Why isthe Madhyamika translatedas. guan (rpfffi) (PPr), which isa famous commentary on the Maclhyamaka-knrikti(MK)written by NEgaq'una.

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1 Jburnal ofindian andbudethist Studies ivbl. 60,No. 3,March 2012 (105) Why isthe Madhyamika translatedas "Zh6ng "? guan (rpfffi) AK-AHANE Ritsu O.Introduction We do not often know the source of a term that we are already familiarwith. The more familiar the term isto us, the lessconcerned we are about it.the term MAdhyamika seems to be one such term.the Madhyamika, which isone of the major schools of Mahayana Buddhism in India(the term often refers to the people belongingto that school), has been considered to be based on the thought QfNagany'una (caạ.d. I50-250), though some modern scholars have provedthat Bhaviveka (ca. A.D ) was the first person to use the term (which "Madhyamika" means "the middle") inhistextsand definehimselfas the Madhyamika.i)He uses at firstthe term in one of hismajor texts,pray'fiapradipa (PPr), which isa famous commentary on the Maclhyamaka-knrikti(MK)written by NEgaq'una. According to many modern scholars, itsname-madhyamika-originates from the name of the MK, which is probably true.as Buddhism was transmitted to other areas, namely, Tibet,China, Japan,and many other Asian countries, itsname was also translated intothe locallanguages.for instance,in Tibet,MAdhyamika was translated as "dbu pa," which means "middle school" or "the people belonging to the middle school," and it was translatedliterallyfrom the original Sanskrit.In China, itwas translated as "Zh6ng gutin( piien)," and injapanese,as (Plien) `tchagan "Zh6ng." guan" and "Chagan" mean "Watching (guan) the middle (zh6ng)." Why was the te"n Madhyamika (the middle) translatedas "ZhOng guan" and not as "Zh6ng" in Chinese? Who was the firsto translate itin this way? This paper aims to answer these questions. 1.Why did Yljing (ee}#f) translate the term Midhyamika as "ZhOng gu5n" and not as "ZhOng"? ma [fodate,modern scholars thinkthatthe person to first use the terrn "Zhong guan" as the

2 (106) Why isthc Mgdhyamika translated as "Zh6ng gufin(giec)i'`! (RẠKAHANE) name ofthe school was Yljing(Xl'S, AD ). He was a very famouschinesemonk who trave!edbetweenchinaand Indiaby sea (froma.d. 671 to 695). Inhis report, Ntin hdiij'i gtti (lii noiulu zhudin?tslffi PE{I tllfik), which tellsus about the cultures, religions, and so on that he observed inhistravels,he referred to the name Madhyamika. [1]There are two kinds ofschools in Mahayana Buddhism. One isthe Madhyamika (4nen) and the other istheyogacara (kt{in1).according to the MEdhyamika, things exist as conventional [truth] truth.they are vacant Iikeillusion....2) and are emptiness as [ultimate] Ihave foundthat he also uses the term "Zh6ng guen" as the name ofthe school in another I!!irk*iX fi'{eefik). work, Ddi tting xiyab eit2y2i gao se-ng zhuan (Jfcpt [2]Afterthe monk went to theneianda ternple,he listened to the teaching ofyogacara and learned the teaching ofmadhyamika there.3) Undoubtedly, Yijing used the term "Zh6ng guan" as the name of this school of Buddhism,though we must later question whether he was the first person to use the term or not. However, even ifhe was the first,there remains the big question of why he didnot translatethe term MaCthyamika as "ZhOng," which i'sthe original meaning ofthe term,but as "Zh6ng guan," by adding the word "guani'-even though he probably knew the original Sanskrit meaning of Madhyamika. Unfortunately, 1 have not been able to findany paper that learlyanswered this question. Some researchers imply that Madhyamika originally includedthe meaning of "guan" and so itwould have beennatural forhim to use the Chi- nese translation "Zh6ng guan" fbrthe Madhyamika. However, isthis entirely true? We can findthe term "Zh6ng gutin" in some Chinese Buddhist texts written by Chinesemonks who were bornand active beforeyijing.thus,i thinkthatat leasthisterm was not inventedby Yijing.Accordingto my research, there were two persons who used thisterm at the earliest time intheirown Buddhist texts.one iszhiyi(sey ue,a.d ), 4) who issaid to be virtually the fbunderoftiantai (]ll Elfll) -one of the major ChineseBuddhistsects. The other isjizang(sra,a.d ), who issaid to be the fbunderof Sanlimschool (='ut;il), whose doctrineisbasedon three Indian Buddhist texts-mk (4ige.), P5gema), and Bdiildrn(gth) -which Shi e'r me'n labn(rrl"j.-:. are all Madhyarnikatexts.Of the two persons, Zhiyi uses thisterm only a few times inhis famous book,ildb he'zhiguitn (fae-ojthen), in order to explain his famous idea efyi xln san guen ("JCNi :ec). However,hisusage seems to be limitedto him or hissect, and it doesnot seem to be directly connected with the Madhyamika school inoriginal Indian

3 Why isthe Mtidhyarriikatranslated as "Zh6ng guen (4ier) "? (R ẠKAHANE) (107) Buddhism. Therefbre,we should fbcus on the other person, Jizang,who isprobably the most importantperson to deal with here, becausehe isthe fbunderofthe Chinese Buddhist sect basedon the MEdhyamika texts,as mentioned above. In addition, he repeatedly uses the term "Zh6ng guan"inmost of histexts.the most interesting of all histexts isthe commentaryon MK (ZhOng lim,)ofn5ganiuna, which he titledz)ij6n gudn lim sha ( FIienwhth). He changed the original title,zhong labn, which had been translated intochinese by KumErajiva (meneeh-), intoz]ibng guan lrkn(pii eegema) by inserting one word-"guan"- between "zh6ng" and (th)." "IUn Inhisintroduction to this commentary, he says the fbllowing. [3]"[About the name ofthis text,] there are two types of lin,broad and short. The short name is ZhOng lim.the broadname iszhong guan labnby adding the -'ord "guan" [tothe short name].5) According to this commentary, we can understand that Zh6ng guan iim is used as another name forzh6ng labn.in another text,szinldrnxudn yi (E':thEl(k), he explains why he can give ZhOng labn another name, Z7iOng guitn lim,as fbllows. [4]Why are three words, "zh6ng," `tguen," "1im," used as the text name? The answer isas fbllows: We canwatch (gufin) [the nature ofthings] through the middle way (zh6ng), and then we cxplain thetheory <lim) through watching (gudn>. Therefbre,we need thesethree words together.6) He uses thisexpression "ZhOng guan" inother textstoo.on the basisof my examinations,any usage of thisexpression always involvesmk, or isused as another name forit, includingany explanations about it.theredoesnot seem to be any usage of itas the name ofthe school. Thus thisterm, "Zh6ng guen," was at firstused as a partof the popular name ofthe fundamenta]text,zli6ng ldrn, of the Madhyamika school inindiaby Jizang.However,ifthis term was used only in S5nlUnschool, itwas highiy possible thatyijingcould not have known itas well. Nonetheless, we can findexamples where not only ChineseBuddhists butalso some EastAsianBuddhists,who were active inabout the seventh century, knew thisterm. I snrill pick up two examples from them. One iskulji (Mg, A.D ), who was a discipleof Xuanzang (i!i ee,a.d. shi ldrnzhavng zho'ng shti ydo (Jiva#S'utth#*ptee), as fo11ows: [5]As mcntioned in the Tathagata chapter in Zhong guan liln,....7) ). He uses thisterrnin histext, Chtingrvtii Xuanzang isthe most famous and most importantchinesebuddhistmenk, who a]so traveled to IndiabefbreYljingand whom Yljingissaid to have respected. The fac that one

4 (108) Why isthe MSdhyamika translated as "Zh6ng guan (tpma)"?(r,akahane) of hisdisciples uses the term isvery impressive.the other iswonhyo (tlee,a.d ), who was a Korean monk. He uses thisterm in histext,da cheng qixin ldrnbie'1'i (LJftc itpafithsu 'i'e), as fbllows: [6].. etc. 8). IikeZh6ng guan ldrnand Shi e'r men labn, Although Wonhyo had never been to China duringhislife,he also uses the name ZhOng guan ldrnforzhong labn. This example obviously shows that,at ]eastby about the lateseventh century, thisname had been known inkorea as well. We can findsimilar examples inother ChineseBuddhism texts.giventhese examples, we can say that Z]zOng guan labnwas widely used as another name for Z]i6ng ldrnin China or ineast Asian Buddhism inthe seventh century. Therefbre, thereshould be no doubtthat Yljingalready knew the other name formk befbrehe beganhistravelto India.If so, we can easily imaginethat Yijingthought of the term "Zh6ng gufin" as the name ofthe school, when he heardabgut Madhyamika, assuming thatitwas the school based on the thought ef Nagaijuna,who had written MK (ZhOng lrkn). There are also indirectreasons fbrthisqucstion. As shown in [1],Yljing explained the thought of the M2dhyamika school likeso: "According conventional [truth] and are emptiness as [ultimate] to the MEdhyamika, things exist as truth({z}>l!l'.i.ii..xtitr)." This explanation ofthe thought of the Madhyamika isvery popular, and similar expressions are often found inmost ofthe Mtidliyamikatexts.Jizangalso uses very similar terms in histexts,such as: 911 [7]Emptinessisthe truth.existenccisthe conyentional. This explanation of [7]doesnot literally correspond with that ofyljing. However, both meanings are completely the same. AnQther example ismore similar and thus more important: [8][Allthings]exist in thc conventional truth, are emptiness in the ultimate trutb.wise men are not surprised at it,becausethey hope that all things exist as convention and are emptiness as truth.io) This [8]iscited from Da che'ng gua"ng bdiildrnshi ldrn(jcglllht ilige.geth), which was written by Dharmapfila (ue?x) and was then translated intochineseby Xuanzang. Itisa translation ofhalf of the CaluhSalaka written by Aryadeva, who isthe author ofbdii labn, one ofthe three fundamentaltexts fbrsah1tinschool, fbunded by Jizang. As we can findfrom these very impressiveexamples, the term "ZhOng gu5n," used as the name ofthe school, was not an original expression created by Yijing.Instead,he adopted itas the translationofma{ihyamika insanskritfromzliong guan lin,another name ef

5 Why isthe Madhyamika translatedas `'Zh6ng gutin( Pti ee) "? (R ẠKAi[ANE) (109) ZhOng labn, which had already been used inchina. 2.Why did Jizangadd the word "gu5n" to "zhong"? Then,why didjizangadd the word "gudn" to "zhong," which isthe original meaning of Madhyamika? Ido not haveaplausible answer to thisquestion,butican offerahypothesis.when Jizangexplains why he can give Zhjng lrknthe name of ZhOng guan labn, he of ten also explains the chapter title.for instance,the firstchapter of MK was originally called "pratitiyasamutpada pariksa" in Sanskritand istranslatedas "Guan yin yuan pin (ee ptlbl pmn)" inchinese.parik$aisobvious]y translatedas "gu5n." Nevertheless,he claims that we should add the term "gu5n" to "Yin yuan pin (pawhn"m)" inzhong gudn labnshti, as if thisterm `;guan" did not exist in the original text.the passage reads: [9]Now some people ask why MK iscalled ZhOng guan labnand why this first chapter istitled yinytianpin." There are fbur different answers. One answer isas fo11ows:the name ZhOng t`guan gtianlabnisthe popular name ofzlibng labn.the "Gutin yin yuthn[pin]" chapter. 11) Here,bothZho-ngguan labnand Guan yin yudn pin isanothcr name forthe first are simu]taneously and similarly interpreted by Jizang.More precisely, he says that both the titleand chapter names originally lackedthe word "guan," and therefbre,he claims that we should add the word "guan" to both.certainly,the text titledoesnot have "guan," but the chapter name didoriginally havethe word "guan," in boththe originalsanskrittextand the Chinesetranslation. Nevertheless,why didhe explain itlikethis? We may be allowed to hypothesizethat the idea of adding the word "guan" to the original titlecame from the chapter title,which originally includedthe word "guan," or that he wanted to show the titlein the same fbrrnas the chapter name with the word "guan." Therefbre,I think that he intentionally ayoided using the word inthe chapter title,and then added itto boththe text titleand chapter name again. 3.IsYljingthe firstperson to use the term "ZhOng guan" as the name of the school? As mentioned above, Yijingdid use the terrn "Zh6ng gufin"as thename of the school. Nevertheless,this does not necessarily mean that he was the first person to do so. Cou]d there not be the possibility another person used the te"n inthe same way befbrehim? We haveanother interesting source to refer to inorder to answer thisquestion ẠsI said inthe -]233-

6 (110) Why isthe MEdhyamika translated as L`Zh6ng gudn ( Pii est) "? (RẠKAHANE) introduction to thispaper, the school name MZdhyamika was first used inthe PPr (Ban ruo deng labn,itzfiwh)by Bh5vivekain India.This text was translated intochinese by an IndianBuddhist named Prabhfikaramitra (21!leepmea2i; ee,a.d ). He issaid to have been from middle Indiaand to have studied Yogacfira theory under Silabhadra at the N51andatemple,which was expanding and becomingmore famous as a Buddhist center. It was alse said that he stayed at Western Turkic Khaganate (V!i ajma)ina.d. 626;hence, we can inferthat he had livedin Indiauntil about A.D He arrived inchang 5n (ft ZE}), the capital of China,about A.D He issaid to be the person who inspiredxuanzang to travel to Nalanda.i2)Itisnatural for us to think that he was familiar with the situation ofindian Buddhism in arounda.d. 600,includingthe movements of the Madhyamika and Yogacdra schools. Therefbre,itseems very usefu1 to check the style ofhis translation of theterm M5dhyamika as foundinthe PPr. If he translatesitas "Zh6ng gu5n," we can say that this terrnhad been known well beforethe time when thistext was translated into Chinese,namely, between A.D In addition, we may get a clue about the situation with the school name Madhyamika, since this was not long after thistenn was put into use by Bhaviveka. Inthe PPr,the term "dbu " ma pa (Madhyamika) was used a totalof ls times, and 12i3) of them can be foundina part of chapter 25 ofmk, where the theught ofyeg5cara iscritieized. Unfortunately,thispart doesnot exist inthe Chinesetranslation, Ban FuO deng labn. I do not know the reason fbrthis;perhapsprabhekaramitrabelongedto the Yog2cara school and hated to translatethis partand describethe criticism against Yogacara from Bhaviveka,who belongedto themedhyamika school, or perhaps the original Sanskrittext that was broughtintechinalackedthispart Ạt any rate, thereare only three examples that we can use inorder to try to answer my question Ọne isfound inchapter 16,where the term "dbu ma pa" istranslated as `LZhOng lckn." Certainly, this isthe namc of the text, not of the school.i4) The others are foundin chapter 1s,where one istranslated as an opponent,is) and the other istranslated as "middle way (pptre)."i6) In any example, the term "Zh6ng gu5n" isnot used, not even as the name ofthe school. Therefbre,we can assume that ithad not been known and used ina.d. 632.Moreover, ifan exciting hypothesis can be allowed, Itisa littledoubtfu1whether "Madhyamika" was well known as the name ofthe school in India,becauseapparently even an IndianBuddhist,PrabhAkaramitra, didnot thinkof the term "dbu ma pa (Madhyamika)" as the name of the school. Asidefrom theseexamples,

7 The Japanese Assooiation Association of Indian 工 and Buddhist Studies Why isthe MAdhyamika translated as Zh6ng gu5n ( 中観 )? (R,AKAHANE ) (lll) we cannot findany use of the terrn, Zh6ng guen, inthe D 励 g κz 卿ノ ( 大唐西域記 ), written by Xuanzang, though itisobvious that he knew about the existence of the discus sion between M 蕊 dhyamikaand Yogac 互 ra inlndia, 4.Conclusion 1.Yijing is probably the first person who used the tenn Zh6ng gu 翫 n as the name ofthe school of Mlldhyamika.Thisisperhapsbecauseneither Prabh 翫 karamitranor Xuan zang, who were active inthe seventh century beforeyijing, used it. 2.The expression Zh6ng gu 五 n was created not by Y 巧 butby Jizang ing,, who used itas another titleof MK ; hence,itis quite possible thaty 巧 ingadopted itonly as the name of the school. 3.A probable reason forjizangte add gu 琶 n to zh6ng isthathe triedto use the word gu5n inboththe text and chapter titles. 1 )See, Ejima Yasunori [1991] { huganha no tenkai, in lndo crhasei shis δ kenkyu,shunjo sha, pp , SaitoAkira[1998] <Shoki > Chrtganhato Buddhap 互 lita, Buk δ 勺ノ gaku 24,pp.(29) 一 (5D. SaitoAkira [2006 ] IsNag 調 una a M 巨 dhyamika? in δ 如 Do ヴ δ 産 yδノ ε 侃 o 他峨 y 源,Sankib6 Bussh rin, pp ) 所云大乘無過二種. 一則中觀. 二乃瑜伽. 中観則俗有真空 體虚如幻. 瑜伽則外無内有事皆唯識 (T54 no.2125, 205c13 15). 3 ) 禪師後向那爛陀. 聽瑜伽習中觀 (T.51 no.2066, 9b27). 4 )Scc, Miyamoto ShOson, KajiyoshiMitsuyuki, Yasumoto T6ru 匚 1939]Kokuyakztlssaidyo ronsobu 6 Dait6shuppan,,, p.5. 5 ) 但論有廣略二本. 略但 云中論, 廣則加以觀也 (T.42no.1824, 2a3 4). 6 ) 問何故具題三字耶. 答因中發觀. 由觀宣論. 要備三法義乃圓足也 (T.45 no.1852, 13cl 2). 7 ) 中觀論破如來品云.(T.43 no.1831, 636b24 ). 8 ) 如中觀論十二門論等 (T.44 ne.1845, 226b5 ). 9 ) 以空為真.. 有為俗 (T.38no.1780,896b9 ). 10) 世俗故有. 勝義故空. 諸有智人不應驚異. 為顯諸 法俗有真空 (T.30, no.1571,229c7 8). 11) 問何因縁故標中觀論. 復題觀因縁品. 答略明四義. 一者中觀論是一部之通名. 觀因縁謂 一章之別稱 (T.42 no.1824,5b23 25 ). 12) See, Kuwayama Shoshin [ 1983 ] lndo eno michi : Genj6 to Prabh 巨 karamitra., 7 励 δg 盈納 δ 55, pp ) 1.(D.242b2 ; P.304al 2).2.(D.242b4 ; P.304a5 ).3.(D.244b5 ; P.306b7 ). 4.(D.244b5 ; P.306b7).5.(D.244b6 ; P.307a1 ).6.(D.244b7 ; P.307a3 ),7.(D.245al ; P.307a4 ).8. (D.245al 2 ; P.307a4 5).9.(D.247al ; P.309b6).IO.(D.247a5 ; P.310a4).lL (D.247B5 ; P.310b6 ). 14)The translation example of dbu ma pa;ppr, chapter 16.(Tib)gal te med na ni chad pa fiidkyi skyon du gyur ro 11 yed pa dafimed pa fiiddu brjod par bya ba ffidma yin na n ldbu ma pa smra ba daihmthun par smra ba yin no (D 166a5 ; P.206bl).(Chin ) 若言無餘涅槃彼刹那時不可説人有體無體者. 此則與我中論義同 (T.30 no.1566, 97a). 15)One translationexample ef dbu ma pa:ppr chapter l 8,(Tib) ci stc yah la la di sffam du dbu ma pas bdag gi tshig gi don fiidu khas 一 1235 一 NII-Electronic N 工工一 Eleotronio Library Service

8 The Japanese Assooiation Association of Indian 工 and Buddhist Studies (ll2) Why isthe Madhyamika translatedas Zh6ng gu 互 n ( 中観 )? (R.AKAHANE ) ma btanspa iphyir de ikhyadpar bstan pa mi rigs te!dper na m 9 伽 9 助御 ゴ 5 滝 ゐ 5 α 船 4α カ 1 跏厂 Sam 励 41a sog.y pa biin no sfiam du sems na!de ni bzah po ma yin te 1 (D.180b2 3 ; P.244b4 5). (Chin) 復次有外人作如是意. 謂論者言, 彼既不令我是一物. 復還簡別言我. 是物是體是無 常是不遍. 是疑智等. 作是説者其義不然. 亦如有入自生分別. 譬如石女實自無. 兒. 何得示他青黄色耶. 是則虚妄. 論者言. 汝語非也 (T.30 no.1 566, 104c28 105a3). 16)The other translation exa 皿 ple of dbu ma pa :PPr chapter l8.(tib) ra 血 gi sdc pa dah! g2an gyi sde ba kha cig bdag dah khyad na re!dbu ma smra pa ni dhos po thams cad laskur ba debs pa iphyir med pa pa par ni med do f.es zer ba de dag la kha cig gis /dfios po sel ba fiiddu mtshufts su zin kyafi 1 se so i skye bo dath!dgra bcom pa so sor ma brtags pa dafif so sqr brtags pa ibtahsfioms pa dag biinnam! dmus lofidath i6 mig can gyi phyogs mi bde o sfiam du hes par 9es i6 pa dag mtshufis su zin kyafikhyad paryod pa biin du med pa dah f dbu ma pa dag la yafi khyad par yod do Zes lan debs par byed pas ni 1 pha rol pos dhos po ide kho na fiidrtogs pa lakhyad par med do iesbstan pa lakhyad par yod par ma 軻 od pas lanma yin no 11 (D.188b1 3 ; P.244a4 8).(Chin) 自部及外人等謂我言. 彼中道説無一切句義與路伽耶説無. 則無差別, 應如是答我言. 一切句義無者亦有差別. 汝不解故出是 言耳. 有人言. 如以智慧知而捨. 不以智慧知而捨. 豈無差別. 若言説無同者. 是則凡夫與 羅漢不異. 生盲與有目不異. 平地與丘陵不異. 若如是説. 中道路伽則無差別 作此説者. 不解差別. 是為無智 (T.30 no.1566,107c2 _ 8). abbreviation D.:sDe dge ed., P.:Peking ed., T.:Taish6 shinsh 且 daiz6ky6, Key words > 中観中論, 中観論, 中観論疏,Jizang 吉蔵,Yijing 義浄 (Research Fellow, the lnstituteforthe Culturaland Intellectual HistoryofAsia ofthe Austrian Academy ofsciences ) 1236 NII-Electronic N 工工一 Eleotronio Library Service

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