual opinion. It should never disagree with the previous sources.) Q (a) How are the Qur an and Hadiths used together in Islamic legal thinking? [10] The Quran is the basic source of Islamic Law as it is the word of God. It is complete code of life, as God say in it, there is no wet or dry but explained in this clear book, yet it gives brief details about obligations and law making. The authority of Quran can t be questioned as God himself has promised its guarding in it indeed we've sent down the remembrance and indeed we re its protectors. The Hadith is in harmony with it and gives explanations to where Quran is silent. Quran itself says what the Prophet gives you, take it, and what He forbids you from, leave it and also says and obey Allah and obey the messenger. E.g. Quran says and establish prayers and give charity but it is Hadith which explains the prerequisites of prayers and its procedures, and also that how much charity to give (2.5% of wealth). Quran says indeed the prayers have been prescribed upon the believers on time but Hadith explains what those timings are (i.e. Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Isha). Regarding inheritance laws Quran gives specific examples and Hadith adds to that. Quran prescribes punishments as amputation of hand for theft, but what Quran means by theft and conditions for that is explained in the Hadith. Hadith never disagrees with the Quran, but expands on it. The consensus of scholars or using analogy also depends on Quran and Hadith/Sunnah. Q. Why do some legal scholars reject the use of analogy (qiyas)? [4] It is a source used when others do not offer guidance, and compares an existing accepted situation with a new one. There is more individual thought that goes into the decisions than with primary sources rather than a consensus. It s rejected by some scholars, due to the varying and conflicting answers that can be given on based upon individual ideas. How are the Qur an and Hadith employed in working out the Islamic law? [4] The Qur'an is the first source of law. Its clear teachings are followed without question. Where its teachings are undetailed the Hadith are employed. The Hadith fill out the Qur'an and add teachings where it is silent. In what circumstances do Sunni Muslims allow the use of qiyas (analogy)? [4] The Qur'an and Hadith are the primary sources. When they are silent the consensus of believers is allowed. When this is silent individual analogy is allowed. This employs the method of comparing unknown situations with known. e.g. new depressant drugs as marijuana, weed etc can be declared taboo ( ) on the basis of a Hadith: every Khamr is intoxicant, so every Khamr is taboo. 4

9 What is the importance to Shi`i Muslims of `aql (reason) in establishing the Islamic law? [4] The Qur'an itself encourages Muslims to use their minds. The Imams set the example by applying reason to the teachings in the Qur'an. Reason helps Muslims to apply a teaching in new circumstances. The Qur an is the main source of Islamic Law. Write an account of how it is used with each of the other three sources. [10] The Qur an is an authority in Islamic law; it is the word of God; it is not questioned or contradicted by the other sources; it is the basis of legal rulings in Islamic Law; the sunna is the Prophet s example and is recorded in the hadith; these emphasise and expand on verses in the Qur an, e.g. salat and zakat; they are also used when the Qur an is silent on a matter, e.g. inheritance given to grandmother; hadith are important because the Prophet was the final and perfect messenger to follow; hadith of Mu adh ibn Jabal gives a guide of what to follow; they are interlinked, so are the two main (primary) sources, the hadith never contradicting the Qur an. Today ijma and qiyas are used mainly for issues that did not arise at the time of the Prophet; ijma is the consensus of opinion of scholars; my community will never agree upon an error ; Some issues they have had to deal with have been, at the time of the caliphs, the compiling of the Qur an and more recently, the permissibility of hair transplant. Those knowledgeable about Islamic Law, decide on new matters such as hair transplant on what they know already from the Qur an and hadith, and then agree on a ruling. The rulings are based on existing Qur anic rulings, so there is no contradiction or disagreement with the Qur an. Qiyas is analogy, when one Islamic ruling is compared with another to derive a new ruling for a new issue. Examples of this could be the use of cocaine being prohibited on the basis that intoxicants are prohibited. Elements of qiyas are, asl (original case on which a ruling has been given), far (new case on which ruling is required), illa (the cause, which is common in both) and hukm (the ruling). The original case will have a ruling based on the Qur an, and therefore the ruling on the new case will have its basis in Qur anic sources. (b) Do you think that both ijma and qiyas are equally important for solving present day issues? Give reasons for your answer. [4] Yes, they are both equally important because, e.g. they are sources that have been used by previous generations and give answers for different problems, or that one may not resolve all new issues so the other source is needed too. No new revelation is going to come for new situations and some situations arise for which there is no clear answer in Quran or Hadith so these methods must be employed. 5

10 Major themes of the Quran as contained both in the passages set for special study and in other similar passages. (Q). From Qur an passages in the syllabus, write about what lessons can be learnt from God s relationship with TWO of his prophets from Adam, Ibrahim and Jesus. [10] (a) Adam ( ): Adam was the first human to be created by God. God had told the angels He would place a representative on earth, and the angels asked why, if he will only make mischief unlike the angels who only glorify God. When God spoke to Adam, he taught Him and gave him knowledge of things that the angels did not know. God gives knowledge to whom He wills. It shows the superiority of humans over angels due to what they know, and so it stresses the importance of gaining knowledge. God also told Adam that he and his wife should live in the Garden but they were not to touch a specific tree. Satan, who was jealous of Adam and had refused to bow to him, came to tempt Adam and his wife into eating from the tree. He is from the mischief makers who whisper evil into the minds/hearts of humans. God sent Adam and his wife to live on earth. Adam realised his mistake and through this event turned to God for forgiveness. And God, because He is the most merciful, turned towards Adam, meaning He forgave Him. This passage tells Muslims about the favors God gives his prophets. He gives them knowledge for guidance, and He forgives when people turn to Him in repentance. Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) was one of the greatest prophets. The importance of his relationship with God is evident in his title that 'Khaleel Ullah' i.e. God's friend. The Quran recites his name as ''and (remember) Ibrahim who fullfilled (his duties)''. In Surah Baqarah it comes: ''and (remember) when God tested Ibrahim with words, so he fulfilled ''. He was born in a nation of infidels that used to worship cosmic bodies, stars etc. Due to natural instinct he (pbuh) started to search for the truth, and his heart was not satisfied with the illogical worship of stars or idols named after them, from his very childhood. His story mentioned in Quran tells that he's began observing the heavenly bodies that whether they could be God, with the idea that God should be something that is the Greatest and consistently Greatest of all, and something that transforms into something inferior must not be God. He saw the sun, followed by moon, followed by stars and learnt that all of them have got a cycle of splendor and lowliness, and understood they're signs of God rather than god themselves as God is always in majesty. He began preaching his people, while they rather than responding, went against him, and plotted to burn him alive while God gave him an utmost help. The Quran describes it as such: ''we said unto the fire become cold and calm on Ibrahim ''. Such was God s help with Ibrahim. 6

11 Jesus (5.110): In Quran, Surah Maidah Jesus/Isa was given special miracles which helped him understand the power of God. God asked Jesus to recount the blessings that God had given him and his mother (Maryam), showing that God gives his prophets favours to help them in their lives. God then gives a list of the things He has given Jesus, and the benefits of those favours: He was given the Holy Spirit which allowed him to speak to the people as a child and when he was older. He was also taught the Law and the Gospel to teach the people how to live their lives in accordance to God s laws. He was also able to give life to the dead and heal the sick, by the will of God. He also protected Jesus from the unbelievers who accused Jesus of magic and did not believe His powers were a sign of God s majesty. This all showed Jesus the favours he was given by God which allowed him to believe in Him and follow Him. (b) As God s representative (khalifa) on Earth say how men and women can serve God, giving examples. [4] (b) Muslims can serve God on earth by understanding and fulfilling their obligation to Him, primarily through praying and fulfilling the five pillars, and by not disobeying His commands. They should be grateful to Him for what He has given them, food, shelter, clothing, and thank Him. This can be done by praying, reciting Qur an, being generous to others, and helping that in need, e.g. by feeding the poor, giving gifts and charity. They should also look after the provisions God has given them, whether it be the food and the environment it grows in, the knowledge He gives for guidance or the people who are in a person s life for their help and wellbeing, e.g. by not wasting food or eating too much, by learning something and teaching others. Q. From passages you studied, describe what he Quran teaches about the god s responsibility to his creatures and their duties towards him. [10] God created the worlds and controls them all alone. He guides his creation in there, has mercy on them, forgives their wrongdoings yet is the only worthy of worship. This is because He alone provide the proper place to live; the fertile earth, the protection of skies, food and water so it a heinous crime to ascribe partners to Him when He alone did this for us all. God says in Quran: prostrate neither the Sun nor moon, but bow down before the One who created them. God originated the man from despised liquid yet made him intelligent and good-looking then taught him and guided him how to live on earth. God says about himself: He taught Adam the names of all (that is in earth). So man must not be disgraceful and be obedient to Allah. God gives knowledge to human and judges for their actions. Everybody is responsible to God and fellow humans as Quran says in Surah Zilzal: so whoever acts an atom s weight of good shall see it, & whoever acts an atom s weight of bad shall see it. This is the reason they shall keep watch of his deeds and abstain from all evils, acting righteously as much as they can and should be ready for accountability on the Day of Judgment when there none would have 7

12 power except the Master of the universe, the God. God also reminds us that evil power shall not be afraid of, and human beings must seek Allah s protection from any evil whether it is inner temptation, or a fear of harm from other source. Evil powers can do nothing without Allah s will and when God s protection is there, so God s shelter shall be sought. Surah Falaq and Surah Nas are best to recite for this purpose. Quran teaches Muslims should be responsible towards the environment, give reasons to agree or disagree. [4] God has given the human being everything it needs for its survival and comfort so he shouldn t abuse this privilege by being ungrateful, therefore should protect the nature. Everything has been provided by God for human use so they must take use of them in a substantial way. The Prophet prohibited washing body parts from streams more than thrice to the companions. Q. From the Quranic passages you ve studied, write about the main teachings about God. [10] God is unique in his attributes. He created and then is constantly guarding and controlling the universe, yet does not get tired as humans do. God tells humankind about his oneness using word ahad, yet he is one in having power over all things and has no family like humans to share power with and it is blasphemous to ascribe relationships like father and son with God which are a human s weaknesses like Christians believe about Jesus. Further it is emphasized that there is none like him, means that none can compare what God looks like or what he is capable of doing. God tells humans about his knowledge which encompasses all things, yet it is made clear nothing can grasp his knowledge, and He gives a portion of his knowledge to whom he wills from his messengers. Quran says: no vision can grasp him but his grasp is over all vision. God admonishes against ascribing partners to Him. It is awkward to ascribe Him a son when he is all alone, without family. God says He originated everything and manages so there is no justification for worshipping any other being. He is the originator, the sustainer, the living and self-subsisting while every other creation depends on him. The skies are about to tear apart due to His awe. Nevertheless He is very merciful and oftforgiving, and listens to prayers when anybody turns to Him. God provides the creation its provisions, being a Creator. The sun and the moon, for example, are a creation of order and harmony that proves an intelligent planned design, which is sign of God s existence so we should see natural things as signs and as a help to keep faith in God, rather than worshipping nature itself, which isn t rational. In Quran, Allah says: among his signs are the night and the day, the sun and the moon, worship not the sun and the moon but worship Allah, who created them, if you're really serving Him alone (Surah Sajdah 41:37). 8

13 b). How might these teachings affect a Muslim s life today? [4] Today Muslims are busy in their lives and may find it difficult to connect with God but God reminds us of the harmonious creation and other things that should revive our thinking that someone is definitely controlling us. He is all-powerful creator yet not detached from humans as He asks them to seek forgiveness from Him and is ready to forgive as seen in verses of Surah Shura (42;4-5). Q. From the Quranic passages you have studied in the syllabus, describe how God guided and reassured his Prophet Muhammad. [10] Muhammad had a gap in revelations so he felt sad. Some of the pagans made a mockery out of it and said him that his Lord has forsaken him. The Surah Duha was revealed to console him. The Prophet Muhammad faced hardships like other prophets but God reminds him that he gave him blessings in this life and the next, which relieved the Prophet and gave him reassurance that God was looking after him. God promises him good here and hereafter then God recounts his good upbringing despite being orphan, giving guidance to him when confusion was widespread, backing him financially when he wasn t well-off; all these blessings were recounted so he may not depress himself express his gratitude through helping orphans, beggars and praising God. On other occasions when his last male hier Ibrahim died, Abu Jahl and the pagan Arabs mocked the Prophet that he is abtar cutoff from male heir-ship so has no hope. Again God consoled the Prophet and reminds him the bounties of this world and of hereafter given to him. God gave him shelter, guidance and independence, and also gave him blessings in the form of Kauthar, a spring in paradise. So he is told it is the enemies who are cutoff and have no hope. So turn to God through prayer and sacrifice that people may follow your example. Q. Why is it important that God sent humankind messengers from amongst themselves? [4] Prophets amongst communities could understand the needs and conditions of the people and make it easier for them to teach their people in a suitable way. The community would see them one amongst themselves so would easily follow their teachings and example. If angels were sent instead, people would argue how can humans copy their actions or they would start their worship. 9

14 The life and importance of the Prophet Muhammad The main events of the Prophet s life from his birth to his call to prophethood Q. Write about the life of the Prophet up until the first revelation. [10] up arrows in the sacrilegious wars, and was present at the subsequent Fudul confederacy; he was employed by Khadija to go on a trade journey to Syria and on account of his honesty she sent a marriage proposal to him; he helped resolve the issue of the fixing of the black stone; he spent longer periods in the cave of Hira and, at the age of 40, the angel Jibril came with the first revelation. (b) The Prophet s family was important in preparing him for prophethood. Agree or disagree, giving reasons for your answer. [4] He was born in the year of the elephant; his parents were Amina and Abdullah; as with the custom of the time, he was sent to the desert with a wet nurse; Halima Sa adia narrates that they had good fortune with the arrival of the Prophet in their household, and asked that he stay with them another two years; during this time, the incident of the angels coming to clean his heart happened; Halima returned him to his mother; his mother died when he was six on her way back from Yathrib; his grandfather looked after him and then Abu Talib when he was eight; he went on trade journeys with Abu Talib and this is where Bahira the monk saw him; he picked Yes his uncle was important for taking him on trade journeys with him, which helped him to learn the trade that would provide for his family later on, and also because of what Bahira told Abu Talib, he had a protector when the Muslims went through difficult times in Makka. Khadija helped to give him financial independence which allowed him more time for meditation. But we can say the Prophet was protected and guided by God, shown by the incident of the two angels coming to wash his heart, or that his parents and grandparents died when he was young so they were not important for his prophethood. 10

15 The main events of his activities in Makka and his experiences with his opponents Q. Describe the main difficulties encountered by the Prophet himself during his time in Makka after his call to prophethood. [10] The Quraysh rejected Muhammad when he began his preaching, especially when he called people at Mount Safa, Abu Lahab insulted him causing people to disperse an old woman regularly pelted him with rubbish on his way to prayer. during a gap in revelation, Um Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab) mocked the Prophet that he's forsaken He was once nearly strangled while praying. another occasion rotten camel fetus was put on him while prayers by Utba, Mughira and other torturers, until his daughter Hazrat Fatima came to remove the dirt The Quraysh subjected him to temptation, insults and verbal abuse The death of his uncle Abu Talib deprived him of protection. He was rejected and assaulted when he preached at al-ta if. He and his family were boycotted and forced to live in a narrow valley outside Makkah where the condition severed so much that leaves and leather was the only food The death of Khadija discouraged him. Write an account of the major difficulties encountered by the Prophet, and his followers in Makkah [10] The Quraysh rejected Muhammad when he began his preaching An old woman regularly pelted him with rubbish on his way to prayer. He was once nearly strangled while praying. The Quraysh subjected him to temptation, insults and verbal abuse The death of his uncle Abu Talib deprived him of protection. He was rejected and assaulted when he preached at al-ta if. He and his family were boycotted and forced to live in a narrow valley outside Makkah. The death of Hazrat Khadija discouraged him. Many of his followers were subjected to torture eg Bilal (RA) was beaten by his master, yet Hazrat Sumayya(RA) was lanced to death Some followers were forced to flee to Abyssinia to the protection of the king whom the Quraish pursued yet failed to get them back Muslims were boycotted and forced to live in a narrow valley outside Makkah. They were prevented from worshipping at the ka`ba. Their means of livelihood were taken away. Explain how their reaction to these difficulties can set an example for Muslims today. [4] Muhammad was not deflected from preaching even when offered bribes. He retained dignity and patience at all times. His followers preferred to undergo hardships and death rather than give up their faith. Muhammad showed concern for his persecutors and forgiveness towards them. Muslims under persecution should remain loyal to one another. 11

16 Trace the events that led up to the Prophet s migration (hijra). [10] As Islam grew, Makkan pagans increased persecution of the Muslims. Those who had no protection were easy targets of persecution. Bilal was severely beaten by his master Umayah bin Khalaf; Ammar bin Yasir, and his parents, were made to lie on the burning sand both his parents were martyred (Hazrat Sumayya was lanced); Uthman in Affan was wrapped in palm leaves and set fire to by his uncle; Khabab bin al-arat was made to lie on burning coal with a rock on his chest; eventually, the Prophet allowed some followers to go to Abyssinia to seek protection from its king, Negus, in the 5th year of prophethood (614/615); Uthman and Ruqayya went in the first migration of 12 men and 4 women; later the second delegation, of 83 men and 19 women, was led by Ja far Ibn Abi Talib; Quraish followed them and asked the king to return the Muslims; the Negus called the Muslims to give their account; Ja far told him of the way they lived before Islam, and also recited verses from Sura Maryam; this moved the Negus to tears and he allowed the Muslims to stay in Abyssinia in peace and freedom; the Quraysh envoys were sent back. The boycott of the Banu Hashim clan by the Qur aysh severed the condition of Prophet and his clan until 8 th year of Prophethood. This followed by the deaths of Abu Talib and Hazrat Khadija who were only protection for the Prophet. Hoping well, he moved towards Taif to spread Islam but there people rejected the message and pelted stones at him injuring him. Then Prophet Muhammad met six men in Makka, who had come from Yathrib for the annual pilgrimage. They became Muslim and returned to Makka the following year, 12 people came who took an oath at Aqaba in 621 that they ll protect Prophet and his companions. The following year 73 men came to take the oath with the Prophet. They invited the prophet to come to Yathrib as their leader. How does his conduct in one of these difficulties provide an example for Muslims today? [4] Pagans threw intestines on Prophet, choked him, insulted him yet he remained patient and did not respond angrily but stayed calm and so set a perfect example of tolerance. While preaching at Ta if, he was bled to feet, and then Angel Gabriel offered him to crush the town between mounds yet he forgave the town people and prayed for them. Since the Prophet is the best example for Muslims, they must show tolerance when suffering and forgiveness when they come into any conflict or are harmed, let alone petty arguments. The Prophet allowed some of the early Muslims to move to Abyssinia. Write about the events of this migration. [10] The Muslims in Makka, mainly those without tribal protection and slaves, were being persecuted by the Quraysh; an ayat was revealed about the earth being spacious for believers (39.10); the Prophet allowed some followers to go to Abyssinia to seek protection from its king, Negus, in the 5th year of prophethood (614/615); Uthman 12

17 and Ruqayya went in the first migration of 12 men and 4 women, whereupon the Quraysh chased them but the migrants managed to board a boat before the Quraysh got to them; some came back from Abyssinia when they falsely heard that the Quraysh had accepted Islam; the persecutions increased and later the second delegation, of 83 men and 19 women, was led by the Prophet s cousin, Ja far Ibn Abi Talib; Amr ibn al- As and Abdullah bin Abi Rabi a followed them and asked the king to return the Muslims; the Negus called the Muslims to give their account; Ja far told him of the way they lived before Islam, and also recited verses from Sura Maryam; this moved the Negus to tears and he allowed the Muslims to stay in Abyssinia in peace and freedom; the Quraysh envoys were given their gifts back and sent away. The Muslims lived here in peace until they moved to Madina. Can this migration be compared to the migration of some Muslims today? Give reasons for your answer. [4] Muslims around the world are facing persecution, such as in Syria, and are migrating to other countries like Jordan and Turkey, where they are being allowed to live in freedom. However, it is not like the migration to Abyssinia as the current migrants usually live in refugee camps, where resources are limited. The migration to Abyssinia can also be compared to Muslims migrating to non-muslim countries, where they are given freedom to live and work, but sometimes not everyone welcomes them. It may be not comparable to migration of Muslims now, e.g. economic migration. Many Muslims now move for work and financial reasons, so it is not similar. Why did the people of Makka pursue these Muslims? [4] The Makkans wanted to destroy the new faith, as it threatened their own religious and economic stability. They therefore didn t want the Muslims to escape and for Islam to flourish, as Islam would curb their lifestyle of evil desires. Muslims were already growing in number within Makkah, they then feared Muslims would go elsewhere to plan invasion of Makkah to takeover so they felt a need to stop Muslims to come to power. Why was his relationship with his wife Khadija important for him? [4] Khadija supported the Prophet, financially and spiritually. Her support allowed him to spend time in seclusion and that his seclusion prepared him for receiving revelation. Her maturity allowed her to console and believe in the Prophet when he received revelation (O! thou wrapped up in a mantle...)[ Sura 93:8]. Khadija (RA) became the first Muslim and increased the morale of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.). She took Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) to Warqa bin Nawfal who explained that Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) received revelation from the archangel Gabriel. 13

18 Describe the events that immediately led up to the Prophet s migration, the hijra. [10] Muhammad had incurred the enmity of Quraysh by his preaching. His wife Khadija and Uncle Abu Talib died in 619 leaving him defenceless. He sought acceptance by preaching at fairs in Mecca and elsewhere. A small group from Yathrib (later renamed Medina) listened and accepted his preaching. The next year they swore allegiance to him (the first pact of al-`aqaba, the oath of women, not involving fighting for him). The following year 73 men from Yathrib swore to defend him (the second Pact of al-`aqaba). Muhammad gradually sent Meccan Muslims north to Yathrib. He himself went on the same night when the Quraysh planned to murder him. He departed with Abu Bakr. He left `Ali in his bed as a decoy, and in order to return items people had left with him. The Prophet received a divine instruction to migrate. Suggest reasons why he decided to move from Mecca to Medina. [4] He was defenseless at Mecca, because Abu Lahab the head of his clan after Abu Talib's death was his enemy. His attempts at persuading the people of Mecca to accept his teachings had met with little success, except for a small group of followers. These followers were under threat, and some had experienced long persecution. The people of Medina appeared to welcome him. They recognized his mission and accepted him as a religious leader. They also offered him and his followers protection. (a) Write brief account of attempt of the Prophet to preach to the people of al-ta if; [10] Muhammad went to al-ta if when the persecution at Mecca was intense. He was looking for a new place where his teachings would be accepted. The townspeople rejected his message and the elders sent a mob of boys before the Prophet Boys pelted him with stones as he left. He was badly injured, so much that his feet were full of blood. it is said that his adopted son Zaid was along with him, who was also injured trying to protect the Prophet from stones. he moved off the town until came across a garden, that belonged to Utba, a pagan, where he rested out of compassion, Utba sent his servant with some fruit to console the Prophet Angels offered to destroy the town for him, but he forgave the people. yet he said that he was sent as a blessing to the world and rather prayed to God to bring about believers amongst the descendants of the people of Taif. Q (a) Give an account of the difficulties experienced by the early Muslim community in Makka. [10] For the first few years the Prophet (pbuh) preached the message in secret. Initially only a handful of Muslims accepted Islam, the main ones being Khadija, Zaid, Ali and Abu Bakr, who in turn brought many people to Islam including, Uthman, Zubair ibn Awwam, and Talha. Other early converts were Bilal, Abu Ubaida, Abu Salamah. Prayer was 14

19 established morning and evening. They would pray and practise their faith in secret, often praying in the mountains. After the revelation to warn his nearest relatives (26.214), the Prophet (pbuh) took to Mount Safa and invited the Quraysh to follow Islam publicly. They rejected him and feeling threatened by the new message, because they could not dissuade the Prophet (pbuh) from preaching it, they started to persecute the Muslims. Those who had no protection were easy targets and felt the worst of the persecution. Bilal was severely beaten by his master Umayah bin Khalaf; Ammar bin Yasir, and his parents, were made to lie on the burning sand both his parents were martyred; Uthman in Affan was wrapped in palm leaves and set fire to by his uncle; Khabab bin al-arat was made to lie on burning coal with a rock on his chest. Due to the severity of the persecutions, the Prophet (pbuh) told the believers to meet secretly at Dar al-arqam, where they would learn about their new faith. Also because of the persecutions, the Prophet (pbuh) allowed some people to migrate to Abyssinia. Later a social and economic boycott was imposed on the Muslims and they were to live in Shib-i-Abi Talib, where they faced great hardships for many years. (b) Drawing from this account, what advice could be given to Muslims now living in fear of persecution? [4] Living in a situation where their family may not want them to practice their faith, to pray, fast or wear hijab, they can try to conceal their faith and practise it where they can and in secret, if they are being persecuted by the wider community for their beliefs. They could migrate to a safer place where they would be accepted and allowed to live in freedom. It is not going to be an easy journey, but the early Muslims did not go back on their decision. The main events of his activities in Madina, his leadership of the community there and his conflicts with the Makkans and others Describe the main events of the Prophet s migration from Makka to Madina. [10] Either Muhammad had incurred the enmity of Quraysh by his preaching Or A small group from Yathrib (later renamed Madina) listened to his preaching and invited him to their town He departed from Makka on the same night that the Quraysh planned to murder him He departed with Abu Bakr He left `Ali in his bed as a decoy/in order to return items people had left with him The Makkans sent riders to pursue the two migrants They took refuge in the Cave of Thawr The Prophet reassured Abu Bakr who was frightened Abu Bakr allowed himself to be bitten rather than shout and wake the sleeping Prophet A spider wove a web/two 15

20 birds built a nest over the entrance, which showed there was no-one inside The two made their way to Madina when they knew they were safe They stayed at Quba on the way to Medina and established the first mosque/`ali joined them there The people of Medina welcomed the Prophet publicly The Prophet was given a revelation to leave Makka Explain why he thought it important to make this journey. [4] He was in danger of his life in Makka He had no clan protection His preaching met with little success He was assured of acceptance at Madina Here he might put the teachings he was receiving into effect His migration was in order to save Islam. Describe the events of two of the battles fought by the Prophet while he was leader of the community at Madina. [10] Note that you have to write about two of the following battles in such questions Battle of Badr (2AH) It was fought in 2AH (624); the Prophet (pbuh) and a group of around 300 men set off to intercept a caravan led by Abu Sufyan; they had 2 horses and 70 camels Abu Sufyan sent word to the Quraysh and an army of 1300 men was gathered Abu Sufyan slipped past the ambush and sent word to the Quraysh to go back but Abu Jahl insisted they continue some left leaving 1000 soldiers the Prophet (pbuh) consulted his companions and they went to meet the Quraysh army at Badr it rained heavily that night the Muslims camped near a water well; the next day the battle started and Ali, Hamza and Ubaidah went out to fight and won their duels the Prophet (pbuh) prayed continuously for the success of the believers God sent down angels to help (3: ) the Prophet(pbuh) threw some dust which caused a sandstorm (sura 8:17). the Makkans saw the Muslims as few in number while the Quraysh looked few in number to the Muslims; eventually the Makkans ran off; Abu Jahl was killed fourteen Muslims were killed and 70 from the Quraysh while 70 were taken prisoner the prisoners were treated well, and some paid a ransom for their freedom, by either paying money or teaching ten people how to read and write; Bilal is said to have killed his former master. Battle of Uhud (3 AH) Uhud occurred in 625. (3 rd Hijri) An army of 3000 from Makkah came to destroy the Muslims. The Prophet s army was smaller i.e and was decreased further by the desertion of some 300 Madinans who were obedient to Abdullah bin Ubay, the hypocrite. before fight the Prophet had positioned some archers on the mountain pass and ordered not to move whatever may come In the fighting the Muslims gained the upper hand. But then some Muslims who had been ordered to guard a pass left their posts for spoils. Khalid bin Walid, who wasn t a Muslim by then, saw an advantage and attacked from behind. The Muslims were nearly defeated and some leading men killed. The Prophet himself was injured. The Muslims realised they should obey the Prophet. 16

21 Battle of Ditch (Khandaq) (5AH) occurred in 5 Hijri. The exiled Jewish tribe of Banu Nazir, settled in Khyber, allied with the Quraish. With the help of the Jews, the Quraish succeeded in forming alliances. The Allied armies were almost 10,000 in number, commanded by Abu Sufyan. The total strength of the Muslim army was 3,000 men and 50 cavalry. The eastern and western sides of Madina were inapt for fighting since the surface of the land consisted mainly of volcanic, stony rocks. The southern Madina was also ill-suited for fighting for the land was filled with date trees. Hazrat Salman Farsi suggested: O Messenger of Allah (PBUH), when we were attacked in the land of Faris and we feared the approach of horses, and when we were surrounded, we would build trenches around us (i.e. to prevent the horsemen from being able to attack). So, the Muslims dug trenches along the northern part of Madina, a laborious task that they completed in 9 to 10 days. When the enemy soldiers saw the trench, they were puzzled and surprised. When they taunted the Muslims, a hail of stones and arrows met them rather than words. Thus began the siege of Madina, which lasted for about 30 days. The Bedouins, who had expected a quick victory and bountiful plunder, were not used to this situation, which disheartened them. Abu Sufyan sought help of Bani Qurayza, who were within Medina Hazrat Saad bin Muaz reminded Bani Qurayza of the Charter of Madina. The Jews replied that they did not know of any prophet or any charter. As a precautionary measure, Muhammad (PBUH) posted a small detachment to keep watch on the Jewish movements. The Allies tried to cross at times, but were always repelled by the vigilant Muslim guard. When about 30 days of the siege had passed, one night a fierce windstorm blew into the Quraishite camp and threw the allied army into tumult. That night, they quietly broke camp and went back to their pastures and cities. Battle of Khayber (7AH) The Jews of Khyber, for fighting the Muslims, offered a percentage of their yearly produce of fruits and dates to tribes. They also entered into alliances with the tribes, together they were to launch a surprise attack on Madina. They sent special messengers to the Quraish of Makkah and other tribes asking them to prepare for a fullfledged attack on Medina and provided financial support for this purpose. They held secret negotiations with Abdullah bin Ubbay, the leader of the hypocrites, against the Muslims. The Battle of Khandaq, when hosts of the enemies from all parts of the country besieged Madina, was mainly caused by the intrigues and financial assistance of the Jews of Khayber. Having been informed of their secret plan, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) traveled to Khyber two months after treaty of Hudaibiya with 1600 men and 200 cavalry and laid siege to different fortresses. Out of a number of forts which were spread over Khyber in clusters, Na im was the first fortress to be over taken by Muslims, while Al-Qamus was the greatest and most formidable of Khyber s fortresses which was conquered under the command of Hazrat Ali who killed the famous Jewish warrior, Marhab, in this battle. As for other fortresses such as Al- Watih and As-Sulalim, they were surrendered 17

22 peacefully. During this entire period, no one came to the help of the Jews of Khyber. According to the pact which was agreed upon, Khyber was allowed to remain in the hands of the local inhabitants, on the condition that half of the annual harvest of all planting and date trees would be paid as Jizya. All other Jewish settlements and cities around Khyber also agreed to the same terms. Battle of Mut a (8AH) This battle was fought in 629 (8 th Hijri). The Prophet sent Al Harith bin Umair with a letter to Basra; he was captured and killed by Balqa s governor. So the Prophet mobilized an army of people would be invited to Islam before and no battle would follow if they accepted Islam. Zayd bin Harith was given command and according to the Prophet s order, he would be replaced by Jafar bin Abu Talib and Jafar by Abdullah bin Rawaha on martyrdom. The Romans had men with another from tribal alliances. On martyrdom of all the commaders, Khalid bin Walid stepped up to lead strategically, allowing Muslims to retreat with minimum loss. This was most violent battle in the Prophet s life. Battle of Hunain (8AH) After conquest of Makkah most people accepted Islam but tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif did not submit to it and planned to fight the Muslims. The Prophet marched to meet them with men. As they reached the site, the enemy hurled stones and arrows at Muslims, hiding behind the mountains. Muslims panicked and almost retreated but Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) called them back, raised their confidence allowing them to defeat the enemy. The enemy leader had told everyone to carry their belongings so Muslims captured huge spoils of war. Quran (Surah Tawbah 9:25-26) mentions this battle. Tabuk Expedition (9AH) It happened so in 9 th Hijri that the Byzantines feared the growing power of Muslims and wanted to defeat them before they became too strong. The Nabataeans (people at the border) informed Medina of a big army that Heraclius was preparing, so the Prophet decided to face the Byzantines at border. They marched to Tabuk with 30,000 men. Muslims donated generously, especially Abu Bakr (full of his house wealth), Umar(half of his house wealth), for this expedition. They faced many hardships on the way. They stayed some days at Tabuk yet there was no sign of the army coming. The Prophet took control of the border tribes and returned. People from far and wide acknowledged the powerful status of the Muslims and many delegations came to visit him after this event. Q. How does his conduct in one of these battles provide a model for Muslims today when they face difficulties? [4] Like Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), his followers should be vigilantly well prepared for defending their cause, which is keeping the banner of truth high. Muslims should resort to new technologies and acquire new tactics like Prophet (pbuh) made use of the Persian technique of digging a moat. 18

23 Muslims should not give up and keep their faith in God even if the enemy seems strong as any time God send his help, better late than never. But they should also be practically active and keep watch of the suspicious internal elements. Explain why the people of Makka fought against the Muslims of Madina. [4] They could see that the Muslims were a threat. They threatened their livelihood since they might attack their caravans. They also threatened their religion with their belief in only one God. They saw Islam as a threat to their leadership in Arabia. 4 (a) Write about the events surrounding the Treaty of Hudaybiyya and the main terms in it. [10] The Prophet had a dream where he entered Makka and did tawaf around the Ka ba. In 628, he and a group of 1,400 Muslims marched peacefully towards Makka, in an attempt to perform umrah. The Muslims had left Madina in a state of ihram, so were prohibited from fighting. The group camped outside of Makka, and the Prophet tried to negotiate entry to the Ka ba with the Quraysh, through intermediaries. The Quraysh were unwilling to let the Prophet enter. Bait al-ridwan influenced the Quraysh into negotiating a treaty. They sent Suhayl ibn Amr to negotiate a peace treaty, whereby the Muslims would go back to Makka and not return for the pilgrimage until the next year. The treaty was for ten years; each party was to be secure from the other; if a person from the Quraysh was to migrate to Madina, he would be sent back to Makka; however, if a person from the Prophet s side went to the Quraysh, they did not have to hand him back; the Muslims were to go back to Madina without performing umrah and return the next year for three days. Umar asked why the Muslims were demeaning their religion, and was reassured by Abu Bakr and the Prophet. Ali was chosen to write the treaty. When the Prophet asked him to write In the name of Allah, the merciful, the compassionate or that the Prophet was the Messenger of Allah, Suhayl objected and instead the Prophet erased it and had Ali write, In your name, O God and Muhammad, son of Abd Allah, to which the Muslims protested. The Khuza a tribe made a pact with the Muslims and the Banu Bakr made a pact with the Quraysh. At that point, Abu Jandal came to the Prophet asking to be freed, but the Prophet kept to the terms of the treaty and told him to be patient. Once they completed the document, the Prophet asked the Muslims to sacrifice their animals and shave their heads. The Prophet said that Muslims had been victorious and was supported in this by new revelation: Verily we have granted thee a manifest victory. (48:1) (b) From this event, what can Muslims learn about the importance of keeping their word? [4] The Prophet kept his word to the Quraysh for the duration of the treaty. Even before the treaty was finished being written, he sent Abu Jandal back to the Quraysh, on account of an agreement having been made verbally. This shows the importance of promising to do something, then fulfilling that 19

24 action, even if it has not been put into writing. As all actions and agreements are recorded by angels, God knows what has been promised and by fulfilling promises, no matter how hard it is, and then God will reward you accordingly. So, e.g. politicians should not go back on the things they promise when they want to be elected, or people should not take back something that they have promised to give a friend. Q. The Prophet Muhammad was taken on a night journey and ascent to the heavens (al- isra wa-l-mi raj). Write an account of this journey. [10] In the year before migration the Prophet (pbuh) was taken on a journey, from the sacred mosque to the farthest mosque (17.1). The Prophet (pbuh) was woken from his sleep and his heart was washed with zamzam. He was asked to choose between milk and wine and he chose the milk, to which Jibril said, You have been guided on the fitra. He was then taken on al- Buraq from Makka to Jerusalem by the angel Jibril. There the Prophet (pbuh) led all the previous prophets (pbuh) in prayer. After that, Jibril took him to the heavens. He met Adam at the door to heaven, and thereafter he ascended and met various other prophets. He was led to the Lote Tree, past which Jibril could not go, and then met with his Lord. He was given prayers and the last 2 verses of Sura Baqara. On his way down he met Musa who suggested the Prophet (pbuh) ask God to reduce the number of prayers given to his people. The Prophet (pbuh) did this a number of times, then at five he stopped, saying he was too embarrassed to ask for further reduction. He saw some of the inhabitants of Heaven and Hell. Miraculously this all took place in one night, and when the Prophet (pbuh) told the people, the Quraysh laughed at him. Abu Bakr believed in the event straight away. (b) What was the significance of this journey to the Prophet? [4] The Prophet (pbuh) had been through a period of difficulty and this event made him realize that God had not left him. It allowed him to see what he, and all Muslims, should be striving for which gave him renewed strength. He realised his status amongst prophets (as seal of the prophets), he led them in prayer), and realised the blessings God had given his community (by giving the five prayers), which gave him renewed hope in his message and he began to work towards better prospects for him and his community. It was one of the main miracles other than the Qur an. (a) Write about the way in which the Prophet interacted with non-muslims after his move to Madina. [10] Prophet (pbuh) made a constitution for the citizens of Madina (Charter of Madina), including non-muslims, about their rights and responsibilities as part of the community. Non-Muslims had equal political and cultural rights, autonomy and freedom of religion; they would fight with the Muslims against the enemy of the community and have the same responsibilities in war as others. The Prophet (pbuh) engaged in commercial 20

25 dealings with them and gave and received help from them. He sometimes borrowed money from Jews and also arranged for loans from them for some of his companions: one day a Jew caught hold of the cloth the Prophet (pbuh) was wearing and demanded that he repay the loan he had taken from him. Umar, got angry with the Jew and scolded him. The Prophet (pbuh) then ordered that the loan be repaid to the Jew, and because Umar had scolded him the Prophet (pbuh) insisted that he be given more money than what he had actually been owed. Not everyone was happy with the Prophet s (pbuh) leadership of Madina and individuals from among the non-muslim clans plotted to take the Prophet s (pbuh) life. Two of the tribes the Banu Nadir and the Banu Qaynuqa - were eventually exiled for breaking the treaty and for the consequent danger they posed to the new Muslim community. The Banu Qurayza also broke their treaty by siding with the Quraysh at the Battle of the Trench. They were dealt with in accordance to their own laws, which meant that many of them were put to death. Moreover Prophet (pbuh) sent letters to various non-muslim rulers inviting them to Islam. The Christians of Najran visited the Prophet (pbuh) in Madina to talk to him and ask questions. They then signed a peace treaty. The Prophet (pbuh) allowed them to pray their prayers in the mosque. At Conquest of Makkah his attitude towards the pagans was remarkably merciful. (b) How can Muslims now apply the lessons learnt from the Prophet s interaction with non-muslims? [4] Non-Muslims were respected by the Prophet (pbuh) and invited to Islam. If they did not accept it they were left to live their lives freely under their own faith. Muslims now can learn from this by inviting non-muslims to Islam by teaching them about the essentials of faith. If they do not want to accept Islam then they should not be harassed or hurt, but rather respected and looked after. Muslims, who kill people from other faiths because they do not believe in Islam, are going against the example of the Prophet (pbuh). Muslims should also enter into agreements with non-muslims to ensure both sides live kindly and do not have their freedoms taken away by the other side. This allows both parties to know where they stand and do not have to live in fear. (a) With reference to the conduct of the Muslims, describe the events of the Conquest of Makka. [10] The Quraysh had broken the terms of the Treaty of Hudaybiyya, by their allies Banu Bakr attacking Banu Khuza ah who had allied with the Muslims. Realising the seriousness of the situation the Quraysh sent Abu Sufyan to ensure the treaty was intact, but he left Madina without doing so. After making preparations for war, the Prophet (pbuh) set out with soliders. It was 8AH. The Prophet s (pbuh) army stopped outside Makka and it was here that Abu Sufyan became Muslim and his house was 21

26 made a place of safety. Abu Sufyan returned to Makka and warned the Quraysh not to resist the Muslim army; most put down their arms, but a few (Safwan, Ikrimah, Suhayl) swore to block the Muslim army from entering Makka. There were 4 groups, one led by Khalid bin Walid that faced resistance, leading to some deaths. The Prophet (pbuh) knocked down the 360 idols in the Ka ba. The keys to the Ka ba were given to Uthman bin Talha, and at the time of prayer, Bilal ascended the Ka ba and gave the adhan. Apart from nine people, the Quraysh were pardoned, including Wahshi and Hind. You have been my very unreasonable countrymen. You refuted my prophethood and turned me out of my house. And when I took refuge in a far-off place, you rose to fight against me. However, inspite of all these crimes of yours, I forgive all of you and make you free and declare that you may go after the pursuits of your life." Some Qur anic verses related to the incident are and (b) Can Muslims today learn from the Prophet s treatment of his former enemies? Give reasons for your answer. [4] Yes they can learn from his treatment of his former enemies because the Prophet (pbuh) forgave those who had shown a lot of enmity towards him, such as Abu Sufyan. In following this example, Muslims can forgive those in their life who call them names, abuse them, or try to stop them from doing good, especially if they are sorry for what they have done. A grudge should not be held against them. In Makka the Prophet (pbuh) forgave everyone except a handful of people, including those who had killed his family members such as Wahshi and Hind. Muslims should realise that forgiveness is always a better option than revenge. Q (a) The Prophet died in 632. Write about the events of the final year of his life. [10] The Prophet received many delegations in the final year of his life. In 631/10AH, the Prophet performed his final pilgrimage; at Arafah he addressed the people gathered there; this is considered his farewell speech, in which he indicated he may not be there the following year; he also gave instructions for unlawful shedding of blood; usury was forbidden; the obligation towards looking after wives was emphasized as well as the kind treatment of women; sticking faithfully to the pillars of Islam was emphasised; equality of humankind was emphasized saying no Arab has superiority over a non- Arab and vice versa; brotherhood was established; he told them the Qur an and Sunnah were left for them and reminded them they would have to answer for their deeds; then the verses 5.3 were revealed (today your religion has been perfected); the Prophet completed his pilgrimage and returned to Madina; he increased his seclusion; Jibril reviewed the Qur an twice with him; his illness began 13 days before his death; he moved into A isha s apartment for the last week; he continued leading the prayers and would give the congregation advice; he called for Fatima, Hassan and Hussain and his wives; Abu Bakr led prayers in the last days; the Prophet passed away on 12th Rabi al-awwal, 11AH. 22

27 (b) The Farewell Sermon given by the Prophet contains teachings for Muslims of all times. Explain how two of these teachings can be applied today. [4] The last sermon is considered a summary of the main elements of faith, as it includes the five pillars, equality of humankind, ethics and morality. It can be used in many recent issues such as racism, inequality of women, rights of women and men to each other, the financial structure (dealing in interest), adultery, responsibility of actions (particularly in crimes), treating other Muslims as brothers, treating slaves/servants well, and worshipping God. In fact, this sermon can best serve as universal charter of human rights. If they are followed even this day, there would peace in home and all around the whole world. Prophet s actions and character (a) The Prophet was described as humble and just. Giving examples from his life, write about events that describe these qualities. [10] (a)humble: The Prophet would not think of himself as above the other companions, like a king, and would take part in all the tasks the rest of the community would, like digging the Trench in battle despite his hunger, or taking part in the building of the mosque in Madina. He would take part in household chores, like cleaning and mending his garments, milking the goats etc., and would not expect others to do it for him. He would sit on the floor and eat, saying, I am only a servant, I eat like a servant eats or a slave eats, and I sit as any servant sits. When the Prophet entered Makka after the conquest, he did not enter with a big display of victory; rather he was riding at the back of the army remembering and thanking God. He was so hunched over that his beard was touching the back of his animal. Just: He did not treat those he knew or was related to differently to those who were strangers. Once, a noble woman of the Quraysh committed theft. Her relatives tried to intercede on her behalf. The Prophet called the people saying: What destroyed your predecessors was just that when a person of rank among them committed a theft (or any crime), they left him alone, but when a weak one of their number committed a theft (or any crime), they inflicted the prescribed punishment on him. I swear by Allah that if Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, should steal, I would have her hand cut off. Many Jews of Madina brought their affairs and problems to him, knowing that he would always be fair. In administering justice, he made no distinction between believers and nonbelievers, friends and foes, high and low. When a Jewish man came to demand back the money the Prophet owed him, he grabbed the Prophet by the collar. Umar got angry at the Jew, but the Prophet smiled. He asked for the debt to be repaid and extra given due to the harsh treatment by Umar. 23

28 Q. The Quran says the Prophet is of great moral character (68.4). identify events from his life that show a range of his moral characters. [10] Kind: At the time of persecution in Mecca, there was an old woman who used to throw rubbish every time the Prophet went to the mosque. One day she was not there so He asked her neighbor about her well-being and found out she was ill. He asked permission to enter her house and the woman thought he had come to avenge her when she was sick and vulnerable, but the Prophet assured her he had come to see her and look after her needs as per God s commandment of visiting and helping the ill. Merciful: He went to preach Islam to Taif, who rejected his message, chased him away, and threw stones at him causing him to bleed. Angel Gabriel came and told him God has given permission to destroy the Taif people upon your command but the Prophet replied that he would expect their progeny to become believers in one God. Trustworthy: the Meccans knew of the trustworthiness of the Prophet and called him al-amin. Even after prophethood they continued to entrust their belongings to him knowing that he would keep them safe. On migration to Madinah he returned all their belongings through Ali. Truthful: he was known to the Quraish as al- Sadiq. Even after the prophethood they rejected his message but still believe he would not tell a lie. Humble: despite the Prophet s status, he never lived an extravagant life. Hazrat Aisha reported he would stitch his clothes, sweep the house, fix his own sandals help employees in their work and eat with them. He did not think of himself as better than the poor and would accept invitations from slaves and the poor. He also showed humility at Conquest of Makkah. How can Muslims today apply the Prophet s example of humility when dealing with either friends or strangers? [4] Muslims can be humble by eating with their servants, or the same food as their servants, or not treating them any differently to their own family; they can take part in tasks to help the community such as looking after and cleaning the mosque; they can help their family by doing chores and not thinking they are too busy for it; if they are in positions of authority at work, they should not try to treat their workers badly to show who is boss, but should treat them fairly and equally. Briefly describe four actions or qualities of the Prophet Muhammad that would make clear to the people who lived with him that he was the Messenger of God. [10] Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) had a constant smile on his face despite being tortured and agonized by the pagan and he would never reply wickedness with harshness but forgave others, one example being a jew who demand his money from the Prophet pulling his collar, yet he remained patient and gave him some extra. Before his prophethood he was known as honest and trustworthy, and even after that, nonbelievers couldn t deny this fact. 24

29 He received interrupted revelations according to new situations and would also receive predictions of victory (as in treaty of Hudaybiyyah, and defeat of the Persians by Romans) which came true. He had significant amount of patience. When the torturers of Makkah insulted him, threw dead fetus on him at prayers, put thorns in his way, threw rubbish on him continuously, he (pbuh) kept himself calm and never reacted to such vices angrily. He had a very forgiving mind-set which can be noticed at his Conquest of Makkah where he declared safety of those who entered Abu Sufyan s house or closed his house door or did not offer resistance, where he made a general pardon of torturers, where he entered as a remarkably peaceful conqueror while not being boastful, keeping his head low being thankful to Allah. Explain what Muslims mean by the title Seal of the Prophets. [4] This is a title of the Prophet found in the Qur an. It means he completes the line of prophets that stretched up to him. Just as a wax seal closes a letter, so his prophethood closes the line. It also means he is a prophet for all times and places unlike the local prophets before him. How does his conduct in one of these difficulties provide an example for Muslims today? [4] Pagans threw intestines on Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), hurled stones at him until he bled when he was preaching at Ta if, the Prophet reacted with patience, tolerance, forgiveness. Today Muslims unity depends on tolerance and they can take lesson from the Prophet who tolerated even the disbelievers. If Muslims living in non- Muslim countries are mocked or insulted, they should act wisely and follow the example of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Describe the teachings of Islam about the position of women as wives, mothers and daughters. [10] Wives, Islamically, shall be loyal to their husbands and take care of his household, and honor, raise the children morally upright. They have rights over husbands such as provision of proper food, shelter, clothing and other rational needs. Husbands should take care of their wives as the Prophet said the best amongst you are those who are best to their wives. The Prophet never acted harshly with his wives, but treated them with love and kindness. He would have a constant smile and the only admonition when he disliked anything was just that he would pause smiling. Mothers are granted very high status in Islam. Hadith says: paradise lays under the feet of the mothers meaning that one should be loving, kind and obedient towards his mother to attain paradise. Mothers duty is to raise children with high morals and Quran repeatedly asserts among the qualities of believers those who are nice to their parents. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) himself revered even the nursing mother; he would lay his cloak for her to sit on. 25

30 Before Islam, daughters were considered a menace to the family, yet Islam considered them as a mercy and blessing to their parents. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) had said that whoever raises at least two daughters with kindness, looks after their needs, gives them education, organize their marriage, will find them as a shield from hellfire. What do these teachings tell us about the relationship between men and women? [4] Men and women should respect each other, as the structure of a family depends on their cooperation, and if they are not, there would be a bad impact on children. They are equal before God but with different roles. Quran says for men is their share of what they earned (of good deeds), and for women is their share from what they earned (of good deeds). If men and women are not related to each other in family, while communication they should act modestly, keeping their gaze controlled as this would keep the society safe from the evil of immorality. Outline the changes in the Prophet's relations with the Jewish tribes and the hypocrites' in Medina in the years between 622 and 632. [10] At first the Prophet treated all parts of Medinan society equally. He devised the Covenant of Medina as an agreement in which all in Medina, Muslims, non-muslim Arabs and Jews, were given privileges and responsibilities. Gradually the Jews distanced themselves from him: they persistently mocked the revelations, and doubted his claims to prophethood. Muhammad expelled the three major tribes in three stages after they showed treachery in fighting and sided with the Quraysh. These tribes were Qaynuqa', Nadir and Qurayza. He punished them for their treachery. Banu Qaynuqa had insulted a Muslim woman, who came to them for goldsmith deal, thereafter they were sieged and exiled.(2 AH) Banu Nazir refused to give bloodmoney, against the ruling of charter, and plotted against Muhammad s (PBUH) murder, hence were exiled in (3AH) Banu Qurayza, in 5AH, were captured, looted and slaughtered too due to treachery in Battle of Khandaq. There remained Medinans who did not become sincere Muslims or acknowledge Muhammad. They showed their disloyalty most strongly in withdrawing when the Quraysh attack led to the battle of Uhud. They remained persistent opponents of Muhammad. The Muslims later attacked the banished Jews in their fortress at Khaybar. b) Suggest reasons why his relations with the Jewish tribes changed. [4] (b) He gradually became aware that the Jews did not respect his position. They refused to acknowledge that he was a Prophet like the one in their scriptures. They openly made fun of him, especially when the qibla was changed. An important turning point was when they subjected a Muslim 26

31 woman to public humiliation. They broke the Covenant by not defending Medina. Their treachery in conspiring with the Quraysh threatened the security of Medina. This was also a threat to the survival of Islam. What lessons can Muslims today learn from the Prophet s conduct in each of these incidents (Conquest of Makkah and Preaching at Taif)? [4] Muhammad attempted to find a realistic solution to his difficulties in Mecca. He did not try to resist the people of al-ta if when they rejected him. He responded to cruelty with forgiveness. He attempted to understand the people s ignorance of who he was and what he said, and thus his follower Muslims must act in accordance with him in such a situation. Suggest ways in which Charter of Medina can provide a model for relations between states today. [4] The Prophet decided that peaceful relations in Medina were important even though not all the people there were Muslim. Peaceful relations between Pakistan and India are very important for the well-being of both countries. A treaty of cooperation between the two countries, like the Covenant of Medina, would be for the good of all. In this treaty the privileges and responsibilities of both sides could be clearly expressed. The first Islamic community The Prophet s Wives (a) Write short accounts of the lives of: (i) Khadija, and (ii) 'A'isha (10) Khadija was a widow who conducted business in Mecca. She employed the Prophet because she had heard of his honesty. When this was proved after a business trip she proposed marriage to him. She was the first to accept Islam. She bore him four daughters and two sons. She gave him financial security. She reassured him after his traumatic experience of the first revelation. She endured the Quraysh persecutions with him, including their boycott. She supported him morally and materially until her death in 619. 'A'isha was the daughter of Abu Bakr. She was about 9 at the time of her marriage to Muhammad. She was always a strong personality. She caused scandal in Medina when she was lost in the desert and brought home by a young Arab. She supported the Muslims in the battle of Uhud. The Prophet died in her lap, and was buried in her apartment. She remained a leading figure in the community after the Prophet's death. When she disagreed with 'Ali she sided with Talha and Zubayr. Her disagreement with 'Ali over the punishment of 'Uthman's killers led to discord. Some would say that her part in the revolt of Zubayr and Talha caused the first serious split in the community. After they were killed at the Battle of the Camel 27

32 she retired and lived quietly in Medina. She was known as an expert in matters of faith and law. She narrated more than 2000 Hadiths. Write an account of Hazrat Aisha in the years following the Prophet's death. [5] `Aisha heard and remembered more than 2,000 Hadith from the Prophet. She was recognised as an important source of teachings from him. His burial in her apartment increased the respect in which she was held. She played a significant part in important decisions made in the early years after his death. She was influential ind ebates about the government of the community. Her disagreement with 'Ali over the punishment of 'Uthman's killers led to discord. Some would say that her part in the revolt of Zubayr and Talha caused the first serious split in the community. After they were killed at the Battle of the Camel she retired and lived quietly in Medina. She was known as an expert in matters of faith and law. She narrated more than 2000 Hadiths. Write about the lives of TWO of the Prophet s wives whom he married after the death of Hazrat Khadija. [10] Sawdah bint Zam a: is Prophet s second wife. She was one of the first women to migrate to Abyssinia. Her husband had died and she lived with her elderly father. She was middle-aged and had children from her previous husband. She was widowed and was older than the Prophet. Prophet married her one month after the death of Hazrat Khadija when help was needed to look after the children of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h). her house was the first to be built in Madinah where she welcomed other wives in her household. She was close to Aisha and in the end, gave up her time with the Prophet to Aisha. She was known for her generosity. She died ten years after Prophet s death. Hafsa: was daughter of Hazrat Umar and was widowed at young age. She memorized Quran. She lived with the Prophet for 8 years. Mushaf (copy) of the Quran was kept with her which Abu Bakr compiled. She was narrator of many Hadiths. She was quicktempered like her father. Revelation came after honey incident where she told the Prophet his mouth didn t smell good after eating honey so the Prophet made it unlawful for himself. She died almost 60 years old. Zaynab bint Khuzaimah: had her husband martyred in the Battle of Badr. She is known for her generosity. She died after being married to Prophet for 8 months. Umm Salama (Hind bint Umayya): Her husband died being injured at battle of Uhud. She was amongst the first migrants to Abyssinia. She rejected the proposal of Abu Bakr and Umar then accepted proposal by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and married him in 4 AH. She also memorized Quran. She took part in many expeditions and was the most intellectual of the wives. At Hudaybiyyah the Prophet told the companion to sacrifice but they didn t, so she suggested the Prophet to do himself so that the companions may follow him. She 28

33 outlived all other wives of the Prophet and died aged 84. Zaynab bint Jahsh: was the Prophet s cousin. She married to Zayd first but that ended in divorce. The she married Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h). She used to take a lot care of the poor. Jawayriyyah bint Harith: was the daughter of chief of Banu Mustaliq. She was taken captive after campaign against that tribe. The Prophet proposed her. Due to her marriage to Prophet, people freed the captives of her tribe. She married the Prophet for 6 years. She died 39 years after his death. Umm Habiba (Ramla bint Abu Sufyan): is one of the early Muslims who migrated to Abyssinia with her husband who then became Christian. She couldn t live with him yet she stayed in Abyssinia. Prophet sent her proposal and her marriage was conducted by Najashi. She went to Madinah after 6 years and lived with Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) for 4 years before he died. Safiyyah bint Huyayy: was brought to the Prophet after Muslim victory at Khyber. She was the daughter of chief of Banu Nadhir. Prophet invited her to Islam then proposed her. Other wives did not favor her often but the Prophet always defended her. Maymunah bint Harith: was a relative of the Prophet and had always wanted to marry him. She sent him proposal through her previous brother-in-law. The Prophet (p.b.u.h) accepted and they married when the Muslims performed Umra after the treaty of Hudaybiyyah. After their marriage the verse was revealed: it is not lawful to you to marry women after that (33.52). Maria Qibtiyyah: was sent as a gift from the ruler of Egypt. She was a slave-girl. She was accepted into the household of the Prophet after the treaty of Hudaybiyyah. She gave birth to Prophet s son Ibrahim, who died when he was 8 months old. A solar eclipse coincided with his death and the Prophet made it clear that eclipses don t happen due to someone s death. Descendants of Prophet (Peace be upon Him) Write an account of the live of Hazrat Fatima (RA) [10] Fatima was the youngest daughter of Muhammad and Khadija. She was born a few years before prophethood and was the only daughter to outlive the Prophet. She was upset over the tortures faced by the Prophet by the Quraish She was married to 'Ali She gave birth to Hasan and Husayn, so she was the mother of the Prophet's only surviving descendants. The Prophet always showed her great respect. She was stricken by her father's last illness. He predicted that she would soon follow him. She sided with her husband after the Prophet's death. So she at first refused to recognise Abu Bakr as Caliph. Give an account of the lives of the Prophet s 3 daughters. [10] 29

34 Zaynab: was the eldest. She was born in the 5 th year of Prophet s marriage when he was 30. She married Abu al-aas bin Rabi. She had two children Ali and Umaymah. She became Muslim, but her husband initially did not. She stayed behind with him when the other Muslims migrated to Madinah. Her husband fought against Muslims at Badr and was captured. She sent her mother s necklace for his ransom. She returned to her father in Madinah while her husband was freed and returned to Makkah. Upon returning money to the Makkans, her husband became Muslim and asked the Prophet to allow him to go back to Zaynab. She died a year later. Ruqayyah: was 3 years younger than Zaynab. She married Utba (son of Abu Lahab) yet wasn t living with him when Surah Lahab was revealed so she was divorced by Utba at Abu Lahab s order. Then she married Uthman. They migrated twice to Abyssinia, and migrated to Madinah before the Prophet. She had a son who died at 6 (after her death). She was ill at the battle of Badr and Uthman was told to take her care. Umm Kulthum: was the 3 rd daughter of the Prophet and was married to Utaibah, Abu Lahab s son. Like Ruqayya she was divorced by her husband before she went to live with him. She was married to Uthman after Ruqayya s death. She suffered the boycott to stay Shib-i-Abi Talib. She stayed behind in Makkah when her father migrated. She had no children. Explain the significance of two figures during the LIFETIME of the Prophet. [4] Khadija gave him moral support that encouraged him and strengthened his resolve. She gave him financial support that allowed him time for thought. She always had full belief in him that encouraged him when he met opposition. 'A'isha was the Prophet's favourite wife. She gave him care and support in his later years. Fatima was his only daughter who gave him descendants. His respect for her became a model for the treatment by fathers of daughters. She remembered prayers that have been used by some Muslims ever since. Q (a) Write accounts of the lives of the Prophet s two grandsons al-hasan and al- Husayn. [10] Al-Hasan was involved with his father in the battle of Siffin and the battle with Aisha. He became Caliph but gave it up after a year due to heavy opposition from Mu awiya. He was poisoned and died in the year 670. Al- Husayn rejected the Umayyads and refused to accept Yazid as caliph after Mu awiya. AlHusayn s supporters in Kufa were killed. In 680AD, returning from Hajj, he camped at Karbala and Umayyad troops surrounded the camp. There was a battle between his 72 supporters and a 4000 strong army. They put up resistance but eventually al-husayn was surrounded and killed. His head was taken to the Caliph. 30

35 DETAILS Hazrat Imam Hassan: born 3 AH Named Hassan by the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He shared life of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) for over seven years. Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) and Hazrat Ali were his only teachers. He learnt newly revealed verses by heart as Muhammad (PBUH) recited them to him. He was 8 years old when Muhammad (PBUH) passed away. His mother also died a few months later. He was thus under the guidance of Hazrat Ali for the remaining years of his boyhood. During Hazrat Ali s Caliphate, Imam Hassan took part in all battles. On Hazrat Ali s death, he ascended to the office of Caliphate, supported by 40,000 people Hazrat Ameer Muawiya was found amassing his forces on the Iraq-Syria border. When Hazrat Imam Hassan attempted to rally his Iraqi troops for battle with Ameer Muawiya on the Iraq- Syria border, it became evident they had turned away from him. Deserted by most of his supporters, Hazrat Imam Hassan signed a peace treaty with Hazrat Ameer Muawiya to prevent bloodshed of the Muslims in two opposing camps. Thus, Hazrat Imam Hassan announced his abdication in the Masjid-e-Nabwi and retired in Madina. His wife, Joda bint Ash as s father had Hazrat Ali s enemy. On the 3rd attempt his wife managed to kill him with poison Hazrat Imam Hassan was buried in Jannat-ul-Baqih. During his Imamat, He lived in condition of extreme hardship, with no security even in his own house. In human perfection, Hazrat Imam Hasan was a reminiscent of his father and a perfect example of his noble grandfather, The Holy Prophet (PBUH) used to say about him and his younger brother Hazrat Imam Hussain: These two children of mine are Imams whether they stand up or side down. Hazrat Imam Hussain: Younger son of Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Bibi Fatima. Born on 3 Sha aban, 4 AH. Hazrat Imam Hussain most resembled the Holy Prophet (PBUH). On his deathbed, Hazrat Imam Hassan handed over the charge of Imamat to his brother. Hazrat Ameer Muawiyah s son, Yazid, succeeded to his father in the office of Caliphate in 60 AH, at Damascus. Hazrat Imam Hussain did not swear allegiance to Yazid. He then left for Makkah, as he did not want Yazid to cause bloodshed in Madina. A deputation of the people of Kufa asked Hazrat Imam Hussain to come to the rescue of the faith. Hazrat Imam Hussain sent his cousin, Muslim, to Kufa to assess the situation. For nearly four months Hazrat Imam Hussain stayed in Makkah in refuge. In Kufa, thousands paid homage to Hazrat Imam Hussain. Only when Muslim had dispatched the letter asking Hazrat Imam Hussain to come over to Kufa, did he (Muslim bin Aqeel) see the treachery. As almost all the leaders of Kufa had been bribed, the Governor of Kufa (deputy of Yazid) made the people desert Muslim and ultimately kill him. On his way to Kufa, Hazrat Imam Hussain heard the news of Muslim s assassination. At this stage, large numbers of his companions began to desert him. However, Hazrat Imam Hussain proceeded towards Kufa as before. Yazid s army surrounded the Imam s camp at Karbala, near the River Euphrates. Soon all water supplies to the camp of the Imam were cut. 31

36 When the Imam decided to fight the enemy s army and announced that the ultimate end was near, many people deserted. Soon, he was left with only 72 faithful companions. By 10 Muharram, all of the Imam s companions were slain. Giving the charge of Imamat to his sick son, Zain-ul- Abideen, he went back to the battlefield. He was wounded from head to feet. When he died, his head was cut off and taken to Yazid s court. Thus, Hazrat Imam Hussain won an everlasting victory against the forces of evil. Explain why they each died in the way they did. [4] Al-Hasan died because of the constant threat from the Umayyads to secure power, and they always viewed al-hasan as an obstacle due to his support and his being the grandson of the Prophet. His poisoning reflects the treachery of the Umayyads. Al- Husayn died because he resisted the Umayyads as he saw them as corrupt. He never gave up on his principles even for his own safety, and so he was seen as an upholder of right against wrong. Companions, Ten Blessed Companions, Scribes, the Emigrants and Helpers of Prophet (SAW). Explain the significance of (i) Abu Bakr, and either (ii) Umar during the lifetime of the Prophet. [10] Abu Bakr was the first adult male to accept Islam. He brought other prominent Meccans to Islam. He accompanied the Prophet on the hijra. During that journey he was reassured by the Prophet and is referred to in the Qur'an. He gave his daughter in marriage to Muhammad. He readily accepted the truth of the Prophet's account of the mir'aj. He remained close to the Prophet during the battles fought by the Muslims. He gave all his possessions to support the Tabuk expedition. He led the prayers during the Prophet's illness. He led the first pilgrimage to Mecca. (No marks for his activities after the Prophet's death.) Umar accepted Islam at the age of 27. Before his conversion he had gone to kill the Prophet yet in the way he was told that his own sister and brother in law had converted to Islam, he rushed towards her house. He found them reciting verses from Surah Taha. At first Umar was angry with them, later he asked to see the writing which they were reading, but his sister said only those who have been purified can read it, and so Umar made wuzu before being given the Quran. 32

37 After his conversion Umar refused to keep Islam a secret and so Muslims he didn t emigrate secretly and fought in all the battles. He gave half of his wealth for the Tabuk expedition and is one of the ten promised paradise. He witnessed for the treaty of Hudaybiyyah although he was initially not satisfied with the terms. On the Prophet s death, he was so much grieved he said he would kill anyone who declared the Prophet had died. Ten Blessed Companions ( ) Hazrat Talha Belonged to the Banu Taim clan of the Quraish. He had been at the market of Sauq-Basri when the hermit named Buhaira predicted the signs of prophethood in Muhammad (PBUH). When Muhammad (PBUH) proclaimed his mission, Hazrat Talha immediately accepted Islam. Grandnephew of Hazrat Abu Bakr. Piety. Bravery. Charity. Intense devotion to Muhammad (PBUH) and his cause were his character Hazrat Talha was a very wealthy and generous man. For many acts of generosity, he earned the titles of Talhatul Khair (Benevolent) and Talhatul Fayyaz (Generous) from the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He migrated to Abyssinia, and later Madina. At Battle of Badr, he inspected the movements of Makkan caravans. At Uhad, he placed himself in front of Muhammad (PBUH) as a human shield. He received 24 wounds and lost two fingers of his hand. Participated in all expeditions after Uhad. Died in the Battle of Jamal in 36 A.H. at age of 62. Hadith If anyone finds pleasure in looking at a martyr walking on the face of the earth, let him look at Talha bin Ubaidullah. Hazrat Zubair bin al-awwam was Nephew of Hazrat Khadija. Cousin of the Prophet (PBUH). Accepted Islam at age of 15 or 16. Migrated to Madina. Fought in all of Muhammad (PBUH) s campaigns. Led expeditions for Hazrat Umar. Recommended by Hazrat Umar as a possible candidate for the Caliphate. Died during Battle of Jamal at the age of 64. Killed by one of Hazrat Ali s partisans. Ahadis: Behold, for every prophet there is a helper, and my helper is Zubair. Hazrat Abdullah bin Masud The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said about Hazrat Abdullah bin Masud Whoever likes to recite the Quran as fresh (i.e., accurately) as it was revealed, let him recite it the way it is recited by the son of Umm `Abd. had deep knowledge of the Holy Quran. first Muslim who openly recited Sura Al-Rehman before the pagans of Makkah, withstood their beating and did not care for the tortures which the Quraish inflicted upon him for such a daring act. After conversion to Islam, he hardly ever missed an opportunity of accompanying the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to learn every possible thing he could from him, to the extent that some people mistakenly thought that he was the member of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) s family. His enthusiasm for learning made the former shepherd a leading authority on the Quranic Recitation as well as other matters of the faith. Hazrat Umar Khattab said of him: He is full of knowledge He migrated twice to Abyssinia and then to Madina, took part in the battle of Badr and killed Abu Jahal. He was sent to Kufa as an administrator by Hazrat Umar who always held him in high esteem 33

38 because of his knowledge, commitment to the cause of Islam. He is reported to be the authority on some 800 traditions. Hazrat Zaid bin Sabit : was a principal scribe of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). belonged to the Khazraj tribe of Madina, accepted Islam at the age of 11 before the Muslims moved to this city from Makkah. As he was only 13 years old, inspite of his persistent pleas, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) did not allow him to participate in the Battles of Badr and Uhad. However, subsequently, he took part in the battle of Khandaq and in the Tabuk Expedition. On the directions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), he learnt Hebrew and Syriac Languages and became an official interpreter and translator for him. His deep knowledge of the Holy Quran made even the great Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) resort to him and show special respect to him, despite the fact that he was much younger than most of them He was the first Ansar to severe allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr as the Caliph participated in the battle of Yamama and fought the apostasy war against Musailma, the liar. After the battle of Yamama, he was chosen as the Head of the Committee which was given the task of compiling the Holy Quran in book form which job he did commendably well. During Usman s Caliphate, it was he who prepared standard version of the Quran, working diligently. It is this standard copy (known to be Usmani Script) prepared by Hazrat Zaid bin Sabit which is recited as such till this time in the entire Muslim world. Describe the work carried out by the Scribes of the Prophet in writing down the revelations. [10] (a) Quran was entirely written in the Prophet s lifetime even though not compiled as book form then. They included his closest Companions. including Ubbay bin Ka b, Uthman, Zaid bin Thabit, Muawiyah and Ali He dictated the revelations to them. once the scribes wrote them, they read it out loud for verification. They reordered the revelations and inserted new ones as the Prophet directed them to. There was always a scribe on hand to take down a revelation from the Prophet. Abdullah bin Amr bin Aas is reported to have asked the Prophet (p.b.u.h) should I write down your sayings even when you're angry, he replied yes, for I speak nothing but truth Zayd reported that whenever verse was being revealed, the Prophet felt intense heat and perspiration so Zayd used to fetch something to write on, then the Prophet dictated and he used to write, and this was very heavy task for him The Scribes wrote down portions on various materials. These included animal skins, bones and palm leaves. Some companions had memorized the Quran who couldn t write and their versions were used for verification during compilation in Abu Bakr s time. (b) Why was the task they performed significant? [4] (b) They ensured there was a written record of the revelations. The Prophet could not read or write. This assisted the memories of those who memorized the Qur an. Without their written records the Qur an may have been lost after the Prophet s time. The written passages they produced formed the basis of the standard 34

39 collection of the Qur an made under Abu Bakr and Uthman. (c) What was the part played by Zayd Ibn Thabit in compiling the revelations? [4] (c) He was one of the chief Scribes. He was asked by Abu Bakr to make a first collection. This was after many memorisers, huffaz, had been killed in Yamama. Uthman asked him to make a final collection. He was assisted by a group of senior Muslims. He took trouble to collect all the fragments he could. These included the mushaf which were kept by Hafsa. He consulted other Muslims about the correctness of his collection. 5 Explain the importance of the Abu Talib and Bilal during the lifetime of the Prophet. [10] Abu Talib: He trained the Prophet as a merchant. He brought him up after his grandfather s death. He protected him against his enemies in Mecca. The Prophet was given tribal protection by Abu Talib as he was the head of his clan at that time He shared in many of the Prophet s hardships. Pagan Makkans resorted to Abu Talib to stop Muhammad ہللا علیہ و سلم) (صلی from preaching Islam but Abu Talib readily sided with the Prophet when he refused to stop. Bilal: was originally from Ethiopia. He was a slave who became one of the first Muslims. He was tortured mercilessly (put on hot sand, was put on rocks on his chest in heat so he couldn t move) by his master Umayya bin Khalf to give up Islam. he used to reply for each blow one!, one! (meaning God is One) but he never gave up his faith. he was freed by Abu Bakr. he migrated to Madinah and fought in all battles and said to have killed his previous master in that battle. He was appointed as the first muezzin in Islam. at Conquest of Makkah he gave Adhan on top of the Ka abah. At Prophet s death, he was so much grieve-stricken that he refused to give azan again and left Madinah. He spent last days in Damascus and died there. the Ansar. [4] They were people of Medina who accepted Islam. They helped the Muslim emigrants (muhajirun) when they came north. They shared their possessions with them. They took them as brothers. They helped the Prophet against unbelievers in Medina. 5 (a) Write about the lives of the Prophet s uncles: Hamza and Abu Sufyan. [10] (a) Hamza: he was an uncle and fosterbrother of the Prophet; he was a warrior and sportsman and had little interest in the issues of Makkah; he hit Abu Jahl when he heard Abu Jahl had assaulted the Prophet; after that he became Muslim; it gave the Muslims a lot of strength and they were able to pray in public; in the battle of Badr, he killed leading men of the Quraysh including Hind s father Utbah; she vowed revenge and hired Washi to kill Hamza which he did at the battle of Uhud; he was given the title chief of Martyrs, and the Prophet led his funeral prayer. Abu Sufyan: he was a merchant, prominent and powerful figure among the Quraysh, and a staunch opponent of the 35

40 Prophet and the Muslims. It was his caravan returning from Syria that was the basis for the battle of Badr, where he summoned Quraishites for protecting his caravan as he feared the Muslims at the border of Madinah. After the loss at Badr, revenge was sought and Abu Sufyan led the Quraysh army to Uhud. His wife Hind also went seeking revenge for the death of her father. After Uhud, Abu Sufyan vowed to fight again and the next time they met was at the Battle of the Trench. After the Quraysh broke the treaty of Hudaybiyya, Abu Sufyan went to Madina to attempt to restore the treaty, but without success; he subsequently converted when the Prophet marched towards Makkah, and the Prophet honoured him despite his fierce opposition for many years. At Ta if, Abu Sufyan lost an eye, and at Yarmouk he lost the other; he was made governor of Najran; he died aged 90 in Madinah. (b) Many of the people who had been enemies of the Prophet accepted Islam. What lessons can Muslims learn from this? [4] b) Their conversions show the importance of forgiveness in Islam, and that anyone, even if once an enemy of Islam, can become one of God s servants. This means that people should not judge others, or be cruel to them, as it is just as possible for them to become Muslim as anyone else. Or, that people should know that no matter what they have done in their lives, if they are sorry for what they have done then they can be forgiven by God. Wahshi and Hind are good examples of those who became Muslim. Q(a) Give an account of the lives of Uthman and Ali during the lifetime of the Prophet. [10] Uthman ibn Affan: accepted Islam through Abu Bakr. He married the Prophet s (pbuh) daughter Ruqayyah. He was wealthy in Makka, but still tortured by his relatives after conversion, and was amongst those who migrated to Abyssinia. Ruqayyah fell ill before the Battle of Badr and so he was excused from participating; she died while the Prophet (pbuh) was at battle. Uthman later married the Prophet s (pbuh) other daughter, Umm Kulthum, and was given the name possessor of the two lights. He went to Makka as the Prophet s (pbuh) emissary to allow the Muslims to perform the pilgrimage, and was detained by the Makkans; this led to the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyya; he took part in the battle of Uhud and at Tabuk Uthman supplied the army with nine hundred and forty camels, and sixty horses; he also brought ten thousand dinars to equip the army; he bought a well and donated it to be used by the rich, poor and travellers; he was considered to be the most shy/modest among the Muslims. Ali ibn Abi Talib: the Prophet s (pbuh) cousin, went to live with the Prophet (pbuh) at a young age to alleviate the hardship on his father; he was one of the first to accept the message of Islam at the age of ten; when the Prophet (pbuh) started open preaching, he called his clansmen to Islam and it was only Ali who stepped forward to take accept it; the Quraysh laughed at Ali 36

41 being made an emir that they should obey; he stood by the Prophet (pbuh) during the persecutions and the boycott in Makka; he was entrusted with the Quraysh s belonging to be returned to them when the Prophet(pbuh) migrated to Madina, and he met the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu Bakr at Quba; in Madina Ali was made the brother of the Prophet(pbuh); he married the Prophet s (pbuh) daughter Fatima and they had four children; Ali was a prominent fighter in all the battles (except Tabuk), commanding the Muslim army at Khaybar; he was one of the scribes of the Prophet (pbuh), writing down the Qur an as well as the Treaty of Hudaybiyya; Ali rode next to the Prophet (pbuh) on the final pilgrimage; Ali and Abbas washed the body of the Prophet (pbuh) when he died. (b) Uthman was known to be generous with his wealth. How can Muslims now apply the trait of generosity? [4] Muslims who have money should ensure they spend their wealth for good/betterment of their community: they can give to mosques to expand them, or hospitals or provide healthcare for those who can t afford it. They could provide the basic necessities for people, like Uthman provided the water well for free. Even if they do not have much money, Muslims can be generous with what they have by giving a meal to someone else, or giving some of their clothes to those in more need. Generosity does not have to be about money, but can be giving advice, time or support. Give an account of the life of Prophet s adopted son Zaid bin Harith. [10] Zaid bin Harith was 8 when captured then sold as slave, then bought by Hazrat Khadija s nephew and given to her. The she gave him to Prophet (p.b.u.h) who freed him. Zaid s parents were always in search of him. Once they learnt he was in Makkah, they came with ransom to free him. The Prophet gave him choice to go with his father or to remain with him; Zaid chose to remain with the Prophet and hence was declared Prophet s son. He was called Zaid bin Muhammad until revelation came Muhammad has not been a father of any men of you... (Sura 33:5), after which he was called Zaid bin Harith. He was third to accept Islam. He accompanied the Prophet when he tried to preach to the people of Taif and was also injured. He was with those who accompanied the remaining Muslims in Mecca to Medina. He married several times; once to Prophet s cousin Zainab that ended in divorce. He was close to the Prophet and fought many battles including Badr, Uhud, Khandaq and Khaybar. He commanded 7 military expeditions. At Mu ta, he was standard bearer and martyred in the battlefield. 37

42 The history and importance of the Hadiths The main musnad and musannaf collections Outline the major differences between the musnad and musannaf collections of Hadith. [4] The musnad collections gather Hadiths together according to the name of the first transmitter. They are useful for detecting Hadiths attributed to a particular Companion. The best known musnad collection is Ibn Hanbal s Musnad. The musannaf collections gather Hadiths according to their subject matter. They are useful for understanding the Prophet s teachings on a particular point of belief or practice. They are particularly useful in establishing matters of law. The six books of Sunni sahih Hadith are the best known musannaf collections. The methods based on examination of the chain of transmitters (isnad) and the text (matn) of a Hadith to test the reliability of the Hadith Q. Explain the importance of the isnad (chain of transmitters) and of the matn (body of text) in assisting scholars to check the authenticity of a Hadith. [10] The isnad guarantees that the Hadith originated with the Prophet. Each transmitter (rawi) must be honest and upright. He must be a strong Muslim. He must have a good memory. Each transmitter must have known the transmitter before him, and also the transmitter after. The first transmitter in the chain must be a Companion of the Prophet. There must be no gaps or weaknesses in the chain. The matn must agree with the teachings of the Qur an. It must also agree with the main body of reliable Hadiths. It must also agree with common sense and what is reasonable. It should not praise any individual or place. It should not give precise details of events that occurred after 38

43 the Prophet s time. It should not contain expressions uncharacteristic of the Prophet. Q. Write a detailed account of the parts of a Hadith and say how these parts help in determining the different categories of Hadiths, namely: sahih; hasan; da if and mawdu. [10] A hadith consists of two parts: the Sanad (isnad/chain of narrators) and Matn (text).. Isnad, it could be said, means support as it is the authority for establishing the genuineness of a hadith. The transmitters of hadiths had to have met each other with the line ending with the Prophet (pbuh).they had to have a flawless character and sharp memory, etc. Whereas for validating the matn, the compilers had to make sure that the text was not against the Qur an or other authentic Hadith and did not give high rewards for small deeds or vice versa, etc. The principles used for establishing the genuineness of isnad and matn, which helped to categorically determine the category of a Hadith. The categories are: Sahih ( Authentic): Hadith are which totally pass the test of isnad and matn, with totally unbroken chain, transmitted through highly righteous people, and transmitted through various chains and never disagrees with Quran and already authenticated Hadiths. Da if( weak): these hadiths are weak due to broken chain(missing links between chain of transmitters). And they have less or one line of transmitters, or transmitters in the chain were known to be liars or with weak memories or haven t met whom they were supposed to be narrating from. Mawdu ( ): means fabricated, and refers to the type of Hadiths attribute to the Prophet which he never said. This type has no or totally unlinked chain of transmitters. (b) Why do you think the Prophet practised and encouraged the use of ijma? [4] The use of ijma in legal thinking is based on a number of verses in the Qur an which indicate that the community has been given authority because it is upright and follows the guidance of God and the example of the Prophet (pbuh). Ijma was encouraged as it was safeguarded by the agreement of leading Muslims/experts who could say whether or not a principle was in harmony with the Qur an and Sunnah. The Prophet was ordered by God in Quran: and consult them in subject matters He himself said: my community can never agree upon an error, which indicates what they agree upon must be right and thus their agreement must be sought through consultations. Hasan ( fine): this type is almost equal to the Sahih except that one or some of its transmitters are said to be weak in memory, yet the hadith agrees with Quran. 39

44 The major themes of the Hadiths as these are contained both in the passages set for special study and in other similar passages Q. Outline the main teachings of the Hadiths you have studied about the importance of Muslim communal life. [10] ''Muslim ummah is like a single body. If a part of the body is harmed, whole body is affected''. This hadith signifies a sense of sympathy amongst people. It puts emphasis on the point that a community can lead as an exemplary society if steps and precautions to keep it intact are taken. That if a house amid a neighborhood is poor, or in bad financial condition, or in any problem such as disease, death, or security, the people surrounding them are obliged to help them, or at least sympathize with them in words if they can t afford it financially. And this is emphasized in another place, he is not a believer whose neighbor sleeps hungry while he s full. Another hadith goes on whoever believes in Allah and the last day must be kind to his neighbor and his guest. That means that one cannot claim his faith unless he is supportive to his brothers in faith. This thing will benefit to the one in suffering, and the helper too, since he is being rewarded for every good deed, even though it be minor. As a hadith declares '' removing an obstacle from a way is a charity, helping someone lift something is a charity, saying good words is a charity''. Charity is an obligation and even if one cannot give financial aid to the deprived he has other means to perform it as in this Hadith and one should not demean a minor good. Special importance is also given to the very weak individuals of the society; the helpless ones, such as widows and orphans, since they can t be self subsisting and the Prophet ensured their helpers will be closed to the Prophet in paradise. This will ensure that all of the society is given importance without any discrimination, and will demonstrate the ''true sincerity with the common people of the society'' as Islam stressed always. The Prophet also instructed Maaz ( ) to be rejoicing and soft to his people being governor in Yemen. So governments should follow providing its people good employments, education and welfare to keep them happy. (b) How can the teachings of the Prophet concerning care in the community be applied today? [4] The community can put into practice the Prophet s (pbuh) teaching about care in the community in their everyday lives by enquiring about the health of an ill relative or neighbor, helping to educate and care for an orphan child in the community are just some simple examples that could be cited. Muslims in a community should rally together when there is a natural disaster in the country and help collect funds and supplies that could be sent to the affected areas or offer their services as voluntary workers to ease a crisis. 40

45 Q. Outline the main teachings in the Hadiths you have studied for the passages set for special study about the responsibilities of individual Muslims. [10] Success in here and the hereafter depends on a Muslim s individual struggle. A man inquired from the prophet that if he performs obligations like prayers, fasting in Ramadan and treat lawful as it is and prohibited as it is so will he enter paradise, he replied yes. So judgment between good and bad should be clear and then the bad thing must be avoided. A man who strives hard to make himself a good person is observing jihad bil nafs. His action is considered as the best when he puts himself and his wealth in the cause of Allah, as he is declared excellent of men by the Prophet ( ). The Prophet also emphasized the importance of halal and independent earning saying none eats better food than which he eats out of the work of his hand as putting strains on other and begging is an unfair means of living. The Prophet also stressed on a regular recitation of Quran. Learning Quran is obviously a part of Islam, but continuous reminder of it is necessary to keep it in your mind being a memorizer and to keep your life in accordance with the God s mandate, by constant recital, otherwise we will let it go away out like a tethered camel loosened as in Hadith. Muslims are also said to be modest as it will keep him totally disconnected from all evils that spoils his character and will make him a good person. The Prophet said who has no modesty, has no faith. The prophet also made it clear that a bit of arrogance in heart will lead to hell and a bit of faith will lead to heaven. It is clear that even if a person is a sinner, that bit of faith will alarm him of his wickedness so he will correct himself, but if he is proud of whatever evil he is doing, he may stick to that until death, and will enter hellfire. If a man sticks to his worldly desires he lives his life upon them without caring anything and tries to take its pleasures as if in paradise. But the Prophet explained that for a believer, this world is a prison where certain rules are to be followed, it is a disbeliever s paradise, and believers will get all in the hereafter. Use of Hadith in legal thinking, and their relationship with the Qur an, consensus (ijma ) and analogy (qiyas) How are the Qur an and Hadith employed in working out Islamic law? [4] The Qur an is the first source of Islamic law. Its teachings are followed without question and where they contain no detail the Hadiths are employed. Quran says Obey Allah and obey the messenger indicating that Quran should be employed along with the Prophet s teachings. The Hadith fill out the Qur'an and add teachings where it is silent. Quran commands various obligations briefly yet Hadith is what gives complete procedure 41

46 of the commandments like Zakat, Prayers, and Hajj etc. What part do Hadiths play in Islamic legal thinking? [10] Hadiths of the Prophet are the second most important source of Islamic law next to the Qur an and that they also give fuller teachings of what the Qur an states in brief. Quran says establish prayers and give charity and the Hadith will explain what are the prerequisites of prayers, how to perform it, what are the exceptions etc and how much charity to give, whom to give etc. Zakat is calculated in the light of the Prophet s Hadiths. Where the Qur an is completely silent his Hadiths are the sole basis of legislation e.g. donkey, desert lizard is declared forbidden for consumption, yet Quran declares animals with sharp canines and birds with sharp claws forbidden to eat. Quran also outlaws dead animal for eating yet Hadith makes marine dead an exception. The punishment of theft is cutting of hand in Quran. Hadith defines the theft that makes this punishment applicable i.e. when it s a major theft, thief is adult etc. The immediate Caliphs formed a new law only when it would harmonize with the Prophet s teachings. Once Hazrat Umar (RA) decided to put a limit on dowry, a woman objected to that and said that when the Prophet gave this right to us who are you to take it so he retracted. Ijma (consensus) and qiyas(analogy) also depend on Hadith as scholars look at different hadiths to make sure the rulings they give after consensus doesn t contradict any of the Hadith. Qiyas is applied indivually on the basis of Hadith for a new situation similar to something in the teaching of the Prophet, if nothing similar is there, this method is not easy. What is the importance of consensus (ijma) in Islam? [4] Scholars have to judge an issue which is not clear in Quran/Hadith e.g. acceptability of smoking, hair transplant, IVF, insurance etc. The use of ijma in legal thinking is based on a number of verses in the Qur an. Ijma was encouraged as it was safeguarded by the agreement of leading Muslims/experts who could say whether or not a principle was in harmony with the Qur an and Sunnah. The Prophet was ordered by God in Quran: and consult them in subject matters He himself said: my community can never agree upon an error, which indicates what they disagree upon must be incorrect and thus their agreement must be sought through consultations when ruling on permissibility of new things is to be made. In what circumstances do Sunni Muslims allow the use of qiyas (analogy)? [4] The Qur'an and Hadith are the primary sources. When they are silent the consensus of believers is allowed. When this is silent individual analogy is allowed. This employs the method of comparing unknown situations with known. 42

47 2 (a) Describe the relationship of Hadiths with the Qur an, giving examples of how Hadiths are used in understanding God s words. [10] The Prophet s (pbuh) hadiths play a very important role in Islam and are second only to the Qur an in formulating laws. God has given Muslims many injunctions in the Qur an but it is the hadiths of the Prophet (pbuh) that explain them. Explaining the divine book was one of the functions of the Messenger of God (pbuh). We have merely revealed this book to you so that you may explain to them where they are differing over (and so it stands out) as a guidance and mercy for a people who believe. (Al-Qur an, 16:64) The above and other verses clearly establish the fact that the teachings of the Qur an cannot be put into practice without seeking guidance from the Prophet s (pbuh) hadiths. Some examples to show how the two are used together could be given by candidates e.g. they can say that hadiths explain Qur anic verses e.g. God says in the Qur an: So be obedient to your Lord, O Mary. Prostrate (to Him) and bow down alongside those who bow down. (Al-Qur an 3:43) The Prophet s (pbuh) hadiths expand on how to put the injunction from God into action, Pray as you see me praying. Hadiths also restrict the meaning of a verse e.g. in the case of theft the command is to cut off their hands. How much of the hand is to be cut off? Which hand is to be cut off? The Prophet (pbuh) educated the companions on both issues by stating that in the case of theft the right hand up to the wrist is to be cut off. Explanation of technical issues like those concerning fasting in the month of Ramadan, for which the Qur an says: And eat and drink until the white thread becomes distinct to you from the black thread of dawn. The Prophet (pbuh) interpreted the verse by saying that the white thread refers to day and the black thread refers to the night. Quran enjoins Charity on Muslims yet Hadith explains how much to give (2.5% of wealth, 1/10 th of the land produce and different injunctions on cattle) and who are exempted. (b) By using the principle of analogy (qiyas) the basic laws of Islam can be applied at any time and in any case. Do you agree? [4] AGREEMENT: New rulings can be formed for any new circumstance, based on their basic similarity with the basic laws of the Qur an and Sunnah. In this way the divine laws, revealed in the Qur an and Sunnah, remain unchanged without becoming outdated. The fundamental laws were made by God who created man and knows what s best for him at all times. For changing aspects of human life, the Qur an and Sunnah provide basic principles which may be applied by analogy whenever the need arises e.g. the issue of drugs could be cited, cocaine was not present in the Prophet s (pbuh) time so is its use allowed? The Prophet (pbuh) had said, Every intoxicant is khamr, and every khamr is haram so every intoxicant is unlawful is a conclusion that could be derived at by the use of analogy. DISAGREEMENT: Qiyas depends very much on the ability of a legal expert to find comparisons between two principles, and because it is practised by individuals it causes unease to some Muslims as it does 43

48 not have the same broad support, as the other three sources. Significance of Hadith in thought and action in Islam. How have the Hadiths of the Prophet been used as a source of guidance by Muslims? [10] A basic response to this question would be to say that Hadiths are the words of the Prophet which teach us the way of Allah. Better answers would give an elaboration and state that Hadiths explain the teachings of the Qur an, e.g. the Qur an says to pay zakat, it is however the Hadith of the Prophet which fills out the details about how much and whom to pay etc. Other examples could be given to explain the answer. Good answers could also say that whenever the Qur an is silent on a subject, the Hadith of the Prophet is taken as an authority. This is because the Qur an and the Hadith always agree with one another and that authoritative collections of Hadiths contain tafsir which are invaluable guides to key verses in the Qur an. Truly, My mercy overcomes My wrath. This is a Hadith Qudsi. What is special about Hadiths of this kind? [4] words of the Prophet in a Hadith: if you come to me walking, I will come towards you running. Prophet (p.b.u.h) also said Allah says: if my slave sins so much that they reach the top of the skies and then repents sincerely, I will forgive him. Q) What is the role of Hadiths as a source of guidance in the lives of Muslims? [10] Hadiths play a very important role in the lives of Muslims and are a source of guidance to them in all aspects of life. What the Prophet (pbuh) said, did and what he approved of is second in importance to the Qur an; God has Himself told Muslims in the Qur an Obey Allah and obey the Prophet [64:12]; Prophet (pbuh) said, I leave with you two things. If you hold fast to them both you will never be misguided: the Book of Allah and my sunna. Hadiths are important to explain the teachings of the Qur an; details of hajj, zakat, fasting are all given to Muslims from the hadith and sunna of the Prophet (pbuh); the Prophet (pbuh) laid down principles (shariah) regarding every aspect of life: buying, selling, contracts, inheritance which are all part of his sunna; in the Farewell Address he clearly stated: He who is present here shall carry this message to the one who is absent. Muslims turn to his actions to emulate him in the hope that their actions will please the Almighty and be acceptable to him. Hadith Qudsi, is a divine Hadith. They are sayings from Allah himself. Hadith Qudsi does not form part of the Qur an but is recognised as the sayings of the Prophet which were related to him by Allah. Allah says in the 44

49 (b) How are Muslims obeying God when they obey the Prophet? [4] By following the Prophet s (pbuh) example, for instance in how to perform prayers, Muslims are not only following his instruction but also fulfilling their obligation to God by completing the second Pillar of Islam. So in this way they are obeying both the Prophet (pbuh) and God. Since his guidance is actually guidance from God, they obey both in this case. Quran says about the Prophet: and he does not speak from his thoughts; that is nothing but the revelation being revealed,(surah Najm). Muslims are told by God to obey the Prophet, so they are obeying God by obeying him. The period of rule of the Rightly Guided Caliphs and their importance as leaders Abubakr (RA) Q) Write an account of the major contributions made to Islam by Abu Bakr during Prophet s life and then caliphate. [10] (i) during the Prophet s lifetime; He was the Prophet s friend from childhood. He was one of the first to accept Islam. He brought others to accept Islam. He remained loyal to the Prophet at all times, good and bad. He expressed belief in the Prophet s Night Journey. He bought slaves who were Muslim and freed them. He accompanied the Prophet on the hijra. He gave his daughter `A isha to be the Prophet s wife. He made a financial contribution to the expedition to Tabuk. (ii) during his caliphate. He steadied the mourning community after the Prophet s death. He continued the Prophet s intention to send expeditions to the north towards Syrian border despite some companions objected to. He fought against the tribes who withheld zakat. He fought against the false prophets. These were Musaylima, Tulayha, Aswad al-ansi and Sajjah. He arranged to have the first collection of the Qur an made. Explain why he was known as the Honest One (al-siddiq), and the Saviour of Islam. [4] He was given the title of al-siddiq after he declared without hesitation that he believed the Prophet had been taken to Jerusalem on the Night Journey. It also suits his conduct of showing complete loyalty towards Muhammad. He was acknowledged as the Saviour of Islam because of his efforts to keep the community united, to resist the threat from tribes withdrawing from Islam, and to destroy the false prophets. Describe Abu Bakr's activities against the false prophets and apostate tribes. [10] Answers could have basic references to the false prophets, the tribes withholding zakat and the apostate tribes. Some could go on to give fuller accounts of these challenges, 45

50 faced by Abu Bakr. In the answers it could be described that at the time of Abu Bakr's caliphate there were a number of people in Arabia who claimed to be prophets like Muhammad. The main ones were Musaylima among the Hanifa tribes in Yamama, Tulayha among the tribes of Asad and Ghatafan, al- Aswad in the Yemen and Sajjah among the Tamim tribe. Answers could give accounts of how Abu Bakr sent forces against all of them and write about the fighting against Musaylima in the battle of Yamama, which was the most fierce, and one in which many memorizers of the Qur'an were killed. The revolt against Islam by tribes that had pledged loyalty to the Prophet and the refusal of some tribes to send taxes to Medina could also be described. Excellent answers will give a full account. Q. Write a detailed account of the battle of Yamama, and of the compilation of the Qur an during the caliphate of Abu Bakr. [10] Battle of Yamama was fought against the false prophet Musaylimah, who belonged to a central Arabian tribe of Banu Hanifa and had claimed prophethood during the Prophet s (pbuh) lifetime and had been accepted as one by his tribe. In December 632, he was in command of Bedouin, some of whom did not believe his claims but had joined forces with him to support their tribe. Abu Bakr first sent Shurhbeel bin Hasanah and Ikrimah to crush the rebellion and instructed them to wait for each other to launch a combined attack on Musaylimah. They disobeyed him and hence were defeated. Abu Bakr then sent a larger force under the command of Khalid bin Waleed to Yamama. The Muslims, numbering , fought a long drawn out battle with many casualties as they met with a strong resistance. Eventually Musaylimah was killed by Wahashi. In this battle, many hundreds of Muslims were martyred; amongst them were 360 huffaz. Umar therefore advised Abu Bakr to take the necessary steps needed to preserve the Qur an lest it be lost, forgotten or corrupted. Abu Bakr, though hesitant at first, finally saw the importance of carrying out this task and appointed Zayd ibn Thabit along with a group to collect the texts of all the verses from the surviving huffaz and companions of the Prophet (pbuh). These were then compared, authenticated and compiled into a single volume. (b) The Prophet called Abu Bakr al-siddiq (Testifier of the Truth). How did Abu Bakr live up to his title during his caliphate? [4] During his caliphate, Abu Bakr fought to uphold the finality of the Prophet (pbuh) in the wars against the false prophets; he refused to give in to the demands of those who wanted to be exempted from paying zakat and fought battles with them, and he preserved the word of Go by having the Qur an compiled. One or more of these events could be given by candidates as examples of how Abu Bakr always stood by the truth and fought to maintain it, by which he lived up to the title of al-siddiq (Testifier of the Truth) which the Prophet (pbuh) had given him when he was the first to believe the Prophet s (pbuh) account of mi raj. 46

51 Write a detailed account on the four fasle prophets and how the caliph Abu Bakr defeated them. [10] Aswad Ansi: was the leader of Ans tribe in Yemen. He had dark complexion and veiled his face to create mystery around him. He did magic tricks to convince people of his claim of prophethood. He gathered large army using deception and invaded Najran. He was killed by Firuz ul Dhulaymi, a Persian Muslim. Tulayha bin Khuwaylid: was a wealthy leader of Asad and Ghatafan tribe in North Arabia who initially opposed Islam but embraced it 630. Later he proclaimed himself Prophet and raised strong force of those tribes who accepted him. Abu Bakr sent Khalid bin Walid against his force who defeated them in Battle of Buzakha 632. Tulayha escaped to Syria and after Muslims conquered Syria, he accepted Islam and fought as Muslim in many battles (Jalula, Qadisiyah and Nihawand). Sajjah: was an Arab Christian from Taghlib tribe (Iraq), who claimed prophethood after the demise of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) when her tribesmen rejected Islam. She marched with 4000 s army against Madinah but dropped her plan learning Tulayha s defeat. Then she allied with another false prophet Musaylmah and married him, accepting his prophethood. Then she attacked Muslims but was defeated by Khalid s army, and upon killing and defeat of Musaylma, she embraced Islam. Musaylmah the Liar: was wealthy and powerful man belonged to the large and influential tribe of Banu Hanifa in Yamama and used his influence to misguide people and accept him as prophet. He distorted Quranic verses and invented new ones legalizing what was forbidden, and gained many followers. He even wrote to Prophet Muhammad that he has been given share in his prophethood; the Prophet called him al Kadhzaab (the arch-liar). After prophet s death he challenged Caliphate so Abu Bakr sent Ikramah and Shuraybil to march to Yamama and wait for Khalid, but they started fight before waiting hence were defeated. A 3 rd force under Khalid arrived and defeated him; Wahshi killed Musaylma. Umar (RA) Write a detailed account of the administrative measures put in place by Umar during his caliphate. [10] The Islamic empire expanded rapidly during his caliphate and he undertook many administrative measures to manage the affairs of the state in an effective manner: he divided the state into several provinces and appointed qualified governors called Wali; provinces were further divided into districts under Ameer (leader) chosen by the caliph or Wali. He separated the judiciary from the executive to make it completely impartial and none was above law. The Qadhi was the head of the judiciary; he established a department of finance under the name of Dewan. He established the police department to keep peace in the state. He made an intelligence unit for accountability of the officials. He introduced pensions for the old. Bait ul Maal 47

52 was established in his period from which the poor(whether Muslim or non-muslim) benefited. He created cantonments separate from the cities (i.e. Basra, Kufa), and built canals for irrigation and drinking. In his era, there was drought & a great famine during which he arranged timely food supply from Iraq and Syria, and saved hundreds of thousands from starvation. He used to walk in streets every night to help the hungry, poor or needy. In that plight Madinah had free lines of food every day. Umar s caliphate is regarded as the golden period of early Islamic history. Discuss. [4] This period witnessed a lasting process of internal consolidation, peace and stability as well as prosperity as a direct result of a comprehensive and well built infrastructure and at the same time how the borders of the empire were hugely expanded and made secure. Hazrat Umar ensured no poverty is left in his caliphate and nipped corruption in the bud. Write an account of the main activities of Hazrat `Umar i) during the lifetime of the Prophet, and ii) during his caliphate. [10] (i) He converted to Islam when he heard a passage of the Qur an being recited, he was on his way to kill the Prophet; that he surprised his sister and her husband hearing the Qur an recited; that he was going to destroy this passage, but relented when he read it. In Makka he had a reputation as a fierce and strong fighter. His conversion gave courage to the Muslims in Makkah. In Makka he proved a great help because he was able to protect the Prophet from attacks. He made the Hijra to Madinah with the other Muslims. There he was always close to the Prophet in battles.he topped the mountain to protect the Prophet at Uhud, and his dug the trench before Battle of Khandaq. His ties with the Prophet were strengthened when the Prophet married his daughter Hafsa. He objected to the terms of the Treaty of al-hudaybiya because they disadvantaged the Prophet. He took part in the expeditions to the north that were organised towards the end of the Prophet s life. (ii) He oversaw the expansion of the empire into Syria, Persia, Iraq and Egypt. He personally accepted the surrender of Jerusalem after Amr bin al Aas laid siege on it. The agreements he made with conquered non-muslims formed the basis of later legislation about Dhimmis. He oversaw many important administrative measures such as the diwan which listed those entitled to pensions from the state, the institution of the position of judge, he introduced police department. Trace the expansion of the Islamic empire under the rule of the caliph Umar. [10] Battle of Yarmuk (636AD/15AH): men s army was prepared against Muslims by Heraclius. Khalid bin Walid amassed his forces along the river Yarmuk. Negotiations between the two armies were held. The Romans tried to turn Muslims back with large wealth if they left Syria, but they refused and gave options: Islam, jizya or war. So the 3 rd option was chosen. The battle lasted until 6 48

53 days when 1/3 rd of the Byzantium army remained only. Victory in this battle crushed Byzantium power. Constantinople was made capital by Heraclius and Jerusalem was besieged by Amr bin Aas. Battle of al-qadisiyya (638AD/17AH): The Persian emperor Yezdgird assembled a large force under Rustum. The Muslim army was led by Sa d bin Abi Waqas who offered the Persians three options: accept Islam, pay jizya or fight. They opted to fight. A fierce battle was fought in 637. The battle lasted for three days and a Muslim force of men defeated a Persian force of Rustum was killed in this battle and the Persians were defeated. After Qadisiya, Sa d, with the permission of the Khalifa, occupied Madain, bringing the whole territory from the Euphrates to the Tigris under the banner of Islam. Again, Sa d s army met the Persians at Jalula and defeated them. What does the way he died tell us about his character? [4] It was Umar s scrupulous sense of fairness that was the reason for his refusal to give preferential treatment to his slave despite his relationship with him which led to his assassination. He was killed by a Persian slave, Firoz, who was owned by Mughira bin Shuba. Firoz wanted a reduction in the daily payment he made to his master. Umar rejected his claim and so in anger Firoz stabbed him at dawn prayers the next day. He was buried near the Prophet, which shows he was held in high honour. Write an account of the Battle of Yarmouk [10] 636AD/15AH, Damascus, Fihl and Hims fell at the hands of the Muslims and this enraged Heraclius who determined to recover Palestine for Christian rule men s army was prepared against Muslims. Khalid bin Walid amassed his forces along the river Yarmuk. Negotiations between the two armies were held. The Romans tried to turn Muslims back with large wealth if they left Syria, but they refused and gave options: Islam, jizya or war. So the 3 rd option was chosen. The battle lasted until 6 days when 1/3 rd of the Byzantium army remained only. Victory in this battle crushed Byzantium power. Constantinople was made capital by Heraclius and Jerusalem was besieged by Amr bin Aas. Knowing that Muslim reinforcement would arrive, the besieged ones agreed to surrender but on the arrival of Caliph himself. Umar (RA) arrived with a slave, unarmed without security. Seeing his simplicity they handed the key over to him. Q. The conquest of Persia was one of Umar s great achievements. Write an account of any two battles fought with the Persians during his caliphate. [10] Battle of Namrak:The Persians were furious at the fall of Hira. They sent a large army under Rustum. Muthanna bin Harith asked the caliph for reinforcements and the battle of Namrak was fought by Muthanna and Khalid bin Waleed in 634. The Persians were defeated. Battle of Jasr (Bridge):Rustum assembled a huge army at the bank of the Euphrates. The Muslims crossed the bridge under the 49

54 command of Abu Ubaid ath-thaqafi in 634. Fierce fighting broke out; Abu Ubaida was martyred and the Muslims were in chaos. Someone cut the bridge to encourage them to fight but it had the opposite effect. The Muslims lost the battle. Battle of Buwaib: Shocked at the defeat, Umar sent reinforcements to Muthanna s army. A large Persian force of men under Mehran met the Muslim army at Buwaib; a fierce battle was fought, the Persian commander was killed and of their men lost their lives. The battle was won by the Muslims. Battle of Qadisiya: The Persian emperor Yezdgird assembled a large force under Rustum. The Muslim army was led by Sa d bin Abi Waqas who offered the Persians three options: accept Islam, pay jizya or fight. They opted to fight. A fierce battle was fought in 637. The battle lasted for three days and a Muslim force of men defeated a Persian force of Rustum was killed in this battle and the Persians were defeated. After Qadisiya, Sa d, with the permission of the Khalifa, occupied Madain, bringing the whole territory from the Euphrates to the Tigris under the banner of Islam. Again, Sa d s army met the Persians at Jalula and defeated them. Battle of Nihawand (642AD/21AH): After the surrender of Jalula, there was peace for some time but then the Persians united against the Muslims. They were in number and the Muslim forces were Both armies met at Nahawand and there was a fierce battle for two days. On the third day, the Persians took refuge in the forts but by using a clever strategy the Muslims got them out and defeated them. Thus, in 642 the Persians were completely defeated at Nahawand. (b) Say which in your opinion was the most significant of the battles fought under Umar against the Persians and why. [4] Battle of Qadisiya could be the most significant battle as a large Persian army was defeated by comparatively less numbered Muslim army, and this was the battle which weakened the Persian army and made them realize that Muslims were not a small power to deal with. Already Persians lost a lot of men at Buwaib, this time their important general Rustum was killed, their army disheveled and most of Persia came under Islam. Finally, for Muslims, Nahawand was a small situation to tackle with. Uthman (RA) 3 (a) Give an account of the election of the caliph Uthman.[10] Before the death of Umar he had appointed a panel of six men to choose a caliph from amongst them and then their choice was to be confirmed through bay a by the Muslim population. The panel, which was instructed to make the choice in three days included Uthman, Ali, Sa d bin Abi Waqas, Talha, Zubayr and Abdul Rahman bin Auf. Despite long meetings the panel could not arrive at a decision, Abdur Rahman than withdrew his name and it was decided that he would make the final decision regarding the selection. He consulted each member separately with the 50

55 exception of Talha who was not in Madina at the time. Uthman and Ali proposed each other s name whereas Zubayr and Sa d put forward Uthmans name. After more consultation Abdur Rahman gave his decision in favour of Uthman and was the first to take bay a on his hand and was followed by all the other Muslims in the mosque (a) Write in detail about the policy followed by Uthman as caliph in expanding and maintaining the state. [10] During his twelve year caliphate Uthman, to begin with followed, in the footsteps of the first two caliphs. He did a lot for the consolidation and establishment of the military on firm grounds and went on to expand on the territory that was left to him by Umar by conquering North Africa, Barqa and Marakish completely and adjacent countries of Persia namely Afghanistan and Khurasan. Armenia and Azerbaijan also came under Muslim control. With the advancement in naval warfare he even conquered Cyprus. He answered the naval attack of the Romans with a fleet of 500 ships. He brought about administrative changes in some areas e.g. Jordan and Palestine were united into one province Syria. To improve administration he divided the power and set up a new department of police. He did keep a strict watch on governors and other administrators, e.g. Saad bin Abi Waqas drew money from the bait ul maal and did not return it for which he was deposed by Uthman. However he overlooked simple mistakes of his governors. He not only increased the income of the public treasury but spent more generously on the masses. He also started welfare projects for the masses as well as the state, new buildings in provinces, bridges, roads and highways etc. were built. He not only sent religious teachers to different tribes and cities but himself preached to the prisoners of war. The greatest service he performed during his caliphate was the compilation of the Qur an. (b) How justified were the criticisms against Uthman for burning the copies of the Qur an? Give reasons for your answer. [4] Allegations against Uthman for burning the copies were unjustified as he was trying to save the Qur an from corruption. A word wrongly pronounced in Arabic can change the meaning of the word totally hence it was important that only those copies were transmitted that were accurate. But the problem at the time was that some people did criticize Uthman for burning the copies of the Qur an as they felt that it did contain the words of God and hence should be respected others may have deemed it as a rash action. 51

56 Q). Describe the event of compilation of Quran during caliph Uthman. [10] It was found that with the expansion of the empire there was a difference in the pronunciation in the recitation of the Qur an amongst the non-arabs. Hudaifa bin Yaman brought this matter to the caliph s attention and after consultation with the other companions of the Prophet (pbuh) and with their consent he sent for the Qur an that was compiled during the period of Abu Bakr and was now in the custody of Hafsa, the wife of the Prophet (pbuh) and the daughter of Umar. He then asked Zayd ibn Thabit, Abdullah ibn Zubayr, Sa ad ibn Al-Aas and Abdul Rahman ibn Harith to make several copies of the Qur an with the inclusion of the accents to aid in the correct pronunciation of the Qur an and sent these copies to all the provinces. He also sent to the various provinces strong reciters of the Qur an in order for them to teach the non-arab speakers and new converts of Islam the correct way to read the holy book. He ordered all the other copies to be burnt and destroyed throughout the caliphate and for this service he is known as the Jame-al- Qur an. (b) Three of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs were martyred for the decisions they made. Can Muslim leaders today learn anything from this? Give reasons for your answer. [4] Muslim leaders today can learn from the example of the caliphs in how they fulfilled their responsibilities. They remained steadfast and true to their convictions and what they believed to be just and right at the cost of their lives. It shows that they were strong leaders who believed in their principles and were not ready to compromise them. Umar refused to give in to the unjust demand of Abu Lulu and was fatally wounded by him. Uthman and Ali both stood by their decisions which they thought were just. Also, lessons can be learnt by present day Muslim leaders from the strength of faith that the caliphs displayed, they were powerful men yet they remained humble and kept their faith in God rather than increasing their personal security or using the state resources to protect themselves. (b) Explain the significance of 'Uthman, during the lifetime of the Prophet. [ 6] 'Uthman became a Muslim at an early stage. He gave his wealth to help Islam, e.g. by buying a well near Medina for the Muslims/He made a contribution towards the costs of the Tabuk expedition He married the Prophet's daughter Ruqayya. He took part in the emigration to Abyssinia with her. When Ruqayya died he married the Prophet's daughter Umm Kulthum. He was a scribe for the Prophet. He acted as the Prophet's ambassador to Mecca when the Muslims first approached the city. He was chosen to escort the Prophet's wives at the farewell pilgrimage He was one of the first converts. He experienced persecution for his faith. He married the Prophet s daughter Ruqayya. With her he migrated to Abyssinia. He migrated to Madina. He did not take part in the Battle of Badr because of his sick wife. When Ruqayya died, he was given her sister Umm Kulthum as wife. He acted as the Prophet s ambassador to Quraysh when the Muslims neared Makka. He contributed 52

57 his wealth to pay for expeditions, particularly Tabuk. Q). Explain why Hazrat `Uthman encountered difficulties in the latter years of his caliphate and was assassinated. [4] His appointment of family members was seen as favoritism/nepotism His destruction of the Qur an was seen by some as destroying God s Word. Some Muslims questioned his ability to rule. He pacified a force from Egypt by making concessions, but sent word to have them killed on their return home. They returned to Madinah and killed him. Q). Explain why the caliph thought it was important to take these actions. [4] If variant readings were allowed the message of the Qur an might be obscured. These readings threatened the purity of God s instructions. If they were allowed to continue, the community might be split over different teachings. The meaning would totally change with very different dialects. Outline charges leveled against Uthman by his opponents and describe main events of the revolt against them. [10] He was alleged he has appointed inefficient relatives as governors in four provinces. Others charged that he had burned copies of the Quran, the word of God, and that he spent on his relatives from Bait ul Maal. His soft nature was taken advantage of the fact that he sometimes he overlooked the faults of his governors made them bold and as a result caused unrest in the provincial capitals, which grew to engulf the entire Islamic State. Abdullah bin Saba, a Yemenite Jew who outwardly accepted Islam, began a clever campaign of creating dispute amongst the Muslims and Uthman did not take immediate action. Rivalry between the houses of Hashim and Umayya also contributed to this revolt. Some rebels from Egypt laid siege to Uthman s house to change the Egyptian governor which Uthman agreed to. When they went back, an invented letter with the name of Uthman was sent to Egyptian authority to kill the governor as he is changed. People thought it was from Uthman and so came back to Madinah and killed Uthman. Ali (RA) What were the main events of the caliphate of Ali? [10] Battle of Camel ( ): Ali became caliph after the murder of Uthman. He started dismissing governors set by Uthman. He did not immediately take steps to punish Uthmans killers for which he was opposed by Talha and Zubayr. Both of them initially sided with Ali turned against him and raised the cry for vengeance of Uthman s murder. Hazrat Aisha, the Prophet s widow, joined them. They raised army and marched to Basra. Hazrat Ali went with 10,000 soldiers to meet them. The two sides met and almost successfully negotiated but the troublemakers in the camp began fight. Talha and Zubair were killed trying to leave the battlefield. Aisha personally participated the battle who fell off her camel and was 53

58 injured hence the battle stopped. Ali won the battle and Aisha was sent back to Medina respectfully. Battle of Siffin: Ali was forced to raise 80,000 men against Muawiyah and marched to Syria. Both armies met at Siffin in Muharram 37 AH. For several days fight continued and both sides lost men. As the battle favored Ali, Muawiyah ordered his men to tie Quranic manuscripts on lances to stop the war and refer to the Quran for decision. Thus Ali was force to agree on a truce in which one mediator each from both sides were to discuss the dispute of caliphate after a few months. After the battle of Siffin proved indecisive, arbitration was agreed to and so some of Ali s supporters deserted him as they disagreed with his decision to arbitrate with whom they believed were sinners. He defeated the deserters at the battle of Nahrawan and was killed by one of them while at prayer. Explain why you think Mu awiya refused to accept Ali? [4] He wanted Ali to take immediate steps to punish the killers of Uthman or he had personal ambition for justice. Uthman was also his close relative and they both belonged to Umayyad family. Moreover he argued Ali was selected by the rebels who killed Uthman so Ali wasn t a justified caliph. He said Ali was unjustly removing him from office when Umar appointed him and Uthman did not remove him. He was brought up in the Prophet s house. He was among the first converts to Islam/the first child to become a Muslim. He lay in the Prophet s bed on the night of the hijra/he was entrusted by the Prophet to return the belongings of the Makkans. He married the Prophet s daughter Fatima. He fought in single combat before the battle of Badr. He fought fiercely during the capture of Khaybar. He wrote down the text of the Treaty of Hudaybiya. During the Tabuk expedition Ali was the Prophet s deputy in Madina and did not participate in the battle. He was confronted with the decision of how to treat the assassins of 'Uthman. Talha and Zubayr, with the support of 'A isha, opposed him. He defeated them at the battle of the Camel. Mu'awiya refused to give him allegiance or vacate his position as Governor of Syria. The armies led by the two met at Siffin. The battle proved indecisive. 'Ali agreed to arbitration. Some of his supporters deserted him. Explain why close Companions of the Prophet opposed 'Ali, and why his supporters deserted him towards the end of his life. [4] Talha and Zubayr thought he should punish 'Uthman s assassins as soon as possible. This was the just action and they thought `Ali was wrong not to do it. 'Ali s supporters at Siffin thought he was the leader of the community and those who opposed him were wrong. So they thought he was wrong to arbitrate with sinners. Describe the main activities of 'Ali during the lifetime of the Prophet and as caliph. [10] 54

59 Q. Write an account of the events that resulted from the opposition of Talha and Zubayr to Ali. [10] Talha and Zubayr were amongst the first people to do bay a on Ali s hand and, because of his delay in punishing the assassins of Uthman, they turned against him. They asked Ayesha to join forces with them and raised a force of their own. Ali also raised an army of and marched to Basra to face them. Negotiations were held between the two sides and were almost successful, but the mischief mongers attacked both sides at night, as peace would not have been in their interests, and this finally led to the war. Talha and Zubayr left the battlefield as per the terms of the treaty but were killed and Ayesha fought the battle seated on her camel. This is how the battle got its name, i.e. battle of camel. Ali won this battle and Ayesha was sent back to Madina with due respect. This was the first civil war of Islam in which Muslims lost their lives and after which Ali moved his capital to Kufa from Madina. On account of this battle Ali was prevented from dealing effectively with Mu awiya earlier and the battle caused a deep divide amongst the umma. The above were some of the immediate challenges that Ali faced due to the opposition of Talha and Zubayr. The long term effects of this opposition, however, were felt till Hazrat Ali s martyrdom. 55

60 The Six Articles of Faith God, including what Muslims believe about him Q (a) Muslims believe that God alone is Lord, that He alone should be worshipped and that His names and attributes are unique to Him. Outline Muslim beliefs in the oneness of God. [10] Muslims believe in one God, Allah. This belief in the oneness of God is known as tawhid. This belief is the core of Islam and all creation has to recognise the Creator, which is God, and submit to his will. Tawhid has three aspects: Oneness of the Lordship of God; Oneness in Worship of God; and Oneness in the names and qualities of God. Oneness of the Lordship of God: There is only one Lord for the entire universe, which is God. He is the Creator, Sustainer, Lawgiver and Master of the universe. He is neither the father nor the son of anyone. The main statement that every Muslim makes is la ilaha illa Allah, there is no God but Allah. Oneness in Worship of God: Since God is the Creator, he is the only one worthy of worship. It is man s primary duty and obligation to worship none other than him. Muslims must only pray, invoke, and ask him for help. You alone we worship and You alone we ask help from. (Quran, Surah1:4) Oneness in the Names and Qualities of God: We must not name or qualify God except with what he and his Messenger have named or qualified him with. None can be named or qualified with the names or qualifications of God. Muslims must believe in all the qualities of God which he has stated in his Book or mentioned through his Messenger; Muslims believe in the divine attributes of God; these attributes are only inherent in God and this belief is integral to Islam. Muslims are unable to describe God; however, the existence of God can be realized through his manifestations and through his attributes as told by his messengers. Why has God repeatedly warned Muslims against committing shirk? [4] God has warned Muslims against committing shirk as it signifies ascribing partners to him or suggesting that another could share his divine attributes. It has been termed as the most unforgivable of sins for which one will not be forgiven by God if he dies in the state of committing shirk. Explain what Muslims mean when they say they should be modest towards God [4] Muslims should have faith in God alone. This means acknowledging his authority and associating nothing with him. They should follow his guidance as it is given in the Qur'an. They should worship him by offering the prayers and other acts. They should be prepared to put God before all other beings. Quran says: ''Allah forgives not that He is 2

61 associated partners with and but pardons anyone He wants besides that ) Angels, their nature and duties Write a descriptive account of the Muslim belief in angels [10] Angels are entirely obedient to God, worship Him and have no freewill like human beings have. They are created out of light by Allah. They have particular tasks like conveying God s message to Prophets and are incharge of many other things. The major ones are Jibrail, Mikail, Izrail and Israfil ( ). Jibrail had the duty of of conveying revelations to Prophets, and given the might of controlling mountains. Israfil is having a horn in his hand which will be blown to bring about the Day of Judgment. Mikail is incharge of rizq (provisions) and rain. Izrail is the angel of death. Besides them are others with duties like Kiram Katibeen( ), who are assigned to record the good and bad deeds of an individual. Munkar and Nakeer ( ) are two angels who would inquire man in grave. The gate keepers of heaven and hell, the punishers in the hellfire and the aides in the battles are other types. Belief in angels is elemental in Islam as it strengthens belief in God. Discuss the importance of Jibra il in comparison to other angels. [4] Angels have a particular job to do which is assigned to them by Allah. Jibra il is the arch angel who had the all important duty of bringing the word of Allah to his chosen messengers. He was sent by Allah to announce the birth of Hazrat Issa to Hazrat Maryam, to deliver the Qur an to the Prophet Muhammad and also to conduct him on the mi raj. Books, their contents and purpose Describe the Muslim belief in Books [10] All the revealed books contain God's will and guidance for humankind. They were given from God to humans by a succession of prophetic messengers and all were revealed to prophets through Archangel Jibrail. They include the Suhuf of Ibrahim, the Tawrat of Musa, the Zubur of Daud, the Injil of Isa, Qur'an revealed to Hazrat Muhammad. Their basic message of One God was the same but only the laws and rituals changed Books were the chief way in which humans know Allah s will for them and they were meant for different communities in their particular language. Qur'an is meant for the whole world as is the final book so it must be followed without doubt. All previous books have been corrupted except the Qur an which has been protected as God himself promised in the Quran: indeed we sent down the remembrance and indeed we are its protectors. Why Allah revealed different books time to time [4] Different books with different laws according to peoples need were sent to different communities, basic message of God s 56

62 oneness being the same. Overtime the books were distorted with peoples false ideas so a pure message from God was needed again to guide the people. Finally the last code of life, the Quran, came as guidance for whole humanity. Prophets, their character and function What are the main features of the belief in the line of messengers (rusul) who were sent before the time of the Prophet Muhammad? [10] Messengers were sent throughout history. They had the task of giving messages revealed to them by God. They are all chosen by God. They were all human beings. They were guided by the angel Jibril. They were sent to particular communities. Their messages were for the guidance of their people. Their messages contained the same teachings of worship of One God yet some laws changed according to community s benefit. These were later lost or changed by their communities. The Prophet Muhammad said that the line numbered maybe 124,000. According to the Qur'an major individuals include Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus, yet totally 26 prophets are mentioned in it. Among the revelations they brought are the Tawrat/Torah, Zubur/Psalms and Injil/Gospel All messengers are equal in status. All messengers are innocent and morally upright. While Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) is the final messenger and no more revelation is to come after him as he is sent for all of mankind. All messengers were humans as only like that they could be a good role model for their people. (b) How is the message brought by these prophets important for Muslims today? [4] The message brought by all the prophets was of belief in the one God, good conduct and belief in resurrection and the Day of Judgment. This message is important to Muslims today just as it was important to Muslims of the past ages and will be to those of the future because it reiterates tawhid and accountability which if a person bears in mind will lead to good conduct and prosperity in this world and the next. It teaches Muslims tolerance for other revealed faiths and makes them realise that Islam is a continuation and culmination of the other revealed faiths. The unity of the message will foster better relations between Muslims and other believers etc. What does a Muslim believe by the words And Muhammad is the messenger of God? [4] Muhammad was the last in the line of prophetic messengers. His message was the same as previous ones, but it was for all humankind. God has protected this message from change and corruption. So Muhammad and his message sum up every preceding prophet and their message. Muhammad is the perfect example of human conduct. What does the Prophet s first experience of revelation tell us about the nature of prophethood in Islam? [4] 57

63 Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) was surprised and confused the moment when Angel Jibrail brought him revelation the first time. This shows that God chooses prophets with good characters, often without warning, and caused miraculous events at the time of calling. All the prophets were sinless and decent even before their prophethood e.g. Muhammad p.b.u.h was known as Honest and trustworthy by the pagan Arabs before and after his prophethood. Explain how belief in Prophets influences the daily living of a Muslim. [4] Muslims must respect all prophets and take lessons from their lives to apply on themselves. For e.g. Ibrahim (AS) was ready to give up everything for Allah and earned the name God s friend. Prophets were said to be awwab (of- returning (to God) ) in the Quran and belief in that will necessitate the Muslim to try to come closer to Allah. The virtues of the prophets were a reason of their high esteem and a Muslims struggles to get those qualities. Infact prophets are role models for Muslims, expecially Muhammad p.b.u.h, as Quran says indeed for you in the messenger of Allah is a best example. God s predestination and decree, its meaning and significance Write a descriptive account of the Muslim belief in predestination and decree [4] God is powerful over everything. He knows everything that happens. He has planned all that happens to people. Nevertheless, people have responsibility for what they do. What does the statement There is no ability or power except through Allah tell you about Muslim belief in Allah s predestination and decree? [10] Belief in divine decree and predestination is mentioned in the Iman-e Mufassal. This belief is an article of faith without which a Muslim s faith is incomplete. This statement strengthens this belief. God is powerful over everything. He knows everything that happens. He has planned all that happens to people. Nevertheless, people have responsibility for what they do. All good things happen from God but the bad things happen due to man s own faults. For doing good deeds one would enter paradise as a reward while doing bad will put him in hellfire as Quran mentions several times. This world is a seedbed where we sow our actions for the hereafter where we will reap our reward, as in Hadith. Another Hadith says that the first thing God created was a pen to which God commanded to write all that was going to happen and it wrote. So everything was predestined in light of this Hadith and Muslims must pass their tests of hardships with patience and prayers. To what extent does this belief affect the daily living of Muslims? [4] By making Muslims realize that Allah is the most supreme this belief makes them humble and makes them turn to Allah at all times. They know all things in life happen at the will of Allah and He only can be resorted to in 58

64 times of hardships as he is the One who can bring about good. This will keep a good hope and peace in a Muslim s heart. Muslims will make du a (prayers). As a Hadith says nothing can change destiny except dua. Resurrection, the Last Day and their significance. Outline the stages of last days in a Muslim s belief. [10] The concept of the Last Day is repeatedly mentioned in the Quran, starting with the Surah Fatihah as the Day of Reckoning [1:3]. Four of its stages are: 1. destruction; the whole world will be shaken and destroyed with stars, sun and the moon as Surah Zilzal, Qyamah etc mention, 2. resurrection; people will be brought back to life as Surah Abas, Zilzal mention, 3. judgment; Surah Zilzal mentions in the last verses whoever acts an atom s weight of piety, shall see it, and whovever acts an atom s weight of evil, shall see it that means people s actions would be judged that day, and 4. final abode; then upon their actions, people will enter heaven or hell. A person believing in the Last Day develops a sense of responsibility of his actions & so keeps watch of them. He fears Allah and shuns evil, tyranny and rebellion. This world would be nothing except a test for him. He will start to value virtues as assets for the hereafter, as food and money are to this world. Believer in the Last Day won t desire worldly benefits. This belief protects one from anarchy and will make one enduring enough to deal with hardships. One would be ready to sacrifice for good due to recognition of judgment at the Last Day, and will produce a pious and peaceful society. Why is the belief in resurrection important to Muslims in their daily living? [4] Muslims believe in life after death, which is known as the Hereafter, al-akhira. If Muslims are obedient to Allah they will be rewarded and if they go against his teachings they will be punished. This belief guides them to live their lives righteously. Muslims keep watch on their deeds due to questioning in the grave and the fact that on the Day of Resurrection they will be brought before Allah to be judged and according to their deeds receive heaven or hell. This world then is seen by Muslims as a temporary place where their actions and behaviour will determine what will become of them in their next life. The scope of Jihad Q. Explain all forms of jihad which are physical, internal, intellectual [10] Jihad literally means to strive. Goal of Jihad is to establish the Truth of Allah for all of mankind and to keep check and balance in the society. Through Jihad or otherwise, Islam cannot be forced on anybody. The Holy Quran tells us to restrain each other from evil deeds. Answering arguments raised by unbelievers is intellectual jihad. Example of 59

65 this is the Makkan period of Muhammad (PBUH) s life. Intellectual struggle for Islam attains level of Jihad when it is maintained against a storm of opposition. Physical Jihad is to be waged when spread of the Message of Islam is obstructed. When people are kept from worshipping Allah, their lives of this world and of the Hereafter are destroyed. Quran says that had Allah not made His believers wage Jihad for him, people would have certainly destroyed churches, mosques and cloisters. The greatest jihad is jihad against evils of oneself according to Hadith when qital (physical jihad) is considered lesser jihad in it. So we must strive against our evil desires. This is an effort of acting good and seeking Allah s forgiveness. Helping the needy, standing for the weak s right, to speak for justice in front of a cruel king is actually striving in Allah s cause. Similarly abstaining from stealing, immorality, cheating and other evils is jihad. (70) of his family members. That he will not feel the agonies and distress of death. (b) In your opinion, what is the importance of following the rules of armed jihad in modern times? [4] Islam teaches mercy, compassion, fair play and justice. If the rules of jihad as taught by the Prophet (pbuh) were followed, the world today would become a safer place to live in for everyone of God s creation etc. Sanctuaries and worshippers therein would be safe, general innocent people who have nothing to do with war would be protected. Moreover the environment (trees and waterways) would remain clean and untouched and only the aggressors would be countered. Q. What is the importance of jihad for a Muslim being? [4] A strenuous effort to remove all obstacles in the way of Islam and the Truth of Allah is called Jihad. Jihad is the collective duty of the Muslim society Its goal is not to enslave others or to establish supremacy of Muslims over others Goal of Jihad is to establish the Truth of Allah for all of mankind. Anyone whose both feet get covered with dust in Allah s Cause will not be touched by the Hell-fire. (Al-Bukhari) Prophet (pbuh) said That all their sins and faults are forgiven. That he can intercede with Allah for seventy 60

66 The Pillars of Islam The declaration of faith, shahada, including the significance of what it contains 3 Explain what Muslims mean when they say they should be modest towards God [4] Muslims should have faith in God alone. This means acknowledging his authority and associating nothing with him. They should follow his guidance as it is given in the Qur'an. They should worship him by offering the prayers and other acts. They should be prepared to put God before all other beings. (Surah Ikhlas, ''Allah forgiveth not that He is associated partners with and but pardons anyone He wants besides that'' Q. There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. Describe the Muslim beliefs summarized in the declaration of faith. (shahadah) [10] Shahadah is the first pillar of Islam and a person becomes a Muslim upon proclaiming it sincerely. This is testimony of admitting faith, involving knowledge, commitment and declaration. The first part of shahadah deals with Allah s unity. The first statement of tawhid (oneness of God) includes the understanding that Allah is beyond comprehension. Muslims confess with their hearts that He is the creator of all things including the universe, the heaven, the earth and everything in it. Everything is in Allah s control and he is the sustainer and protector as well as giver and taker of life. Only He is worthy of worship and Muslims pray to him only and seek Allah s help in times of hardship. He is All-powerful and all-knowing. The second part of the shahadah confirms the risalah (prophethood) of Muhammad. This means he is the messenger of Allah and Muslims must follow God s orders through Prophet Muhammad p.b.u.h. This also entails that he is the last prophet in the line of prophetic messengers and yet his universal message about oneness of God is the same as that of the previous prophets. The last message will be protected by Allah from all corruptions as is promised in the Quran. Prayers, congregational prayers on Fridays and festivals, times of prayer, the place of prayer, private prayer, delayed prayer (i) Outline the main teachings in the Qur an and Prophetic Hadiths about prayer (salat) as the foundation of Islam. (ii) Describe how Muslims prepare themselves for prayer. [10] i) What makes salat the foundation of Islam is that it is the second most important Pillar of 55

67 Islam, that it has to be performed by all Muslims five times a day and that it is the first act of worship that was made obligatory by God. In many verses of the Qur an God follows up prayer with remembrance of God, Lo! Worship preserves (one) from lewdness and iniquity, but verily, remembrance of Allah is more important (Al-Ankabut 29:45). Again, in An Nisa 4:103 God says, prayer at fixed hours has been enjoined upon the believers. Such is its importance that the Prophet (pbuh) has said that the dividing line between belief and disbelief is salat. It gives structure to a day enabling Muslims to remember God and marks the whole day with a spiritual stamp. It strengthens belief in God and gives spiritual strength to a Muslim to better himself. It purifies the heart, gives a Muslim a chance to thank their Creator for all the blessings granted to them, provides inner peace and is said to be the key to paradise. ii) The place of prayer should be clean, clothes need to be clean, sattar needs to be observed, wudu/tayyamum needs to be done, qibla needs to be faced, and one should wait for azan, and have the niyyah (intention) of Prayers. (b) Why should meeting for congregational prayers be more advantageous than performing prayer alone? [4] The Prophet (pbuh) has said: Prayer in congregation is better than the prayer of a man by himself by twenty seven times (Agreed). It is in the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) to pray in congregation, that it promotes brotherhood, equality and unity amongst Muslims. It gives Muslims a chance to meet other Muslims and perhaps be able to help those who are in need and hence has a lot of social importance. It requires more effort to leave what one is doing to get to the mosque in time for the salat. Explain the importance to Muslims of Mosques.[Remember this asks for explanations not descriptions. It concerns the communal aspects of faith] [4] They are centres especially dedicated for collective worship. They enable the community to meet together. They provide facilities for education and joint learning. Their presence symbolises the community s unity and strength. Muslims sometimes withdraw to mosques for the conclusion of Ramadan. Mosques are centres dedicated to special worship. They are also places where the community meets and solves its problems via discussions, celebrates its special events and acts as a sanctuary. Mosques also provide facilities for education (madrassas). A mosque is a place which unites all Muslims and where equality is practiced. Describe the main characteristics of the congregational prayers on Friday. [10] All Muslim men in a community should try to gather for this prayer. In some communities women are also encouraged to attend. They should try to bath and put on fresh clothes / they perform ablutions before worship (purification). There are two adhaans for the congregational prayer. They should say the prayer together behind 56

68 the Imam / the prayer can t be prayer alone. The Imam preaches a sermon, which is compulsory to hear (there are 2 sermons). After a pause he preaches a second sermon. These sermons always consist of advice based on the Qur'an and Hadith about living a Muslim life. People should not speak or use mobiles during the sermon, and listen attentively. The fard are prayed in two rakats, not four. The prayer cannot be prayed kaza, or after the set time. Some people are exempt from Friday prayers, e.g. travellers, the sick, women and children. Quran in Surah Juma says: O believers, when the prayers are called for on Friday, the run towards God s remembrance and leave the transaction. (b) Explain the main differences between regular daily prayer (salat) and personal prayer (du`a'). [4] (b) Regular prayer is always performed according to the pattern set by Qur'an and Sunna. It is obligatory, whereas personal prayers are voluntary. It has set timings, whereas du`a' prayers can be performed at any time. It is directed towards the Ka`ba, It consists of set formulas and actions, but du`a prayers are not necessarily said according to a pattern. It is always in Arabic, but Du`a' prayers can be offered in any language. For regular prayers you need purification, but it is not obligatory for du`a prayers. Regular prayer is worship to God but du`a prayers comprise requests for oneself or others. They (personal prayers) are free, in that anyone or anything can be mentioned. They often consist of prayers spoken by the Prophet or, for Shi`is, Imams. 5 (a) Describe the particular features of and the main features of the Friday sermon. [10] The sermon is a very important feature of this prayer and is compulsory to listen to. While listening to it it isn t even allowed to quiet somebody. The Imam gives the sermon facing the congregation; the sermon is divided into two parts with a brief interval of about a minute between the two parts. The Friday sermon includes glorification and praise of God, confirming the aspect of tawhid. The praise and blessings are sent on the Prophet (pbuh) as the greatest example to follow. Then the imam reflects on one of the Quranic verses that have been selected for the particular sermon. He refers to an authentic hadith to elaborate the topic and demonstrate the implementation of the injunction by the Prophet (pbuh). The imam reminds the whole congregation about their duties towards God and their fellow beings, he warns the people against the consequence of doing evil and reminds them of the hereafter and prays for the welfare of the community. b) Explain how this event upholds the unity of the Muslim community [4] Candidates could say that as missing these prayers without a valid reason for men is considered a sin, the Friday prayers are attended in very large numbers and creates a greater sense of unity amongst Muslims. It could also be said that meeting fellow Muslims, discussing the issues facing the umma at home and in the wider Muslim world all go to foster close ties amongst 57

69 Muslims. Some answers could say that people tend to go to the Jamia mosque on Fridays whereas they may say their salat at their local mosque daily and this creates greater unity. Q. Give an account of the conditions, requisites and method of performing wudu (ablution). [10] Wudu is the primary requirement before prayers and the Sunnah (the Prophetic way) gives us the most apt method to perform it. First intention of cleaning oneself should be made; the ablution should be without breaks and no part shall be dry before the other is washed. Prescribed order should be observed, with washing right parts before left. No part of hands, face, feet, and forearms shall remain dry, with nose clearly blown, mouth thoroughly washed and head together with neck rubbed by wet hands. Teeth brush before is recommended. The order is to wash both hands till wrist first. Gargle thrice then sniff water in nostrils using left hand to clean the nose. Wash the whole face (forehead to chin, ear to ear). Wash the right arm till elbow thrice then the left one. Wet the hand for masah (rubbing head and nape of neck). Lastly both the feet are washed up to the ankles. Q. Why is ablution so much importance? [4] Purity is a part of faith (half of faith according to Hadith) so it s given utmost importance in Islam. God says again and again in Quran that he loves those who repent and purify themselves. Prophet Muhammad also said that wudu removes the sins of person. Purity allows one to focus while praying. Alms-giving, Zakat, how it is performed and its significance in the community Q. Outline the practice of almsgiving in Islam. [10] Zakat (almsgiving) is the 4 th pillar in Islam that became obligatory in 2 nd AH. It s an act of worship that helps people. Quran mentions it 32 times showing its high importance. Often in Quran it s said and establish (regular) prayers and give (regular) charity. Any Muslim having certain minimum amount of property is obliged to give a portion the poor and deserved ones. Zakat is payable on wealth which remains in the hands of the Muslim uninterrupted, whose value reaches the nisab (minimum value). It is calculated to 2.5% and is not levied on buildings, shops or total capital but on savings of the income that may have been generated from them. it is not payable on immobile objects, machinery or precious stones. If anyone has reached the nisab of 7 tola (87.48 g) of gold minimum, zakat is levied at 2.5% of it. if one has 30 to 39 cattle, his zakat is 1 goat of a year old. For mines it is 1/5 th of the produce and for farms it is 1/10 th. According to Quran (Surah Taubah: verse 60), It is payable to the poor, the needy, the employers for fund management, the new 58

70 converts, to free the slaves, to indebts and to needy travelers. Explain the importance to the community of Muslims of almsgiving. [4] This helps to reduce inequalities in wealth. It reminds givers and receivers of their ties to each other. It makes those ties stronger. It reminds all Muslims that they are responsible for others besides themselves. Fasting Describe how a Muslim fasts during a day in Ramadan and outline the kinds of Muslims who are excused from fasting during this month. [10] They have breakfast, sehri, before dawn. They state the formal intention to fast. They abstain from food and drink. This is during daylight hours, which means starting from early dawn till the sunset. They also abstain from smoking, marital relations and medicines. They break their fast at sunset, often with a date and water, and then pray. They follow this with a meal often eaten with friends. They often try to be present at recitations of the Qur'an, tarawih prayers, in the evening. They should live their lives as normal, making no concessions to lack of food, means that they should work normally, prayer more often and not just pass the fast sleeping whole day. Pregnant women, Mothers with new babies, Travellers, The sick, Children, The very old, People in danger and menstruating women are all excused from fasting during this month. (b) Explain why the Ramadan fast is important to Muslims. [4] (b) Fasting is a Pillar of Islam. It is called a gift which the believer gives to God. It increases self-control. It helps Muslims to remember the poor in their community. It increases obedience towards God. The Qur'an was first revealed in Ramadan. Ramadan is a clear expression of fellowship among believers. Quote (''the month of Ramadan is the one in which Quran was revealed, a guidance for the human being and clear sign from the guide and the criterion, so whoever witnesses amongst you the month, shall fast'')(surah al Baqarah) Q) What are the benefits to individuals and the community of fasting in the month of Ramadan? [10] Fasting in the month of Ramadan has several benefits both to individuals and the community at large. When a Muslim abstains from food, drink, foul talk etc. to earn the pleasure of God it builds his moral character and he learns self-restrain and self-control which is an individual benefit but also impacts upon the community, e.g. if a man was to lose his temper and in a state of anger was going to abuse or hit someone on the street they will, having learnt self-control whilst fasting be able to control their anger and not hit out leading to a more peaceful society. When Muslims fast and experience hunger they realize the sufferings of the poor and feel sympathy for them which not only makes them kinder people but earns them the pleasure of God and when they try to help the needy it improves social relations between them which in turn will have a 59

71 positive impact on the community. Fasting brings a man closer to his creator and makes him grateful for his daily sustenance thus less arrogant and more humble which will lead him/her to help those less fortunate. There are economic benefits as well. People spend more generously on the poor to seek Allah s pleasure so they have money to spend which is good for the economy etc. Q) Are Id al-fitr and Id al-adha more than just religious celebrations? Give reasons for your answer [4] Both the Id s, Id al-fitr and Id al-adha are religious celebrations but that their significance is that they mark the end of two important events in the Islamic calendar i.e. end of the month of fasting, Ramadan and the completion of the annual pilgrimage, hajj. Foster care and brotherhood in the community, remind Muslims of the spirit of sacrifice that they need to make in order to please their Lord, it brings to their minds the sacrifice of Ibrahim and makes them realise that no sacrifice is too big in the way of Allah. Hajj Give a brief explanation of the importance of each of the following in Muslim beliefs and practices in relation to the hajj: (a) the Ka ba; [4] (b) ihram; [4] (c) Arafat; [4] (d) Id al-adha. [4] (a) The Ka ba was built by Adam, and later restored by Ibrahim and Isma il, and again in the time of the Prophet. It was the first sanctuary in which God was worshipped. It is the focus of Muslim prayer from all parts of the world. It is the first point in Makka that most pilgrims make for. During pilgrimage Muslims circumambulate it seven times. They try to kiss the Black Stone as they pass it following the Prophet s example. (b) Ihram is the state of purity which Muslims enter when beginning the pilgrimage. The chief sign is for men two pieces of white cloth worn around them. For women it is normal clothes covering the whole body except face and hands. It removes signs of distinction and makes all pilgrims appear equal. In the state of ihram the pilgrim comes under particular restrictions of conduct, such as no cutting of hair or nails. (c) Arafat is the plain outside Makka where all pilgrims gather during the annual pilgrimage. Here they perform the wuquf, standing between noon and dusk in order to obtain God s forgiveness. This is the high point of the pilgrimage, without which it is not valid. Adam and his wife were reunited here after being expelled from the garden. The last judgement will take place here. (d) Muslims celebrate this by slaughtering an animal. They do this in order to remember Ibrahim s sacrifice of his son. Ibrahim was instructed to make this sacrifice as a sign of obedience. The Id is celebrated at the high point of the annual pilgrimage. All over the world families celebrate this feast by making a sacrifice. 60

72 (a) Write an account of the annual pilgrimage to Makka, the hajj, describing the main observances made by the pilgrims. [10] complete the rami(devil-stoning) (11 th /12 th ). Finally perform tawaf al wida (farewell circumambulation). before leaving for home, visiting the Prophet s mosque in Madinah is recommended. (b) In what ways are the prophet Ibrahim and his family important to the annual pilgrimage? [4] (a) after ghusl (clean bath), Pilgrims change into the ihram garment before entering Makka (on 7 Dhu al-hijja), should start reciting talbiyah, and avoid forbidden acts. They make the first circumambulation of the ka`ba (tawaf) 7 times, offer 2 rakat prayers behind maqaam Ibrahim, and drink zam zam water. They run between Marwa and Safa (sa y) They spend the night at Mina (on 8) The travel to the plain of `Arafat outside Makka (on 9) They stand there through the afternoon offering zuhr and asr prayers shortened combined At sunset they make for Muzdalifa and there they perform maghrib and isha prayers shortened and combined. Here they spend the night and gather pebbles The next day they throw the pebbles at three pillars at Mina (rami) (on 10 th ) They sacrifice an animal at Mina (on 10) They cut their hair and change back into normal clothes They perform a further circumambulation of the ka`ba, the Tawaf e Ziarat, and run between the hills. Pilgrims return back to mina to (b) The Qur an says Ibrahim built or rebuilt the ka`ba His family lived in Makka Hajar ran between Marwa and Safa searching for water (sa y) Isma il uncovered the well of Zamzam by scraping his heel on the earth Ibrahim rejected the devil three times when taking his son for sacrifice (rami) An animal was provided for Ibrahim to sacrifice in place of his son (sacrifice) What beliefs and practices are involved in: (i) stoning the Jamarat (ii) performing sa y (iii) assembling at Arafat [10] i. Muslims believe that satan tried to mislead Ibrahim at the three places where the Jamarat are situated in Mina when he was on his way to sacrifice his son in Allah s way and he in turn stoned the devil thrice at three places. In memory of this act the three pillars/jamarat are stoned by the pilgrims during hajj. ii. Hazrat Hajra ran several times between the hills of Safa and Marwa in search of water for her infant son, sa y is performed in memory of this act in which pilgrims run between the two hills during hajj. iii. According to Muslim belief Adam and Eve were reunited at Arafat; on the day of 61

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