(Gilles Deleuze, Nietzsche et la philosophies. eind. A CcDinrpsir-a-t ±

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2 ed A CcDrpsir--t ± DUNCAJT LARGE 'Les connsnces philosophiques d'un uteur ne s'evluent ps ux cittions qu'il fit, ni d'pres des releves de biblioques ujours fnttes et conjecturux, m d'pres les directions pologetiques ou polemiques de son oeuvre elle-meme.' (Gilles Deleuze, Nietzsche et l philosophies 'Eer ht immer Unrecht: ber mit zweien beglnnt die Vhrheit'. (Nietzsche, Die frdhllche Vsenschft)

3 lietzsche Proust: A Conprtive Study Duncn Lrge, Mgdlen College Dserttion Submitted Cidture for Degree D.Phil. Hilry Tern, 1995 Affities between Nietzsche Proust hve been suggested by vriety fluentil critics (Georges Btille Murice Blnchot, more recently Pul de Mn, Alexer Jfehms Richrd Rorty), but th first fulllength comprtive study two writers. Proust ws timtely fmilir with neteenth-century post-kntin estics, deed nrrr A l recherche du tejnps perdu glosses h voluntry memories usg n explicitly idelt philosophicl vocbulry, but by developg Vcent Descombes's s tht Proust's novel more dvnced thn philosophicl terprettions it conts, I rgue tht Proust ultimtely moves beyond Schopenhuerin position which hs ten been imputed him, tht he jos Nietzsche n overcomg dultic metphysics. After first considerg those criticl works which hve prepred ground for comprtive study two writers - prticulr Gilles Deleuze's Proust et 2es signes, whose sufficiently pprecited - I n Nletzschen dcuss conurs I rgue hve been surprg mount Proust ctully wrote bout Nietzsche, A l recherche elsewhere, focus on me friendship, which Proust's chosen terr for h most extended enggement with philosopher. In subsequent chpters I ddress 'Proust's perspectivm' light Nietzsche's rdicl critique trditionl eptemology, n turn Proust's nrrr's serch for self, which I rgue cretion. I use culmtes Deleuze's n emphs 'ubermenschlich' on difference estics self repetition Proustin 'essences' so s red voluntry memory s timtion not n essentil self, but eternl return. In my fl chpter I n ttempt stressg brek open symmetries two writers' temporl metmorphoses structure exploittion postmodern 'logics future perfect'. ir circle by work, ir

4 Contents Abbrevitions Editions Used Introduction I. Nietzsche Proust? Nietzsche Proust? II. Nietzsche Proust: Towrds Comprtive Study Chpter 1. Proust's Nietzsche Chpter 2. Eptemoptics: Proust's Perspectivm 100 Chpter 3. In Serch Self 149 Chpter 4. Logics Future Perfect 204 Conclusion 238 Notes 241 Bibliogrphy 295

5 Abbrevitions Editions Used Nietzsche For publhed works, ll references re section numbers or titles, moderned orthogrphy punctution re used for ll quottions; for NchlB, reference mde Friedrlch Nietzsche: Smtllche Verke. Kritlscbe Studienusgbe 15 Ben, 2nd edn, ed. Giorgio Colli Mzzo Montri (Munich: dtv; Berl New York: de Gruyter, 1988) (= KSA); for correspondence, reference mde Frledrlch Nietzsche: Briefe. Kritche Gesmtusgbe, ed. Giorgio Colli Mzzo Mbntri, 16 vols (Berl New York: de Gruyter, ) (= KGB). AC EH - Der Antichrt Ecce Homo FV FV GD GM GT JGB M MA UB VS Z - Der Fll Wgner Die frohllche Vsenschft Gotzen-Dmmerung Zur Genelogie der Morl Die Geburt der Tr go die Jenseits von Gut und Bbse Morgenrote Menschliches, Allzumenschliches Unzeitgemsse Betrchtungen Der Werer und se Schtten Also sprch Zrthustr Proust Volume pge references re : A l recherche du temps perdu, ed. Jen-Yves Tdie, 4 vols (Pr: Gllimrd CPleide'), ). Correspondnce de Mrcel Proust, ed. Philip Kolb, 21 vols (Pr: Plon, ) (= CMP). Centre Ste-Beuve preced6 de Pstiches et melnges et suivi de Essls et rticles, ed. Pierre Clrc Yves Sre (Pr: Gllimrd CPleide 1 ), 1971) (= CSB). Jen Snteuil precede de ies Plirs et les Jours, ed. Pierre Clrc Yves Sre (Pr: Gllimrd CPleide'), 1971) (= JS). Le Grnet de 1908, ed. Philip Kolb (Pr: Gllimrd C6tudes proustiennes', 8), 1976). AD CG CS JF P SG TR - Albertlne dprue Le C6t6 de Guermntes Du cot6 de chez Swnn A 1'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs L Pronniere Sodome et Gomorrhe Le Temps retrouve Ors BSAHP - Bullet de l Soclete des m Combry NS - Nletzsche-Studlen de Mrcel Proust et des m de

6 Introducti on I. Nietzsche Proust? fletzscbe Proust? At outset perhps it enquiry th Philosopher, recll Wlter concerng precely Antichrt, Psychologt, third edition Prefce Kufnn's rr dprgg comment h Nietzsche: slutry be, hs been lked with such comprtive studies s th: 'Nietzsche cn vst vriety tellectul fshions - movements s well s men - but it significnce meng mly terms cler tht ny ttempt defe h titles ll "Nietzsche X" give ctlogue some worthless, re (which concludes with those from h own select bibliogrphy, just unlikeliest men, women) tken Kufmnn proceeds but 1...' 'X's such twenty-five Th not sy tht mledg. one such juxtposition bound be needless sy lt which he drew up 1968 now looks dtctly modest, terest Nietzsche, prolifertion for mentime growth perspectives on h work (comprtive orwe), hs been phenomenl. Bryn Billird Erl scholrship written or trnslted Englh Just Nietzsche over period sce Nietzsche Bibliogrphy publiction Interntionl some 1912 items2 - 'How much bibliogrphies recent Nitschke's B. (lso 1968) lt o much? 1 sks Richrd Schcht response. 3 'Nietzsche ujourd'hui'/'nietzsche Now 1 /'Nietzsche heute' 4* hs been plurled fr greter extent thn Kufmnn New Nietzsche, Dvid Allon's ppered 1977, first monolithic. 5 Moreover, judge from ever hve imged, even The collection seml tions which studies re still flourhg, could Just contentl terpret- strtg recent look uncomfortbly titles, 'Nietzsche X 1 despite Kufmnn's thly-veiled scorn: Nietz-

7 -2sche Asin Thought, Nietzsche Modern Germn Thought, Nietzsche Rheric Nihilm, Nietzsche Orig Virtue, Nietzsche Feme, so on.*5 So wht Nietzsche Proust? Proust? Or, For criticl dustry on 'Aucun ecrivln du XX" siecle n' Jen-Yves Tdle s he begs for tht mtter, Nietzsche ltter hs been no less productive: suscite une telle bibliogrphic 1, writes unenvible tsk surveyg its conurs."7 The need for self-explntion ttemptg study like th hs grown ll more impertive sce Kufmnn's comments over twenty-five yers go, for we know how he would hve responded: provide key Nietzsche. 'no study tht sort could possibly H house hs mny mnsions, ny ttempt fd clue everythg some nook, or similrity between detil here trifle nor edifice, or guest glimpsed prlor, simple-mded'. 61 The present study not so could possibly provide ' key 1 Nietzsche, provide ' key' Proust, but my im nive recherche du temps perdu. writg it hs been rr Proust's problems two mjor writers our 'cdrl 1 novel, A l My hope hs been tht result will be not Just dply 'detils' 'trifles', but ffities between presume tht it or tht it could use Nietzsche estblh 'trnsversles' between work two time, between Nietzsche's 'house' s writers developg who prllel demonstrtion ten strikg were responses mny wys m explorg similr undoubtedly different, but ir cses overlppg fields philosophy literture. At first sight comprtive study somewht unlikely exerce. Simply seem be little common between h erlier life s n cdemic on Nietzsche Proust might pper level biogrphy, re would philosopher who unshckled himself from chose sted enct life

8 -3- 'free spirit 1 h constnt shuttlg between Sws mounts Mediterrnen Se, novelt who poles: h erly life s trced trjecry between two quite different litterteur norious self-sequestrtion socilite, Prin subsequently h metropol. Not only do ir mture voctions express mselves mrkedly divergent lifestyles, but y even write under very before dwn tke different brk conditions: constitutionl h; Proust devotg himself Goe h preference for thkg with 'Nur die ergngenen Gednken hben writg Vert' would wrote bed! hve lte would neteenth-century nor scetic devoted vit re brekfst, notebook Nietzsche follows while stg up, ne peut penser et ecrire qu'ss' imge how much greter h hostility Surely Nietzsche before preferrg more 'nocturnl muse 1. 9 rects 'nihilm' Flubert's 'On product Nietzsche <GD, IX, hve 34), so we cn only been wrds writer who dmsed Proust s just nor French culture contempltlv, decdence, Just 'e Verhngn mehr fiir ds rme, krnke, willenskrnke Frnkreich* <GD, IX, 2)? 10 More pertently, Nietzsche's heroic eternl return, or h future' with h life seem fer scnt 'gr doctres' brchild 'ubermensch', 'philosopher strenuousness, belligerence dnger, would opportunity for ny mengful esticg troversion Proustin nrrr perdu. will power compron with l recherche du temps Erich Auerbch summrily brckets Nietzsche from h mgteril study Jtljnesls on perfectly justifible concerned with reltic portryl grounds tht 'Nietzsche ws not contemporry relity', 11 but Proust preoccupied with mutie superficil society life, h novel suffused with sheer bnlity everydy. resserted 'The Morlity Proust' 1 * - but Mlcolm Bowie hs recently how cn th be reconciled with

9 -4von gut und bdse', «'Jenseits himself situted writer who so conspicuously 1, fifteen yers before Gide, ws plnng book entitled Der Immorl 1st?** On styltic level, wht kd rpprochement possible between, on one h, novelt 'romn fleuve' nrrtive (t rhericl period fshion semless one stge conceived MorD der Genelogle on, or, (GD, X, 1), or ' Horce formlly more two obscurity Herclitus', 1S whose Sllust philosopher who tkes s h models Geburt der Trgodle Zur chpter), unbroken sgle Clssicl mplitude emulte lookg trditionl books (.Die re exception rr thn rule, whose mbition ' zehn Stzen zu sgen, ws Jeder re eem Buche nlcht sgt' (GD, IX, 51; eem Buche sgt - ws jeder re cf. KSA 11, 579)? 16 Unlike Leibniz, or series studies, 17 ws Nietzsche tught not or Germn post- lked Proust her importnt hs Henry Kntin esticins whom Anne Schellg Schopenhuer, French schools universities durg Proust's formtive yers for simple reson tht he ws still live, Proust's fmilirity first-h shll reltively slight, even if, s I underestimted by criticm so fr. rgue The pprent se or respects hs fct 1, it hs been ll, A l with Nietzsche on question friendship, specificlly Nietzsche's erstwhile nrrr from him. Nietzsche remed Chpter significntly Most recherche itself Proust explicitly tkes sue psses f love Nietzsche on with friendship with Wgner, St-Loup precely order dtnce divergence been Proust from Nietzsche stressed by number critics: Jmes H. Reid contrsts two throughout course n elborte rgument which construes Nietzschen speech-ct ory Proustin deconstruction it; ie while h study Nietzsche's fluence on modernt writers,

10 -5- Heirs Dionysus, John Burt Foster, Jnr. goes so fr s ssert, however hesitntly: 'It might be possible C... ] locte genuely nti-nietzschen current mong literry modernts which would clude figures like Joyce, Eliot, perhps, Proust But Just s one cn fd prim fcie resons for opposg two writers, so one cn s esily fd prim fcie cn be plyed both behd wys, even similrities between two: gme moustches. On biogrphicl level both writers were rcked by illnesses, debilittg effects which were felt ll more cutely by two men whose pssionte devotion writg ws orwe so ll-consumg. Both were femle environment, set gret sre by brought up predomntly mle-mle reltionships, hd older women confidntes lter life (on one h Mlwid von Meysenbug, on or Mme Strus) - both could be logy closet', Eve tctfully described s hvg n 'eptemokossky Sedgwick's tellg formultion. 20 Geogrphiclly spekg, two writers shred love Venice cost - Proust even hd n enjoyble trip beloved Sils-Mri 1893, only five yers ill 21 - despite wys ir preference for solitry different extence respective voctions, even if both ssiduously. occupies key s fter lso Upper Engde Nietzsche's Nietzsche hd left it for chievg it, both opted by precondition for fulfillg ir cultivted ir vrious friendships Both, deed, conceived ir ctivity s 'voction 1 : word position Le Temps retrouv chngg reltion (TR, IV, 478), it h ttck on debsement reduction eductionl stitutions 'Bildung 1 s n end itself lly' tred msses, which eductionl fter nrrr's life- lso stressed by Nietzsche vlues contemporry Germny, which hd previously striven for mere production les dgorgg 'voctionhe rerts: 'Ee hohere Art Mensch, mlt

11 -6Verlub gesgt, liebt nicht "Berufe", genu deshlb, well sie sich berufen weib 1 COD, VIII, 5). TsteCs) A first step wrds more substntil compron Nietzsche Proust cn be mde if we beg by exmg some tstes or writers. Here g, some respects. Proust style h Where 'precursors' for exmple, he lumps ger Romntiker' (sic: GD, IX, 6) s JOB 204, 256). though, se tstes certly differed devotes Blzc, reception ll three ws good ir contexts comprg ir importnt Budelire del explorg Flubert, 22 Nietzsche's more muted, sy lest: Blzc, with George S, 'herufgekommene Proust's goodwill essys wrds Blzc Vicr Hugo 'lle Plebejer' (KSA 11, 591; cf. llows him excuse even wht he recognes s h felicities: Blzc se sert de utes les idees qui lui viennent & 1'esprit et ne cherche ps & les fire entrer, dsoutes, dns un style ou elles s'hrmonerient et suggererient ce qu'il veut dire. Non, 11 le dit ut simplement, et, si heteroclite et dprte (comme Renn, du reste, en cel) que soit 1'imge, ujours Juste d'illeurs, 11 l juxtpose. (CSB 296f.) For Nietzsche, ccordg h celebrted th 'Anrchie der Ame, Dgregtion orgnchen Gestlten 1 Nietzsche's critique sympm 'Vohln! Ich b so gut wie des pr 'decdence' overt, yet s one would expect from Wgner defition Der Fll Wgner (5), Villens, excellence literry decdence. Budelire writer ds decdent' (FW, 'Vorwort'), h criticm [...] Unfhigkeit zum who ws lso ble nnounce: Kd Flubert more dieser Zeit, will sgen e not unmixed with expressions

12 -7- respect, wiedererknnt Artten sich e gnzes Geschlecht von typche decdent, dem 'Jener Nietzsche describes Budelire s (EH, II, 5), s ht 1 'ee Art R<ichrd> W<gner> ohne Musik' (KSA 11, 476; cf. 11, 601) - with ll connottions mbivlent fsction which 1880s. 23 tht prllel hs for him by He ttcks Flubert, 'der brve Burger von Rouen' (JOB 218), for grnts: 'er ht ds klgende und bunte h 'nihilm 1 (GD, I, 34), yet still 600), 11, (KSA Frnzdsch uf die Hbhe gebrcht 1 sees him s 'krftig Frnkreichs dmit e Vorbild genug urn den gegenwrtigen Romnschriftstellern zu geben' - 'Vorbild 1 whose vlue Proust course keen cknowledge. publhed writers whom Nietzsche ( h tendency see good works, t lest) simply dptches Proust defends Michelet, like Blzc (P, III, Thus with stroke pen. hs Proust In generl one could sy tht unity' he imposes on h work, 'retrospective 666f.), on strength sees 'les plus gres beutes de Michelet' h prefces (P, III, 666); him peremprily Nietzsche dmses 257). 5), while Veible' (GD, IX, ttcks Nietzsche die den Rock George Eliot s 'Morlmore much hs Proust Begeterung, notes: 'Alles, ws mir gefllt, 602f. ) usziehf (GD, IX, 1; cf. KSA 11, t ihm fremd* (KSA 11, 'die s sympthy for Eliot's 'sentiment de 1'utilite de l souffrnce, du progres morl' (CSB 657). On or h, though, Nietzsche strken Rsse [...], een echten Lteer, (EH, II, 3), while Proust, s Tdie oeuvre'. 2* Indeed none - Herren 'die Meilhc, Anle Frnce, Jules (EH, II, 3; cf. JGB 218) - notes, writers neugierige und zugleich so delikte 'im Jetzigen Pr' pres Mupssnt s 'een von der would 'n'ur ps gr estime pour son Nietzsche Psychologen 1 [ sic] Lemltre', be ich besonders zugetn b* dem Pul with mong cludes mong those 'so whom he vlues most highly Bourget, Pierre Loti, Gyp, Mupssnt crowng lt Proust's endurg fvourites,

13 -8- lt 'quelques ecrivs de s fithfully, he ctully refers it own erly tstes quite Proust's mtch does lthough terestgly lt nos m' letter Robert de Montesquieu Mrch 1904 (CMP, VI, 353). 2S Wheres Nietzsche hs h Nietzsche's own led Te, Proust follows for spot st prticulrly Michelet's 'Begeterung 1, mockg criticm Te's 'desopilnt enthousme' for Musset (CSB 634), he critices both Bourget Te, ironiclly enough, on ccount ir pprecitions method Ste-Beuve (CSB 218, 220f., 225). s lso very much 'centre Ste-Beuve 1 Ironiclly enough, for Nietzsche ws 3) - deed ir judgements on <cf. KSA 11, 257, 600; JOB 48; GD, IX, overlp. re surprg mount n writers who were most importnt Proust's respect for Goe never reches heights Nietzsche's ffirmtion Dionysin enthusm for h prgon refers who terview with Proust it Bibesco uteur drmtique du XIX* siecle 1 (CSB 500), it Chrlus for whom Goe beg or) - but Proust's one , CSur Goe 1 ); CO, II, Stendhl 27 positively. on whom Dosyevsky, 2e As with Blzc, idees' thn ny ossture effect 49) - h Goe s ' le plus gr A l recherche (TR, IV, 358) two gretest Germns (Nietzsche frequently 475, 1155). Nietzsche Proust considers him 'un gr ecriv 'gre IX, dmirtion for Wilhelm Xelsters Lehrjhre Die Vhlverwdtshften prticulr century prose writers (GD, consciente consciously lvhes lso Proust pprent (cf. CSB 141, The two or neteenthh gretest pre re responds both very notes Stendhl's styltic felicities sns le svoir' (CSB 611), more becuse que recouvre sought, but 1'ssemblge voulu des lerns much from Proust Stendhl - he dopts Stendhl's ('pro-nietzschen 1 ) critique remorse (CSB 655) h term for ' crtlltion 1 love (AD, IV, 4), s well s

14 -9- generl defendg him gst Ste-Beuve's l recherche nrrr's persts, he sgles erly out for ltitude (P, III, 879; cf. CSB criticms dmirtion high 611f., Proust's pprecition Dosyevsky for pprovl Pronnlere, where former Doslevski pportee u monde 1 Dosyevsky's estic (cf. CSB (JF, II, 70) Stendhl's exploittion 644f.) (P, III, Russin on 880) 'le surfces h novel nrrr Alberte rhpsodes direction, Sevigne', which mrks out Stendhl In A 654) - nor very Nietzschen motif. durg literry-criticl dcussion between L (CSB 222f.). 29 c6t6 novelt 'l beut6 que gives n exposition Doslevski s neuve de Mime de one Proust's own most importnt models. 30 Both Nietzsche Proust hd n bidg love for writgs French norllstes, especilly Pscl, pround respect for cuity ir psychologicl sights. 31 Emerson, whom Nietzsche gives prcticlly fl word Schopenhuer ls Erzleher <UB, III, 8), who hs t lst begun be more widely recogned s n importnt precursor h, 32 red 'vec ivresse' by Proust 1895 (CMP, I, 363). tions from Emerson's Essys s epigrphs for Proust uses severl quot- Les Pllslrs et les Jours <JS 9, 38, 104, 156), unlike Frnce or Loti, Emerson rets plce honour Proust's estimtion <cf. CSB 37, 91n., 112, 119n., 138, 311, 480, 540, 656). 33 Above ll, though, both Nietzsche Proust were proundly ffected by ir contct with Schopenhuer Wgner. Bryn Kgee, h study Aspects Wgner^ yokes two ger on th ltter count: '[Wgner's] work seems hve specil ppel for Proust livg lone h emotionlly cork-led olted or repressed: Nietzsche; room C...]', 3* explicitly critices Nietzsche for bong () rgue Chpter 1 tht h criticm mplced. even if Proust Wgnerin cmp, I shll Moreover, one ims

15 -10- rgue sted tht rected Nietzsche, like Proust, fluence on Proust, Schopenhuer's critics for defg role clims mde by number or qulify th study s whole gst Schopenhuer, hvg first ged n timte cqutnce with h philosophy. Of course such lt pros contrs lmost fitely extensible, emerged simply extent but one feture which should by now hve cse th hrdly needs lte neteenth-century Frnce. sion literry culture specificlly ir deep immer- shred, culturl heritge two writers Nietzsche's explg; persts contemporry period which ws so fflicted, s he sw it, with sym- - th rch-critic newsppers Nietzsche Not only ws reflects n endurg even (deed especilly) fsction with French culture which pms decdence. it In Proust's newspper-redg public - devoted reder Journl des D&btst but he found Journl des Goncourt veritble 'bible decdence', 3S (cf. especilly KSA 13, ) left trces 1887 h close redg it Gdtzen-Dnonerung (from which mny throughout h lte works, prticulr tstes, emphs y both mentl pot bout Nietzsche's Proust's eloquently more wre tht nothg speks style thn ir tstes, deed gives depth such figures, directly, through Bloch, s jetzt noch t primry wys which Proust y like best vlortion h prticulr, most evident openg und Bose: ' Auch chrcter's Brichot or nrrr's grmor writer(s) Nietzsche importnce tste, Both writers were succctly but one sureness tste (or chrcter. psychology orwe) s guide on senses), ll plce on 'tste' itself ( A second, more fund- derive). bove h more srdonic comments quoted quote. 36 For French tste section 254 Jenseits von Gut Frnkreich der Sitz der getigsten und

16 -11rffiertesten Kultur Europs und die hohe Schule des Geschrocks: ber mn mub dies "Frnkreich des Geschmcks" zu fden wsen'. 37 Psychology: 'L rethode de Ste-Beuve' A fl pot which needs be red here concerns Nietzsche's method criticm, h fondness for hong h notes combtive sttements prt, on writer so s mke pithy kd: 'Ich ls die ersten lettres d'un voygeur: wie lles, ws von Rousseu stmmt, flsch, gemcht, Blseblg, ubertrieben' <GD, IX, 6).* 61 pssg resemblnce Such kd lpidry trenchnt Proust fds so unpltble, which quotg Ste-Beuve on Stendhl: '"Je romns de Stendhl; ils sont busiveness bers more thn comment by Ste-Beuve which he exemplifies, ironiclly enough, by viens frnchement de relire, detestbles"' ou d'essyer, les (CSB 222). 3S* Now lthough Proust himself here (wher delibertely or orwe) hs tken two longer pssges from Ste-Beuve 1 s ger for effect (cf. CSB 833), Cuseries one Proust might hve found Nietzsche's du lundl compressed m would be justified suspectg tht style 'rgumenttion' uncceptbly d boml new. Except tht when Nietzsche stellt, ws Jede grobe writes: Philosophic 'Allmhlich bher ht sich mir herusge- wr: nmlich ds Selbstbekenntn ihres Urhebers 1 <JGB 6) he mens th rdiclly different wy Ste- Beuve, hs s does much contempt Ste-Beuve h pursuit writer's work.*0 s Proust biogrphicl for superficility portrit for illumtg Th pssge contues: 'ds Selbstbekenntn ihres Urhebers und ee Art ungewollter und unvermerkter n&molres* - Nietzsche understs by

17 -12- unconscious, stctul drives; ply 'life', or ' biogrphicl', (oder des Menschen C.., 3 ls Inspirlerende Genien typologicl. h nostrils CEH, IV, 1), but H genius my be put-downs ir purchse. it lso wy he cn respond pungency fensive mtter with cse pot beg h good counter-fensives, pungency h own rgue, tht gives Nietzsche's would I flir, th It Dmonen und Kobolde -) ihr 'flir' specificlly genelogicl h Spiel getrieben hben mogen 1 - wy which 'die Grundtriebe h terest voluntry 'memoires 1, himself, which begs: ' Ste- prgrph Gotzen-Dmnerung on Ste-Beuve Beuve. - Nichts von Mnn; voll ees kleen Ingrimms gegen lle Mnnsgeter. 3). Proust delights usully if similr, Beuve, d'un rticles one d'une Merimee, cn lredy detect 248), (CSB S 1 George susted, kd fusse superiorite d'un Ste- 'l like comment throw-wy less or A l recherche itself), 'biogrphicl 1 shorth (wher h essys even - ee Weibs- und Veibs-Snlichkeit' (GD, IX, Veibs-Rchsucht person im Grunde, mit eer ushorcherch gelngweilt, neugierig, Schweift umher, fe, h nnomstic with with move defite wy from biogrphicl wrd typologicl. fsction Both writers hd pssed on ech or - were politicl gossip - might wht with vid reders Hemoires: Nietzsche's cse those cerbic comments or writers brodly be described s literry- correspondences, journls Glini, Budelire George S by preference; Proust's those Mme de Sevigne, St-Simon Ste-Beuve; both ir cses Journl des Goncourt. Proust Nietzsche, I would rgue, hd similr understg wht constitutes 'psychology' itself, so tht where one might be tempted dms sted I would rgue tht both knew ir comments s superficil, vlue beg ' oberflchlich - us

18 -13-!' (FV, 'Vorrede', 4).* 1 rpidly grspg Moreover, both psychologicl (ten on bs quite tellg use ir cute hd fetures slender mteril) understg such developed flir for or tht not just writers rtts y were ble mke polemics which y both freely engged ( very title Centre Slnte-Beuve reclls Nietzsche contr Wgner), but more especilly by ppropritg or writers' styles recretg m productively pstiches prodies which y both so evidently enjoyed. pstiches, In h 'Affire Lemoe' 'Journl des Goncourt' Le Temps retrouve most obvious exmples, Proust by turns dtnces himself from some those or cod piece (TR, IV, ), cite but pys who hd development s writer, while Nietzsche, o, ffectionte homge gretest effect on h own couches work which he ws proudest, Also sprch Zrthustr, sustedly mock-biblicl style. 'Proust, Schopenhuer Or Philosophers' Given tht on one h Nietzsche ted with term 'perspectivm1, philosopher most closely ssoci on or 'Proust's perspectivm 1 formul which hs been tntlgly sserted s fit ccompli by every genertion critics writg on A l Anne Henry Vcent Descombes, extg Proust criticm tht reltionship between Proust recherche, from Ernst Robert Curtius wht it should Nietzsche long chpter h Philosophy l recherche du temps perdu', Descombes, h more seems substntil which hve more Novel positively perverse bout chosen not exme closely. Peter Jones hs on 'Knowledge Illusion A Nietzsche does not figure;*2 Vcent Proust: Phllosophle du romn, devotes

19 -14- chpter Proust's g prcipl' h book),*3 but he which chpter ( perspectivm deems '!'rgument mention Nietzsche th mkes no whom regrd. Yet roll-cll certly impressive philosophers enough, Locke, Plnics through Descrtes, Leibniz Spoz, neo- Knt Hegel, ttemptg situte Proust studies Although re hve been mny cse Srtre Merleu-Ponty, 4*^1 Heidegger, Kierkegrd Emerson, Husserl Pl pre-socrtics, from hs been lked Proust philosophicl context so fr, m cidtes for compron hve undoubtsce consensus tht Proust ws edly been Bergson* 5 Schopenhuer.-*6 proundly Schopenhuer!n strong recent wy troduction my own rgument times, I shll broch th question by writes Grder Ptrick section which follows. prticulrly been hs writer tht ' kernel Schopenhuer's ccount rtt's pproch world fds perhps its most strikg echo work novelt [Proust] who expressed h chief book view rt its reltion life mny wys similr tht Germn writer';* 7" he echoed by Bryn Mgee: 'Perhps gretest ll French writers be fluenced Schopenhuer sue directement de souvenirs purs [...] semble ws Proust 1 ;'**3 for [chez Proust], l reconnsnce "essences" Clement Rosset 'l recherche des huer '. AS> by de l doctre de Schopen- I shll concentrte, though, on Proust critic who hs given most substntil penetrtg Anne Henry, before dcussg ccounts 'Proust philosophe', Juli Krtev. rguments h reltion Schopenhuer, most recent nlyst

20 -15) Anne Henry 1 L 1 irrestible propension des oriciens de 1'estique (Kurzbelnige Etionlten,1 urit pest6 Nietzsche) ut reduire une vremblnce limittive 1. (Henry, Proust rojoncier, p. 44) In her first ur de force estique, Henry plces Proust book, Krcel context neteenth-century Germn idelt estics emphs on Seilles's Schellgin ides, but syns her studies certement 1'ecriv qui donn6 du plus equilibree, l plus litterle, dciple libre'. she its French dherents, with n In she 'Proust especilly hs been focussg du cote de Schopen- KVR l trduction l plus fidele, l 1'on de entend ses tht pr l qu'il n' jm propositions' 50 - even if Proust lso 's'est comport^ en So concerned Henry mke cse for Schopenhuerin Proust tht her vluble series rgue, s repeted denegtion studies between Proust Nietzsche, refusl cn neverless be red, I would possibility with result tht she ends up potentil Nietzschen prllels. climg Indeed though she were tryg do sme Nietzsche turned h bck s did sme Flubert conclusions vlid compron for sme wy s Nietzsche - s Schopenhuerin fluence ny Henry's rguments red t times s or gret menr on whom lte neteenth-century Vgnerins ir v ttempts rehbilitte Nietzsche Henry prepred rgue tht dmit possibility tht Proust might hve been rectg gst Schopenhuer Knt reched whole trdition utres vitltes, Proust est si concedes ux cherche exploiter vec demesure telle followg prgrph sce 'Compre Theories pour une Schopenhuer!n cresgly on Proust's Schopenhuerinm. huer', for exmple, she rgues: Proust: did for Wgnerin fith. Where not know Schopenhuer but knew from h redg Knt s did

21 -16- Schopenhuer Die Velt ls knowledge Schopenhuer formed bs more thn pssg, h no ws Nietzsche lthough Proust's fmilirity with so I will rgue tht Vorstellung, s * und Ville response similr tht for Nietzsche himself. In her Proust, Henry Proust portrit pts t school remg resolutely different Nietzschen terest h fellows: 'Et pendnt entre un cours et une que ses cmrdes s'occupent de Nietzsche et d 1 Ibsen, ess et nouvelles. ' S2 soiree, Proust broche phormes, Proust context enfievre 1.* 3 She philosophy proved contues so qui feu 1 Vers 1880, c'est une tree de teur, ps un rtte importnt revivl ne qui skg by tht enticg Insted she sets terest Schopenhuer, rgug: embrse I 1 Europe. que ses idees n'ient medite, 1'it it how prticulr Ps un litter- ws tht Schopenhuer's genertion Europen writers: Ont-ils dmir6 le cynme d'un penseur qui dmet l lutte comme un mode S perspiccite qui denonce le progres de nturel de 1'extence? 1'hire hume comme illusion dngereuse prce que l figure du temps est 1'eternel reur du m me? En un mot, est-ce le nihilme ou u contrire le desir de fonder l verite sur un sol plus s, comme le declrer Nietzsche dns un moment de reconnsnce pour son mltre? 6* clim Schopenhuer s uthor It clerly gog step o fr eternl return sme, ss but one cn see why Henry feels need tke th step by comprg th pssge with Theories pour une estique: 'Pour n erlier one her Mrcel Proust: exprimer ces trnsmuttions [temporles] Proust reste pronnier de l termologie de une confusion, non de fond, m un Schopenhuer chez lequel il y flottement de vocbulire; ucun concept sepre dtgunt temps comme devenir, volonte, representtion."56 Henry fds 'chez Proust encore, des termes Schopenhueriens' (p. 277), et le temps, ctegorie de l l reproduction en plus complexe but Proust's novel succeeds no

22 -17better resolvg termologicl mbiguities: I 1 obligtion que s'ssigne lngge poetique, de meler d'une eluctble confusion du psse et l reconnsde l memoire pour etblir Toute 1'mbigulte provient d'illeurs de notre romncier philosophe de prler un imges et concepts, n elle nit ussi entre l remcence, simple rememortion nce, demonstrtion qui utile I'lchimie 1'identite/opposition. (p. 277) If we leve side Henry's own tht climg seems be dmittg tht she [...]', provient [...], m elle nit ussi Schopenhuer ws confused here, rgug tht 'Toute 1'mbigulte confusion on Proust one h reproduces Schopenhuer's ides but on or confuses m even furr by writg novel - by beg ' pronnier de 1'exigence romnesque' (p. 260, my do h philosophicl menr philosophicl trete which might write emphs) - rr thn tryg service clerg some up h mbiguities. s7 Th le rgument surprgly remcent redgs Nietzsche by those who re embrrssed t h more 'poetic' excesses - those like Arthur Dn, who extrordry quite unshmed regrettg Nietzsche's 'piecemel elbortions', se lived beyond h own ill-conceived h Prefce 'tl Nietzsche s Philosopher conceptul 'JCorgenrbte' whg permsiveness' Nietzsche hd tht witness new dwn contemporry nlyticl philosophy ll its systemtic splendour - when, hd he known wht ws good for him, he might well hve signed up for some Pr. Dn's clsses. Dn reches h ptrong pek rgug: becuse we know good del more philosophy dy, I believe it exceedgly useful see h [Nietzsche's] nlyses terms logicl fetures which he ws unble mke explicit, but wrd which H lnguge would hve been less he ws unmtkbly gropg. colorful hd he known wht he ws tryg sy. 5 '3 The hricl importnce Dn 1 s book, estblh conclusively tht Nietzsche cn like Kufmnn's before it, ws must be treted 's philo-

23 -18sopher', lthough success both ir enterpres depended on severely feels tht Nietzsche cn movement, 60 wheres Andrew fds clerly Bowie s 'reclimed be In ptrongly) so well-dposed wrds him. ivity: From Knt Nietzsche, Bowie mkes oversttes h cse. 61 by begs He fr' reltion spirtion even Bowie n goes on red epigone Schellg, on s origl contribution tht he extreme' (p. 250f.), but by lter so be (however 'n erly Nietzsche, like Henry, he bdly Die Geburt der Trgddie, eclectic mlgm mny its philosophicl ncesrs' (p. Idelt Romntic philosophers'. 'contues dog 221) fds 'remrkbly bnl Schleiermcher reson h Aestics Subject dwellg (p. no g, rigour 223), deed 'twdry, compred with by nlytic but which he reds (with evident dtste) 62 ides we hve looked t so predecessor' especilly - trditions romntic At lest Dn wht re mny wys illumtg helpful prllels between Nietzsche, idelt itself. 'philosopher* term reductive domestiction he Nietzsche s merely n overrted Schopenhuer: spects Nietzsche's only Romnticm ir just unhelpfully re-problemtes questions which h predecessors hd lredy gone gret del furr wrds nswerg. e3 Where Heidegger reds Nietzsche s chllengg) thker metphysics, Bowie reds but lst (if heroic him even less generously s but lst (confused) thker idelt romntic estics. We must return Henry, for t recherche Xrcel Proust she prepred openg her long chpter on A l give Proust more credit thn we sw bove: Son coup de genie est d 1 voir reussi tirer une sitution romnesque coherente d'un systeme estique, d'en voir scrupuleusement metmorphose en structures sceniques chque rticle demonstrtif, crent une formule moderne ou l orie, dns son cs le criticme romntlque, constitue le sol de 1'imgire. 6

24 -19- Even here, though, it her more chritble Proust h origlity, tht she denyg position only t expense dopt cn Henry tht cler not by welter 'pperoles' imges him sittg h bed surrounded fresh exerce books which he ws writg A l recherche, but rr by n worked s if Boutroux Drlu, from philosophy clsses tkg blueprt, from university for tkg notes school t used those old ones which he hd Seilles, from which he ir ides 'scrupulously Proust's nrrr never ceses Yet metmorphosg' m h novel. 6*3 cretion it ides which come emphse tht process rttic suspect h tegrity here.'5'5 second - we hve no need deed for Nietzsche, '1'imgire 1 ' le sol de For Proust, s l orie', not or wy round. &7 The le rgument which I m oltg Henry's Mrcel Proust one which Tdi6 highlights s 'ClD se essentielle de cet ouvrge cpitl 1, essi philosophique, ucune synse ideo- which he counters with: 'ucun logique ne peuvent fire nitre un romn: ils le prlyserient plut6t'. se thn Henry's centrl clim hrdi que Proust orlclen. nunced more turn, though, Descombes mkes study: h In defensible terprettion 'le romn proustien est plus Pr 1& je veux dire: le romn est philosophique- ment plus hrdi, il v plus lo l tche que Proust ssigne u trvil dns de 1'ecriv (eclircir l vie, eclircir ce qui et6 vecu dns 1'obscurite et l confusion)'. es> Descombes 1 clim - itself n (unconscious?) elbortion on Genette's erlier ( Proust ce qu'on dit de much-quoted) que Courbet, orie' 70 - tkes gp between mere exposition or 'reproduction' observtion: s vion pourrit 'On est dire de plus moderne que s chievement Proust's novel philosophicl ides, which Henry lso

25 -20- excuse, turns greter dcerns but regrets seeks effectully positive benefit. 71 novel philosophicl sophtiction Where Jcques Bersni bemons 'volumes utiles 1 Proust criticm produced by fermement rppelee pr Georges Bl: d'or writers who hve ignored 'l regie dns lesquels il en termes des *L'experience d'un homme reste seprble rendu compte"', 72 th study I shll follow Descombes's le, rgug tht explicit philosophicl sttements conted novel itself goes beyond with it, though I philosophicl ides sme t lso movement th tht rgue shll time from received wy movement Nietzsche's direction. Henry herself, s we hve hd erlier nlysed s lter seen, surreptitiously fills wht she 'confusion 1 oreticl or pori Schopenhuer with Nietzschen concept 'eternl return' - quite rightly, s I where, 3, shll ttempt show Chpter 'difference repetition' Proustin vi Gilles Deleuze's emphs on 'essences', complicted temporlity voluntry memory return. 73 Not tht 'eternel reur' cse 'perspectivm1, o, does deed mp eternl 'nihilme' re only Nietzschen ttributes concepts which Henry nchronticlly I shll rgue tht Nietzsche, for 'confirms' Schopenhuerin subjective idelm. 7'* Henry, Schopenhuer merely - 'repets' or She concludes her portryl Schopenhuerin Zeitget lte neteenth-century Frnce by notg: L concurrence de Nietzsche prtir de 1890 ne nuit evidemment ps & l diffusion de ces idees [schopenhueriennesl destees supplnter celles qui pendnt tro siecles ont justifife nlyse trospective, clssifiction des pssions, lumiere terieure de l conscience, etc. S surenchere ne fit que les renforcer en rppelnt violemment quel gouffre sepre deux pensees dns le plus simple ronnement ou combien 1'extence est trgique."7 * For Henry, n, Nietzsche just ignores Nietzsche's entirely different Schopenhuer!n 'surenchere', she rdiclly novtive understg

26 -21life', ' trgic sense Selbstkritik' 1886 precely which Versuch eer himself from h own dtnce order out spells he erly Schopenhuerinm: 1st Pessimmus notwendlg ds Zeichen des Niedergngs, Verflls, des Mifirtenses, der ermudeten und geschwchten Instkte? - wie er es bei den Indern wr, wie er es, llem Ansche nch, bei uns, den Gibt es een Pessimmus der 'modernen' Menschen und Europern t? Strve? <GT, 'Versuch eer Selbstkritik', 1) mny The t times bject pessimm recherche nrrr A l pronouncements mde by Proust's undenible, Beckett, nor proundly Schopenhuerin reder Proust, mkes much m h study, but I shll red kd 'redemption 1 which nrrr chieves. Le Temps retrouve - slvtion s - self-reterprettion ffirmtive precely such peculirly Nietzschen 'pessimm strength', strength which nrrr, like Nietzsche, position. overcomg by derives Interestgly, th s cnnot rest, Just she note, 76 so upbet endg fl pges A l h more erlier, Schopenhuerin conclusion which Henry herself ultimtely rounds f Mrcel Proust on Nietzschen her Proust she dmits ssertiveness recherche chooses close on n explicitly Nietzschen prllel: Et 11 y quelque chose de nietzscheen dns ce defi que Jette u Temps, devnt ce spectcle cruel, un homme seul conscient dns cette foule d'etre juche comme les utres sur de tremblntes echsses, empilement des nnees - un homme qui voit le positif dns le negtif et ccepte courgeusement. 77 b) After Henry: Juli Krtev Juli Krtev most recent commentr compre Proust with Schopen- huer, chpter 'Proust philosophe 1 1'experience lltterlre. 7& her Le temps sensible: Proust et She (cknowledgedly) drws hevily on Henry (cf.

27 -22p. 309n, 1, pp ), lthough she lso herself from reductiveness Henry's follows Descombes dtncg pproch, seekg rescue celebrte specificity Proust's chievement: Des recherches concernnt l formtion philosophique de Proust revelent 1'importnce que le philosophe llem [Schopenhuer] eue pour le Jeune ecriv et pour le nrrteur d* A l recherche, sns pour utnt imposer l dox d'un 'systeme' Schopenhuer-Schellg dns lequel Proust se serit mire ute s vie. L specificity de I 1 experience proustienne s'eclire dvntge lorsqu'on tente de l dsocier du sol philosophique qui l nourrit m dont elle se sepre. (p. 317f.; cf. p. 329f.) At th pot, however, she immeditely d'un "systeme" Schopenhuer-Schellg' lignes mjeures de son mssive de Schopenhuer experience pr le connivence surprennte vec l 327). goes Henry, whom she still Seilles de Henry's nrrowg down 'resonnces' (p. 327) followg bry revelent de Iucidit6 Wht she gs by nuncg substitute for 'l dox similr [...] bi on Gbriel her d'une prt et, d'utre Trde 1 own: 'les l presence prt, une (p. 318; cf. p. methodology, she loses by ctully here Proust's work compron with despite seekg imply tht recognition fluence Trde on Proust her own ide. 79 Krtev's redg goes beyond Henry's tht she t lest plces her emphs on Proust's cretive response Schopenhuer, drws ttention wys which he develops both neo-plnt romntic estics terest h own purposes s novelt - specificlly, h nchorg idelt estics mteril chrctertion. Her redg prticulrly persusive terprettion se unsuccessful ttempt on Schopenhuerin systems. here, Proust's For contrsts s prt Henry, stctul for purpose Proustin nrrr's responses music pssges n mrkedly with Anne Henry's ultimtely synse Proust begs ( by necessrily) Schellgin openg h rr

28 -23- some embellhments h ddg time trnscribes, 130 whilst t sme own611 n effort from which he n fithfully Schopenhuer, we11-thumbed copy h trusty Schellg. e: Schopenhuer synse Except tht se 'vritions personnelles' turn out be glened from Pter; but even by 'tmlelnt 1'pport de Pter et de Schopenhuer' e Proust still meets with 'les evitbles heurts oriques'. &* stresses Krtev different kd 'dloyl 1 deprture from Schopenhuer: De mniere plus perfide, Proust melnge le scre musicl ux perversions erotiques. [...] L'hypostse romntique et idelte de l musique se trouve si rbsee, son bttue en breche. Du m me mouvement, le culte musicl s'enrce dns les drmes de 1'erotme et obtient une relite ute hume. [..,] Devint de 1*terprettion romntique, Proust se 1'pproprie et l sture pr 1'tensite ussi bien que 1'nite des drmes sexuels. es The move which Krtev be Proust perceives for bs for it entils rejection here tkes him fr estic model or blueprt, Schopenhuerin beyond simply tkerg with mkg tht estics Kntin 'dterestedness' estic contempltion. es Th move, 1 would rgue, one which Hietzsche mkes, s precely he rejects Kntin-Schopenhuerin roots h own erly work, especilly Die Geburt der Trgodle. 'Le deur', Philippe Lcoue-Lbr comes h In conclusion bout Die Geburt der Trgddle which surprgly similr Anne Henry's clim bout music on pssges Proust: 'M on peut considerer que L nlssnce de l trgedie n'est pres ut que le commentire mbigu de cette unique proposition 1 unmittelbres Abbild 1 Will], non plus vriment contestee'. 7 But riposte Lcoue-Lbr tht Die if we lso leve side de Schopenhuer Geburt music dme sns reserves m jm jm even [tht if we der leve side Pul De Mn's Trgodie no such thg, '3 Nietzsche's 'Versuch eer Selbstkritik', which he seeks retrospectively justify h 'stmmerg' first-born on number

29 -24by time Menschllches, Allzuxenschllches counts, es* it cler t lest tht Nietzsche hs reched very different nlys estic experience. He nnounces brek progrmmticlly openg section th ltter work, declrg superiority over previous metphysics (, implicitly, h conversion ) 'Cd]ie hrche Philosophie [..,], welche gr nicht mehr getrennt von der Nturwsenschft zu denken t 1, sce: nch ihrer Erklrung gibt es, streng geffit, weder e unegotches Heln, noch e vollig teresseloses Anschuen, es sd beides nur Sublimierungen, bei denen ds Grundelement fst verfliichtigt erschet und nur noch fur die feste Beobchtung sich ls vorhen erwet. (KA I, 1) Nietzsche stresses bs th new philosophy nturl sciences so s ensure tht h new conception previous (Kntin) estics metphor tken from chemtry (hence Begriffe und Empfdungen'). 'sublime 1 In subsequent but title scientific model ( enthusm dmpened s Nietzsche seeks 'sublimtion 1 not confused with elborte sted recogned s th section: 'Chemie der texts th overt enthusm for new convert) will be considerbly more 'frohliche Vsenschft', S1 but importnce which given here hricl ('genelogicl') method will rem plce, bove ll emphs here on drives ir sublimtions will become centrl Nietzsche's deconstruction subject, which I shll ddress detil entils complete rejection followg pssge Chpter 3. Tht Nietzsche's 'Trieblehre 1 Schopenhuerin Gotzen-Dmmerung, Schopenhuer's express enthusm for Pl estics pprent from where order he mchievously uses n precely use Pl (n unwonted lly!) 'refute 1 him: Schopenhuer spricht von der ScMnhelt mit eer schwermutigen Glut [...]. Insbesondere pret er sie ls Erlbser vom 'Brennpunkte des Villens', von der Geschlechtlichkeit - der Schonheit sieht er den Zeugetrieb vernelnt... Vunderlicher Heiliger! Irgend jem widerspricht dir, ich furchte, es t die Ntur. [...] - Glucklicher-

30 -25wee widerspricht ihm uch e Philosoph. Kee gergere Auritt ls die des gdttlichen Pl (- so nennt ihn Schopenhuer selbst) hlt een ern Stz ufrecht: db lle Schdnheit zur Zeugung reize - dfi dies gerde ds proprium ihrer Virkung sei, vom Snlichsten b huf s Getigste... (GD, IX, 22) For Proust, n, proundly 'terested' ctivity, but Krtev recogng Hietzschen tretg ITietzsche s merely conduit denies herself possibility for follows Henry she for th, prllel experience estic demonstrtes, Krtev s Schopenhuerin ides. 9St And wheres Henry fds need impute uncknowledgedly Nietzschen notions Proust's philosophicl menrs 'llegince' ir systems, for her one order expl Proust's dequtely order expl h contued prt Krtev, crucilly, mkes use divergence from m. Under gue usg Trde fset Proust's Schopenhuerinm, Krtev fds tht she cn only medite between two by resortg - 'l volont6 de pusnce': L*imgtion comme volont revelee, comme essence du monde, ssure l grvit6 de 1'experience cr elle ssouvit le desir de pouvoir. Si, pr mon imgire, je suls le e, pr-del^ le moi pensnt et vec l L volont6 de pusnce se rele dns l senstion Je est ut. et enthousme, douleur jubilire, demesure d'un pnme blspheme et gloire. Cependnt, u se d'un Btre si cpte, se deroule l udse en scene de I 1 Opion, c'est--dire de l societe qui Le lien, rellgere, n'est se desgrege dns une competition d'imges. Sur l scene socile, ute que cique, imittion, somnmbulms. volont6 de pusnce - psychologique, moureuse, clnique, politique Le lien socil est se trouble et se dperse comme un mirge. illusion; les croynces, des hypnoses restntes. (p. 327f.) If we beg nlyse slippges th pssge, we extrordry cn drted redg Schopenhuerin dcern (side from reference s subjective immeditely replced by 'volont6 de pusnce' becomes trnsformed Nietzsche. number In 'pnme 1 ), its convenient conceptul strtg pot wholly idelm, where 'volonte' - or words, Schopenhuer third sentence th pssge Krtev effect helpfully reterprets terms Nietzsche's lter philosophy Dionysin experience

31 -26- s portryed h Die Nietzsche fvour writg Trgodle, der Geburt s though she were dog second potted 'Versuch eer Selbstkritik 1 which retegrtes h erlier work even more effectively h corpus s whole. Krtev n move on Th Interprettion 'Schopenhuer' llows 'Trden' redefition 'un Etre si cpte' which - not surprgly, - bers more thn pssg terms will power o, given tht she terprets 'l scene socile 1, resemblnce Nietzsche's empiricl hypos. Now Nietzsche does not conceive will power s n 'Etre' - fct quite opposite, s n eternl, ( levg behd context uses here order pre open trnslted Nietzschen which, d'imges' position with her 'competition Krtev cknowledges th but - 'Verden' gonl society its 'Opion 1, which Krtev plurle unity Schopenhuer- in will) becomes conflict between perspectives which world s will power (s terprettion). unmskg 'le lien socil' The genelogicl s 'illusion', 'les croynces' s 'des hypnoses restntes 1, complements metphor 'me en th Nietzschen terprettion; even tricl scene' Nietzschen - section 78 Die frohllche Vsenschft, Nietzsche writes 'die Kunst, sich vor sich selber " Szene zu setzen"' s strtegy for denyg Gemeste'). 'foreground perspective 1 But Krtev not only drives ('ds Nchste und usg Nietzschen vocbulry without recogng tht she dog so; she lso uses it without recogng wht it mens, elides 'l volonte de pusnce' with 'le desir de pouvoir'. Hence volonte de pusnce [...] se trouble her clim: ' Sur l scene socile, ute et se dperse comme un mirge.' There not spce here nlyse ccount, ll modultions through mredg Nietzsche psses quick such detil rest Krtev's which her t once bnl gross succession s she mguidedly chrts

32 -27- As through modernity. soclle* pusnce de 'volonte qu 'l volonte de pusnce' 328) (p. monde' course 'l volonte du it form liented 'jousnce 1 : 'Qu'il soit mitre ou esclve, 1'homme socil retrecit son teriorite, se how ll 'les successeurs llems des clim: 'Pendnt que les progres techniques stressed Mrx's critique hve (JOB 230). In its 'td]en fl ghost 'Nietzsche's much delibertion devoted recent 'eco-friendly' will Mrxm my hve technologicl pproprition on which I shll exp zuriickubersetzen die Ntur' nmlich modultion, In fce her choice vocbulry here lientgly Menschen 329). fd Krtev perpetutg nture by bourgeo cpitl, but Nietzsche's tsk, Chpter 3, ws lso (p. tht surpre Heidegger my domtion sur les utres de surprg it, however much we my chritbly scribe question concerng technology, ll, though, Krtev's siecle' impr6gn6 us les tlitrmes de notre piece dvertence. mster/slve prvenient reler l volont6 soif l only 1'Opion', it pprently sur ster Most such terprettions it hrdly - here romntiques ont flechi l volonte de 1'Etre et pour 1'Etre' (ibid.). de pusnce hume sur l nture, (ibid.) model its specificlly French Mrxt pusnce As 'une volonte de Nzm 1 cnnot be lid - redg non-dilecticl Nietzsche's enjeu des forces un imges' des surenchere l dynmic reches sted for flections. devient et I 1 experience de ou productives, du cpitl Krtev ignores fere power Krtev's ccount becomes 'une volonte de pusnce dns l societe sur 1'Opion 1 (p. 329), (politicl, ideologicl, sociologicl, philosophicl) 'l recherche de jousnce' - which dog him grve justice myself), reltion our time ltter, for good mesure (unless I m Stephen Bnn terprets s French Freud ut court trnsltes s 'plesure prciple'.* 3

33 -28- Henry's Krtev's redgs, though extreme ir voidnce possible prllels with Nietzsche Proust, re neverless criticm generl, which hs constently possibility. (The m exception which so thoroughly steeped section, tht Deleuze choses here eir s obliterte Proust ignored or denied such Deleuze's Nietzsche, typicl we fct Proust shll et les slgnes, see next entirely - promptg Krtev furr, th time more comicl dply criticl myopi, when she repetedly dmses Deleuze's redg Nietzschen vocbulry not peculir eir. Vcent Descombes refers d'elstir' ** Nietzschen mes beyond those found which I hve lredy referred. Proust's 'renversement des deed h chpter on Proust's develops A covert use redgs Henry Krtev, repetedly vleurs' n extr-nietzschen context, nrrr 'Dns 1'telier plnlsnt. > s mny furr uncknowledgedly chpter 'L'Optique des esprits 1 'Proust concoit I 1 impressionnme comme un renversement des vleurs' 35' Descombes writes here, follows th with n nlys on ne peut plus nietzscheen: L peture impressionnte opere done bien un renversement de vleurs, qui comprend, comme 11 se doit, deux temps: le temps nihilte de 1'egltion de ute chose (11 n'y ps de choses plus ou ms precleuses) et le temps creteur de 1'imposition d'une nouvelle tble des vleurs (ut le prlx est dns les regrds du pelntre). [...] L lecon que Proust tire de l peture impressionnte est que le petre exerce une souverlnetg sur le vible. C'est lui qui ssigne les rngs, les plces, les dignites, en fonction d'un prcipe hierrchique qu'il stitue souverement. *& In next section I shll turn look t studies which compron between Proust Nietzsche hs been rr more overt.

34 Introduction II. Nietzsche Proust: Towrds Comprtive Study Although possibility Proust/Nietzsche connection hs generl met neverless re re mny spordic hts with silence from Proust critics, work critics with orwe its direction be found en pssnt very different gends. ger with few or which Nietzsche's reputtion hd become itself testifies rpidity with estblhed). Proust merits compre (which whom with 'grets' more thn cite Nietzsche no do it promote Proust's novel who order those erly critics fvourble re Firstly re reviewers A l erliest Thus Murice Rost, one recherche writg on Du cdte de chez Swnn 1913, lredy grntg Proust Goe, Pln Jmes Nietzsche. 2 Edmund George Dosyevsky, s Engl one recogne Proust, it seems me, powers h fluence, Meredith, Henry ( turn testifies psse lredy by 1931): 'we must gret mds imgtions own our our dy, bsolutely comprble Eliot, Cstle, flly, stresses Axel's Wilson's dtctly modern chrcter Proust's gretness perception Nietzsche Jloux Edmond rr different lt which compres follows suit 1923, though with morllstes, Stendhl, Constnt, Shkespere 1.' Doslewski Nietzsche, qui unit de Vci etrnge membership 'frternite scree': 'Frternite time, by reson both h Nietzsches, Tols, Wgners Ibsens previous genertion. ' '3 Secondly re somewht dubious which n pprently pposite Nietzschen generl compron mde, neir trdition mrshlled, or sweepg dictum cse Proust criticm very gret effect. Edith

35 -30- Whrn, for exmple, writes tht 'Nietzsche's gret syg, "Everythg worth while ccomplhed notwithstg" C trtzdeid, Proust. 14 F. Pierre meng chronology h well: 'As for tht effort my be well-meng, but seems be feelg not t ll tention Quesnoy's compron spontneity, wrds might serve s epitph tht quest for purity scerity, tht desire reve vlues prticulrly morl vlues tht origte thkg behd it ll.' s Nietzsche - ws Proust one rchitects Miln Hdus blunders wrds compron, though it turns out be hrdly worth h effort: Nietzsche remrks somewhere Zrthustr tht he should not be ble It would lso be hrd tke believe god who did not dnce. with utmost seriousness writer who did not condescend now Proust presents no difficulties upon n mke h reder lugh. th score. He wnts enrich, but lso entert. 6 Nietzsche Proust s neo-hegelins Richrd Mcksey hs construe both Kierkegrd or (not n tellectul) dilectics, grounded immedicy ecsttic immedicy. Proust develops ptic Nietzsche, order rgue: 'Like The Absolute moment: from perceptive conceived more s tensity ( sufferg or Joy) thn s tlity: more s immedicy thn s medition. 17 Flly th ctegory re Pierre Zim's terestg side: 'Comme chez Nietzsche, dont l pensee Joue un Musil et Hesse, 1'mbivlence se romnesque moderne'. 13 rle importnt substitue dns les romns de Proust, 1'mbigulte dns l litterture As I hve rgued elsewhere, * I thk Zim essentil- ly right here, lthough h ttribution n 'importnt role' Nietzsche's thkg Proust's novel mde quite unsubstntitedly, deed it begs question which th study seekg ddress.

36 -31Criticl Convergences If we turn now Nietzsche prospects for ( Nietzsche/Proust lthough mteril not by or fluence on Nietzsche-spired) criticm, we fd tht French be compron re much more promg, found studies Nietzsche's reception writers: Genevieve Binqu mkes no mention Proust her Nietzsche en Frnce; ' nor does Pierre Boudot h more recent Nietzsche et les ecrlvlue frncls , despite n openg chpter entitled 'Avnt 1930: Pnorm'. 11 Brodly spekg, re hs been criticm over lst thirty yers dnger which more immeditely post-wr sought deny. In wke dcernible movement with Nietzsche refuse Nietzsche with kd redgs hd (understbly enough) terprettions Nietzsche given by writers such s Bertrm Ludovici, Oehler, Bumler Rosenberg - or fter Wr, from quite deed necessry reputtion, different crry re-clim out ideologicl perspective, Lukcs - it ws some Nietzsche's merits, undertken: Germny by Thoms Mnn Schlecht), by Mrt Heidegger Coplesn F.A. Le; Americ by s we hve seen, (lter h urgent tsk on ws Nietzsche's vriously 'three Krls 1 (Jspers, Lowith Eugen Fk; Brit by Frederick Kufmnn bove ll, but lso by Dn, creer) Erich Heller; Frnce by Albert Cmus, Genevieve Binqu Jen Vhl. 12 Philosopher 1131 cme rr repir-work brupt 'Nietzsche: close, The Sry Humn though, with vrious 'New Nletzsches 1 which begn prolifertg 1960s, prticulrly Frnce subsequently United Sttes. In lst twenty yers th movement Proust criticm. For ll erlier hs been mtched by similr one efforts Murice Blnchot

37 -32Georges Btille, 14 erly 1970s Philippe Sollers Serge Doubrovsky cn still quite justifibly stte ir comprble progrmmes for redg Proust (projected ctul, respectively) terms provoctively forceful novtion: Lire Proust? Ce serit prtiquer desorm [my emphs] dns l Recherche des coupes, des tssements, des blncs, des chocs, des comptibilites: csser le projet d 1 ensemble, souligner les pots d 1 berrtion ml contrdles, degger une logique sous-jcente recouverte pr un vernsge de contuite. 1S Je cro qu'on trop este, septe Proust. J'imer lui rendre s chrge gressive, lui restituer s violence. 16 For Sollers A l recherche itself, for Doubrovsky received wdoms bout it, re just so mny 'conceptul idols' which, spek with Nietzsche, it hwoer' (cf. GD, 'Vorwort'). now necessry question 'with Mlcolm Bowie follows more Doubrovsky 1 s led 1978 with h revlution ' proundly three ner volumes A unsettlg view humn sexulity' enshred l recherche, 17> And most recently, critico-eptemic brek which Mrgret E. Gry seeks enct with her Postmodern Proust requires her repet Dou- brovsky's 'geste decent' s she chrts 'mredg Proust's udcity 1 through previous genertions Proust critics, stressg ir 'restnce drg Proust's text'. 113 It on th new 'udcious' Proust tht 'dngerous 1 Nietzsche fds its gretest purchse, notble exceptions Btille Pul birth se monsters hve been Btille's L'experlence poesie et Mrcel Proust' Volonte de chnce (1945) Interieure with lso with new even if till now, with de Mn, criticl movements givg lrgely out cludes its compron chpter peppered Nietzsche even mkes n ppernce phse. lengthy on with As erly s 1943, 'Digression sur l Nietzsche; Sur Nietzsche: references Proust, Proust section L lltterture et

38 -33- le jl (1957). But Btille's work, lly course th study, which I shll be returng periodic- hs unfortuntely found few resonnces lter Proust criticm (hence, for exmple, 1971),'* lthough French Nietzschens fter publiction 1970 Sellers' junction red it beltedly cknowledged its richness first Btille's Oeuvres volume completes, * ny Proustin context ws vribly lost. By contrst with vicsitudes Btille reception, de Mn's immenseallegories ly sophticted terprettions h one h 'llowg CProustin] on or demonstrtg text Redg- (1979), on deconstruct its own metphors 1, 21 reversibility rhericl structures Nietzsche's 'uber Vhrheit und Luge' essy, 22 hve blzed tril for le deconstructive Proust criticm which models for self-reflexivity - redg, plces emphs on rhericl terprettion culmtes Dvid R. Ellon's The Redg Proust. 23 reference he Nietzsche comes when cites Derrid, metphor - But Ellon's only 'L mythologie blnche', citg Nietzsche's ()fmous pssge on Heer von Metphern C... 1 ', * A which he nunces before pplyg it Proust by settg it gst Ricoeurin whole, Ellon's rgument here couched metphoricl bry 'bldness' been replced by Nietzsche only turn moment 'metphore vive'.* G terms 'sight 1, dimly truth s 'e bewegliches As ( lter) de Mn's yet de Mn's Nietzsche hs dcernible through n ccretion new meditions. Ellon's study begs, like Gry's trdition Proust criticm 'gst question wrds which I hve been fter it, gr', movg by potg new he poses version here, especilly my bove nlyses Henry Krtev: If, ccordg se recent criticl ssessments, Recherche

39 -34work whose ntiquted idelt conception does not do Justice its fr more 'modern 1 prx, curious reder might well wh know, Is re modern ory more dequte thn Proust's own, more comptible with triccies novel's rhericl dplcements?2^ But where Ellon question rhericl h frmes reconceptuled. be cn which Proust's '"modern" prx' rr tke study th or - specificlly Nietzschen - wys sme preme look t number rhericl The Redg Proust light dplcements, n goes on explore competg rhericl models, my im terms In second hlf Chpter 4 I shll unbrcket Gry's prticulr we entre guillenets recherche, l 'logic future perfect' A shll turn cll '"postmodern" 1 I term '"modern" 1 by developg wht Nietzsche, similrly pervsive temporl structure rgug tht it mps logic 'untimeli- ness', which I shll hve considered first hlf chpter. Deconstructg Derrld'e 'Proust 1 In wke de Mn, it Nietzsche/Proust lk by ors with Significtion,*' difference order mrk Derrid's use Proust here h lthough essy s whole structurlt methodology, comes h response 1963 essy 'Force et signifi openg from dtnce highly Proust t plced ction' which he strtegiclly hs not been mde mjor Sietzschen post-structurlts. Jcques Derrid's only rel enggement Jen Eousset's Forme et more tht surprg L'ecriture et l structurlt prdigm. problemtic, sy lest, for ttck on reductiveness Rousset's n cses prepred give Eousset's redgs good Proust del Cludel Derrid credit becuse he rgues

40 -35- tht y merely reforce metphysics ddressg: '1'estique proustienne ccordees en prondeur vec th clim turns out be celle bsed herent et de texts which he 1'estique Rousset.' 2e exclusively cludelienne sont On exmtion, however, on redg Rousset, sce Derrid gives no or evidence for 'Proust's metphysics' thn those pssges from Le Temps retrouv& which Rousset himself rgument escpble, its flw quotes. The circulrity prticulrly evident when Derrid climg write 'Proust lul-meme': Chez Proust lui-me'me - l demonstrtion qui nous en est donnee ne lserit ce su.jet ucun doute si 1'on en grdit encore 1'exigence structurle etit constnte et consciente, qui se mnifeste pr des merveilles de symetrie (ni vrie ni fusse), de recurrence, de circulrite, d'eclirement en reur, de superposition, sns deqution, du premier et du dernier, etc. L teleologie, ici, n'est ps projection du critique, m me de 1'uteur. (p. 38) Derrid quotes Rousset 1 s clim tht structure A l recherche s whole perfectly circulr, tht 'nrrr' 'hero' cocide t end book, which llows him proceed compron Proust's novel with orgnict 'preformme' Hegel's Phenomenology (p. 38f.). Yet 'teleology 1 A l recherche, I would suggest, bers greter resemblnce pth wrds 'becomg himself h previous works Ecce Homo, which Nietzsche for redg 1 teleology which imposed t climx Le it, Temps retrouve.^"3 pot - 'Asi ute m vie urit pu titre: Une voction' (TR, IV, 478) but plntes et dns lequel celui-ci second-order, 'second- only retrospectively by Proust's nrrr 'retrospective teleology' reflected not ripeng seed o, trces when he re-reds 'cet pue The oxymoronic chrcter nrrr's mbivlence t th et n'urit ps pu etre resumee sous ce lbumen s fct tht he compres h life qui est loge dns 1'ovule des nourriture gre 1 merely confirms pproprlteness pour se trnsformer en Derrid's voction

41 -36'logos spermtikos' <p. 39). 30 On th 'redg 1 'recurrence', 'circulr- ite' 'reur' Proust's novel, o, with corportg Derrid ought strictly tx Nietzsche, structurlt metphysics h doctre eternl return. In Chpter 4 I shll rgue (contr tht conclusion A l Rousset) recherche hges precely on non-cocidence (deed impossibility ir cocidence), but sufficient note tht, cse escpes prmeters kd significtion', he so keen duree et l force, comme for moment it Proust, Derrid unfortuntely never redg ttck. which, elsewhere 'Force et 'Cette estique qui neutrle l difference entre unome chez Proust et chez Cludel. 'nrrr' 'hero' le gl et le ch6ne, n'est ps Elle trduit une metphysique' (p. 40), Derrid contues, quotg Proust's nrrr's pronouncements on metphysics voluntry memory, but h mens tht he fils cknowledge Proust's own chievement s vri Proust' 'Proust uncriticl cceptnce Rousset's Proust ny dprity between such reflections novelt. romncier', Vhere Derrid Rousset's positive evlution former potentil ltter for Rousset himself opposes 'le content simply deride (p. 43), he leves unexplored subvertg net self-sufficiency Rousset's 'u1tr-structurlte' ccount. It Derrid's methodologicl slippge dcount Proust s 'metphysicl' writer preferred cnon (ironiclly, essy concludes note), so tht when he returns momentrily 1'ecriture 1 it order th essy which leds him bnh him from h own on stirrgly Nietzschen Proust 'Freud et l scene de contrst Proustin metphysics with rdicl novelty Freudin 'trce' its 'Nchtrglichkeit' : L m6tphore du chem frye, si frequente dns les descriptions de

42 -37- Freud, communique ujours vec le me du retrdement supplementl re et de l reconstitution du sens pres-coup, pres un chemement de tupe, pres le lbeur souterr d'une impression. Celle-ci Is6 une trce trvilleuse qui n 1 Jm ete perque, vecue dns son sens u present, c'est--dire en conscience. Le post-scriptum qui constitue le present psse comme tel ne se contente ps, comme 1'ont peut-etre pense Pln, Hegel et Proust, de le reveiller ou de le reveler dns s verite. II le produit. 31 oppose Freud Proust here, It extrordry tht Derrid should seek when h description 'le lbeur souterr d'une impression 1 - couched, let right cse Proust, t lest, Derrid In underme h own rgument by if for prefcg h lt with 'peut-etre', Proustin 'impression'. effect well with 'nchtrglich' 'Vorrede', 1) - ccords so M, <cf. 'mole' us note, terms Nietzsche's he hd been prepred tret Proust, o, with dulgence he grnts Freud over 'Nchtrglichkeit' - 'le me, formidble pour 1'hire de l metphysique, que Freud nous ppelle penser trvers une conceptulite egle l chose meme' 3:2 - he night hve found him rr more conducive thker. 33 In cse Derrid it prticulrly surprg tht he should not wnt ddress Proust, given one emphses h recent work, which h thkg on Donner le temps 1. L gift hs fusse tken explicit n monnle** devoted typiclly sprklg nlys one Budelire's Petlts poemes Derrid questions wht Budelire's nrrr cerveu, ujours occupe chercher midi turn wrds temporlity. en prose, 'L fusse monnie', might men by ' mon merble qurze heures' light 'l forme logique et chronologique de 1' Impossible simultneity de deux temps, de deux evenements sepres dns le temps et qui done ne peuvent etre donnes en meme temps'. 3'5 Understg ' 1'impossible time given nrrr course focus some most simultneity experience de deux temps', voluntry memory, crucil pssges Proust's novel, yet

43 -38mtter, Gide's Les fux- tht for (or, Proust Derrid mkes no mention monnyeurs), concentrtes sted on Budelire. contrst, I shll use temporlity Derriden dlfffrnce, 'don sns my Chpter 4, by Budelire, rgue tht such present 1 which emerges from h nlys In temporlity precely wht t stke Proust's 'problemtic present 1. Srh Kmn's references Proust re, like Derrid's, extremely rre, 36 from long footnote L'enfnce de 1'rt which she devotes glossg retrouve series pssges from Le Temps unlike considerble number or it cler tht she, like Derrid, writers who hve etre, plus que Freud, tributire de ne le "joue" plus. primires conscients ne doivent plus tervenir. However, th does turn from privilegg Proust's novel pssble verlte' Freudin Proust logique trditionnelle du signe. l plus, une trnscription volontire du psse prler d'oeuvre d'rt?' 2"3 between novelt: 'Proust semble chllengg Freud, 37- fds little tht reltionship explored fruitfully by wy compron with Freud, De Les processus Dns ce cs peut-on encore not prevent Serge Doubrovsky which he rgues demonstrtes ' 1' de- - structure redg ) Freud's occsionl clims tht neuros:3s< - over (Kmn's 'l "cretion rttique" evite l nevrose et sert de substitut une cure psychnlytique'. * The most overt moves wrds Nietzsche/Proust Nietzsche (-spired) criticm hve been mde Hietzschens. not by prllel with French but by Americn In 1985, Erich Heller dvnces clim: It chronologicl mhp tht Nietzsche could not know Proust. He who excitedly dcovered for himself Stendhl Dosevsky would hve deeply criticlly pprecited Proust's enchnted ll but monstrous ttempt recll wholeness life's experience: A l recherche du temps perdu."* 1 But it Alexer Nehms 1 s Nietzsche: Life s Literture, publhed hs undoubtedly been most fluentil sme yer s Heller's essy, which

44 -39- follows George D. volume second Pter, ffities possible lertg Nietzsche criticm with Proust. A* Nehms seml Proust h biogrphy, by tkg s epigrph for h book: 'Et je compr que us ces vie pssee 1 (TR, IV, 478). *3 mteriux de 1'oeuvre litterire, c'etit m notbly rgug when dcuss Proust severl contexts, on goes m body book he provides novel Proust's tht In best model for Nietzsche's idel self-cretion for eternl recurrence: The model for eternl recurrence [...] not be found Nietzsche's superficil reflections on rmodynmics but h deep immersion writg. In thkg h idel life on model sry, we would do well thk it specific terms supplied by Proust's Remembrnce Thgs Pst.** I shll ddress Chpter 3 importnt implictions here for Nietzsche's well s rguments Richrd Proust's estics self-cretion, s Rorty, who h Contgency, Irony, solidrity tkes up where Nehms leves f views culture'. AS both writers figures prdigmtic s tht note For moment let us number or Nietzsche commentrs who with our 'iront Nehms hs been followed by lso explore prllels with Proust th kd - Gry Shpiro, Aln Vhite, most recently, Genevieve Lloyd. 415 Explictg Deleuze's Prousts One thker rems be ddressed whose Deleuze, wy for th study, Gilles sophle 1962 ws whose followed 1964 by hs done most prepre work pioneerg Nietzsche et l philo first edition h eqully pioneerg Mrcel Proust et les slgnes ( lter editions simply Proust et les signes). In neir book does he implicit bridge between m which even h mention redgs or writer, yet construct hs mny wys

45 -40- Le monde sensible tht bove mentioned I served s my strtg pot. Juli Krtev gives wholly ccurte representtion Deleuze's Proust et les signes, it with n her mtke tht I shll conclude nlys th troducry overview previous criticm field. Potg out tht n Krtev proceeds impressions que 1'ecriv recherche 1, des "signes", c'est encore le tsge signes iltion que ces Proust met 1'ccent sur l demter- de lecture que Gilles Deleuze proposee uxquelles ils reelles personnes ux fligent 'L mgnifique follows: s Deleuze pprl "idees" et des des trvers 'u novel, Proust's renvoient, et le philosophe y voit l preuve d'un plnme proustien. 1 '*7' signes [...] privilegie le role des footnote she elbortes: 'Proust et les "signes" et des "idees" de Pln plus vremblblement 1' Idee devnt rppelle celle frn$. '* e de lquelle vi Vckelmnn, Alors que "seriel" de Proust. 1'rt dns In terpretes ses et Schopenhuer Teps retrouve Le s 1 cle Th lst sight, 'correction' Deleuze,, s one might suspect from my erlier nlys, erlier references Deleuze's borrowed directly from Henry. *9 redg Proust redg lter on, s she prepres n resserts 'Plnm' Deleuze's move her 'Schopenhuerin 1 /'Trden' reduit Pln comme le veulent critic who first coed model: 'Ps plus qu'elle ne se Curtius et Deleuze, 1'experience proustienne Ernst Robert Curtius ws Schopenhuer'. 151 term pprently progressive Nietzschenm Proust veers f course or ntgonm wrds it bundntly cler; so she contexts hve lredy mde her ne cocide vec l pensee de number Krtev's 'Proust's lthough th perspectivm', deed sold s short stright Plnic conclusion. h Xrcel To lk Deleuze with Curtius s Krtev does, though, precely ms specificity Deleuze's own more successfully Nietzschen negotition 'Proust's

46 -41Plnm'. Krtev's repeted references '"signes"' tht 'Proust philosophe' re evidence enough first section her m its gend fct n s de 1'Art' ttck on Deleuze, specificlly Deleuze's privilegg ' les signe signs A l over 'les signes sensibles 1 typologicl hierrchy.* 2 In recherche which he estblhes from openg chpter h study t et le wonde book which more thn ny or sce Jen-Pierre Richrd's Prous r sensible* seeks nchor experiences Proust's nrr sensible world, it Krtev strenuously repetedly tht surpre no ngs: verts Deleuze's hierrchy, s followg three prgrph openi de Proust ne cesse de ' dechiffrer', m son monde n 1 est ps fit s 'signes 1. En ut cs, ce ne sont ps des signes-mots ni des signe d' idees, encore ms des slgnifints ou des signifies. 1 m Contrirement ce qu'on pu croire, ce ne sont ps des 'signes des 'impressions' que Proust recherche et dechiffre. repliee de differences, l musique Univers de signes? Non. Plenitude est I 1 Btre. Elle est l nture. The lst pssge prticulrly structive excellent defition Hietzsche's world n tude repliee de differences' be 'Repliee 1 word which itself replete wy - neo-plnts' m, shll lredy borrowg -, s I 'mot Just it with Deleuzin resonnces, nor broque** tht Deleuze develops be tryg (unwittgly?) use here will power, but Krtev seems Deleuze rgue gst himself. here, for not only would 'pleni- for rgue prond' h Le pli: Leibniz et Je Proust et Jes slgnes he below, developg n importnt ' compliction'. se In fct Deleuze lly opposes, would hve no trouble holdg both positions Krtev mutu for tht 'univers de signes' 'plenitude repliee de differences', precely wht he does hold: revelee dns 1'oeuvre d 1 rt? 'Qu'est-ce C'est une qu'une essence, difference, telle qu'elle est l Difference ultime et

47 -42bsolue 1 (p. 53). The similrity between Deleuze's Krtev's (Deleuzin) responses ir respective questions here re glossg sme pssge, on nrrr's rection from L Pronnl re (P, III, 781) pssge herg differences n'extnt ps & l surfce Vteuil's de between ir responses, though, tht lredy goes beyond n hrdly surprg, sce both septet OLe l Terre [...] ). it monde des The difference Deleuze not Krtev who onlogg (Plnic, Schopenhuerin, Heideggerin, etc.) redg - he, it should be noted, cpitles 'Difference', not 'Etre'. Th itil chrctertion by Deleuze Proustin 'essences' but prelude h brethtkgly origl nlys m, for t th pot h study it now becomes cler signes de I 1 Art 1 only becuse ccess. tht h ccount itilly privileged 'les world 'essences' which y give Ve need follow Deleuze s he goes on mke number moves chrcterticlly quick succession, first beg question extent which 'Proust est leibnizien 1 Proustin mondology. <p. Deleuze 54), reds tkg th textes ou Proust cue Leibnizin premiere pproximtion de I 1 essence 1 for Proust, importnce 'les h trite from n pprent solution s but ' une sce he lso recognizes les essences comme des Idees plniciennes et leur confere une relit6 dependnte' (ibid.). though, Deleuze immeditely qulifies th terms 'expliction' 'impliction' better describe th subjcent order qui explique I 1 essence, c'est s'enroule dns le sujet' (p. plut6t 56). n explicitly cknowledged, he Plnm, (cf. The on 'Ce n'est ps le sujet qui s'implique, s'enveloppe, neo-plnm focuses enltg help 25, 109, 140f.) order essences: 1'essence plnic 'expression 1, 'l compliction, qui et ffirme 1'Un du multiple 1 (p. 58). pp. Here g, such vocbulry or dimension neo- enveloppe le multiple dns 1'Un

48 -43- slgnes, ' expression' concept Deleuze's redg Proust', S7r h 2'expression. 513 But decive move throughout Deleuze) Spozn speci- (for its implicit concept ' lthough ficity will only be fully developed redg Proust et les penetrtg h As Ronld Bogue pots out Spoz et le problems de lter nlys Proustin Deleuze's essences comes when he turn complictes neo-plnic/spozn notion elle-m me difference' (p. 62) modultes compliction - when 'I 1 essence est en seprbles et emerges, terprettion Nietzschen outle Deleuze's repetition, s Deleuze himself hs lredy sophic, re conjotly modes both th t It 63). <p. correltives' pusnces deux les sont repetition et : 'difference pot 1'essence, tht for difference Nietzsche et l philo rgued return will eternl de power: C'est pourquoi nous ne pouvons comprendre 1'eternel reur Iui-m6me que comme 1'expression d'un prcipe qui est l ron du divers et de s reproduction, de l difference et de s repetition. Un tel prcipe, Nietzsche le presente comme une des decouvertes les plus importntes de s philosophie. II lui donne un nom: volonte de pusnce. BS* It th sense, I tht rgue, would primcy hypostted (but ccount ijnjjiect) eo Proustin 'essences' Deleuze's - sense, deed, h Nietzschen 'essence' Nietzsche defition sens et l vleur de l chose; et l philosophie: '1'essence est seulement le en 1'essence est determee pr les forces volonte en ffite vec ces cn be best undersod It forces"51 ffite vec l chose et pr l th sense tht 'essence precedes extence' - just s Deleuze Nietzsche et l philosophie ddresses 'L'essence du trgique' (pp : voil 1'essence du trgique' (p. (pp ) - even if 'Srtren' possibility. 'L'ffirmtion 19)) S2: Nietzsche's before 'ubermensch' multiple ou plurlte, 'Le probleme de 1'extence' lso demonstrtes more

49 -44- In Difference repetition et develop lter will Deleuze itself, h thkg on wht re for him cresgly crucil ctegories, Pul Ftten, recent redg significntly entitled 'Anti-Plnm text th which kd wy demonstrtion Art 1,*3 gives n excellent project which Deleuze elbortes Difference et repetition, where he defes me', e* tkes its from cue precely 'renversement du pln- beg s tsk modern philosophy understg Nietzsche's n 'umgedrehter Plnmus 1 - n ' Udrehung' which both n version n overturng.'5'5 In Proust et les signes, Proustin essences becomes power s) Deleuze's subtlety here, Nietzschen full-blown sce for (will pprecite contestg h Quotg from Proust's importnt body. terprettion bsurdly pt: fils choses she site repetition semiotics Krtev though, Ag, terprettion. difference on emphs essy 'Contre 1'obscurite' (CSB ), she writes: L'ecriture devrit etre en quete d'une expression physique, vitle, rebelle l quietude des signes polices: 'le vigoureux et expressif lngge des desirs et des muscles, de l souffrnee, de l chir Des ccents romntiques pprsent ici, pourrsnte ou fleurie.' qui eloignent 1'ecriv de l semiologie, du plnme, et le rpprochent d'une 'philosophie 1 dynmique, stctive. 6*5 Th time Krtev t footnote, but if Krtev 1 s (t th we lest cknowledges recogne pot tht 'l semiologie, undeclred) still signes', it becomes cler tht, sted borrowg her shorth from Henry with [ le] plnme' for 'Proust et les recogng Nietzschen ccent Deleuze 1 s ccount, which fct surprgly fithful Proust's erly formultion, she wnts rgue tht Deleuze's mguided redg Proust spirits wy body puff neo-plnic smoke. Let us nlyse next, n, wht Deleuze ctully sys bout body Proust, pssge which comes t end h chpter on ' Le plurlme dns

50 -45le systeme des signes': II n'exte ps de choses ni d'esprits, 11 n'y que des corps: corps strux, corps vegetux... L biologie urit ron, si elle svit que les corps en eux-memes sont dej lngge. Les lgutes urient ron s'ils svient que le lngge est ujours celui des corps. Tout symptdme est une prole, m d'bord utes les proles sont des sympt6mes. 67 Th not yet 'Body semiotic redg Nietzsche new French redgs generl ( it pltnlsnt ll hllmrks Deleuze's berg semiotics - rr, Nietzschen one nor but Orgns', ee without Nietzsche which Deleuze's Nietzsche et l philosophic did so much spire): meme une pprition, m un signe, ni 1 tfn phenomene n'est ps une pprence L philosophie ute un symptdme qui trouve son sens dns une force ctuelle. entiere est une sympmlogie et une Such Deleuze's semeiologie. "SSP redg 'Le sens' Nietzsche, which h generltion on bs pssge Gotzen-Dmnerung', Ds morlche Urteil t sern nie wortlich zu nehmen: ls solches enthlt es immer nur Vidersn. Aber es bleibt ls Semlotlk unschtzbr: es fenbrt, fur den Vsenden wenigstens, die wertvollsten Relitten von Kulturen und Innerlichkeiten, die nicht genug vnibten, um sich selbst zu 'verstehn'. Morl t blob Zeichenrede, blob Symplogie: mn mub bereits wsen, vrum es sich helt, um von ihr Nutzen zu ziehn. (GD, VII, 1) Kmn follows Deleuze's led her Nietzsche l wetpbore, where she et complements Deleuze's emphs on th pssge by drwg ttention s well furr metphoricl chrctertion philosopher: occupy himself with entziffernde Hieroglyphenschrift 'Vorrede', 7). 70 decipherg der tsk 'die menschlichen genelogicl gnze lnge, schwer zu Horl-Vergngenheit 1 COM, When Deleuze writes h Proust et les signes, immeditely before pssge quoted bove: 'Nous ne sommes ps physiciens ni metphysiciens: nous devons etre egyplogues [...]. complique, ut est signe, sens, essence, Tout est implique, ut est Tout exte dns des zones obscures

51 -46- et des lngges Nietzsche's. que des terprettions'. 73 n'y il verite, l croire Nous il n'y que des signes. fits, phrse: 'Nous vons rt de croire ux vons rt de uncknowledged) Nietzsche pr- (if direct by cse immeditely preceded th figure itself ny ddresses The pssge which he Henry's 'mbeu egyptien', 72 but Anne 'egyplogue' not sense figure Proust's understg he secrets', 71 pour y dechiffrer des hieroglyphes cryptes, ou nous penetrons comme dns des 'demteriltion' Proust ( 'us ces Deleuze, I would rgue, reds nme Plnic metphysics, mteriux de 1'oeuvre litterire') not but rr nne Nietzschen will power - heritge which lso dplyed by most proment tes 1, Jen-Frnco Lyotrd, when L 1 esprit et le corps de 1'nome he 'L'energie est immterielle. writes: L'homme ne ps cette nlyse. n'echppent contu flux serit rien sns le our contemporry Nietzschen 'immteril- d'terctions qui 1'homme et les relie choses. ' ~* A So wht rems Deleuze's 'Plng' section 'L'imge de l pensee', Proust et les signes s section title whole Nietzsche pensee'), 7S Deleuze returns et ( concluded Pl, though or immeditely sense th, plnicien'. 76 n even for 'Aufhebung 1 cn Deleuze sted echoes similr which philosophic, l At end with which first edition Mrcel performed on Plnic i/ides men tht re Curtius's sense, redg Proust? imge 'Nouvelle de l he hs by now opertions be no 'reur Pltn 1 Pl. bldly Not tht one would resserts: 'Proust est Wht hppens next twold: firstly Deleuze produces, s if out ht... semiotic Pl\ ' Le signes' tro gres etudes des humour, specificlly Proust's Bnquet, (p. 'humour 123). juif le Phedre et le Phedon sont les Then, centre by stressg Proust's 1'ironie grecque' (p.

52 ), '77 he pres Proust Pl lst one prt time rech gr Nietzschen climx: ITous vons vu comment cette difference vec le plnme en entrlnit beucoup d'utres. II n'y ps de Logos, 12 n'y que des hieroglyphes. Penser, c'est done terpreter, c'est done trduire. Les essences sont l fo l chose trduire et l trduction m6me, le signe et le sens. Elles s'enroulent dns le signe pour nous frcer penser, elles se deroulent dns le sens pour etre necessirement pensees. Prut le hieroglyphe, dont le double symbole est le hsrd de l rencontre et l necessity de l pensee: 'fortuit et evitble', (p. 124) The only element th provided yet shll elborte Chpter 3, I which on Nietzschen prllel lst, not hve I which for picture comprg Nietzsche's confltion chnce necessity 'self-stylg 1 response 'ubermensch' eternl return ('mor jfti 1 ) with Proust's voluntry re tht occurrences forgg chnce memories 'les nneux necessires d'un beu style'. The fte Jtrcel Proust et les slgnes (1964) itself n terestg one, for second edition, Proust et les slgnes (1970), erlier essy shorter piece on 'Presence et fonction g section entitled 'Antilogos 1, term) by long new fourth edition (1976) by force 'supplemented' (with ll Derriden de l folie: L'rignee'. 7Q Mrgret Gry hs perceptively noted: Proust et les signes, through successive revions dditions, text [...]; Proustin postmodern presents n cresgly quitive, desirg Blldungsrojnn hero 1964 edition hs, by 1976, become n bsent postmodern chrcter, himself bfflg bffled effect text's ' ntilogos'. 7'3 While greeg with her verdict rgue tht she underplys emphse contrst, for fr removed from on origlity 1976 edition, I would neverless 1964 edition order Bildungsrojsn presented first edition Wilhelm Melster. superieurs" ne lui pprennent rien: meme When Deleuze Bergotte ou writes: 'les "homes Elstir ne peuvent lui

53 -48- communiquer ucune qui verity pprentsge ' Blldungsroxn' he hs md personnel', eo it would seem me tht son fire de eviterit lui Also sprcb Zrthustr (cf. 2, IV, 'Vom hdheren Menschen') - which ends, let us not forget, under sign 'Ds Zeichen 1 (Z, IV). If ny more pro were needed Deleuze's terprettion Proust tht not Plnic one, n very title h new 1970 section, 'Antilogos ou Here he tkes up remrk l mche litterire', certly provides it. ei n'y ps de Logos, 11 n'y que mde t end previous edition (' II des hieroglyphes* ) develops Proust's opposition Plnm n even more overtly Nietzschen mnner: 'Prut Proust oppose le monde des signes et des sympmes u monde des ttributs, le monde du pthos u monde du Logos'. e2 Th opposition, s Deleuze formultes it, crucil Nietzsche's concep- 2; AC 43), but will power pthos, o, which Deleuze recognes s quotes Nietzsche's note: '"L volont6 when Nietzsche et l philosopbie he de pusnce n'est ps un etre dtnce' (cf. JGB 257; GM, I, 'pthos tion not only wht he clls devenir, un ni 'Antilogos 1, n, Deleuze's terprettions follows overlp, here g he similr one which I outled vit un plnme de Proust' tervient', e<* which g leds on inm (p. 133), repre compron with Spoz (p. 135f.) In Proust Nietzsche contue 'Nous vons vu pourtnt qu'il y by 'H une difference evidente followed considertion Proust's Leibniz- Pl semiotic un ptios trjecry from Pl Nietzsche bove: c'est (p. 135), more explicit ttention n 'compliction 1 (p. 141), ledg prphrse nor key Nietzschen notion, tht (will power s) 'un pur terpreter' (p. 155). es The tenor 'Antilogos', prts Deleuze's book, for though, h deed trjecry different from erlier now psses beyond Nietzsche -

54 -49through Freud (pp. 170f., 192) become cresgly importnt Kfk him, ee The successive stges (Mrcel) Proust (pp ), writer who will up... Deleuze Guttri. et les slgnes, I would rgue, ber trces Deleuze 1 s own philosophicl genelogy, it 'Antilogos 1 tht dtctively 'Deleuzoguttrin 1 ( term Bogue's) elements beg emerge - especilly ir thkg on Deleuze 1 s subtitle developed h edition (1975) seprte chpter 92), where Proust's 'stnts litterire' (p. 184). nlys style, section privilegies' Nietzschen - deed nti-nietzschen 1'homme, il est ujours de lter 'Presence et section - 1'essence fonction de 'folie* 'rignee' - which erlier pots deprture - quite crried Cjm folie: might by (pp d'une mche (chpter) devoted n here terms '1'effet (non-style)'t l signlled 'Les tro mches' become terprettion s on (wht becme third entitled) Although fl Deleuze 1 s 'mchic', le out non- style n'est de p. 200f.), Q7 just s 1'Arignee' he develops both both hve given him Nietzschen different context. ee In th lst essy pthos/logos bry reppers - 'Chrlus, mltre du logos' (p. 208) opposed 'pthos' h dcourse (p. 209) - but nrrr-spider now 'un enorme Corps sns orgnes' (218), by 'mdness' Deleuze now mens h Guttri's own specific 'l rticultion conscience moderne de 1'nti- logos' (p. 158), '1'univers schizolde' (p. 210). e9 Unfortuntely it not.just Krtev who hs mrepresented Deleuze's Proust et les signes, for lthough re hs been generl greement tht it one most importnt neverless number mselves from it. works or Proust Proust criticm hve ppered,* critics hve been quick dtnce In 1971 both Jcques Bersni Jen-Yves Tdie publh- ed collections excerpts from previous criticm, ttemptg give n

55 -50overview hry Proust reception reproduce sections from 1964 Bersni describes first edition edition signes', 93 but he less convced plus dcutble 1.*+ s dopts Deleuze's chrctertion A mrk h centenry, both Mrcel "'cpitlsime"',*2 l by he himself recherche s n 'pprentsge des 'Antilogos', which he fds 'beucoup Tdi6 g cknowledges Proust meilleurs ouvrges sur Proust 1, but Proust et les slgnes.^^ evidently et les slgnes s ' un des unsure s quite wht mke it: son uteur reussit ce ur de force de prltre tenir sur A l recherche du temps perdu un dcours qui n'vit Jm et6 tenu: il fudr rechercher si cette nouveute est due des decouvertes dns 1'oeuvre, ou l projection sur celle-ci d'une philosophic qui n'est ps l sienne, si Deleuze devoile Proust, ou si ce dernier vient occuper, corme un voygeur, un comprtiment de l pensee deleuzienne. S(S Tdi6 recognes nti-plnm Deleuze's Proust (p. 182), lso nticiptes Krtev by mkg prllel h own between Deleuze's redg Merleu-Ponty (p. 182f.), 96 but he "leibnizien"' (p. 181) s chrctertic ssessment both more ptrongly, 'semiologie de Proust' (p. 183) neverless by Deleuze's implyg merely reflects podicticlly, with remrk: 'Ce que le 'un Proust ccount, ends h tht, oltes fter ll, Deleuze's criticl fd, more philosophe peut decouvrir dns l Recherche, c'est, en defitive, vicire ou limite, 1'imge de l pensee' (p. 183). *7 Tdie repres h commentry section h Proust, where he still 1983 for 'Biln critique' referrg ' Proust et les slgnes (1964, 1970) I9e seems unwre exped 1976 edition. Vhere Proust criticm hs generl et les slgnes n reversed. embrrssment, with found Deleuze Tdie 1 s doubt, formulted 1971, s 'vient occuper, comme un voygeur, un lter editions Proust criticm sitution wher end Proust comprtiment de l pensee deleuzienne'

56 -51- question which left unresolved, Proust - only possible Deleuzin project 1968, when s wke he he omits pssge from h 1983 begn emergence dtctively spekg 'dvntge [...] pour son compte',** focus Deleuze criticm, understbly enough, hs been on Difference et repetition, Logique du sens Bounds's recent Deleuze deder conts only fonction de l folie: 1'Arignee' Proust, lunched' Anglo-Americn Proust et 2es recent signes t s spte Deleuze's work on publictions on Deleuze none Even dpprovl Deleuze's lter mteril excellent terprettion which relegted moment first yet Konld s he ors ddresses h Bogue quotes Bersni's seems wnt dtnce himself scholrs', 102 before bsed on proceedg give n first edition lone, development 'Deleuze before Guttri'. Colobt lso bses h ccount review ) ( trnsltion ) 'Presence et world, from such ssessments by 'Proust So Constnt V. representtive ll. 101 beyond. Proust edition: 103 like et Bogue, Andre les signes on (Robert Muzi's Colombt notes some Nietzschen co-ordtes Deleuze's study, especilly Uietzschen sense which Deleuze sts on novel, 104 but he himself sts it Deleuze's redg lone primcy on Proust's Proust's (neo-)plnm - for Colombt, which Bogue, Colombt reds Proust et les terprettion effects its 'renversement'. 1os Like signes s stgg-post develop- ment Deleuze's thought - s itself 'urne vers le futur et les progres de 1'pprentsge' 10>s - except tht, unlike Bogue Michel Hrdt, he does not see Deleuze s followg n 'Apprenticeship strong emphs on contuities red Deleuze on Proustin time Deleuze's conjunction Philosophy', it h work 107" which llows him not with h ccount eternl return Nietzsche et l philosophies^** but with Le bergsonne. ' *

57 -52Conclusion: Sne Methodologicl Prciples The study which follows, n, n ttempt build on kd prllels between Nietzsche ors. Even though Btille by tenttively implicitly - spect ech more or less Deleuze, de Mn, Nehms my exposition Nietzsche precedes Proust, mdful ll Kufmnn's cvets bout hve ttempted give not just redg 'Nietzsche X 1 studies I Proust's novel light perspectiv terprettion, will - gret (lte-)ltietzschen mes - estblhed been hve which Proust - power, eternl return, 'ubermensch' but lso redg Nietzsche which ttends emently Proustin problemtics voluted temporlity voluntry memory, experience trnscendence ('moments bien- heureux 1 ) sttus 'essences'. In Proust's cse I hve used exmples from correspondence, notebooks novel. recherche itself, deed I hve l hve essentilly limited myself A concentrted on experiences where pproprite, lthough I writgs or (publhed unpublhed) self-nlyses Proust's nrrr with In Nietzsche's cse, lthough I fully ccept Bernd Mgnus's pot tht NchlB should be treted with gret cution, 110 I freely cknowledge hvg drwn on unpublhed notes th throughout study, especilly when seekg trce chronologicl development Nietzsche's ides, sce criticl edition provided by Colli Montri hs t lst llowed th kd opertion be ttempted (even bn on usg ny Nietzsche if Colli himself rr bsurdly plces quottions service one's own exegeses). 1 n 1 As hs lredy been dicted, re for 'positivtic 1 th compron no fluence study. Wht scope two writers explored

58 -53surprg mount Proust ctully wrote bout Chpter 1, where I consider Nietzsche, A l recherche elsewhere, focus on me friend- for h most extended enggement with ship, which Proust's chosen terr philosopher. context h first I In Chpter 2 exme Nietzsche's perspectivm reformultion perstent Pilte's question 'Wht truth? 1, before gog on del with centrl sue 'Proust's perspec- just estic contempltion which for both, tivm1, rgug tht it not ly 'terested' s we sw first prt th Introduction, pround Chpter 3 tkes some more, centrl ctivity, but lso cognition itself. self n mes: n elbortion on Nietzsche's deconstruction self-frgmenttion nlys some Proust's descriptions h nrrr's on sttus led vi considertion 'Proust's idelm 1 dcussi nts Dionysin body for both, especilly 'mysticl' mome h both ttempt ecstsy voluntry memory, wy whic self-cretion. In resolve question self through n estics brek open pprently hermetic circulr- my fl chpter I n seek ities Precher Noosed (' circulus necessires d'un beu style' <TR, IV, temporl structure two writers' vitiosus deus' (JGB 56)/'les nneux 468)) by stressg symmetries 'logics future perfect'.

59 Chpter 1. Proust's lietzsche 'I ws struck fd mny more trces Nietzsche Proust thn ssumed'. (de Mn, p. 103n. 1) exmg 'Proust's Nietzsche' with A l be In th chpter I shll mly recherche itself, imge which Proust h function with it, mde represent. he ttitudes ides Nietzsche novel gives Before turng A l recherche, though, I shll briefly consider Nietzsche's erly French Nietzschen which erly reception Frnce, milieu Proust moved, n writgs period writgs s well s Nietzsche Proust's correspondence. h Frnce which resulted rpid trnsltion t some, h works dsemtion Germn ws not good terest Nietzsche explosion n ws neteenth century re Proust's but lst decde origl, enough for him red Nietzsche figures h erlier publhed novel, up ledg which wys French mjority lest, h m ides with Prin tellectul circles. Th success ws one which Nietzsche never knew durg h philosophiclly ctive lifetime, for itilly h work ny or lnguge, cse g writer who, s we culture generl. hve very ws slow be trnslted French th ws prticulrly dtress- seen, such sre by French writers set The first French trnsltion work Nietzsche's be produced ws version Schopenhuer ls Erzieher 1875 (cf. KGB 11/5, 39f.) by Mrie Bumgrtner-Kochl (mor Bsel, hrin Adolf Nietzsche's Chemnitz publher Meysenbug, no publher ws Bumgrtner), Schmeitzner, found for it one Nietzsche's students despite but (cf. KSA h efforts friend Mlwid von 15, 61). Undeterred,

60 -55Bumgrtner went on Richrd trnslte lthough g no Prin publher ws greed publh it, it ppered reception correspondg impct its beg publhed Germny, though - Genevieve Binqu reports tht its redership mount ws terest Richrd Bumgrtner 1 s followed by long hitus ws 1876, erly Nietzsche's evident The book were severely limited by reders mteriled. Byreutb first h texts French, deed first trnsltion ny lnguge. rome 1 - no significnt In found, th time Schmeitzner himself delight (cf. KGB I1/5, 218) - s Vgner rem restricted Suse Nietzsche mong French Vguer Byreuth ws n only work Nietzsche's pper French trnsltion until end h tellectul creer Nietzsche's cresgly desperte ttempts rrnge French trnsltions for h works durg yer short term, before h brekdown my hve proved fruitless questionnire on Frnco-Germn culturl reltions publhed by Xercure de Frnce 1895 Nietzsche mentioned only four times, but n equivlent questionnire twenty-three. 2 Lettre 1902 number hs lept up Nietzsche ws by now ' ir', s Andre Gide writes Angele dted 10 December precede chez nous 1'pprition de son 1898: oeuvre'.* '!'fluence de Nietzsche Yet t sme time trns- ltions were pperg by th stge, one prcipl resons for re Nietzsche's reputtion ws series rticles trnsltions produced by Henri Albert for Xercure de Frnce. * h series 1893, second French hd ppered yer text before. Nietzsche's Sce ws bove ll s Wgnerin postte who But even before he begn be trnslted Nietzsche's reputtion Pr went md ( two were lked), it hrdly surprg tht second work Nietzsche's be publhed French should hve been Der Fll Wgner, 13 It lso pproprite sce it

61 -56- tlie text which Nietzsche himself ws he repetedly emphses it keenest see trnslted French, correspondence s beg text he believes will best ppel French redership. 6 lietzsche - Hlgvy, Dreyfus, Gregh - Proust The trnslrs Le Cs Wgner were Dreyfus Dniel Hlevy, wht especilly terestg bout se two context present study Proust's from h schooldys. tht y were both very close friends 1892 lso yer, for exmple, which Proust, Dreyfus Hlevy, ger with Gregh, Lou de l Slle, journl Le Bnquet. Jcques Lookg bck Murice Pujo, dns for I 1 Art from l fut un utre poete et morlte 'A Fly)"' founded yer h Souvenirs sur ception Journl ws ter1'ntipode lncit mystique llem, Horce Bnquet its Vie, romntme: son gr homme etit le number or friends (Fern Nietzsche: et Bizet t Krcel Proust, Dreyfus notes tht ested proselytg young Prin Vgnerins Robert u l Revue blnche, de Qurtier Novl. Lt un neo- Au Bnquet, le notre Frederic Nietzsche'. 8 The second sue ws prticulrly noteworthy th respect, s Dreyfus reclls: le n 2 du Bnquet 'fit senstion' grce un rticle titule Frederic Nietzsche, qui projetit les premieres lueurs qu'on it recues en Frnce sur le philosophe-poete dont 1'origlity prut ussit si forte et si emouvnte: cet rticle, dd l collbortion de Dniel Hlevy et Fern Gregh, etit suivi de frgments de Nietzsche, trdults pr les deux m. 5' Th sue cme out April 1892 'Etudes' by Proust <CSB ; JS 38, Le Bnquet, Dreyfus, Hlevy lso conted 39, 40, 41-43). Gregh contued review four In subsequent numbers bet drum for

62 -57- Hietzsche with series rticles reviews, while t sme time Proust report on well s short sry prlementire de l rue conference 'L proceedgs s reviews, contued publh furr ' tudes' Serpente Bnquet ors contributed mid-1892 Pr'. 11 efforts writers Le 'The scene: Prin hve n impct on even before Albert's work begn out, As Chrpher E. Forth hs poted noticeble Nietzsche vogue Wher or not Proust tended it be cse, n, h 'debuts Bnquet When Le Journl time. Proust Moreover, before. 12 erly 1893, Proust, Dreyfus folded Revue blnche, ech contue publhg Hlevy ll moved over L similr ve fte foremost Nietzschen litterires' were closely bound up with lso contributed or journls newsppers which crried pieces on Nietzsche over sme period (L Revue bebdondlre, Le Figro especilly Jfercure de Frnce), while Hlevy prticulr contributed Nietzsche on pieces newsppers which Proust red or contributed or journls (L Revue de Pr, L 1 Opion, Journl des Debts).^ Proust's friendship with Hlevy ( ) dtes bck ir schooldys ger t Lycee Condorcet, Ttlheir friendship ws not without its schoolboys y seem hve hd moments 1888 (CMP, I, 121f.). ie Their tension; fct even s fct begs with love-letter school philosophy lesson (pce Henry!) first literry collbortions dte from yer before, on mgze Lundl, which Revue de secoude, bortive Lurent Lesge writes, ir differences', 1A ir correspondence, publhed fter Lesge's study ws written, which Proust wrote Hlevy durg s lthough, Revue ws followed quick succession by verte 868f.), even fter co-foundg Le Bnquet Revue llls (cf. CSB y contued for while with

63 -58- de l Slle begn n rote) 1891, culmted h fter mnner L Hlevy hd dcovered Nietzsche (Horgen- l.'* series publiction ger novel eplry Croix de Berny by Gutier et 1893, Proust, Hlevy, Gregh summer furr collbortive projects: 1909 Ocber L philosopher ( first French), de Vie trnsltions Nietzsche h biogrphy rticles Frederic Nietzsche, copy which he sent Proust. 17 Nietzsche thus figured very lrgely tellectul concerns Proust's circle friends, deed h friends were mong prime movers estblhg Nietzsche's reputtion Frnce, even if, s we shll see next section, h enggement with Nietzsche h own writgs t th stge strictly limited. Proust on lietzsche Before A l recherche Proust first mentions Nietzsche obituries he wrote for Rusk two erly 1900, publhed shortly fter ltter 1 s deth on 20 Jnury. refers cses it Nietzsche's mdness tht Proust In ne neverless respectful, John Rusk' (CSB ), he writes sense loss felt on Europen openg, but both cses h prgrph conscience1" ges ruskiens en Frnce' (CSB ) voir, dit-on, souffert comme d'une Nietzsche est fou, leur crriere; 1'Europe perd 1'un pres Tolsi et Ibsen semblent u terme de mdness positive qulity, rticle Nietzsche's mdness with n evident scle: 'Rusk est mort. 1'utre ses grs "directeurs de In both (CSB 439). Then 'Peler- he goes furr turns Nietzsche's 'wdom': 'Rusk est mort pres mldie mentle; cr c'est une crcter- mrk

64 -59- Tolsi qui n'est que dire ps ne (pour d'auguste Comte Nietzsche, et plus ou mos fous, ete us out "sges" ses tique de notre temps, que sgulier) & Rusk' (CSB 443). le Proust respectfully, regretfully comprg show These first two mentions Nietzsche h cherhed Rusk, rngg him longside some or tht Proust should yokg h nme tht mke choose ken, y re lso significnt By sme contemporry Europen 'grets'. writer cse h growg generl recognition whose presumbly on bs It Frnce he thus implicitly cknowledgg. for Rusk 1 s importnce by se mentions tht Bernrd de Fllo writes 'JTietzsche, que Proust dmir Jd, u temps des Pllslrs et des Jours'. 1 * In letter 15 Jnury 1904 Hietzsche's mdness which ttrcts Proust's Mme de Noilles it still comment, ne th more forml, t once (understbly) time both more fltterg scribg 'superhumn 1 chievement Nietzsche ( usg such Nietzschen word do so), more btic h descripsemble tion Nietzsche's fte: 'M vriment 11 que us ceux qui ont ete le crime de Promee ou de Nbuchodonosor, doivent fir pr mnger de 1'herbe comme Niestche trop surhums, qui ont comm 39n. 7). (Proust's mspellg him - sme fte beflls Nietzsche's chmpions Frnce (or ir typesetters) found mselves orthogrphiclly chllenged by uthor one first French here not unusul for for exmple, Jen Snteull20 - 'Shopenhuer', deed even Nietzsche's erly nme [sic]' (CMP, IV, 38; cf. h nme. Teodor de Vyzew, rticles on Nietzsche ( which Dreyfus Hl6vy's 'Frederic Nietzsche 1 ws lrgely response), writes 'l philo- sophie de Hietsche', 21 Dreyfus Hlevy's trnsltion Der Fll Wgner lso ppered s 'Frederic Nietsche, "Le Cs Vgner"'. ) 222 In nor letter 1904, th time Robert de Montesquiou (CMP, VI,

65 -60Ecce HOJDO where 'Nietche' ppres 353), Proust refers pssge contemporry French literry-psychologicl scene lire [...] dns Nietche qu'un siecle qui m que je n'ose citer) est le plus Kolb notes, pssge from Ecce (EH, II, 3): 'nous pouvons produit (quelques ecrivs de nos gr de us les siecles'. 2* As Philip Homo quoted by Henri Lichtenberger, uthor first French criticl study on Nietzsche's philosophy, 2* h rticle 'L Frnce et 1'Allemgne jugees pr Nietzsche', publhed L Revue de Pr 1900, 2S which where Proust ws not publhed Germn 1908, until ltion did not n follow till must hve red it, sce Ecce Homo while Henri Albert's French trns- yer lter. 26 Quotg Nietzsche t second h like th, s we shll see, Proust's strd strtegy. Undoubtedly most trigug reference Nietzsche Proust's correspondence comes April 1909, when he midst work on h series pstiches on 'Affire Lemoe'. Here, perhps surprgly, he promes Robert Dreyfus (privte) Nietzsche pstiche: 'entendu pour Nietzsche [sic!], qu j' iri mieux, n pour i recent rticle by Dreyfus bout sstnt seul' Le Prin (CMP, IX, 75). Figro, Proust respondg which he tells n necdote bookseller who hd witnessed Lemoe's rrest, who himself hd been unble help n quitive reporter, nswerg him simply with: 'K. Lemoe, qui est-ce?' fenne, notre confrere lui dem s'il ne lit Jm les journux et re<;ut cet veu nonchlnt 'Non! Je ne l que des livres...' De fit, 1'enfnt tenit un volume de Nietzsche, qui semblit lui suffire et lui plire. [...] A l serie de Pstiches qu'il si heureusement entrepre, M. Mrcel Proust ne jodr-t-il ps bient6t quelques 'phormes' pretendus de Frederic Nietzsche? Souhins-le, pour notre plir, et pour 1'edifiction du trnquille petit surhorme qui trville chez M. Puz, librire. 27 Unfortuntely Nietzsche pstiche seems never one cn only speculte might hve on wht it hve mteriled, e so been like, on Proust's

66 -61resons for not writg it despite h ltter re esier reconstruct, expressed tention dog so. one need non-ppernce piece, for by summer not The red o much 1909 Proust ws ny cse rpidly gog f ide pstiches wrote Dreyfus July: 'tterde pour les pstiches!' (CMP, One cn IX, 135). mterile, for lthough re hve mes over yers, produced number prodies been regret its filure humorous tretments Nietzschen 'ubermensch' only vogue 1890s prticulr response, 2 piece by such consummte pstlcheur s Proust cn only be sorely msed. Aprt from explicitly referrg Nietzsche, droppg occsionl Nietzschen term bove pssge beg cse pot. g context Rusk, from h More explicit nor exmple, side Crlyle, who sw it s here little contg nous soucier d'illeurs de donner ct ces qu'ils grdent dns le livre qui les while Nietzsche's formultion s 'humn, ll o beswed on work by Emerson 'ute l nture' (CSB 480): '"Hum, de redire right note here tht he usg illustrtion th lst dms!vely pre trop hum", serions-nous tent6 ppositeness. former rgug tht prg Goe's work, which fter ll hs humn', s corrective lvh Nietzsche, but Here he dcusses dgree- Proust cites Wllbeli Jfelster pot, chrcteres it not verse review monogrph on critic, ment Rusk 1 s with Goe, tkg its limittions. h writgs, o - 'surhum' first publhed on 2 Jnury 1904 (CSB ). one should not go over p Proust devnt mots ce livre dmirble, sns solents et sublimes le sens rendus fmeux' (CSB 480). Proust phrse rr different sense thus cert he lso extent prepred dtncg recogne himself its from power

67 -62Proust, lietzsche, Vguer Proust's references Nietzsche h writgs outside A l recherche re certly reltively sprse, it would be hrd deny tht those through h conception philosopher Nietzsche ws no more thn pssg, friends ir work he hd Still, Proust's fmilirity with ides. 31 degree contct with Nietzschen derived lmost exclusively t second h - which l recherche itself, we fd wht might presenttion' Nietzsche, vergg JTietzsche ws enthusm h friends, lthough undoubtedly muted compron with recognition h n, 30 chritbly clled 'cretive mrewilful on why, if we turn now A cricture. For resons which I shll now seek nlyse, Proust here dopts somewht unusul ngle on Nietzsche - he mentioned most ten connection with me friendship, for he fvourite redg-mtter nrrr's one true sets up whole constelltion Indeed Proust friend, Robert de St-Loup. which cludes friendship, situted mes with which Nietzsche chrctertion St-Loup, reltive imgtion, responsibility flly Wgner. I wnt tese pssges where Nietzsche rtt se out vlues h where Proust's judgement on him vribly unfvourble. tht Proust's opposition Nietzsche mounts bsed on sufficient knowledge, tht cretive self, vrious strs by nlysg dcussed, explicitly tellect we shll fd I shll rgue, however, little more thn prejudice 'Proust's Nietzsche' rr hybrid cretion h own, strw mn. Tht Proust ws committed Vgnerin itself (cf. P, III, ) hs ors, 32 so Nietzsche, most evident from A l recherche been mply explored by Emile Bedriomo vehement nti-vgnerins, hd dice

68 -63loded gst him from Indeed Bedriomo echoes Enrico Gurldo's strt. lest some extent consciously rgument tht Proust's Wgnerinm ws t signific dell notsim polenic nietzschin, rgioni dell'estetmo', 33 Byreuth Per Fll Vguer were trnslted French, so t lredy hve we As s lest concerned, Nietzsche's own prediction s fr essendo giorno difendere vo per le Richrd seen, Vguer works Nietzsche's be Pr 1890s ws h regrdg Wgner's nmes ws db wir tiefer gelitten hben, uch fulfilled: 'Ds, wor wir verwt sd, zu leiden vermochten, wird unsre neer, ls Menschen dieses Jhrhunderts Hmen ewig wieder zusmmenbrgen' two first Vgner di cus l nti-nietzschen position: 'Sostenere II, <EH, between fortunes Nietzsche Vgner As lrge extent one verse proportion. Except 6). Pr tht reltion t tht time ws Jcques Le Rider pots out, such s Ctulle Mendes, Judith mchtions Vgnerin nti-nietzschens er vogue kept h erstwhile Gutier Gbriel Monod ensured tht Vgn for over decde, but on dciple turned renegde out limelight 1'horizon des tellectuels or h: 'L'eile de Nietzsche monte frnq mesure que celle de Wgner decle. I3A th pro-vgnerin 'hidden gend': it philosopher, tions h imge surfce it produces contrdiction. rgue, stems prciplly from would Proust's nimus gst Nietzsche, I lrgely responsible for dr moreover Wheres when it comes generl Proust critices ip, cse Wgner he Nietzsche for plcg o high vlue on friendsh gh, for precipittg critices him essentilly for not crg enou ce opion; Nietzsche norious split on wrong grounds, differen first plce n for criticed both for hvg friendship few biogrphicl fcts glened bong it. In bsg h criticm on

69 -64- from secondry redg, Proust chooses quite wrong ground on which pick ble look beyond such mteril been he qurrel with Nietzsche, for hd tht Nietzsche's views on friendship re n he might hve reled not only good del more complex mbivlent thn he gives him credit for, but tht fct y hve much common question. In h own oreticl h dtction mkes Proust cse friendship herted prctice with h own cknowledged mbivlence on objections it; doubt, ltter benefit Nietzsche's he fils give him between h whole- dcuss Nietzsche's pronouncements on friendship hlf th chpter I shll order pot up ir similrities. Wht Use re Philosophers? l recherche where Nietzsche referred A In ll re re six pssges wy novel one most trigug spects tht, which quite significnt given he ws phenomenlly well red, lthough which, Proust rrely cknowledges h sources mentions explicitly pst thkers he ddressg. Indeed tht novel revels tble 1 references philosophers 'legue times number mentioned most ten, with ten Pl mention m comprtively ty. Proust chooses ctully references; n come Pscl with eight; Nietzsche six; Socrtes, Voltire Knt five; Artle, L Rousseu Schopenhuer two; Spoz, Hegel, Mill Emerson. let us not forget. Even Bergson, Leibniz Rochefouculd whole four; 3S Diderot three; host on one cludg Descrtes, And tht novel over 3,000 pges, subject philosophicl 'Proust X' studies, such lrge proportion referred only one pssge

70 -65 couple pges <SG, III, 373f.>, nrrr by n unnmed 'Norwegin where h philosopher' views re relted who reports n necdote which h collegue Boutroux sid Bergson hd ld him bout collegue b. or words Bergson 1 s opions re mediries, enclosed s mny delibertely dtnce ferred sets himself estblhed body ides. no brckets from fewer thn three ter- which Proust uses order hed-on enggement with pre- And s if tht not enough, nrrr remds us tht h friend Norwegin nywy! vi In my Proust's sense mchief si got wrong end stick unmtkeble 'Je ne s si cette converstion entre Le philosophe norvegien, pourtnt hve when he dds rider: M. Bergson et M. Boutroux est excte. prond et si clir, si pssionnement ttentif, pu ml comprendre' (SG, III, 373). Th gme hide--seek Proust plys with reder but when n extreme philosophers - cse wy which deed ny hricl figures - mke n ppernce fictionl world novel, which hs such tegrity substnce its own it tht such elements from 'rel' world which hve excuse mselves wipe ir feet whenever y tenttively mke n entrnce. Tdi6 describes th ploy prticulrly effectively: les personnges hriques n'occupent Jm dns l Recherche une plce de premier pln: ceux qui 1'vient dns de premiers etts, on l leur 6tee. Lo de vouloir decrire directement l relite, ou de fire directement les Memoires de St-Simon de son epoque; lo encore de confondre, comme il et6 reproch6 & Blzc, 1'rt et l relite, Proust, ynt sepre I 1 rt de l relite, peut se permettre u contrire ces cursions: elles rniment l force de persusion de 1' imgire. 3lS A l recherche (mong mny or thgs) re not imported wholesle from outside novel ides, but its ides grfted on fictionl world by mens, for exmple, reltively rtificil dcussions between chrcters

71 -66- < nrrr's literry dcussion with Alberte rre exceptions). Proust serchg ll (P, III, ) one time void cliche, for him term extends clude ll recognbly redy-mde ides from pre-extent philosophies, which he rr thn engge with or generlly combt *hi^rrchie\ " des rts' <CS, I, 96), prefers directly. mention pssg When nrrr Swnn refers 'l does not subject th key estic prciple philosophicl scruty, but merely notes Swnn's hbit tkg n ironic 'sujet ntion. dtnce from ny Anne Henry hs shown neteenth-century Germn such extent estics, but importnt' through h which Proust ws schooled h text itself withholds evidence, ny puttive connections rem obdurtely beneth surfce. One gret strengths Proust's novel, n - mrk h chievement trnsformg Centre Slnte-Beuve A l recherche s we know it - wy which tic situtions which th, though, tht ides y re philosophers which it presents grow out novel- orgniclly ir embedded. The corollry pre-estblhed positions re used primrily s no more thn kens, Proust rrely goes furr ny kd dcussion. Indeed h explicit h most extended, for even though legue tble fr o smll less one cn deduce from it degree which 'fluenced' by m. yield kd novel between number explicit enggement with Nietzsche one sttticl smple provided by my results ny gret vlue, never verse proportion opertg references Proust mkes philosopher he pproved Proust mentions philosophers yet by simply mentiong m he mnges or could be sid hve been rr thn usg m, put m vriety uses which serve h m terest s novelt, development h nrrtive. Proust's tngentil references philosophers re subservient th im

72 -67- him with illustrtive provide y eir wys: three function In one biogrphicl necdotes, or ir philosophies serve s reposiries imges, or ir nmes re cited support chrctertions. Sodome et Gomorrhe beyond (cf. SG, second cse, good imges, how plesurble route hvg describes te t Odette's neverless for philosophies Exmples The nrrr likens Prin slons clude h uses Leibniz Knt. monds (CG, II, 769), 18, 344; P, III, 710). III, 'ridg' Proust's dcussions 'version 1, context referred repetedly h use Socrtes, whose homosexulity An exmple first cse dependent n pprently whimsicl, if on fct ritultic, decion Gilberte's: 'comme 1'univers necessire de Knt, I, 497). Nor it just liberte' (JF, nrrr who uses th technique: Swnn lso wy comment on First Critique (JF, I, 505), while St-Loup pplies de suspendu un cte supreme refers Knt, mkg throw- Leibnizin notion 'l richesse du monde des possibles pr rpport u monde Doncieres <CG, II, 413), lter reel' rt militry plnng remrks: 'L guerre [...] n'echppe ps est en ett de perpetuel metphor, cdemic philosophy csul cocktil-prty wit here one metphysicl systems comic evoked Elle Proust delibertely turns IV, 331). <TR, devenir' lo de notre vieil Hegel. ux reductive effect h congruity between ltess bnlity objects compron. *7 Proust's use philosophers divided two types, ccordg who ly clim philosopher ten pokes fun t hvg him show f or chrcter's nme-drop terest wher it chrcters mselves nrrr flted chrctertion cn be who ssocites two. He self-imge or pretentiousness by philosophers - Brichot, flt-footed

73 -68- h references if y threten Montigne, who ws lso hve dcussion homosexulity figured h one reference Thus superfluous. be prefers exce nlyses, nrrril direction when it cones goes opposite ctully Proust chrcters, droppg by h secondry such grtuius nme- with contrst In 739). II, ignornce by mixg up Artle her dowger duchesse de Gllrdon mnifests slon life, s when superficility highlight philtm with Arphnes (CG, Proust lso uses th technique mny. 313 Sorbonne pressor, chlks up good (cf. SG, III, 950, liof.), scrificed, s re h llusion Dlscours de l jnetiode (TR, IV, 967) references Nietzsche furr two context St-Loup's redg Also sprch Zrtbustr.^* philosopher chrcters, usully by mkg with prticulr philosophers cert m chrcter's fvourite redg-mtter. reder's knowledge figure He trdes on wht he presumes will be question, whose nme used 'ttches' trit chrcter fmilirity mkes Proust Orwe, more subtly, Thus Schopenhuer explicitly 'unpcked'. whole, without its needg be ech 569), 318, mentioned only twice (TR, IV, symbole philosophy s menymiclly by Cmbremer, who impresses nrrr time reltion Mme de her knowledge him.'*0 Nietzsche, o, first used novel s such symbol, but wheres Mme de Cmbremer gs tellectul respectbility Schopenhuer, Dr Cottrd on lckg becuse he unble Wgner <JF, I, 425K* 1 grde', 'progressive' tellectul piclity. or thought, Someone who h extensive knowledge described s tellectully with h collegues bout Nietzsche tlk Nietzsche her through n here exmple does mke representtive 'vnt reltively demg grde tellectully nrrr's friend St-Loup, it ir reltionship tht we must

74 -69from develop Nietzsche' now turn, see 'Proust's symbol somethg rr more complex. Robert (Fenelon Hlevy) de St-Loup Even before he rrives by qulities re described nrrr St-Loup's Blbec, scene on h unt (Mme de Villepr) s The 'bon coeur 1 cuts him beg 'telligence' 'bon coeur' (JF, II, 87). out for close friendship with hero, our repetedly stressed over next few Hegel bove, lthough it pges Nietzsche ssocited, from outset. but h Intellectulm, which <cf. reltionship. builds m tension ir The prcipl e.g. JF, II, 91), wht Ve sw him quotg Leibniz whom with he more usully nrrr's itil chrctertion St-Loup s follows: Ce jeune homme qui vit I 1 ir d'un rcrte et d'un sportsmn dedigneux n 1 vit d'estime et de curiosite que pour les choses de 1'esprit, surut pour ces mnifesttions moderntes de l litterture et de 1'rt qui semblient si ridicules s tnte; 11 etit imbu, d'utre prt, de ce qu'elle ppelit les declmtions sociltes, rempll du plus prond mefi pour s cste et pssit des heures & C'etit un de ces 'tellectuels' etudier Nietzsche et Proudhon. dns un livre, soucieux prompts 1'dmirtion qui s'enferment seulement de hute pensee. Meme, chez St-Loup 1'expression de cette tendnce tres bstrite et qui 1'eloignit tnt de mes preoccuptions hbituelles, ut en prsnt uchnte m'ennuyit un peu. (JF, II, 92) quottion The reson '"tellectuels"' mrks reltively new coge th substntive sense, tellectuls who signed mnifes Dreyfusrd here becuse it first pplied group ( which I shll 1898 return), lthough it evidently hs pejortive flvour, o. t pot h life where he just begng The nrrr leve behd

75 -70- seriousness h youth enter superficil world socil frivolities 'temps perdu', so St-Loup's ernestness rr unwelcome him. pour 'Et 92). Nietzsche et de Proudhon' (JF, II, jusqu'd. eleve fqt ' se friend new-found dppoted tht h h fr's life, but sted he tell him ll bout ' le romn demode' St-Loup hd been prepred if it preferred expls how he would hve He 1'mour de ce qui etit de moi,' he contues: si Je trouv St-Loup un peu serieux, lui ne comprenit ps que je Ne jugent chque chose qu'u poids ne le fusse ps dvntge. d'telligence qu'elle contient, ne percevnt ps les enchntements de 1'imgtion que me donnient certes qu'il jugeit frivoles, il s'ennit que moi [...] je pusse m1 y teresser. (JF, II, 93) begng tension terms philosophy between side former, dgenuous perversity bout rrives Blbec enters Proust (JF, II, 89f.», but lso Bnquet friends feture Jcques Bizet, There criticms nrrr's though, for not only he one who it, which m ferior.** djudged which novel, enlted ech cse on tellect imgtion, Nietzsche set up from nrrr The reltionship between St-Loup cert St-Loup here, lwys hs h nose book until he dolescence 'on n'y consulte ps 1'telligence' tht (long with h Lycee Condorcet/Ie himself Robert Cl'ge ridicule', s he terms Dreyfus, Fern Gregh Dniel Hlevy) ws one signries 'Intellectuls' Mnifes'. A* Th mbivlence tellectulm bout generl represent brrier over h reltionship ir with 1914), one h models for St-Loup, h nrrr's tellectul friendship, h friend St-Loup, Ane Bibesco 1901 (cf. Ill, 1438). *+ mirrors Bertr concern terests tht h prticulr similr qulms Proust hd de Slignc-Fenelon (1878- whom he hd been troduced by Fenelon ctully given plce

76 -71 A l recherche h where we fd le plus cher 1'etre le plus nrrril side: 'moi-meme [...] ynt pour mi ceux qui 1'ont connu, Bertr us telligent, bon et brve, oublible & on, lter rr right, own By time Proust ws writg th Fenelon ws de Fenelon 1 (SG, III, 168). +G ded, hvg been killed t Front hence elegic ne losg though, Proust evidently felt he ws me de trte nrrr's concern with St- 1'eloignit tnt de mes preoccuptions Loup's 'tendnce tres bstrite et qui hhituelles 1 ): 'M Je su with him, s erly s uch h (prefigurg Bibesco 1902 he writes Even durg Fenelon 1 s lifetime, telligence. unwonted pre for Fenelon 1 s si sentir lo de ut ce que By August 1907 he musg Bertr ime en litterture 1 (CMP, III, 145f.). si je n'i ps pss6 & c6t6 du with regrd Fenelon: 'Je me deme prfo seul mi que j'ur dti voir, dont I 1 mitie edt pu 6tre feconde pour 1'un et pour 1'utre'. A compron chrctertion itil St-Loup A l recherche with much longer portrit h fictionl foreber Bertr de Reveillon Jen Snteull (JS revels ) economies description which Proust cn mke by simple mens ttchg h chrcter pir proper nmes. The pirg ger under sign Nietzsche One could Proudhon - both beg yoked socilm s St-Loup's fvourite redg-mtter - itself deserves comment, sce it sight. certly clss himself would course hve been not odd so s St-Loup horrified: unreconstructed noblemn thn emphs ( me) St-Loup here, whose 'spirtions sociltes' (JF, II, eclectic, Nietzsche one might perhps hve expected Nietzsche's politics 'rcrtic rdiclm' Bres's (KGB III/6, 120), s it my seem t first 97) description Georg ppel rr more n Proust tryg depict led him throw f h

77 -72- Yet lkg Nietzsche Proudhon reflects credentils respected.*e widespred current picture ppelg bove ll,*7 Frnce s Jcques Le Rider right-wg 'Action espoused Nietzsche, but figures tht Murrs Frn^e' movement Chrles ws very much sme, for only not ws it out, pots socilts tht Nietzsche ws precely Germny durg th period it ws Thoms hs demonstrted how R. Hn comptible with socilt thkg. turn---century Nietzsche's philosophy s promote ccept Europe which ws prepred opion politicl left-wg order hve h students bdly-dressed out clss bckground seek like Jen Jures Georges Sorel, o.'113 In fct it quite likely Proust, tht by ssocitg St-Loup with both Nietzsche Proudhon, tendg h reders 'plce 1 h chrcter very specific short-lived nti-democrtic tht nmely context, revolutionry movement known s 'Cercle Proudhon'. h exhustive overview drws ttention th dns l rherique rectionnire', 'Nietzsche movement by Pierre-Andre Tguieff, focussg on writgs 'Jen Drville' (pseudonym dourd Berth): L reference Nietzsche s'jouter, pr exemple dns l pensee d'tdourd Berth, ux references Mrx, Proudhon et Sorel, stitunt cet espce syncretique ou surgir 1'experience du Cercle des deux mouvements 'confluent ), Proudhon (decembre ntionlte et syndiclte Most likely ll tht ssocition Proust's md ttributble once more mouvement ouvrler en Frnce hd ppered h L Vie de Frederic Nietzsche so 1909 Nietzsche Proudhon Dniel Hlevy, whose Essl sur le 1901, who deed followed up with L jeunesse de Proudhon

78 -73The Question Friendship A l recherche, he emerges s From first three references Nietzsche will lwys privilege imgtion he but nrrr unimpressed for The ssocition seled. fte Nietzsche's thus over tellect, yrdstick tellectul cumen, ides, simply philosopher difficult me friend- by St-Loup/Nietzsche/ tellect joed shortly ship, for nrrr embrrssed by wrmth St-Loup 1 s ffection, which he feels he cnnot genuely cuses him it orienttes self outwrds, t; worked problems becuse it needs be Friendship reciprocte. wrds surfce superficil communiction through converstion, which filure live up one's responsibili- he dmses s wste time, ties - significntly, one's responsibilities s n rtt: Les etres qui en ont l possibility - il est vri que ce sont les rttes et J'et convcu depu longtemps que je ne le ser jm - ont ussi le devoir de vivre pour eux-b mes; or I'miti6 leur est une dpense de ce devoir, une bdiction de soi-meme. L converstion meme qui est le mode d'express!on de I'mitie est une divgtion superficielle, qui ne nous donne rien cquerir. (JF, II, 260> S1 There, course, n element nrrr's tellg us he ws sure The impliction rtt himself expression he tht th h dgenuousness bout never gog be n rtt. ws configurtion, h duty mtic ner g which will strike - world nrrr with such force Le Temps retrouv6 - hs lredy been formulted on nrrr's first vit Elstir hd previously led Biche 1, nrrr tells us: Elstir's dsiptive 'un rtte verit6 de l vie spirituelle doit etre me des dciples' (JF, II, 218). Blbec, when, on relg studio seul, life pour slons s 'Monsieur etre ut fit dns l et ne ps prodiguer de son moi, The opposition rt friendship

79 -74- pprent from nrrr's erly contct with St-Loup, though, for we re ld tht he cn only slvge h friend s work rt somethg (JF, qulity 'noble* him. II, from ir time ger by tretg 96), once he dcerns more generl All ll, nrrr does not mke very good friend for he hs such bltntly double strds. f St-Loup repetedly when it does not suit On one h he fends him spend time with him (without tkg dvntge time get promed himself he will do), but on or h tune chnges when he wnts tke dvntge St-Loup - pproches him Doncieres when he hs he down ny work he hs no qulms bout cyniclly mkg wnts exploit h connections g ccess Orine, with whom he currently ftuted. Vhen he bck Pr St-Loup comes vit him unexpectedly, nrrr returns medittion on se mes we re ld: J'i dit [...] ce que je pense de 1'mitie: svoir qu'elle est si peu de chose que j' i pee & comprendre que des homes de quelque genie, et pr exemple un Kietzsche, ient eu l nlvet6 de lui ttribuer une certe vleur tellectuelle et en consequence de se refuser des mities uxquelles 1'estime tellectuelle n'edt ps et6 liee. Oui, cel m1 ujours et6 un ennement de voir qu'un homme qui poussit l slncerit6 vec lui-meme jusqu'i se detcher, pr scrupule de conscience, de l musique de Vgner, se soit imgg que l verit6 peut se reler dns ce mode d'expression pr nture confus et dequt que sont, en generl, des ctions et, en prticulier, des mities, et qu'il puse y voir une significtion quelconque dns le fit de quitter son trvil pour ller voir un mi et pleurer vec lui en pprennt l fusse nouvelle de 1'cendie du Louvre. (CG, II, 689) Before nlysg detil complexities th richly llusive pssge, I should pot out tht fter th medittion ctully quite hppy see St-Loup, for he Mile de Stermri dner fil, merit ctg s resrtive quelle que fut mon opion sur qui ne puse certes so trnspires nrrr hs Just seen h pln tke he dmits tht friendship does hve when self's restnce low: ' tt 1'mitie, heures it devenir [...] il n'est breuvge si funeste precieux et reconfortnt en nous

80 -75- necessire, l chleur que nous ne etit pportnt le coup de fouet qui nous The pooned lovg-cup 689). II, pouvons ps trouver en nous-eme' (CG, friendship, it seems, cn hve phrmceuticl properties fter ll. 62 Despite Proust's ft friendship Nietzsche's me friendship. quoted bove, for here brgs key Wgner with focus, s well s Nietzsche, tellect between estblhed cementg lk lredy h h Nietzsche's honesty with himself, he shows question pssge pre, on it 'Pleide' edition The commentry given certly o sweepg give n dequte explntion for Proust's motives 1'exmen de 1'mitie. En dehors gre prtie de son oeuvre une mkg se lks: 'Nietzsche conscr prllt d' Alnsi le me Isle] (1881), Le Gl Svolr Aurors pprit dns Hujln trop hunln (1878), Zrtboustr, (1883 [sic] -1887)' (II, 1731). There fct very erly version pssge be found Le Grnet de 1908, source which shows context which whole complex mes on which I hve been concentrtg origtes. Here it reds: On sit ce que Je pense de 1'mitie; Je l cro si nulle que Je ne su meme ps exigent tellectuellement pour elle, et q* Nietche dit {Journl des Debts du 17 Aout 1909) qu'il n'dmet ps une mitie ou 11 n'y it ps estime tellectuelle cel me semble bien mensonger pour ce detrcteur de Vgner 'genie de mensonge 1 (mee Journl). D'illeurs s vite... sur l destruction du Louvre est bien menteuse ussi. Que peut nous fire ce qui n'est ps en nous. Que signifie pour exprimer q.q. chose une ction (ller voir, signer une lte) etc. (Le Grnet de 1908, pp. 38v -39) Dniel Hlevy's 'Mile de Meysenbug The rticle Proust referrg here et Frederic Nietzsche' (which ctully (p. 3)). The Journl des dmitted redg, S3 ppered Debts ws Jen 'collborteur termittent' on pper (cf. KGB HI/6, 419), hd not only promed Nietzsche short review Der edition 18 August only newspper Nietzsche himself Bourdeu, Fll been s good s h word when he Vgner by Gbriel Monod

81 -76- Jnury 1889 number (KGB HI/6, 403), but he hd lso contued ensure tht Mlwid von Meysenbug, between letter Nietzsche's dtction, lte Hlevy's rticle quotes refter. 5'1 Nietzsche pper crried pieces on Vgner s 'Genie der Luge' himself s 'Genie der Vhrhelt* (KGB II1/5, collegue Jcob Burckhrdt bewil Bsel serch h friend contrsts Hlwid von Meysenbug, ne & d'mitie lui vit ppr whom he vit 'il turns out be Hlevy's which Proust quotes, Hlevy writes: ' s longue experience confondre Jn Nietzsche: with rticle In terprettion. 1'ordre du coeur', tellectul unforgivg tion Nietzsche s n lso reported by it) importntly, though, chrcter- Host Hlevy, full biogrphy. 56 knew y s destruction Western civiltion m le sendg Nietzsche out on streets 1871, ws reputed be blze My bout Louvre (which necdote The 452), which prompts Proust's srcsm. des pensees vec 1'ordre ronpu vec mt cmrde: I'miti6 virile sns 1'ccord spirituel, jugeit-il, est digne. It significnt Proust's tht notebook entry 'signer une exmple lte', which he ' Intellectuls' Mnifes 1 g, lthough contues by congrtultg himself implicitly expg on worthlessness friendship. 66 ction h refers bck glosses over constency h on politicl tellectul dependence, He comes bck Nietzsche couple pges on: Approndir des idees (Nietche, philosophie) est mos gr qu'pprondir des remcences prce que comme 1'telligence ne cree ps et ne fit que debrouiller non seulement son but est mos gr m s t che est mos gre. Aucun homme n' jm eu d'fluence sur moi (que Drlu et je 1'i reconnue muve). Aucune ction exterieure soi n' d'importnce: Nietche et l guerre, Nietche et Vgner, Nietche et ses scrupules. L relite est en soi. (le Grnet de 1908, p. 40") e7 Th perhps most terestg Proust's judgements on Nietzsche

82 -77- becuse it most cursory extreme, vergg on defence solipsm. It lso notble tht th ll Proust extrcts from Hlevy's biogrphicl writgs on Nietzsche - th 'Proust's Nietzsche 1 lredy fully formed, ll tht left ttch him chrcter St-Loup, which he lso immeditely does th erly notebook. se Ag re re contrdictions ccused on ccount beg both n mn ction - he cnnot w. th weeks ' Nietche before he mn ides, durg Frnco-Prussin Vr, when himself scrupules' re conflted version Nietzsche sts et l guerre' presumbly refers diphri hd be hospitled. ss> when Proust returns me for rch-tellectul, Nietzsche's service s medicl orderly he lsted only three pssge, cme 'Nietche down with dysentry et Wgner, Nietche et ses novel, s we hve seen, L PrlsonnlSre h version Nietzsche reches its deliciously stiricl pogee: Je n'v, dnirer le mltre de Byreuth, ucun des scrupules de ceux qui, comm Nietzsche, le devoir dicte de fuir, dns 1'rt comme dns l vie, l beute qui les tente, qui s'rrchent Trtn comme ils renient Prsifl et, pr scetme spirituel, de mortifiction en mortifiction prviennent, en suivnt le plus snglnt des chems de croix, s'elever jusqu' l pure connsnce et 1'dortion prfite du Postilion de Longjuieu. (P, III, 665) Highly musg though th lmpoon my be, it quite clerly trvesty: if nythg, Proust here cricturg Nietzsche not but cross between Kntin ('pure connsnce') bove ll Schopenhuerin idels. bthos lst section on nrrr's origl The irony prticulr cst new light, retrospect, description jusqu' 1'mour de Nietzsche et de Proudhon 1 for moment context tht erlier St-Loup, (JF, who 'se fflt eleve II, 92), but if we return pssge we cn now note number furr prllels. In erlier pssge, s we hve lredy seen, nrrr-protgont

83 -78on brk enterg socil world showed greter terest exploits St-Loup's fr, society figure M. de Mrsntes, thn () St-Loup himself. But erlier epode older, more 'worldly we 1 nrrr lso tervenes critice St-Loup's dmsive ttitude wrds h fr for more pround resons. St-Loup's fr 'etit lui-meme un homme telligent', nrrr pleds, might well hve ppluded son's d'usteres h 'mces delst medittions' fr true noble, we re led ficility he conjectures tht fr efforts better himself tellectully: '11 1'eQt dmire, se fdt rejoui qu'il divertsements pour ce qui vit fit ses mces (JF, II, 92). St-Loup's underst, not becuse super- divertsements', which he would freely hve cknowledged, but becuse depth h unrequited love for h son, who ungenerously fils recogne h fr's qulities return: Robert de St-Loup prce qu'il etit de ceux qui croient que le merite est ttche certes formes d'rt et de vie, vit un souvenir ffectueux m un peu meprnt d'un pere qui s 1 etit occup6 ute s vie de chsse et de course, vit bilie & Vgner et rffo!6 d'offenbch. St-Loup n 1 etit ps ssez telligent pour comprendre que l vleur tellectuelle n' rien voir vec 1'dhesion une certe formule estique. (JF, II, 92f.) so In estic terms, n, St-Loup Nietzsche re ctully presented s movg opposite directions, but both tegrity, both cses it cses nrrr suspects lck Vgner nrrr critices St-Loup for likg respect o dependent on considertions tervene). Vgner tellectul Nietzsche for rejectg Vgner for In both medittions') Nietzsche uchsne. for The wrong resons (h snobbery), ei he critices wrong resons (he llows tellectul cses imge implied by 's'elever'/'se fut eleve': spiritul strenuousness who wht ironed self- nrrr critices ethos self-overcomg Cscetme which spirituel') St-Loup Custeres re both mde

84 -79- represent, unmskg it one cse s more convoluted piece psychologicl ledg mguided denigrtion petty prejudice, or s perversity, somethg but which both cses s ought rr be t lest lerted, if not celebrted. Nietzsche, Offenbch, Bizet, Vguer Proust presumbly knew how mchievous he ws beg portryg Nietzsche s self-bnegtg Ctholic st, h stire t Nietzsche's 'dortion prfite 1 mor comic oper by Adolphe Adm ( crer Gelle)"52 prticulrly brbed light workg title he gve h nrr- r's epiphnies Le Temps retrouv, 'Adortion perpetuelle'. source for pssge L Once g, Prlsonni re cn be found Hlevy's biogrphy, where, describg Nietzsche Tur utumn 1888, Hlevy reports how h musicl tste developed embrce works t opposite pole from Wgner's music drms: 'II entend des operettes frn^es: rien ne lui semble si prfit que ce genre leger, "prd quottion here ctully from de French utes les fesses".' e:3 The operett composer Edmond Audrn, whom Nietzsche himself quotes letter Koselitz 18 November 1888 (KGB HI/5 478), but Hlevy's pot noneless Nietzsche's letters notebooks Kscotte Tur September vlid, period. 1888, He it borne out by hd herd Audrn's L describes it glowgly n erlier letter Koselitz: 'Diese keem Punkte geme werdende Musik, mit soviel hiibschen, getreichen kleen Melodien, gehbrt gnz die idyllche Art Se, die ich (KGB jetzt Abends though, Nietzsche dcovered nothig hbe' delights French III/5, 444). operett In fct, good yer

85 -80Wgner ws gesttg, ironiclly enough it erlier, t time Der Fll not Adm but Offenbch by whom Nietzsche cptivted. As we sw bove, St-Loup critices h fr for preferrg Offenbch report h condescension: '"Etre ne on goes Vgner, nrrr Peut-Stre, petit bourgeo fntique cel fit ctclysme dns une extence,, himself 'rffole d' Offenbch', reverses Nietzsche shows no such scruples develops h In from notebooks Offenbch chrctertion In , though, <JF, II, 93). du 'Rg 1, edt-il donne ut utre chose1" St-Loup 1 s evlution. 1'epoque de l Belle-Helene, vecu voir dns le fubourg St-Germ et s utumn 1887, he Jewh, (French, comic) counter-wgner: die Juden hben der Sphre der Kunst ds Genie gestreift, mit H. Hee und Offenbch, diesem getreichsten und ubermvithigsten Styr, der ls Musiker zur groben Trdition hlt und fur den, der nicht blob Ohren ht, ee rechte Erlosung von den gefiihlsmen und im Grunde entrteten Musikern der deutschen Romntik t. (KSA 12, He conveys th new enthusm Kbselitz Mrch 1888 (KGB II 1/5, 275), , 197) Ecce Homo (cf. reference Offenbch he mkes him h 'Ctlogue Ari' 13, KSA 619), Musik von Offenbch 1 decdent types IX, L Belle obliquely ironiclly from end only (' Nee Unnoglicben* > die beiden Ajxe im Kmpf mit Der Fll In 1). (GD, but, surprgly, when he cludes prt Gotzen-Dxnerung: ' Les freres de Goncourt: oder Homer. Der Ville zur Kcht (cf. KSA both plns clude h Offenbch mteril Helene nch Kret! uf nch ( IM uf Kret!..'"' : FV» ' Nchschrift' ), but th work Wgner lie quotes he mounts much more open nd susted ttck on Wgner nme Bizet (FW, 1-3). If Proust's srcsm provoked Wgner Crjnen ( work lger irony behd with by which Nietzsche's Nietzsche's 'chmpiong' Der Fll he ws ploy, unfmilir),*55 n he mses which he pots out

86 -81- Prefce mkes even more explicit musicin musicologt Crl Fuchs: Sie nicht ernst nehmen; so wie nicht Betrcht. ich 'Ds, b, strk [...]. Zu lledem wr V<gner> cf. pressg n exclusive HI/5, ws kommt rsend 481). dmirtion lte reder Der Fll B<i2et> Tusend Ml fur mich Crmen - ws he img shock certly never 're (EH, II, 6) he pres s 'ds letter Fuchs clls 'ds cpitls sme Verk und von eer Fsction, die nicht Kvsten ohne Gleichen t.' ich uber Bizet sge, diirfen Nietzsche for h friend neidch uf Bizet 1 (27 December himself wy from Trtn', which Ecce Homo non plus ultr Wgners' letter Antlse gegen V<gner> wirkt es sehr Aber ls ironche 1888; KGB HI/5, 554; nur der Musik, sondern lien 'Vhen ll sid done', Nietzsche signls Wgner, ' Andre Musiker Betrcht' <FW, 'Zweite Nchschrift'), kommen gegen Wgner nicht section on Der Fll Wgner Ecce Homo, Bizet not even mentioned. As fr s Nietzsche's turng h bck on Prsifl concerned, overwhelmg effect 'Prelude' hs on him when he eventully llows himself her it Monte Crlo t end December 1886 (i.e. four hlf yers fter first performnce, when Wgner hlf yers piece ws ire) bundntly cler title 'Zur Genelogie der lredy from h Morl' for itil pln for book, clude firmly hd stlled concert reper- notebook. been ded for three first He hs Just formulted time, sketched out n n essy on 'ds sketche Idel' (KSA 12, 198), when Wgner's music suddenly irrupts h thoughts: Vorspiel des P<rsifl>, grobte Wohltht, die mir seit lngem erwiesen t. Die Mcht und Strenge des Gefuhls, unbeschreibllch, ich kenne nichts, ws ds Chrtenthum so der Tiefe nhme und so schrf zum Mitgefuhle brchte. Gnz erhoben und ergriffen - ke Mler ht een so unbeschreiblich schwermuthigen und zrtlichen Bllck gemlt wie Wgner [...] Sonderbr! Als Knbe htte ich mir die Msion zugedcht, ds

87 -82Mysterium uf die Biihne zu brgen; (KSA 12, 198f. > Nietzsche's ster Elbeth ws evidently so delighted fd th pssge unlloyed pro-wgnerin enthusm her bror's lte notebooks tht she forged it letter from Nietzsche her Prguy. 6S But Nietzsche typiclly pplies ntidote th dngerous dose by immeditely returng mtter h - 'Kritik he works n extended criticl chrlstlichez Idels' (KSA 12, 199) - des response Wgner's pursuit scetic idel Prsifl Third Essy Zur Genelogie der Morl itself (GM, III, 2-4). e7 In spirit h eulogy on Prsifl Kbselitz Wgner je Etws besser gemcht? itil response, though, he writes Jnury 1887: 're stch gefrgt: ht [...] Nor does he merely pre Prsifl nicht' <21 Jnury 1887; KGB HI/5, 12f.). 1 purely estic terms', for he even confesses felt 'sympthy 1 CMitleiden 1 ) with ction Wgner he mkes h dmirtion for giebt es bei Dnte, sonst Dergleichen it th letter hvg oper, Der Fll pprent prt: ' Ich bewundere dies Werk, ich mochte es selbst gemcht hben 1 (FV, 'Nchschrift 1 ). Both Nietzsche's letter Kdselitz re quoted by Hlevy, 6S lthough forged 'letter Elbeth 1 context which he sets m mledg, for order reforce h s tht Nietzsche ws rn prt by h love-hte reltionship with mquotes nor letter Wgner Nietzsche's till end h life, Hlevy Kdselitz immeditely beforeh. Hlevy writes: '"J'i ime Wgner, ecrivit-il en septembre Peter Gst, je 1'ime encore...."' (p. 485), wheres fct Nietzsche hd written: 'ich b nicht grob genug dzu, urn mich von Menschen trennen zu kdnnen, die ich geliebt hbe. Aber es t geschehn: und ich lebe noch' <13 September 1886; KGB HI/3, 247) - 'ich lebe noch 1 rr thn 'ich comes bck mquote th letter liebe noch 1 <cf. p. 688n. 6). g reltion Hlevy Der Fll Wgner,

88 -83commentg: 'Est-ce ce m me pmphlet? Nietzsche Certes non, c'est un qui, utre deux mots plus trd, redige un trvers les violences duquel homme, nous percevons, dns 1' entreligne, les ns qui sont ps ecrits: J'ime ne encore' (p. 556). Nietzsche's brek with Wgner ws neverless seled Prsifl's by Schopenhuerin-Chrtin messge renuncition more bsurd, n, re which Proust couches mock-religious terms 'betryl 1 Wgner by 'those like Nietzsche'. redemption* 9 - ll Proust seems be tryg turn gst Nietzsche himself h own criticms Wgner, Zvr Genelogie der Xorl especilly Der Fll Wgner, s 'e gnz grober Schuspieler' (FW 8), 'Dieser Klgsor ller Klgsore!' (FW, 'Nchschriff) pursuit Chrtin scetic idel. sejf-mockery Der Fll Wgner But Nietzsche's lredy pre-empts Proust's ccustion: 'Wgner mich e Schicksl', he nnounces den Rucken Prefce, zu kehren wr fur he n defltes pprent portenusness such clim by contug hevily ironic ne t h own expense: 'Eem solchen Ziele - welches Opfer wre ihm nicht gemb? welche "Selbst-uberwdung"! welche "Selbst-Verleugnung"! ' In Nietzsche's lst period, n, joustg prtners for Wgner, he but uses th Offenbch Bizet s gonl does not preclude h contued ttchment ltter's music, I shll rgue below tht Hlevy, despite h mredg Nietzsche's stted st on Nietzsche's endurg love Wgner Offenbch need not position, for be nrrr's criticm St-Loup Proust ws no blkered Wgnerin critice Nietzsche for beg wht nti -Wgnerin: it pity tht Wgner mutully we cn h he Proust himself. exclusive deduce musicl mtkenly ws ctully not tht quite right For Proust, o, - deed y from must not be. lleginces, but he does thought ws blkered more ttuned sheer

89 -84- brbs should h tht Wgner, response complexity Nietzsche's refore fil stick. lietzsche /on Friendship If we return Guernntes Proust's Prlsonniere, L mconception, nmely Nietzsche's supposed correct necessry it furr one tellectul on stence Le Cdte de Nietzsche, on ttcks m two vlue friendship. There were deed tellectul resons importnt mong m were ltter's bhorrent politicl opions, h nti-semitm, ntionltic pn-germnm Hlevy's considerg Proust's own Jewhness. somewht free terprettion, mrred by one Proust's hs it becomes for Nietzsche's brek with Vgner, wild or prticulrly ironic which ir ccount rift two 'cretive errors', for exggertion comic effect. Hlevy implies tht Nietzsche hd some sort 'devil with him1 : De son erreur Nietzsche imit Vgner, et 1'imerit ujours. M 1'dmirtion du corriger. tellectuelle, il vit pu se dilettnte, 1'ttchement et l grtitude personnelles etient choses Asi l Rien ne pouvit, ne devit les ttedre. cques. sitution de Nietzsche restit gennte et fusse. 70 It th element pprent perversity which Proust picks up on turns scetico-religious Schopenhuerin drtion we sw bove. from Hlevy's presenttion Nietzsche's brek-up with Stemmg Vgner Proust's imge him s some kd rtionl monster, embodiment hypertrophied reson concerned only 'pprondir thrust Nietzsche's ttck on with notion 'der oretche des idees*, but th mses whole presumptions rtionlm which begs Mensch' Die Geburt der Trgodie.

90 -85- Admittedly, t time h brek-up with Wgner ( ) Nietzsche ws trnsition from world Betrchtungen tht Die Geburt Menschllches, der Trgodie UnzeltgemBe Allzujoenschliches^ trnsition evident Richrd Vguer In Byreuth itself, where Nietzsche lredy some extent dtncg himself from h explore se nunces for himself menr, but Proust hd no cltion by redg Nietzsche's works t first h. On key question friendship, Proust seems imply tht tellectul respect ws Nietzsche's on 1 y criterion, tht fter stfyg himself on th score he ws micbly promcuous, wheres nyone who truly pplied ir tellect question friendship itself ctully : ' (les m n'etnt des m que vons u cours de l vie, lquelle g with prtility CTR, nous IV, Proust's glened not just from biogrphy, but rele wht shm it dns cette douce folie que nous nous prens, m que du fond de notre telligence nous svons 1'erreur d'un vivent et cuserit vec eux)' would fou qui croirit que les meubles 454). The knowledge from m problem here lies Nietzsche, for it ws biogrphy which conts only most perempry dcussions Nietzsche's work, structured sted round Nietzsche's two gret friendships with Vgner Burckhrdt. 71 Now before we beg n exmtion friendship, with which th chpter will he pprecited h own vrious publhed views on conclude, we cn certly note tht friendships feelg spiritul well-beg. Nietzsche's s n dpensble gredient Wlter Kufmnn writes context Nietzsche's brek with Wgner: The bttle with Wgner [...] should not be viewed merely s n stnce Nietzsche's 'trnscendg' - certly not s pro h cpcity for ny lstg humn ttchments. Nietzsche reted Overbeck's friendship until end; few philosophers hve written more eloquently pre friendship thn Nietzsche; while he ws

91 -86- which surprgly drwn by one Th ference, though, precely he ws cpble tht surely 'difficult 1 person, ference lstg friendship seems unwrrnted. 7:2 Nietzsche's Selected Letters, Chrpher Middlen, trnslr edir who rgues 'how bsent Nietzsche ws from h friends'. 79 letters, 1 Middlen contues, 'th most dynmic culturl psychologt never relly wrmed confide her or him'. prt remrkbly free brbed s vehicle for communictg serve irony h writg generlly, some h most genue most sche's letters - which re for emotions - Nietzsche ws n unusully hertfelt vested considerte solicius correspondent, who effort keepg up h he hd. wrds h friends. Freundschft' (Letter Rohde, 10 Jnury strength h fond feelgs protesttions One erly letter Rohde Corthins 13, trnsposed from Freunde: ohne Mhnung, ohne rhpsody Sie begehrt nichts fur und sich crits so t Stille ller Riitteln, reds like rewritg 1 on ' Und Freunde 1 : equivlent for 'die Liebe der begliickt. h letters, which re full Friendship itself ten mted 1869; KGB 1/2, 357) gret del time cherhed circle friends friendships pens 'Gotternektr der wholehertedly enough would rgue, judge by Nietz- I contrry, On beg humn dividul sgle 'CT]o Judge by h gibt es generl n mit der Liebe der fllt sie nieder und lles von sich' <7 Ocber 1869; KGB II/l, 62). The period Nietzsche's brek with Wgner expect, ws one which he settg ws ships, for brek lso severed Wgner circle. him mid-1870s, s we might greter thn usul sre by friend- from mny or erstwhile 'friends' But th lso period which number h or close friends re movg wy from him one wy or nor: he tkes

92 -87- exmple, sees it s Bomundt's conversion Ctholicm very bdly, for He writes II/5, 27f.). Freunde htte! Ob closest or IJ/3, 216), but some h horizon different ushielte? noch mn's Dubi 1 (KGB htte? friends re driftg f over - Krug (Letter Fder Rohde Overbeck (Letter Rohde, 238), Gersdorff, 4 July 1874; KGB II/3, usgehlten mrrige sense, ' J wenn mn kee 1874: April 1 on Gersdorff Rohde, 28 Februry 1875; KGB (Letter personl slight on ir friendship 18 July 1876; KGB II/5, 176), even Gersdorff himself, who hopg get engged (Letter Rohde, 7 Ocber 1875; KGB II/5, 120). period : 'jm 11 ne how on every second Tuesdy Bsel Chrles Andler writes Nietzsche fut plus socible', 74 he recounts one University stff hd get-ger t Nietzsche [...], boute-en-tr les plus g de n'en desbuses, tres philosophes ir homes, when 'Overbeck et ces h 'Hymn Friendship' (cf. Letter II/5, 7); h notes from th KGB 1875; Mlwid von Meysenbug, 2 Jnury mos les ps Th period, wrds reunions.' end 1874, when Nietzsche composes etient plnng section entitled 'Freundschft' for period lso revel tht he ws Kenschllches, Allzujoezschliches (cf. KSA 8, 345, 351, 368), deed ll Nietzsche's texts th one which bers most trces h preoccuption with me. The unreled vrious wys: ' Der Mensch im Verkehr 1 'Freundschff concludes Freunden' (MA, I, 376), with which I especilly shll I, 296, 305, 327, 352, 354, (MA, importnt return rounded f with 'Nchspiel 1 poem entitled concentrtion reflections on me 231, 241, 242, 252, 259, 260, 263). survives corportes lrge number reflect- ions concerned with questions friendship 360, 368) section below; section 'Von den first Book 'Unter Freunden', furr be found Book Two (MA, II,

93 -88- Aside from prticulr biogrphicl Period Nietzsche's brek with h vlortion friendship. Vgner, re In letter how much he pprecites h circle followg friends December 1876; KGB II/5, 204f.), but which he mentions circumstnces re more generl resons for Loue Ott he mkes it cler becuse h ill helth (16 most importnt fcr surely tht erly dictes vlue friends him surroundg s letter Erw Rohde, where he compenstion for h wreness spiritul oltion: Ver sich ls Esiedler zu fuhlen gewdhnt ht, wer mit klten Blicken durch lle die gesellschftlichen und kmerdschftlichen Verbdungen hdurchsieht und die wzigen und zwirnfdigen Bchen merkt, die Mensch n Menschen knupfen, Bchen so fest, db e Vdhuchchen sie zerblst: C...] wer esm t vermdge eer Nturmrotte, vermdge eer seltsm gebruten Mchung von Wunschen Tlenten und Willensstrebungen, der weib, welch 'e unbegreiflich hones Vunder 1 e Freund t. (10 Jnury 1869; KGB 1/2, 357; cf. II/l, 106) The close correltion between se two sides Nietzsche's chrcter, on one h humn need for friendship pssionte dvoccy pursuit simple compnionship, on or heroic solitude, n spect which Elbeth Fdrster-Nietzsche stresses her biogrphy her bror, 7"5 h biogrphy Dniel Hlevy, essentil tension: 'En meme o, temps ctully que, brgs prosteur, out il quite clerly th ecrit un hymne ci l solitude, & l brvoure d'un penseur C Schopenhuer ls Erzieherl, musicien, il compose un hymne 1'mitie: "Je le chnte pour vous us", dit-il Rohde'.*"«Even t stges h life when Nietzsche ws reltively gregrious, n, h idel friendship would lwys rem tht one--one converstion rr thn ny kd group ctivity. contrsts riches good The pssge quoted bove, which he friendship with 'lle die gesellschftlichen und kmerdschftlichen Verbdungen', mkes th cler, Menschllches, Allzujoenschllches revelg pssge from 'Der Mensch im it spelt out

94 -89Verkehr 1 entitled 'Ds Zwiegesprch 1 : ee Ds Zwiegesprch 1st ds vollkommene Gesprch, weil lles, ws der de ID sgt, see bestimmte Frbe, selnen Klng, see begleitende Gebr erhlt, strenger Siickslclit uf den eren, mit dem gesprochen wird, e und lso dem entsprechend, ws beim Briefverkehr geschieht, dfi er bld derselbe zehn Arten des seelchen Ausdrucks zeigt, Je nchdem Be Zwiegesprch gibt es nur ee n diesen, bld n Jenen schreibt. dner ezige Strhlenbrechung des Gednkens: diese brgt der Mitunterre schon hervor, ls der Spiegel, welchem wir unsere Gednken mbglichst wiedererblicken wollen, (MA, I, 374) respect it mimics most closely wht effect lost: 'Deshlb wird den men, Liebenswurdigkeit 1 'getige Anmut' light such pssge, Bernrd zu nehmen, welche e mcht', Th mkes for idle, such women Gegensten Welt der 1'gcit spire le petit cln des Verdur'. 7T even when Nietzsche writg lose ir 'getige Nietzsche tells us. In de Fllo surely mtken exp- by ssocitg philosopher with: th fr - he Nietzsche t lest society lger, friendship Le Grnet de 1908 g on Proust's denuncition Nietzsche petits cercles times qui thn one terlocur hzustellen, wie sie sd, ber Ttschen Gesprch zu den ngenehmsten Dgen s Nietzsche's prdigm im Verkehr mit mehreren gezwungen, Mensch Jenen spielenden ir der Humnitt egotic tlk mong more But with der sich uf sich zuriickzuziehen, die reveled socil terction, letter-writg. it llows one dopt prticulr terlocur; th suit person tilor one's words becuse idel Converstion with one prtner mensonge ' Le dns dej only Not men pre de 1'mitie, ce gout des Ste-Beuve et qui lui does Proust himself not go sme thg by friendship - but friendship, he still very gret dtnce from dvoctg spirit 'petit cln'.

95 -90Plnic Friends In Foreword h UnzeltgemBe Second Betrchtung, Nietzsche refers himself s 'Zbglg lterer Zeiten, zuml tht we must beg For Nietzsche's defence fleshg dmirtion for ncient mong men, s when he Akdemie' (15 December out Nietzsche's friendship Greeks writes 1870; der griechchen', it here own position on friendship. quite evidently formed by h ir idel 'Plnic' friendship cretg 'ee neue grlechche Rohde KGB II/l, 165), or when he writes Die frohllche Wsenschft ' Zu Ehren der Freundscbft', stressg 'dfi ds Gefiihl der Freundschft ds dem Altertum ls Elbeth Fbrster-Nietzsche quotes with who seizes on th spect goes so hbchste pprovl fr s Gefuhl git' (FV 61). 7Q erly critic Leo Berg, mke it cornersne Nietzsche's philosophy: Friedrich Nietzsches gnze Philosophie t gewsermben e grobrtiger Freundschftskult. Auch dr gleicht er Pl. [...] Der Freund wird der Inhlt und ds Ziel seer Philosophie, zu seer Verherrlichung ht er den ubermenschen erdcht und die ewige Wiederkunft getrumt. Er t der Sn ller seer Schriften, der letzte Zweck der Kultur. 7"* Wlter Kufmnn, o, writes th connection scrcely less rhpsodiclly: ' It seems s if Nietzsche hd purposely left behd our entire civiltion trvel bck through centuries Pl's Symposium. ncient Perhps no or modern re-experience spirit Socrtes g bout Kufmnn's ccount, though, corollry, tht Nietzsche ws homosexul, Ans jo compny t philosopher hs tried so hrd h dciples.' 90 tht he Vht terest- ddresses obvious blks t notion (suggested 1917 rticle by Vilhelm Stekel), dmsg it fltly: Stekel suggests tht Nietzsche ws homosexul without himself knowg it. Th clim, justly repudited or ignored rest literture, seems bsed on flimsiest knowledge Nietzsche. H

96 -91- tellectul celebrtions mle friendship notwithstg, overheted stred heterosexul imgery Zrtbustr, especilly its poems, Nietzsche's lter requests for women sylum seem pro tht h drems were women. 61 Eve Kosovsky Sedgwick, for one, not convced by th le rgument, by 'lookg t Nietzsche through Closet, she gives brillintly tions homoerotic desire. 82 optic 1 her Eptemology Wilden provoctive For redg Nietzsche's scrip- Sedgwick: 'It Nietzsche's most effective tensities both wrd or men wrd mle lmost ll m were' (p. 133). body; seems ptent tht mny life writg were directed it's t lest rguble [...] tht She develops th openg position by wy lk with Proust: A phrse dex Nietzsche could esily be confused with, shll we sy, Proust's Sodone et Gomorrhe, feturg 'version', 'contrry stcts', contr nturm, 'hrd', sick, hyper-virile, 'decdent', 'termedite type 1. <p. 134) Where Kufmnn vokes ' overheted concordnce s it would effemte, neuter, stred heterosexul imgery Zrthustr', Sedgwick exmes Nietzsche's imge mle pregnncy fds ' sexy mtics ripeness, fructifiction, trtion between men' (p. 136). Sedgwick's rgument highly nunced, though: she concedes tht 'you would hve tried put hetero bck tempttion rgue 'tht describe Ecce him [Nietzsche] s mn who Homo* ostensibly mess, ecsttic rupture, pene- (p. 161), she rests heterosexul ntentimentl Nietzsche ws, like, Wilde, [...] "relly" "relly" sentimentl' <p. 154f.). Insted she reds mle sme-sex desire s chrge which energes Nietzsche's writg strightforwrd 'virility' nme wekness rection. Her redg homosexul, t sme time problemtes pprently which he denounces 'effemte 1 Nietzsche's reltion Wgner prticulrly persusive: citg Freud's lt ' possible ero-grmmtic-

97 -92l trnsformtions tht cn be generted unspekble under homophobic regime mn)"', she rgues 'own tht Nietzsche's contrdiction sentence, utternce, most grmmr for th prohibited sentence' : '"I ( mn) love him ( "I chrctertic vested not love him, I m him". do do not desire, let us sy, Vgner; I m Wgner' (p. 161). Ecce similrly repressed reltion direction Nietzsche dopts: '.Ecce Homo, contuite de 1'oeuvre et reciproque ne met 1'ccent de que sur le s volonte oublint rpport "le de souligner l rpport" erotique rherique: Schopenhuer et m&tphores de Vgner urient et6 seulement des Srh Kmn pots Homo, stressg strtegy dns 1'unifier, I Iui-m6me dont il se serit empre son usge. l133 Whtever position one ultimtely dopts on question Nietzsche's own sexulity, though, it neverless cler ideltion heterosexul love s tht debsement entils superficilg tervention 357), deed love generl seekg wht he refers setzung der Liebe, bei der (cf. Die Jenes eer eer neuen Begierde und nch eem iiber ihnen Letter stehenden Nietzsche MA, I, 378; KSA 8, 325), 8, 326), tht we should be Wlssenschft s ' ee Art Fort- hbsiichtige Verlngen zweier Personen nch Hbsucht, Idele rechter pplies Greek idel h own eem genelns&en hoheren Durste gewichen flme with Geschlechtsliebe for t: ber wer kennt diese t Freundschft' (FW 14). friendship Ocber 1869; KGB II/l, 62), lthough look-out (cf. M 503). frobliche Ihr him from beg on (cf. Rohde, 10 Jnury 1869; KGB 1/2, KSA Liebe? wer ht sie erlebt? compre 'die scheublich-gierige views (Chrtin) Greek idel, for it womn rgues tht friendship superior mrrige fmilil love (cf. MA, I, 354; he mit He Rohde, whom he sks der Freundschft!' (7 mid-1870s tht does not prevent wife, o, s he tells Mlwid von

98 -93269), he proposes unsuccessfully Meysenbug (25 Ocber 1874; KGB II/3, for only three dys (11 her knowg Mthilde Trmpedch April 1876 fter April 1876; KGB II/5, 147). It Zrthustr who most outrgeous h dprgement women, 'Vom Freunde 1 we re ld: section In th context s every or, Deshlb t ds 'Allzulnge wr im Veibe e Sklve und e Tyrnn versteckt. es Veib noch nicht der Freundschft fhig: Ktzen sd immer noch die Veiber, t ds Weib nicht der Freundschft fshig: und Vogel. nur die Liebe', : 'JToch kennt But contrry Oder, besten Flles, Kiihe' (Z, I, 'Vom Freunde'). no delusions bout possibility under Proust's imge him, Nietzsche or vlue (mle) friendship, eir, he quite prepred dmit, with Proust, tht friend lso Freundschft fhig. superficiles. contues, wer von euch t denn fhig while Zrthustr echoes Nietzsche's erly letter erlier 'Vom Freunde 1 Rohde clls friend surfce converstion between cork which periodiclly buoys bck up two voices with hermit's t ds Veib nicht der Mnner, Aber sgt mir, ihr der Freundschft? 1, Zrthustr ' JToch self - mkg tht converstion endurble. Nietzsche thus recognes vlue 'superficility' friendship more positive wy thn does Proust friends cn simply help cheer up with h rr begrudgg dmsion tht despondent dividul when h muse deserts him. "Freunde, es gibt kee Freunde!" f : Dcipieship Cretive Independence More importntly, though, JTietzsche dependence cretive ( Just especilly s dmnt s Proust tht self-cretive) dividul must

99 -94- trmmelled not be by likens 'Vter, Lehrer, Freunde' Menschllches, In friendships, Allzuxenschllches he gst which one should never rilg one's weight ny cse, but which need len, which could not support simply gives enough ressurnce by its presence enble one go one's own des Schutzes der fihe' (HA, I, wy: 'sie geben die beruhigende Empfdung 600). It Zrthustr who mkes th pot most ctegoriclly g, for he knows from h own experience with h followers tht friendship where re where n equlity between prticipnts - be mted defitely stfction or - unstble cnnot both. one dciple As Nietzsche's gret 'Lehrer 1, Zrthustr must resort prdox order mke h dciples rele th, preprg for h withdrwl from detchg t world m from himself end First Prt. 'Vhrlich, ich rte euch: geht fort von mir und wehrt euch gegen Zrthustr! 1 he urges: Der Mensch der Erkenntn mub nicht nur see Fede lieben, sondern uch see Freunde hssen kbnnen. Mn vergilt eem Lehrer schlecht, wenn mn immer nur der Schuler bleibt [...]. Ihr httet euch noch nicht gesucht: d fet ihr mich [...]. Nun heibe ich euch, mich verlieren und euch fden. <Z, I, 'Von der schenkenden Tugend'; EH, 'Vorwort', 4) Th sentiment echoed A l sme wy go f recherche by Elstir, who urges nrrr h dcover own truths, tred pth rtt: '"on ne recoit ps l sgesse, il fut l decouvrir soi-msme pres un trjet que personne ne peut fire pour nous, ne peut nous eprgner, cr elle est un pot de vue sur les choses1" (JF, II, 219). formultion prciple sme, dvice needs be ccepted before h own wy - thus, ironiclly, mster hs set. e<* for dciple contug Even prdoxicl ech cse wdom cn down mster go crry out progrmme which

100 -95For both Nietzsche Proust, n, development dcipleship necessry phse (rttic/(self)-cretive) necessry its ultimte overcomg. l impertive certly given dividul, but Just s In Nietzsche's cse th new ctegoric- more urgent heroic flection thn Proust's, but one must remember tht when Proust's nrrr encounters Elstir Blbec he t th stge position dciple who hs yet lern h mster's truth, wheres Nietzsche h Zrthustr re still position mster, fully wre wht t stke. In context h dmirtion for Shkespere's Brutus (but surely lso with n eye h own brek with Vgner), Nietzsche rgues Die frohllche Vsenscbft tht DO scrifice o gret terest spiritul dependence: 'Unbhngigkeit der Seele - ds gilt es hier! llebsten Freund selbst mue mn ihr Ke opfern herrlichste Mensch, die Zierde der Velt, spendg o long lteng h kdnnen, und sei er noch dzu der ds Opfer ohnegleichen 1 (FW 98). mster's less thn h tegrity s n dividul; own wy turng h bck on h Opfer knn d zu grob se: seen it voice, By pupil rks nothg only by strikg out on h mster - deed killg mster on rod - tht buddg Buddh cn not only fd himself but lso, ironiclly, rele true meng friendship. Nietzsche gives th prdox its full weight by reducg postrophe it Artle's '"Freunde, es gibt kee Freunde!'" (MA, I, 376), which Derrid hs recently so richly explored. es The qulifiction for beg good friend Nietzsche's book(s) thus good del more complex thn tht which Hlevy turn Proust implies, nmely bility cope with high-tble smll tlk: J es gibt Freunde, ber der Irrtum, die Tuschung uber dich fuhrte sie dir zu; und Schweigen misen sie gelernt hben, urn dir Freund zu bleiben; denn fst immer beruhen solche menschliche Beziehungen druf, dfi irgend e pr Dge nie gesgt werden, J dfi n sie nie geruhrt wird. (KA, I, 376) ee

101 -96- notion superficility friend- Th mounts development on re bove: propoundg ship which we sw Zrthustr even unreveled knowledge withheld from ( by) must be kernel closest friend order for friendship survive, not only must friends be kept t dtnce dtnce settle for 'limited engge- but y must keep mselves t context, th It ment', Nietzsche sserts. n evitble unbridgeble gp even (especilly) between friends, tht Zrthustr contues s one's closest enemies - love by rgug one should tret one's friends m ccordgly. selnem Leiden ee Ruhesttte, doch gleichsm een leidenden Freund, so sei ihm m besten niitzen' (Z, II, 'Von e hrtes Bett, e Feldbett: so wirst du 499). As Kufmnn puts it: 'Nietz- educrs one nor; educrs I, den Mitleidigen'; cf. KSA 8, 333; MA, sche thought tht friends should must not be sentimentl', er not do pity: 'Hst du ber must The one thg friend but specificlly Nietzschen sense be Betrchtung, Schopenhuer ls Erzleher, where h self-overcomg. QQ Agst educr portryed s n ctlyst process s cts undersod here its fourth UnzeltgewBe s 'Erzieher', exemplr who 'drws out' pupil be must 'educr' junction Chrtin 'love thy neighbour 1 CNchstenliebe'), Zrthustr preches 'Fernstenliebe': 'Nicht den Der Freund sei euch ds Fest der Nchsten lehre ich euch, sondern den Freund. Erde und e Vorgefiihl des ubermenschen' (Z, I, 'Von der Nchstenliebe 1 ). ultimte form friendship for menschen', but it form which hrks bck Greek, gontic Nietzsche, by for self-overcomg. tht between 'uber- no mens neutrles conflict still model: with cknowledged tensions subsumed n, The it bsed on respectful rivlry, under common productive quest

102 -97Concluslon ber little resemblnce eir The fetures 'Proust's Nietzsche', n, figures like Whtler or Cesr At times fictionl chrcter. Nietzschen metphor) fictionled constructs bsed on rel exmple, Proust fils cknow- for Frnck, Norwegin philosopher', given Joyce uses Nietzsche very th ice ( use Nietzsche, o, ' he grnts himself. wy Proust h Dubllners short similr sry 'A Pful Cse 1, where h which licence poetic clled hve should perhps very on sktg he sme wy, s nor essentilly Nietzsche ledge tht he usg Wheres most importnt uncriticlly).^ recherche re rtt figures A l views on number Proust commentrs from subject (lthough tht hs not prevented cceptg h le on Nietzsche publhed h or friendship Nietzsche's own prctice Mr Duffy, vests 'two chrcter, m volumes by Nietzsche: Thus Spke Zrthustr The Gy Science' fter he hs broken with h mtress, loneless. s>0 sid Nothg more console himself h ttempt n pprent se or thn tht y volumes sod on Mr Duffy's shelves - Joyce 'ttches' Nietzsche h chrcter just s Proust ttches philosopher Nietzsche represent somethg more whole, if only order gently St-Loup - chrctertic irone but t lest Joyce uses h philosophy s chrcter's pretensions heroic oltion. In n importnt sense, Nietzsche Proust's prdigmtic philosopher, for he mde represent ruthless most cse figure serch 'tellectul' truth, vehemently rejected s consequence by writer for whom such 'truths' could never be or thn superficil. Tht Proust's ttck on th imge Nietzsche s philosopher should be lked n ttck

103 -98on friendship perfectly constent, s Deleuze pots out: Dns philosophe, 11 y 'mi'. II est importnt que Proust dresse l m me critique & l philosophic et 1'mitie. C... ] C'est que l philosophie, comme 1'mitie, ignore les zones obscures ou s'elborent les forces effectives qui gsent sur l pensee, les determtions qui nous forcent penser.* 1 position. 1'mitie. *'3:* de d'pfitres tnt que de 1'mitie, je l prtique vec e reste que si oriquement Je su un Jcques Riviere: 'Notez du letter Moreover, Proust writes beucoup plus de ferveur tht th lso Nietzsche's own Wht Proust fils recogne, though, Th complex position which he unwillg grnt Nietzsche becuse h brek with Vgner, but which I would rgue pplies Nietzsche's mbivlence on Proust's own. And where Hlevy reds Nietz- friendship just s much s sche's Der Fll Wgner s veiled encore' Vgner, so by sme 'j'ime ken one could red Proust's ttck on Nietzsche s veiled ' J'ime encore 1 or wy on emently Proust hd grdully moved himself, from both whom Hlevy ddressed Bertr de Fenelon**3 tellectul grounds, SP<* Hlevy's 'cse' fter h love-letter My 1888 (ironiclly enough, sme month s Nietzsche's 'Turer Brief >. *s A rejection defition, received its enquiry philosophicl concomitntly deeply-rooted mbivlence concerng vlue friendship, re Just two mny positions which Proust Nietzsche shre, which Nietzsche frequently dopt friendship, but cse homosexul both study explore. th it purpose remder subject-position writers mes: humn ter-reltions generl lnguge mens communiction, n vlortion dvoccy when writg on one cn see friendship fd its plce with similr configurtion self-expression prticulr, Not only does dtrust vlue s vehicle for dequte rt s most effective heroic dividulm, especilly

104 -99- tht rtt. Hd Proust been gst Nietzsche from strt, he better might formed less prejudiced hve been more symptic philosopher cknowledged ir common ground.

105 Chpter 2. Eptenoptics: Proust's Perspectiv 'il n'y ps de vri; il n'y que des mnieres de voir 1 (Flubert) In previous chpter I llowed Proust but it time d'ecrire un romn beg fresh. 'De perspectivte 1, 'Proust's perspectivm1 hs become recherche sce Proust's I 1 v generl, writes Vcent somethg now, formul which hs been ccepted on A l set gend for my compron, Proust se propose Descombes, 1 deed criticl commonplce by by every genertion critics writg own time. Gerrd Genette mentions 'le "perspectivme" de l description proustienne' only dms pic s fit ccompli which hs cesed be terestg: sujet, d'illeurs bien connu'; 2 but it will be ' Ne revenons ps sur ce tsk th chpter question exctly how 'bien connu' 'Proust's perspectivm1, sce, for ll frequency its ressert!on, it estblhes between Proust lk Nietzsche, whose philosophy perspectivm troduced term Europen criticl dcourse, 3 hs remed implicit unnlysed. In one sense, course, Genette gret mny studies Proust's novel right, which for re hve deed been hve focussed on h mnipultion nrrtive perspective, slipperess Proustin 'je' unrelibility nrrr whose pot through irony version - Doubrovsky highlights s 'perspectiv- me de l presenttion des Proust criticm, personnges term mnipultion pots wht view so systemticlly reltived itilly view A pr rpport pplied l for h multipliction In recherche ws not 'perspectivm1, though, but 'reltivm1, or rr 'reltivity 1. first volume Sodome et Gomorrhe u je percevnt', 4 Roger Allrd, reviewg Nouvelle Revue Frnce 1922, remrks: 'Le mot de reltivite se presente nturellenient quiconque reflechit

106 -101- & l portee de cette decouverte psychologique 1. s word 'reltivity' should sprg Este's generl ory, publhed only The 'nturlness 1 with which md seven reflects currency yers previously, ors were quick follow Allrd mkg Proust/Este compron. s The first critic mke 'Perspektivmus 1 ws Ernst Krcel Proust, begun while before fl volumes move Robert Proust A l from 'perspektivche Reltivitt' Curtius, ws still h live recherche hd ground-brekg study even publhed 1925, ppered. 7 It no cocidence tht term should first be pplied by Germn critic, lthough Curtius mkes no mention lietzsche th context, despite h mny respects highly Nietzschen criticl position ( end th chpter). Insted, he derives philosopher whose work populred which I shll return t 'perspectivm1 from Spnh term th period, Orteg y Gsset (who turn climed be borrowg it not from Nietzsche but from Leibniz), 9 h study s Proust's Plnm. whole, s I hve lredy Curtius 1 s study ppered mentioned, ends by ssertg French trnsltion 1928, 9 it here tht Smuel Beckett picks up term 'perspectivm', which he uses openg prgrph h Proust, first publhed Beckett he dcerns A l recherche writes tht 'dulm multiplicity' which 'will be exmed more closely reltion Proust's "perspectivm'1 ', 10 but g he mkes no mention thoroughly Schopenhuerin Nietzsche redg "'perspectivm1" wrds end Heidelberg lborry.' 11 Sce here, Proust, h Beckett's lthough notbly Lou Bolle Anne Henry, who hve proceeds sted with returng study 'Proust's perspectivm' hs generlly been icl thn n eptemologicl sue, only time, pic sneer t Curtius 1 s s Genette dictes, treted s more nrrlog- re hve been few critics, lso sought tret it its

107 -102Lou Bolle's Mrcel Proust philosophicl context. most susted nlys th question, Mondologle Proust CLe prgrphe 57 de l tions perspectivtes de Proust 1 ), 12 while ou le complexe d'argus but Bolle's Leibnizin nnonce dej utes les descrip- Anne Henry, s one would expect, lks Proust's 'perspectivme nrrtif Schopenhuer. 13 shll pursue rgug tht 'Proust's compron between Proust's perspectivm' cn eptemology be undersod In th chpter I Nietzsche's, its fullest Nietzschen sense. 1 Proust drew on n credibly Shttuck: 'But it prciplly rich through tht he beholds depicts world. mircle vion.' 1 * reperry metphors,' writes Roger criticm, it hs remed one Indeed one could pursue vul generl opticl most frequently considered pics. simply between Nietzsche's Proust's uses imgery reltg opticl struments mgic lntern kleidoscope, phogrphic cmer, 'Proust's imges which Proust criticm hs Opticl imgery will but I tend concentrte on - on one h 'Mikroskop- cmer obscur <GD, IX, 7), ie on or boculrs', mny or similr drwn ttention.?<s rt optics erliest mes be explored by Proust compron iker der Seele' <GM, I, 1) science Truth - Proust believed it - The importnce imgery prticulr ws one necessrily feture th chpter, reltion between pot view truth which Shttuck foregrounds, which we sw Proust's Elstir lso highlightg t end lst chpter with h ssertion: 'l sgesse [.,.] est un pot de vue sur les choses'. Before we cn consider 'Proust's perspectivm', though, we need first exme how Nietzsche uses term; moreover, sce it does not pper h philosophy until mid-1980s response mny problems which he

108 s, it will be necessry beg hs been workg on right from erly furr bck Nietzsche's nswer. by exmg wy Nietzsche problem- So I shll strt tes truth h erly philosophy, ongog lnguge criticm, pot term Proust's considertion wht I shll Nietzschen model. which t movg before develops philosophy perspectivm proper 'perspectivm' becomes which question consider I shll on consider how h mid-1880s turn out h n extended 'eptemoptics' light 'Proust's perspectivm', I shll rgue, mounts good del more thn merely experimentg with nrrtive pot view. 'Vs 1st Whrheit?': Hletzsche Pilte 1 Im gnzen neuen Testment kommt kee ezige Bouffonnerie vor: ber dmit note from utumn 1887 t e Buch widerlegt 1, writes Nietzsche (KSA 12, 416). Before him, Frnc Bcon uthor Shkespere's plys (EH, II, 4)) hd (whom Nietzsche honoured s found t lest one Joke it, even if he himself did not fd it funny: ' Wht truth? sid Jestg Pilte, Bcon would not sty for n nswer.' 17 hs little respect for those who revive Pilte's question modern times, he contues: Certly re be tht delight giddess, count it bondge fix belief; ffectg free-will thkg, s well s ctg. And though sects philosophers tht kd be gone, yet re rem cert dcoursg wits which re sme ves, though re be not so much blood m s re ws ncients. Nietzsche would undoubtedly Bcon's terms s 'free-will loth be clim tht he hs t lest s much chrctere thkg' blood ( h 'free spirit 1 he would certly wnt h ves s ncients!), but neverless he must surely rnk s one foremost mong 'dcoursg

109 -104- Pilte's ddress wits' who hve contued Indeed he problem- question. Pilte. Not only does Nietzsche pproprite for himself Pilte's or most fmous le, 'ecce homo', but he it explicitly voked h notes Pilte Vhen <cf. VS 66, M 93; AC 8). throughout h philosophicl creer truth?' echoes h formultion 'Wht publhed works heir self-conscious tes truth s Invribly context Nietzsche, eqully vribly, trets him with respect. th question, The most celebrted cse Der Antichrt: Hbe Ich noch zu sgen, dfi im gnzen Neuen Testment blob ee elnzlge Figur vorkommt, die mn ehren mub? Piltus, der rdmche Sttthlter, Een Judenhel ernst zu nehmen - dzu uberredet er sich nicht. B Jude mehr oder weniger - ws liegt drn?... Der vornehme Hohn ees Romers, vor dem e unverschmter MiBbruch mit dem Wort 'Vhrheit' getrieben wird, ht ds Neue Testment mit dem ezigen Vort bereichert, ds Vert bt - ds see Kritik, see Vernlchtung selbst t: 'ws t Vhrheit!'... (AC 46) Even if Nietzsche tkes Pilte's question seriously does not consider it 'Bouffonnerie 1, its effect refutg New Testment - i.e. denyg possibility tht Chrt cn be ' wy, truth, life' (John 14. 6) - still s devsttg. Indeed mkes it cler tht he ctully note h for th pssge Nietzsche confltg two biblicl cidents give h version greter effect, for wheres Bible 'I m wy, truth, life' Chrt's nswer Thoms's wy?' durg Lst Supper, Nietzsche terrogtion by Pilte: 'Es wird moves question it forwrd time h der <dfi> erzhlt 'how cn we know beruhrte Stifter des Chrtenthums vor Piltus sgte "ich b die Vhrheit"; die Antwort des Romers druf t Rms wurdig: ls die grobte Urbnitt ller Zeiten 1 (KSA 11, 100). ie Nietzsche, n, turns biblicl (he turns Pilte's question n scene exclmtion), more drmtic conflict he reds encounter

110 -105- gonlly, s typologicl confronttion He reds Pilte s Judeo-Chrtin trditions. 131 pgn Romn between - n ntgont Chrt, denier Chrt - s first 'Antichrt 1, deed, first long le identifies. 20 sides' 'tkes figures with whom Nietzsche The 'giddi- ness' which Nietzsche mtes tht murderers God CSturzen wir nicht fortwhrend? Und replys tht when he 125)), so it no cocidence (FV Gibt es noch e Oben und e Unten?' confronttion Pilte/Chrt sprch Zrthustr, it should be t prodiclly Also pot where Zrthustr chnces upon who ok exception Chrt's Mensch 1, 1 der Mbrder Gottes 1, 'der hblichste nch lien Seiten? vorwrts, seitwrts, rxickwrts, immodesty presumption: Dieser Unbescheidne mcht nun lnge schon den kleen Leuten den Kmm hoch schwellen - er, der keen kleen Irrtum lehrte, ls er lehrte 'ich - b die Whrheit', Wrd eem Unbescheidnen Jemls hlicher gentwortet? - Du ber, o Zrthustr, ggst n ihm voriiber und sprchst: 'Ne! Ne! Dreiml ne!' (Z, IV, 'Der hfilichste Mensch 1 ) Zrthustr himself figured here s Peter, thrice-denier Chrt, tkes h plce Chrt, or le noble words concludg descent Ecce from Pilte: Zrthustr vs. ' Dlonysos Homo, gegen den Gekreuzlgten' <EH, IV, 9). But God lives on philosophicl imgtion, for mny re Western those, besides Chrt, who hve climed 'I m truth'. Pl, for one - or Spoz, ccordg two versions section entitled 'Vie die "whre Welt" endlich zur Fbel wurde 1 Nietzsche senses ologicl Gbtzen-Dmmerung groundg Just s he now 'smells' 'die gottliche Antichrt knows wiles h Chrtin', Knt (GD, III, 6), or IV; KSA 14, 415). Western metphysics hir, Verwesung' (FW 125), but Nietzsche Chrtin like (GD, those ntgonts - like tht 'crfty who hve reclimed even Pilte

111 -106- rid ll, tht we will not get ee For lnguge will lwys we dpense with deceptive betrugerche Weibsperson! Ich furchte, wir die Grmmtik gluben,..' (GD, III, n werden Gott nicht los, weil wir noch 5), Nietzsche knows, bove believg grmmr: 'Die "Vernunft" sp metphysics lnguge, until we der Sprche: oh ws fiir until God 8). II, <MA, for Chrtinity, s 'Advokt Chrt!' smuggle divity bck order thgs. Lnguge, Truth... Lies: 'uber Vhrheit und Luge' 'Die Vhrheit! Schwrmercher Vhn ees Gottes! Vs geht die Menschen die Vhrheit n!' Cuber ds Pthos der Whrheit 1 ; KSA 1, 759) So Nietzsche's ttck on metphysics h critique lnguge, which powerful erly essy ' i/ber fds Whrheit its und truth timtely bound up with susted expression most Luge im ussermorlchen Sne 1 (1873), relentless ttck on humn hubr, prticulr presumptions conceptul lnguge. Here Nietzsche develops Geburt der Trgodle (1872) Dionysin fictions more specificlly lgutic ory truth collpses under weight encompss world with its erlier dulm from Die 'Ur-Ee' world Apolllnin direction, correspondence its sheer rrognce climg lgutic representtions. Delvg bck puttive prehry, Nietzsche chrcteres mn's borigl reltion world becomg Hercliten flux s 'metphoricl 1 one, for 1 Fundmentltrieb des Menschen' 'Trieb zur Metpherbildung' (KSA 1, 887), but th 'privte lnguge 1 metphors proved unsustble under pressure mn's sociltion, volcnic strem metphors 'hrdened' concepts: Nietzsche writes 'ds Hrt- und Strr^Verden eer ursprig-

112 -107- lich hitziger menschlicher dem Urvermbgen us Flussigkeit only by forgettg th It 883). hervorstromenden Bildermsse 1 (KSA 1, Phntsie prehric process tht mn cn clim conceptul 'knowledge 1 world t ll: he 'forgets 1 tht conceptul Mn imges h projections re herent nothg tell us bout world. deves such notions forgettg tht Nture 'Herself, 885), nthropomorphic one (KSA 1, (' truth 1 ) hve fct which projections (KSA 1, 878), nthropomorphic Htur 1 (KSA 1, re mere 'Conventionen der Sprche' truths 886), s ' Gesetzmssigkeit der world' 'empiricl own role s ' ktlerlsch h forgettg merely n schffendes Subjekt' (KSA 1, 883). 21 'Die Gesetzgebung der Sprche' (KSA unwrrnted fixtion relity for process 'Gleichschltung', deed, dcrete 877) ske sce Gleichsetzen des Nicht-Gleichen' (KSA 1, relity rbitrrily 1, units wholly mn's convenience - it Begriff entsteht durch 'CjJeder 880). results thus Lnguge divides up flux which give mn's tellect n pprent purchse on it, he n prides itself on 'describg 1 relity he hs thus prcelled out, so tht nothg more bsurd thn tulog- icl, nlyticl 'truths' lnguge, which Nietzsche thoroughly debunks: Venn ich die Defition des Sugethiers mche und dnn erklre, nch Besichtigung ees Kmeels: Siehe, e Sugethier, so wird dmit ee Vhrheit zwr n ds Licht gebrcht, ber sie t von begrenztem Ver, ich mee, sie t durch und durch nthropomorphch und enthlt keen ezigen Punct, der 'whr n sich', wirklich und llgemegultig, bgesehen von dem Menschen, wre. (KSA 1, 883) In th erly essy, short, s Nietzsche puts it 'truths' re dmsed s flsifictions - or contemporneous essy ' uber ds Pthos der Vhr- heit', pushg pot its prdoxicl extreme, mn must recogne 'Cd]ie Vhrheit, ewig zur Unwhrheit verdmrt zu se 1 (KSA 1, 760). wht mn flsifyg, wht Nietzsche's defition But if one sks 'die Velt' or

113 -108- Htur 1, gst rnged, n we fd tht defes writes 'ds rthsel- fur uns unzugngliches und 'e s ITtur' 'die or 'ds Wesen der Dge' (KSA 1, 879, hfte X des Dgs n sich' (KSA 1, 879) 880, 884), he He terms. usg mrkedly dultic, deed Kntin telligence Nietzsche's creer he still stge th t flsifyg congenitlly mn's which undefirbres X' (KSA 1, 880). 2* Nietzsche left se essys unpublhed, be superseded by perspectivtic/ will world structurlly beyond our ken for moment, s wy summg will power model, s we shll see, but up h erly position ' liber Whrheit h descriptions 'rel' Luge 1, let us llow Nietzsche und give h celebrted first response Pilte's question: Vs t lso Vhrheit? E bewegliches Heer von ICetphern, Menymien, Anthropomorphmen kurz ee Summe von menschlichen Reltionen, die, poetch und rherch gesteigert, ubertrgen, geschmuckt wurden, und die nch lngem Gebruche eem Volke fest, cnonch und verbdlich diken: die Whrheiten sd Illusionen, von denen mn vergessen ht, dss sie welche sd, Metphern, die bgenutzt und snlich krftlos geworden sd, Munzen, die ihr Bild verloren hben und nun ls Metll, nicht mehr ls Munzen Betrcht kommen. Wir wsen immer noch nicht, woher der Trieb zur Whrheit stmrnt: denn b jetzt hben wir nur von der Verpflichtung gehort, die die Gesellschft, um zu extiren, stellt, whrhft zu se, d. h. die usuellen Ketphern zu bruchen, lso morlch usgedruckt: von der Verpflichtung, nch eer festen Convention zu liigen, schrenwee eem fur lle verbdlichen Stile zu Ixigen. (KSA 1, 880f. ) Not only re 'truths' hbitul merely Sprche 1 or (here) most usul such, debsed co worn wy by metphors ' usus', s will lter chrctere s 'der Wille hbit fostered by society s 'Verstellung' (KSA 1, 876). conveniences, n, 'Conventionen der wy zur zu lssen 1 (KSA 1, 888)), he llows but truth-tellg (wht Nietzsche Whrheit' (JOB D) lso mere tmg mn's nturl predposition Ironiclly, deceived ('Der Mensch selbst ber ht which people hve forgotten re though, becuse mn likes beg een unbesiegbren Hng, sich tuschen himself ccept th stte ffirs:

114 -109- hbit which our representtion lgutic relity first stnce turn reforced by socil terction. Iletzsche's Perspectiv Nietzsche's bsic position on stte 'becomg* priml onlogiclly (which problemtes very sttus 'onlogy' itself), persts fter Die Geburt der Trgodie, ' iiber Vhrheit Luge 1 und h or texts from A pssge like followg, from Die erly 1870s h lter philosophy. frobllche Wlssenschft (1882), contues criticl project unmskg Vesen denken, d6 die Velt e lebendiges nture: conception nthropomorphms herent our 'Hiiten wir uns, zu sei. [...] Der Gesmtchrkter der Velt t dgegen lle Ewigkeit Chos, nicht i Sne der fehlenden NotwendGliederung, Form, Schdnheit, Veheit, igkeit, sondern der fehlenden Ordnung, und wie lle unsere stchen section deed rdicles completes vestigil nthropomorphm Menschlichkeiten own by project tht Nietzsche's heiben' (FW 109). 2A undermg position, erlier Th where world ws still conceived s n orgnic entity. Nietzsche's critique lnguge persts well, he will contue exp on h cmpign gst socil lnguge, s followg scbft-, ' Vir hben eben gr ke underpngs truth--lnguge, constructedness both consciousness wir "wsen" (Oder gluben oder furr Orgn bilden h lter work, s essy ' uber Vhrheit und Luge' metphysicl gst superficility throughout pssge from Die frdhllche Vlssen- fur ds Erkennen, fur die "Whrheit": uns Interesse der Menschen-Herde, der Gttung, e) gerde so viel, ls es im nutzllch se mg' (FV 354). But

115 -110- despite perstence problem 'Erkenntn' for Nietzsche, by th time (1887) he lnguge 'truth' between reltion conceivg erly essy ' uber Vhrheit und Luge 1. By th stge vocbulry deed whole tenor Nietzsche's nly- rr different terms those from denuncition 'metphoricl' s hs chnged, for he hs shifted nture trivilly tulogous 'perspectivm 1 mkes its ppernce. chnge Nietzsche's pproch cn The notebook entry question Pilte's be seen from h reformultion position, where mture h truth 1886, where he gives n nswer somewht different celebrted pssge Vhrhelf? (erti, die Hypose, bei der 1 vber Vhrheit und Luge': ' Vs 1st von Befriedigung entsteht, gergster Verbruch getiger Krft, usw.)' (KSA 12, 125). Here Nietzsche exps on h openg position 'truth 1 s hbit, sign lzess, pth expresses it now terms KSA 11, 635), but energy stfction expense (cf. restnce lest stctul drives - terms will power. 'Perspectivm 1 mkes its ppernce, n, 'Umwertungszeit 1 when Nietzsche ws workg be, but which h Jfcht. It philosophicl Nietzsche's execurs notebooks period , durg on book which ws not would publh th period s Der Vllle zur tht one fds him developg h philosophy perspectivm most extensively, terestgly he still developg Vhrheit?'. h thkg response question 'Ws t For time he ws plnng devote whole divion Jenselts von Gut und Sdee question, s but th ide ws shelved s Der begn thk mteril h Vllle s notes revel (KSA 12, 51, 52, 125), zur Mcht begn tke shpe he belongg more properly re sted. Unusully, pln which ws tken s bs for ir edition book by Elbeth Forster-Nietzsche Peter Gst ctully dted: 'entworfen

116 -Illden 17. Mrz 1887, Nizz 1 (KSA 12, 318), so it quite cler tht it ws superseded by pln which Colli Montri estblh s lst Nietz- sche ws mke before bong whole ide project, dted ' S12s Krl m letzten Sonntg des Mont August which '"ws t Vhrheit?" 1 (s First Book. Indeed ccordg th pln Jenseits nor Book notes <KSA Der 12, quottion) period ; Vllle figures s title for re ctully rrnged ). zur Kcht Nietzsche's work on question Neir section mteriled end, but perspectivm leves noticeble trces works which he did publh durg itself (1886), new prefces 1888' (KSA 12, 246; 13, 537f.), th period: Jenseits von Gut und Bbse second editions h erlier books ( ), Book V Die frohllche Wlssenschft (1887), Zur Genelogle der Morl (1887). Der Ville zur Vhrheit ls VIlie zur Hchf The OED defes 'perspectivm' s: 'The ory tht knowledge subject evitbly prtil limited by viewed; lso, prtility view'. dividul perspective from which it limittion herent knowledge on th In section which follows, though, I shll seek demonstrte tht for Nietzsche 'perspectivm1 entils gret del more thn th: perspectivm delibertely formulted s wy supersedg trditionl ory knowledge ('Erkenntnorie'), for Nietzsche's process cognition such tht be procured fct creted by lthough with term 'perspectivm' reltlvtion whole 'object' which 'knowledge' 'subject knowledge'. Nietzsche Wht more, privileges n opticl met-

117 -112- reltives he te sme here Nietzsche deed, hence confusion between huer - t - reltively trditionl metphor view' phor express limited 'pot Leibniz Schopen- importnce vul by developg opticl metphor tem with philologicl one. celebrte origry 'metphoricl' lnguge s he lter work he my no longer recsts he but Luge', und did 'uber Whrheit For h h erlier position writes eqully philologicl terms 'text' 'terprettion', perspectivm second Firstly on 'onlogicl 1 level, n, response wht Nietzsche dmses s hlf 1880s developed futility nturl scientts' ttempts world nme notions s 'm1. tie down 'essentil' flux unchngg truth (Beg), through such eternl, Perspectivm formulted ' Gegen ds wsenscjbft- llche VoruriV (KSA 12, 141), ' Gegen ds physiklche Am1 (KSA 12, 314; cf. 13, 302, 373), Boscovich declrg 373), but it mode mn's on wr Perspektlvlsmu& my be ' uur 12 section ee Jenselts Nietzsche duly follows ' mtches complexe Bedu'rf n'. 2S ' Der Form der Spezlfizltt' (KSA 13, complexity which crucil, for it pplies th just s much humn world s physicl, result tht 'der Mensch' now figured s site competg forces, 'subject' beg deconstructed mere ' Krftcentrum' (KSA 13, 373). On 'eptemologicl' level, 'truth' still Just cert species error (KSA 11, 506, 598), still just trick lnguge: 'Wir stellen e Wort h, wo unsre (Jnwsenheit nhebt, - wo wir nicht mehr weiter sehn kbnnen z.b. ds Wort "ich", ds Vort "thun", ds Wort "leiden": ds sd vielleicht Horizontlien unsrer ErkenntniB, ber kee "Vhrheiten"' (KSA 12, 185). compron with 'uber concerned lunch Vhrheit frontl und ttck Luge 1, on But where Nietzsche ws primrily sttus truth itself

118 -113denounced truth-tellg ('Vhrhftigkeit') fostered by society, h questiong will emphs truth s 1880s heit"? 1 (JOB 1; predicted on n cf. FV sks: 344; unmskg GM, reveled s nothg but 'Ville zur me nnounced s erly III, 24, Mchf ung 1 ), section truth stright zur 211 me eqution, will eigentlich "zur Vhr- zur <cf. Whrheit!'" Th shift dicted 27). sprch quotes life syg him: '"whrlich, den FiiBen dees Viliens uns 'Ville Also s which KSA 11, 699; 12, 352). now Th Zrtbustr, where Zrthustr Ville zur Mcht welt uch uf <Z, writg 'Ville zur Vhrheit t - Ville zur Mcht'. Perspectivm, n, Vhrheit 1, II, ' Von der Selbst-uberwd- Jenseits Uietzsche when more pround Jenseits, which poses 'Ds Problem ' Vs mn's hbitul convenience shifts vlue. its progrmmticlly by openg section vom Werte der Vhrheit 1, merely reduces th genelogicl true philosophers whose But it h notebook tht he works out most thoroughly implictions th dcovery: Der Ville zur Vhrheit t e Fest-jncieu, e Vhr-Duerhft-Jfc2ie.n, e Aus-dem-Auge-Schffen Jenes flschen Chrkters, ee Umdeutung desselben s Seiende. Vhrheit t somit nicht etws, ws d wre und ws ufzufden, zu entdecken wre, - sondern etws, ds zu schffen t und ds den IFmen fur een ProzeB bgiebt, mehr noch fur een Villen der uberwltigung, der n sich ke Ende ht: Vhrheit helegen, ls e processus fitun, e ktlves Bestimmen, nicht e BewuBtwerden von etws, <ds> 'n sich' fest und bestmt wre. Es t e Wort fur den 'Villen zur Mcht.' <KSA 12, 385) The fitely renewed process forcg world ccept designtions we give it, which we conveniently cll kd cretion, reveled here becomes simply susted belief perspective', for truth '"Vhrheit"' ll but which fct its violence - 'knowg truth 1 power one's projection, one's work rt. Subjekt' 'uber Vhrheit und Luge 1 now The 'kunstlerch schffendes no longer unmsked s merely

119 -114- purveyor lies, flsifier true fitely plurled - 'externlly 1 position tht 'objective' world, but reltived by beg 'ternlly'. world Beg The corollry th begs, stble 'thgs', exploded myrid competg projections/perspectives, ech one which cts merely s 'support' for its projecr. So if one still serch truth it not even possible defe one's terms: Ds 'ws t ds? 1 t ee Slnn-Setzung von etws Anderem us gesehen. [...] Zu Grunde liegt immer 'ws t ds fiir mlcti?' (fur uns, fiir lles, ws lebt usw.) B Dg wre bezeichnet, wenn n ihm erst lle Vesen ihr 'ws t ds? 1 gefrgt und bentwortet htten. Gesetzt, e eziges Vesen, mit selnen eigenen Reltionen und Perspektiven zu lien Ogen, fehlte: und ds Dg t immer noch nicht 'defirt 1. (KSA 12, 140> 2S FerspectivlsiB Interprettion 'Truth 1 reltionl, n, hs nothg do with ny puttive 'An sich 1 (KSA 13, 303) \ 27 plurled th wy it ceses hve ny exclusive vlidity, 'knowledge' must be primcy Hietzsche sserts which (s over replced 'Auslegung', supposed by 'Ausdeutung 1 (scientific) 1 Velt-Auslegung, nicht Welt-Erklrung' (KSA 12, notes th period (cf. KSA Vhrheit und Luge 1, ' fiir 12, 98, uns notion 'terprettion', 100, 39) 104). or 'Interprettion') 'explntion' truth. h wtchword The fixed pot 'uber unzugngliches X' gst nthropomorphms cn be denounced s flsifictions, boned. which mn's Similrly temporl dynmic governg tht erlier essy Die Geburt der Trgodle - prehric, borigl 'Dionysin' 'metphoricl 1 world which hs n 'Apollin 1 msk overlid on it or or hrdens concepts - developed from 'mythologicl' more psychologicl, 'genelogicl' conception (

120 -115Nietzsche's new sense term), which sserts tht re no recourse prior 'flsifiction 1. hricl fixed pot or orig no longer be but flsifiction, s denounced Hbit or cusm geneloged, for s Nietzsche writes n importnt pssge Second Essy Zur Genelogle der Jforl: lle Zwecke, lle Nutzlichkeiten sd nur Anzelchen dvon, ds e Ville zur Mcht uber etws weniger Mchtiges Herr geworden t und ihm von sich us den Sn eer Funktion ufgeprgt ht; und die gnze Geschichte ees Dgs, ees Orgns, ees Bruchs knn dergestlt ee fortgesetzte Zeichen-Kette von immer neuen Interprettionen und Zurechtmchungen se. (G1C, II, 12) repetedly sserted 'Der terprettive Chrkter lles Geschehens 1 von Erscheungen usgelesen Vesen' (KSA 12, 38). And zusmmengeffit und Vesen' might be, Nietzsche's nswer terpretirt, denn?" sondern ds eem terpretirendem emphtic: 'Mn drf nicht frgen: " vter selbst, Interpretiren ls ee Form des ls "Se", sondern ls e ProzeB, Villens zur Mcht, ht Dse (ber nicht e Verden) ls e Affekt' (KSA von or wht th ' terpretirendes who sks one if Ws geschieht, t ee Gruppe sich. se notes: 'Es giebt ke Ereignifi n 140). With h empiricl hypos will power, Nietzsche psses defitively beyond kd Schopenhuer- 12, in dulm 'will 1 'ide', 'will' its ' objectifictions', or scientts, for will-- nturl residully metphysicl redgs power model erses dtction between 'terpreter' 'terpreted* through voids estblhg ny such new dulms If uously occurrg process 'terprettion'. zur Jfcht - und nichts uberdem!* Interpretirt' (KSA 12, 139), n re - th textuled world-view ' il Grnier pots out, terprettion 'CdJiese Welt 1st der Ville 611), 'Cd]er Wille zur Mcht 11, (KSA th notion cont- cn be nothg outside terprettion n'y ' l ps de hors-texte'. As Jen fo 1'cte d'terpreter et le

121 -116texte terprets, l lecture et le livre, le dechiffrge et 1'enigme': Le texte lui-meme est un devenir! et 1'terprete, lui devenir! Le phenomene de 1'terprettion est done solite qui lieu, pour si dire, 1'entrecroement du devenir dont les unes se determent comme 'sens' comme 'ctivit6 de dechiffrge.' 261 So lthough Nietzsche's erlier eptemologicl ussi, est un cet evenement des sequences et les utres model bsed on < deconstruc- tion ) dtction between 'metphor 1 'concept' hs been superseded, h mture perspectivtic semiotic, represents perstence just on hyper-fltion philologicl with th globl textul conception tivm' fds its plce, for bsed philosophy, model. 2SP And it tht opticl metphor 'perspec- dtctions between 'knower' s 'known' or 'terprettion' 'text' re ersed, so tht between 'viewer 1 'viewed'. Ech 'pot view1, by s 'provionl centre perspective 1, 30 terprettion. And Just s re no model, wht Kmn refers th specific site for n event extr-text, it idle ttempt estblh nythg outside perspectivtic frmework (cf. FW 374; KSA 12, 188). Nietzsche grs ger se strs from Sprg 1887, where he rgues gst rgument so fr note both positivtic spirit h ge Schopenhuer's 'subjective idelm': Gegen den Positivmus, welcher bei de Phnomen stehen bleibt 'es giebt nur Thtschen', wiirde ich sgen: ne, gerde Thtschen giebt Wir konnen ke Fctum 'n sich' es nicht, nur Interprettionen. feststellen: vielleicht t es e Unsn, so etws zu wollen. 'Es t lles subjektiv 1 sgt ihr: ber schon ds t Auslegung, ds 'Subjekt' etws Hzu-Erdichtetes, Dhtert nichts Gegebenes, sondern Gestecktes. - Ist es zuletzt nothig, den Interpreten noch hter die Interprettion zu setzen? Schon ds t Dichtung, Hypose. Soweit uberhupt ds Vort 'ErkenntniB' Sn ht, t die Welt erkennbr: ber sie t ers deutbr, sie ht keen Sn hter sich, sondern unzhlige Sne 'Perspektivmus 1. Unsre Bedurfnse sd es, die die Velt uslegen: unsre Triebe und deren Fur und Wider. Jeder Trieb t ee Art Herrschsucht, Jeder ht see Perspektive, welche er ls Norm ller iibrigen Trieben ufzwgen mdchte. (KSA 12, 315)

122 -117Eptemoptlcl Illusion Just s Nietzsche's perspectivm response question 'Vhrheit', n, it eqully response question Verhelt'. 31 wht The 'ego' mere 'Construktion des Denkens' (KSA Philippe Lcoue-Lbr clls ' reduced 11, Nietzsche's nlys 526), 'ee begriffliche Syns' (KSA 12, 32); humn subject deconstructed plurlity competg ' Seelen-Axlstlk' but rr 'Seele drives, better expressed not terms ls Subjekts-Vielheit' or 'Seele ls Gesellschftsbu der Triebe und Affekte' (JOB 12; cf. KSA 10, 165, 324; 11, 168, 434, 631f.; 12, 104). n, it se drives or ffects In humn terms, terpret (' Wer legt us? - Unsere which Affekte' (KSA 12, 161)) rr thn consciousness, which but surfce (cf. FV 11, 54, 354; KSA 11, 117; spt, kiimmerlich II, 9), lte development: 'Ds BewuBtse EH, entwickelt, zu uberen Zwecken, den grbbsten Irrthiimern usgesetzt, sogr essentiell etws Flschendes, Vergrdberndes, Zusmmenfssendes' (KSA 12, 294). In subject, Bletzsche cn only replce it with 'knowledge' s he light reject term more understs h 'An deconstruction very term 'Erkenntnorie' itself dequte it: rdicl perspectivtic nture Stelle der "ErkenntniBorie" ee Perspektiven-Lehre der Affekte' (KSA 12, S42). 32 Consciousness my be prey 'den grbbsten Irrthiimern 1, but tht not sy tht drives Nietzsche mkes cler mselves especilly re somehow (Jenselts second-edition prefces), publhed where consequences perspectivm, perspectivm humn limittion, hence error. For immune from error, deed s works th period he ddresses prcticl synonymous with necessity plurlity truths leds prtility ny one pot view, truth cn no longer be opposed

123 -118'lie' becuse with th plurltion ech Wht we hve, n, n optics 'eptemopticl' illusion: but species 'lie 1. truth which ccounts for mn's cpcity for error, deed its evitbility, by cll truth h susceptibility wht one might 'Vordergrunds-Schtzungen 1, 'vorlufige Perspektiven', even 'Froschperspektiven' (ll JOB 2) re order dy; 'lles Leben runt uf Sche, Kunst, Perspektivchen und des Irrtums' 'Ds Perspectivche' defed - Tuschung, <GT, s ' Versuch 'ds Optik, Notwendigkeit des eer Selbstkritik', S).-"33 JTichtwsen, ds Im-GroBen-und- Groben-Sehen, ds Verefchen und Flschen' (KSA 11, 638f.) - essentil life itself (JGB, 'Vorrede 1, 34, Lebens 1 (JGB 11) turn n every perspective, every 188), 'Optik th 'Perspektiven-Optik des der Werthschtzung' (KSA 12, 423), for terprettion posits vlue: 'bei ller Werth- schtzung helt es sich urn ee bestimmte Perspektive' (KSA 11, 181). perspective (generted by drives) rgues crucil pssge re merely effects n evlution becuse, s Nietzsche genelogicl evlution: Every ' Trlebe nlys, drives mselves sd die Nchwirkungen lnge gehegter Vertbschtzungen, die jetzt stktiv wirken, wie ls e System von Lust- und Schmerzurilen. dnn nturlicher Hng (Trieb)' Zuerst (KSA rests ny essentilg defition Zwng, 11, 1 letzte Instnz', no ultimte explnry n terprettion ( noml dnn Gewohnung, dnn BediirfniB, 135). Even 'humn nture': prciple, verbl here, n, Nietzsche drives re no no 'text', for y re senses). Even drives re merely will power - drives mselves hve become. Nietzsche's perspectivtic deconstruction truth cn perhps best be summed up with lst pssge from h notebook 1886: DB der Verth der Welt unserer Interprettionen liegt (- db vielleicht irgendwo noch ere Interprettionen moglich sd ls blob menschliche -) db die bherigen Interprettionen perspektivche

124 -119- Schtzungen sd, vermoge deren wir uns im Leben, ds heibt im Willen zur Mcht, zum Wchsthum der Mcht erhlten, dfi Jede Erhohung dee Kenschen die iiberwdung engerer Interprettionen mit sich brgt, dfi jede erreichte Verstrkung und Mchterweiterung neue Perspektiven ufthut und n neue Horizonte gluben heibt - dies geht durch mee Schriften. Die Welt, die uns etws ngeht, t flsch d.h, t ke Thtbest, sondern ee Ausdichtung und Rundung iiber ee mgere Summe von Beobchtungen; sie t 'im Flusse 1, ls etws Verdendes, ls ee sich immer neu verschiebende Flschheit, die sich niemls der Vhrheit nhert: denn - es giebt kee 'Whrheit 1. (KSA 12, 114; cf. KSA 12, 191f.) So Nietzsche's ultimte nswer Pilte's question tht re simply no knowledge truth, re no objective scientts' sense. There re (KSA, 11, 133), Whrheiten"' '"vorlufige only foreground terprettions, 1 perspectivl' truths for me (JOB 231) - 'my 1 nme legion, for 'we* re mny (cf. JOB 202). Truths re merely those evlutions which hve emerged s (provionlly) domnt hierrchy terpretg drives. Proust's Perspectiv: An Apprenticeship Eptenoptics It light th chrctertion Nietzsche's mture perspectivcn tic philosophy tht I thk we 'Proust's perspectivm1, I shll comes dopt Nietzsche's pproch question beg now rgue tht Proust's nrrr ultimtely rr, h new or - position eptemologicl defition epteuiology itself s 'Perspektiven-Lehre der Affekte'. out, It should immeditely be poted though, tht re re evitble importnt differences emphs between two writers. fundmentl eptemologicl structure course its immense trjecry does full significnce so mny thgs Proust's novel, or words, Firstly, it A l recherche tht only over nrrr come pprecite which formerly Blldungsrosin he filed grsp. - deed it Selbst-

125 -120- uberwlndunssromn, sense bon overcome erlier tht positions, nrrr contully forced reterpret pst events re- evlute h opions or chrcters (for 'Coup de brre et chngement de direction dns les crcteres' (II, 1490), wht we hve seen Nietzsche fltly over course series ssertg, pful first which cuse him shed lnguge. red 'Umwertung ller Werte'). h Proust's nrrr hs lern dillusiong experiences, itilly nive belief power Wheres Nietzsche's extreme lgutic scepticm plce from erly h philosophicl creer, Proust's nrrr 1 ou on croit qu'on cree ce qu'on nomme' nme hs mgicl significnce for I, 496) t first predicted on So Combry ge (CS, I, 89), mere voction him. 3'* precely H 'mour de l verite' (JF, kd belief lgutic ' eterne verittes' which Nietzsche so roundly condemns (MA, I, 11), only s he psses from 'L'ge des noms* through 'L'ge choses 1 (Proust's origl section-divions for come recogne tht neir designrs, tht 'les noms plce-nmes sont des des mots' 'L'ge des novel) does nrrr nor personl dessteurs nmes fnttes 1 re rigid (JF, I, 538). 3S Of course Nietzsche himself lso bons overcomes erlier positions, he cknowledges s much 'Versuch eer Selbstkritik', for exmple, but s fr s 'knowg truth' concerned he scepticl from strt, s we sw our exmtion ' u'ber terms reference which will chnge. Whrheit und Luge', it only Wheres Nietzsche rdiclly nti- essentilt throughout h philosophicl creer, n, Proust's nrrr, by contrst, rems serch hs been boned. Elstir my 'essences' tell wdom ( - pce Shttuck - precely not even fter h onomstic dogmtm nrrr Blbec lredy tht truth) 'pot de vue sur les

126 -121choses' (JF, II, 219), but he hs come pprecite It for himself order dopt it s h own conviction. Secondly, more specificlly, wheres ITietzsche reltives truth from strt comes express h eptemologicl scepticm opticl terms only ltterly, with Proust th order priority reversed. knowledge opticl terms from begng kleidoscope (CS, I, 4), kescope (CS, I, openg pges 'Combry': or or world 7) Proust figures h novel, right from mgic lntern <CS, I, 9) lwys chrctered s n Imge truth ('Weltnschuung 1 ), nrrr reches h perspectivtic position by comg pprecite how fitely susceptible ny one such imge reltivtion by rivl imges, by competg perspectives. Wht nrrr hs lern d'optique 1, Nietzsche's terms perpetuelle erreur qui est evitbility 'les erreurs necessity precement l perspectivl error: 'Cette "vie 1" (AD, IV, 154). In section Menscbliches, Allzumenschliches entitled ' Ungerechtse notwendig 1, Nietzsche writes blekly 'necessry justice' 'Kee Erfhrung zum Bepiel iiber een Menschen, nh, knn vollstig se, so dfi wir humn reltions: stxde er uns uch noch so e logches Recht zu eer Gesmtb- schtzung desselben htten; lle Schtzungen sd voreilig und mussen es se' (KA, I, 32). In lter Prefce second edition sme book, he recsts th ssertion perspectivtic terms, spellg out deed how be good perspectivt: Du solltest ds Perspektivche jeder Wertschtzung begreifen lernen - die Verschiebung, Verzerrung und schebre Teleologie der Horizonte und ws lles zun Perspektivchen gehort [..,]. Du solltest die notwendlge Ungerechtigkeit Jedem Fur und Wider begreifen lernen, die Ungerechtigkeit ls unblosbr vom Leben, ds Leben selbst ls bedlngt durch ds Perspektivche und see Ungerechtigkeit. (MA, I, 'Vorrede', 6) It precely th 'LernprozeB 1 tht Proust's nrrr hs undergo,

127 -122pre-emently through h ter- perspectivm he will lern h lessons reltions with or chrcters novel. higher level generlity - generl - specificity Proust's which (t lest before, sy, reltion chrcters. explortion problem knowledge noveltic context, very precondition tht he explorg it Vke Flnnegns A Although reconstructg h world from specil cse world just knowledge generl, humn world pitched t just specific cse or knowg which rgument n illustrte merely one stnce used uber een Menschen 1 'Erfhrung Nietzsche Thirdly, n, wheres for recherche l pot vntge L'nomoble) ter- or begs with nrrr h bed, n, unlike Beckett's Mlone he does not sty re for rest novel but goes out world, 3fe even though h 'temps perdu 1 on superficil socil terction generl, retrospect he t times bitterly regrets converstions with friends level sections lrge novel re devoted precely such ctivities. Proust, or words, ws not n g neir ws Nietzsche, writer philosophicl trcts. But one specificities Nietzsche's philosophy bewilderg vriety voices he dopts, frequency with drmtic which he turns philosophicl problems vignettes. 37 He not terested resurrectg Plnic dilogue like Berkeley or Hume, but he prodies dilecticl form cessntly stion s most economicl wy exploits imgry conver- representg conflictg perspectives, from dilogue between Der Werer und se Schtten through exchnges between 'A 1 'B' Xorgenrdte sprch Zrthustr (which hs deed Die been frdhllche Wlssezschft3** Also turned stge-ply). 3>» And tht quite prt from 'quottions' from everydy life which he so ten

128 -123m ruthless psycho-genelogicl scruty, troduces order subject philosophers which he quotes so snippets or prphrses from erlier 'mn m with s be ble rgue mn', debunkg deridg h bsent terlocurs. mn 1 reltionship Nietzsche's drmted It not, however, 'mn present study, but rr philosophy tht gretest relevnce 'mn womn' reltionship which he estblhes with openg words Prefce Jenseits, which so uncnnily sets up primry eptemologdb die Vhrheit e Veib t icl dynmic Proust's novel: 'Vorusgesetzt, -'.* Ws re ever thn A l recherche? comprehensive more stntition th ssumption nrrr's pprenticeship Elstir which It my be llows him glimpse potentil for n estic solution h eptemo'pprenticeship' Alberte which llows him logicl problem, but it h comprehend full Moreover retrospective problem. tht extent nrrr, equipped with nswers h erlier self ws t times so desperte dcover, flirts h with turn with tesg us coyly ll while till reders end novel, h cessnt nnouncements tht he ( we, more ten thn not) will not fd out 'x' till lter, ksg tellg only tht re more tell. tht cknowledges Proust, n, like Nietzsche, will truth, fr from beg dterested pursuit, but product drives, msk for desire, tht 'knowg' but n effect Freudin terms libidl vestment). knowledge s trditionlly truth. As we sw himself explorg lst formulted chpter, erotic tht desire for knowledge ( Both writers respond problem with n flection, which why h gretest erotict n erotics Nietzsche does not confe though, reltionship optics merely its heterosexul truth Socrtes, h

129 -124erliest fvourite Plnic text, from sophy, Symposium ( Bnquet, sme h terest philo- yers which deed, friends ok s title for ir fledglg journl).* 1 Trgodie through Gotzen-Dxunerung, Erotiker' or thgs)^*2 'e grober (GD, complimentry wrds Pl when dcussg 8), II, From Die Geburt der for Nietzsche (mong mny Socrtes Proust h Nietzsche most 'philosophicl erotics' which dilectics s presented th, h most 'seml* text: Nichts t weniger griechch ls die Begriffs-Spneweberei ees Esiedlers, mir tellectul del nch Art des Spoz. Philosophie nch Art des Pl wre eher ls e erotcher Vettbewerb zu defieren, ls ee Fortbildung und Vernerlichung der lten gonlen Gymnstik und deren Vorussetzungen... Vs wuchs zuletzt us dieser neue Kunstform des Ee philosophchen Erotik Pls herus? griechchen Agon, die Dilektik. (GD, IX, 23; cf. IX, 22; GT 13) it In Proust's cse, o, prdigmticlly eptemologicl enquiries A l recherche: first reles tht h itil, consequences; it nrrr himself) who hyposes.*3 Tdi6 Proust's novel,"** but jelous becomes remrks on lover mrk, nrrr love who (itilly veritble lover who genertes comfortgly chrcters flls woefully short it cert eptemophilic fcry Swnn, for or explore proceeds 'donjunme nrrr view 'mic 1 subsequently production du Nrrteur 1 lso Nietzsche's sense 'Don Jun der Erkenntn': Ee Fbel. - Der Don Jun der Erkenntn: er t noch von keem Ihm fehlt die Liebe zu den Philosophen und Dichter entdeckt worden. Dgen, welche er erkennt, ber er ht Get, Kitzel und Genufi n Jgd und Intrigen der Erkenntn - b n die hochsten und fernsten Sterne der Erkenntn huf! (M 327)

130 -125The lrrr s Scientt In Die Geburt der Trgodle 'gret erotict 1 Socrtes presented s ficitg t birth eer Selbstkritik 1, 1). seen how Menschllches, Allzumenscbllches tke its cue from nturl Nietzsche himself rgues tht philosophy should reltivtion, but we hve lso sciences with ir potentil for hricl tkes, with h philosophy perspectivm, seen dtnce which he lter previlg scientific prdigm from mm physicts 'objective shre Nietzsche's dffection with such s vriety scientt figures Proust's nrrr comes truth'. method, for he styled scientific course but pprecite limittions ech, present chpter it on h enquiry by 'scientific 1 method (cf. GT, 'Versuch supposedly Ve hve lte neteenth century, nture true exemplry 'oretcher Mensch', mskg novel comes eptemopticl context given nrrr s stronomer serch 'Sterne der Erkenntn' tht I shll concentrte next section. *G In h observtion 'petite lso referred s 'l be zoophytique' 'jeunes filles en fleurs' - be 1 II, (JF, 210) - it nrr- r's tlents s humn botnt zoologt which re itilly clled upon. Here he brgs ber h 'curiosite de nturlte hum' (JF, II, 165) feels ' une stfction de botnte' (JF, II, lw nture. It th scientific model Proust's him, science mens bove ll 156) when y seem conform conformity lws which ttrction nrrr h legltg impulse: with ressurg ductive process derivg 'lws' humn behviour so s give himself predictive power tme future thus compenste h security. hrin's txonomic model, though, tht it The drwbck with nturl o sttic, so order

131 -126derive lws motion nrrr motion resturnt At Rivebelle lw witers dclosed reltively unproblemticlly observg nrrr (JF, II, 168), lws governg stronomer. *& turns ppernces but more work required derive 'petite be 1 on bech t Blbec: Combien d' observtions ptientes, m non pot serees, il fut recueillir sur les mouvements en pprence irreguliers de ces mondes connus vnt de pouvoir etre sor qu'on ne s'est ps Is6 buser pr des cocidences, que nos previons ne seront ps trompees, vnt de degger les lo certes, cques u prix d' experiences cruelles, de cette stronomic pssionnee! (JF, II, Astronomy here represents regulrity movement relibility - Just s nrrr switches stronomicl metphor sense n order hrmony Rivebelle when he begs resturnt scene before him (JF, II, 167), M. de Vugoubert's life scribed ' une poesie presque stronomique' (SG, III, 43) becuse predictblity nrrr's scientific zel thwrted, h fickleness. Ae however, for In Blbec only lw which h 'experiences cruelles' llow him formulte lw tht re re no 'lo certes'. 'Les lo psychologiques certe generlite' (CG, II, 524), ont comme nrrr les lo tells us physiques une Le Cdte de Guerjuntes, yet uncertty qulifier pprent him, for both kds lw rest ultimtely only on ' lws' probbility (P, III, 520). Prticulrly sche's ttck on physicts' pposite superstitious 'certe' becomes ll o belief th context Nietztht by seekg rules y cn protect mselves from dngerous uncertty rel world: Deshlb t die Regel suchen der erste Instkt des Erkennenden: whrend nturlich mit der Feststellung der Regel noch gr nichts 'erknnt 1 tt - Dher der Aberglube der Physiker: wo sie verhrren konnen d.h. wo die RegelmBigkeit der Erscheungen die Anwendung von bkiirzenden Formeln erlubt, meen sie, sei erknnt worden. Sie fuhlen 'Sicberheit' : ber hter dieser tellektuellen Sicherheit steht die Beruhigung der Furchtsmkeit: sie wollen die Regel, well sie die Welt der Furchtbrkeit entkleidet. Die Furcht vor dem Unberechen-

132 -127- bren ls Hlnter-Instlnkt der Vsenschft. CKSA 12, 187f.) str-gzg merely becuse him frustrtes its uses, but end hs For Proust's nrrr stronomicl prdigm stronomer-observer so utterly remote from object h vestigtion tht he cn never be quite cse prticulr, stronomicl observtion proves one loved normtive kd dequte extrctg ny Moreover, he sees (JF, II, 152). sure he terpretg correctly signs surut des etres que nous imons, les que connitre stres est mos difficile 'cr truths: le monde des ctions reelles des 6tres, qu'ils sont centre notre doute fortifies pr des fbles destees & les proteger 1 (P, III, 696). derived from botny zoology, he does not from which nrrr pltform but but et Gomorrhe I predomntly Sodoe vcte h observry: imgery stronomy, with dillusioned The nrrr my become views Chrlus Jupien's mtg ritul hs lredy been described t end Le Cdte de Guermntes s 'mon observire' (CG, II, 860), like h room Doncieres before it (CG, high Stendhl's frequent use s plces observry L chrtreuse de Froe settgs, III, <P, dmirgly on comments nrrr The 395). II, like bell wer- 879), for such perches llow observer look bck down erth s well s up sky. Lou Bolle hs convcgly demonstrted Proust's nrrr's own tste for bird's eye view, which hs cert perspectives,** th celebrtes preference 'commg' Byreuth' (EH, I, 4), but over superiority shred perspective lso ll ors by h hierrchy Nietzsche, from Sils-Mri, constntly seeks who not only '6000 FuB uber occupy metphoricl high ground, kd position from which he cn pronounce, echog Goe, ' Hler 1st die Ausslcht frel' (GD, IX, 46). so Fced with fundmentl unpredictbility or chrcters, though,

133 -128- hs content himself with certes' 'lo Proust's nrrr s seeker 'lw' 'termittence 1, lw tht re re no lws, tht one must expect unexpected. Just s Nietzsche remrks on how 'der Mensch im gnzen geworden und welbr und ezelne der selbst Mensch nichts Festes und nrrr forced rele tht Behrrendes t' (MA, I, 222), so Proust's with time or chnges cn exhibit seemgly exhustible rry serch different chrctertics, so tht for knowledge or by trg telescope on m bound lwys be frustrted: ce n'est qu'pres C3voir reconnu non sns tnnements les erreurs d'optique du debut qu'on pourrit rriver l connsnce excte d'un 6tre si cette connsnce etit possible. M elle ne 1'est ps; cr t que se rectifie l vion que nous vons de lui, lui-meme, qui n'est ps un objectif erte, chnge pour son compte, nous pensons le rttrper, il se deplce, et, croynt le voir enf plus clirement, ce n'est que les imges nciennes que nous en vons pres que nous vons reussi & eclircir, m qui ne le representent plus. (JF, II, 229) Perspectlvl Shifts Wht dequcy Proust's nrrr stronomicl dequcy ultimtely revels ny monoperspectivl eptemologicl overcome 'les erreurs d'optique' h telescope model, so order for him metphor must become t very lest, s Roger Shttuck rgues, set boculrs. Th brought home him by n cident one sense typicl moment recognition, duped hs reorder h mentl world, most tellg terms Le Cdt de Guermntes which but when he reles he hs been which t sme time one its eptemologicl implictions sce it first, refore nrrr explicitly dwells on m. The scene set fr-f time when nrrr still believed

134 -129propositionl truth: '& cette epoque-l Je me figur encore que c'etit u utres l verite' moyen de proles qu'on pprend ux ld. better 'object lesson 1 reltiv- no But nrrr given (CG, II, 365), we re tion object knowledge thn when he hers from Jupien wht Frncoe pprently sys bout him immeditely dpels h which bck, h behd hbitul imge her rudely wkens him possibility tht Frncoe not so utterly devoted him s he hd previously imged: Ces proles de Jupien tirerent ussit devnt moi, dns une tete connue, une epreuve de mes rpports vec Frncoe si differente de celle sur lquelle Je me compl souvent reposer mes regrds et ou, sns l plus legere decion, Frn9oe m'dorit et ne perdit ps une occsion de me celebrer, que je compr que ce n'est ps le monde physique seul qui differe de 1*spect sous lequel nous le voyons; que ute relite est peut-etre ussi dsemblble de celle que nous croyons percevoir directement et que nous composons & 1'ide d 1 idees qui ne se montrent ps m sont gsntes, de me" me que les rbres, le soleil et le ciel ne serient ps tels que nous les voyons, s'ils etient connus pr des etres ynt des yeux utrement constitues que les notres, ou bien possednt pour cette besogne des orgnes utres que des yeux et qui donnerient des rbres, du ciel et du soleil des equivlents m non vuels. (CG, II, 366) At one stroke nrrr's benign world certty, Combry, chrctered by nive imge he hd him, he cst drift Frncoe, cut from beneth enterted deceptive ppernces. world rtt pullg new pro - prticu- which Proust uses here - tht only lrly pt, for it symboles The imge kd 'pro he grnted h quest for truth which, th 'romn policier',*51 he comes pprecite overdetermed pproximtes pieced ger by ccumultg composite picture, ever superimposg work rt different pots view, by workg through ever new sttes lithogrphic prt. 5* Jupien's words immeditely led understg knowledge-grg nrrr process by reltive h entire specultg on how world might look from n extr-humn perspective, specultion which fds n

135 -130exct prllel Nietzsche's Korgenrdte\ Aber immer ls Mensch! Vie? uberdrub m Nenschen, - A: Erkenne! Immer vor der gleichen Komodie sitzen, der gleichen Kombdie spielen? Niemls us eren ls us dlesen Augen die Dge sehen kdnnen? Und welche unzhlbren Arten von Wesen mg es geben, deren Orgne besser zur Erkenntn tugen! Ws wird m Ende ller ihrer Erkenntn die Menschheit erknnt hben? - ihre Orgne! Und ds heifit vielleicht: die Unmoglichkeit der Erkenntn! Jmmer und Ekel! - B: Ds t e boser Anfll - die Vernunft fllt dich n! Aber morgen wirst du wieder mitten Erkennen se und dmit uch mitten der Unvernunft, will sgen: der Lust m Menschlichen. Gehen wir ns Meer! (M 483) As it, Proust's nrrr follows dvice returns from se giddy 'B's consequences h dcovery for heights humn world, drwg out 1 les rpports sociux' for '1'mour 1 : Telle qu'elle fut, cette brusque echppee que m'ouvrit une fo Jupien Encore ne s'gsit-il que de Frnsur le monde reel m'epouvnt. En etit-il si dns us les ^oe dont je ne me souci guere. rpports sociux? Et Jusqu' quel desespoir cel pourrit-il me mener C'etit le secret de un Jour, s 1 il en etit de meme de I 1 mour? 1'venir. <CG, II, 366) Wht kd 'monde reel 1 it tht g glimpse world Ides in terms? Jupien revels him, n? Does he or will, Plnic or Schopenhuer- On contrry: ' le monde reel' world error delusion, superior eptemologicl position retrospective nrrr used here full effect dicte dvnce truths which h younger counterprt ws still process fdg out. h reflections th pssge by The nrrr contues stressg lredy significnce th itil 'me en perspective 1, which herlds ll ors novel: je compr I 1 impossibility de svoir d'une mniere directe et certe Et si ce fut elle qui l si Frncoe m'imit ou me detestit. premiere me donn 1'idee qu'une personne n'est ps, connne j' v cru, clire et immobile devnt nous vec ses qulites, ses defuts, ses projets, ses tentions notre egrd (cornrne un Jrd qu'on regrde, vec utes ses pltes-bes, trvers une grille), m est une ombre ou nous ne pouvons Jm penetrer, pour lquelle il n 1 exte ps de connsnce directe, u sujet de quoi nous nous fons des croynces nombreuses 1'ide de proles et meme d 1 ctions, lesquelles les unes et les utres ne nous donnent que des renseignements suffnts et d'illeurs contrdicires, une ombre ou nous pouvons ur ur

136 -131- The nrrr now hs live he et irreconcilble perspectives on Frn- two with l brillent que vremblnce, imger, vec utnt de 1'mour. <CG, II, 366f.) <;oe, neir which cn be ssumed be correct one, not only becuse y re mutully exclusive, but more especilly becuse by very fct tht y reltive ech or personl put ech, work recogne him cuse y telligence fbrictg extent h relity 'que nous cryons percevoir directement et que nous composons I 1 ide sont gsntes 1. d'idees qui ne se montrent ps m words, t lst lerns lesson which on novel dner occsion book by comg meditte on two very contrstg reder hs been fforded very erly who Swnn, context imges troduced notion tht our 'vion' The nrrr, or provides first socil Combry, llows nrrr him. Here we re immeditely nor person lrge prt product our own 'jections': Sns doute le Swnn que connurent l m6me epoque tnt de clubmen etit bien different de celui que creit m gre-tnte, qu le soir, dns le petit jrd de Combry, pres qu'vient retenti les deux coups hesitnts de l clochette, elle jectit et vivifiit de ut ce qu'elle svit sur l fmille Swnn, 1'obscur et cert personnge qui se detchit, suivi de m gr-mere, sur un fond de M meme u pot de vue tenebres, et qu'on reconnsit l voix. des plus signifintes choses de l vie, nous ne sommes ps un ut mteriellement constitue, identique pour ut le monde et dont chcun n' qu' ller prendre connsnce comme d'un chier des chrges ou d'un testment; notre personnlite socile est une cretion de l pensee des utres. Me"me 1'cte si simple que nous ppelons ' voir une personne que nous connsons* est en prtie un cte tellectuel. tfous remplsons 1'pprence physique de 1'etre que nous voyons de utes les notions que nous vons sur lui, et dns 1'spect tl que nous nous represenns, ces notions ont certement l plus gre prt. CCS, I, 18f.) Swnn's ppernce here s n lter imge or 'obscur s penetrer', but here it Swnn who et cert personnge' 'foreshdows 1 'une ombre 'penetre ou nous ne pouvons jm dns le jrd 1 f which does not

137 -132fer contrst h obscurity s 'un jrd qu'on regrde, vec utes ses pltes-bes, trvers une grille', but rr ccentutes it s 'un fond de tenebres'. The fct tht Swnn's voice go on ccomplhg her 'cte ll nrrr's gret-unt hs tellectuel' s he emerges out drkness emphses just how much tellectul effort required order for her fill gps her mentl imge him. And convey full extent tht process terprettion nrrr switches from n opticl textul metphor, turng ct seeg enggement with text which, moreover, cnnot document but evitbly tion. S:3 (over)'writte 1 The nrrr reles tht no nor person n simply be perused like legl fresh by every new terpret- person n unmbiguous, homogeneous text, tht truth bout world, prticulrly humn world, cnnot simply be glened s from legl document tken s red; it not just witg be found, but rr it creted by our terprettions. one fced with n pprently unmbiguous terprettion it, notion its vergg on untruth, ultimtely re cn be no unbsed n 'objective viewpot 1 delus- ion; furrmore, temporl dynmics terprettion cn only mt sign Even if truth re such tht ny privileged sttus provionlly constntly be unseted entirely reltived light new terprettion. For Proust, vion - wher literl eplstemologicl sense - much more n cknowledges, which why when nrrr imge 'petite be 1 with delicieux dont Je port ujours ct 'quelque en moi sense or figurtive, cretion thn one ordrily t Blbec embellhg h rvsnte epule, quelque regrd le souvenir ou I 1 idee preconcue' <JF, II, 155), th lso likened process redg: 'ces dechiffrges rpides d'un etre qu'on voit l volee nous exposnt si ux memes erreurs

138 -133syllbe et sns prendre le seule une sur que ces lectures trop rpides ou, temps d'identifier les utres, on met l plce du mot qui est ecrit, un ut Here 'lectures II, 155), (JF, different que nous fournit notre memoire' trop rpides 1 re given s n exmple prprx, filure 'red 1 girls 'properly', but utterly norml deed hs lredy demonstrted how nrrr Combry, process th escpble when he lter 'Alberte' on former's telegrm reles he hs mred 'Gilberte' s him Venice, he cknowledges once for ll tht 'proper redg 1 exts en lnt, on cree; ut prt d'une deve only relm fntsy: 'On erreur itile; celles qui suivent <et ce n'est ps seulement dns l lecture des lettres et des telegrmmes, ps dns ute lecture), si extr- seulement ordires qu'elles pusent pritre qui celui n' ps le meme pot de deprt, sont utes nturelles 1 CAD, IV, 235). For Nietzsche, o, process 'textul embellhment' metphor which cn be pplied ll our 'sense-deception 1 : Sowenig e Leser heute die ezelnen Vorte Coder gr Silben) eer Seite smtlich bliest - er nimmt vielmehr us zwnzig Worten ungefhr fu'nf nch Zufll herus und 'errt' den zu diesen funf Vorten mutmbllch zugehbrigen Sn -, ebensowenig sehen wir een Bum genu und vollstig, Hsicht uf Bltter, Zweige, Frbe, Gestlt; es fllt uns so sehr viel leichter, e Ungefhr von Bum hzuphntsieren. Selbst mitten der seltsmsten Erlebnse mchen wir es noch ebenso: wir erdichten uns den grbbten Teil der Erlebnse und sd kum dzu zu zwgen, nlcbt ls 'Erfder' irgendeem Vorgnge zuzuschuen. Dies lles will sgen: wir sd von Grund us, von lters her - us Liigen gewohnt. Oder, urn es tugendhfter und heuchlercher, kurz ngenehmer uszudriicken: mn t viel mehr Kunstler, ls mn weib. CJGB 192; cf. FV 57) Once more, n, truth work C'unsre Sne lernen es spt, und lernen ige Orgne der Erkenntn zu se'), Prlsonnl re remrks: 'Le temoignge des 1'esprit ou l conviction cree rt, creted by our sense-pprtus es nie gnz, fee, treue, vorsichts just sens 1'evidence' est (P, Proust's nrrr L lui ussi une opertion de III, 694; cf. JF, I, 538).

139 -134Schopenhuer rgug: 'Die efchste unbefng- Nothg could be furr from zu dem Resultt, db der Intellekt nmchen Ergebn, fiihrt dem ene Selbstbeobchtung, zusmmengehlten mlt see Objektivtion, ds Gehirn nebst wie diesem nhngendem Snenpprt nichts eres sei ls ee sehr gesteigerte Empfnglichkeit fur Ewirkungen von uben'. 5* It move wy from th notion precely order 'simple, unprejudiced observtion' tht Proust Nietzsche qulify ir opticl metphors with textul one. The textul metphor world which Proust's nrrr experi- multi-fcetted nture objects own people, for stbility or pproprite when it comes nlysg ences on wkg, when h terprettion prticulrly decipherment tellectul ffective complicted cse humn evidence (CS, I, 3-9, 183f.), furr 'text', not only do y world sce people re constntly genertg new chnge over time, but y y lie. dsemble consciously put most Wht Proust Nietzsche highlight s structurl flsity our reltion world 'lyg' nture our tellect - problem lnguge generl coupled with crudity our sense-perceptions When 'text' be deciphered humn world by deliberte deception. tht nor person, between redg between lies, it here, - compounded cse les cse redg its exhustible nlys lie with humn terction, tht Proust's novel relly comes its own. Proust's nrrr lerted by 'les proles de Jupien' fct tht he cnnot lwys believe wht he ld, h dilemm mde ll more cute th stnce becuse he cnnot be cert wher it Frn<;oe or Jupien who lyg. H tht presentiment rpports sociux' '1'mour 1 might well-founded, for h wkeng be dsemblnce 'le suspicion secret lyg 'les de 1'venir' deed or's lie opens

140 -135'evils' sprg for rest Por's box out which h eptemologicl novel. he The reservtion de ussi dsemblble expresses with nous croyons que celle deceptions ccumultg for him L but it with Alberte percevoir world 'monds', microcosmic directement 1 out, dppotments mselves ply bnhed s society scenes 'ute relite est peut-etre Pronnl re tht problem how del with lies becomes prticulrly trctble. Vhere Truth Lies: Alberte Defult defed The nrrr's jelousy regrdg Alberte (P, III, 593), lthough Proust s 'soif de svoir' up prllel between nrrr's sets 'beso de svoir 1 bout Alberte h erlier need know bout Gilberte (P, III, 604), with h love for 'ce Alberte, plus vste mour' (P, III, 757), stkes re fr higher h eptemophili develops n eptemologicl obsession. In Sodowe forebodg wht lies (re) et Gomorrhe when sre nrrr lredy hs Alberte tries cll f her vit, he senses tht she one those 'CeJxtences dposees sur cq ou six lignes de repli' who defitive rest terprettion. 'Pour Alberte,' he concludes: je sent que Je n'pprendr Jr rien, qu'entre l multiplicity entremelee des detils reels et des fits mensongers Je n'rriver jm me debrouiller. Et que ce serit ujours si, mos que de l mettre en pron (m on s'evde) Jusqu' l f. Ce soir-l, cette conviction ne fit psser trvers moi qu'une quietude, m ou Je sent fremir comme une nticiption de longues souffrnces. (SG, III, 131) Th 'premonition' tht even if he were escpe course more thn borne out put Alberte pron she would by events L Pronni&re

141 -136nrrr blily sserts tht he hs Shortly fter th pssge itself. serch for truth bout women, long sce bjured scientific method h science represented th time not form stronomy but mmtics: lwys By th time tble) by mechniclly convert m bck congenitl lir, 'pr nture menteuse' (P, tht he cn chrctere her s simply so ccusmed Alberte's lies become hs he version n pplyg n lgorithm (consultg truths. lies Alberte's decipher relibly souvent une simple However, L Pronni re he fntses tht presenttion 1 <SG, III, 151). BS he cn ps restit ne lequel rce crr6 de son connu, extrire d'une femme comme l chercher 'j'v depu longtemps cess6 de III, 605), so decipherg meng her words he generlly ssumes she lyg, tht Alberte's 'defult settg' defult on truth. 'Les proles de Jupien' turn h cosy world upside down, s we hve seen - perspectivl shift which y imprt h world Combry perspectivl ll version, eptemologicl equivlent or versions novel - but even version proves be unrelible, hence dequte, s method for 'trnsltg 1 or 'trnsmutg' Alberte's lyg words bck truth. se The possibility such version/conversion n erlier on novel: when Elstir fils process red much troduce nrrr 'l petite be 1 Blbec, he gives vriety excuses ('"Pourquol restez-vous pressees1" ) & des lieues?"', '"Elles etient which nrrr fds lme, terpretg Elstir's words he wonders wher 'de telles proles, qui doivent en quelque sorte etre lues 1'envers puque leur lettre signifie le contrire de l verite' might d'un reflexe' <JF, II, 215). be '1'effet necessire, le grphique negtif Vith Alberte, th possibility develops generl hermeneutic prciple which trnscends even her reltively locled

142 nture menteuse': 'y -t-il beso de svoir un fit? d'une fcon generle le mensonge et l quelque chose ccher? Y -t-il l Ne sit-on ps d'bord dcretion m6me de ces femmes qui ont possibilit6 d'erreur?' (P, III, 604). Th method, we re ld, cn deed produce desired result: Prfo 1'ecrlture ou je dechiffr les mensonges d'alberte, sns etre ideogrph!que, vit simplement beso d'etre lue rebours; c'est si que ce soir elle m 1 vit Inc6 d'un ir negligent ce messge dest6 psser presque per$u: 'II serit possible que j'ille dem chez les Verdur, je ne s ps du ut si j'iri, je n'en i guere envie.' Angrmme enfnt de cet veu: 'J'iri dem chez les Verdur, c'est bsolument cert, cr J'y ttche une extreme importnce'. (P, III, 598) 57 or, - Bedg Alberte's words s 'ngrms' my be child's ply, but 'prfo 1 still no relible method for counterg here perhps better, 'ngrms' fct tht th betrys Alberte's strtegy direction derivg tht 'gre loi' which might llow him systemticlly expl 'expl' rr thn simply her behviour (i.e., Nietzsche's terms, 'terpret' it). For terpretg lie re lwys people's lck self-knowledge or lck possibility tht person cn give mselves with honesty more wy (P, III, spoken lie', nrrr reles, one even while y thk y re lyg different pth thn tht which one tended between truth lie lso chnges menteuse 1, but she lso 'si over contend with - truth thn y tend 857). 'Mny true word cn rech truth by very (P, III, 839f.), but reltion time. chngente Alberte my be 'pr nture d'illeurs que meme en me dnt chque fols l verite sur ce que, pr exemple, elle pensit des gens, elle eqt dit chque fo des choses differentes' (P, III, 605). Lies cn subsequently become truths quite dependently speker's tention (P, III, 529; AD, IV, 44), but becuse nrrr cn never know until fter event wher th will be cse he no furr forwrd h quest.

143 -138with contrdictions Alberte confront Even were nrrr 'stronomicl' resong, he reles her sttements, derived by process tht th would not tke him ny nerer truth: D*pproximtion en pproximtion on fot sns doute rrive & lui fire dire l verite [...]. Dej, en ut cs pour bien des femmes, il m'eot suffi de rssembler devnt mon mie, en une synse, ses ffirmtions contrdicires pour l convcre de ses futes (futes qui sont bien plus ees, conune les lo stronomiques, degger pr le ronnem elle ment, qu'et observer, qu' surprendre dns l relite). urit encore mieux ime dire qu'elle vit menti qu elle vit em une de ces ffirntions, dont si le retrit ferit ecrouler ut mon systeme, plutdt que de reconnitre que ut ce qu'elle vit rconte des le debut n'etit qu'un tsu de contes mensongers. (P, III, 652) terrogtion scene t end Th deed exctly wht hppens L PronniSre, when Alberte 1 s prtil dmsion her lies (cludg some her prtil dmsion truth with he hd not even suspected), combed (cludg some truths he hd ssumed be lies), brgs bout '1'nentsement de ut ce que j'v tellement vri' (P, III, 839). cru H would-be scientific 'systeme vrible' <P, III, 849) reduced 'romn 1 (P, III, 852), turn shes (P, III, thrust bck tl he 854), eptemologicl scepticm strt ir reltionship: Je compren ussi que les proles d 1 Alberte qu on I 1 terrogeit ne contenient Jm un e de verite, que l verite, elle ne l lsit echpper que mlgre elle, comme un brusque melnge qui se fit en elle, entre les fits qu'elle etit jusque-i decidee ccher et l croynce qu'on en vit eu connsnce. (P. Ill, 852f.) The scene represents defitive defet prdigm scientific nlys, for nrrr reles tht h lgorithms cn only ever yield n 'eqution pproximtive cette connue d'alberte' (P, III, 850, my emphs), res s mny questions s it nswers: comme celui de l nture, que chque reculer m n'nnule ps' (P, III, 893). qu'etit 'L'connu decouverte pour moi l pensee ny cse science only ever de l vie des e"tres est scientifique ne fit que

144 -139- tt truth bout her, decidedly n, Or people complex. but sitution much worse 686), III, generl my be 'comme Jnus' (P, from nrrr's endevours emerges The picture Alberte which thn tht with loved one, who site n impossible dsemtion: JTous nous Et je compren 1'impossibility ou se heurte 1'mour. imgons qu'il pour objet un 6tre qui peut tre couche devnt nous, enferme dns un corps. Hels! II est 1'extension de cet etre us les pots de 1'espce et du temps que cet 6tre occupes et occuper. Si nous ne possedons ps son contct vec tel lieu, vec telle heure, nous ne le possedons ps. Or nous ne pouvons ucher us ses pots. Si encore ils nous etient designes, peut-etre pourrions-nous nous etendre jusqu'd eux. M nous tnnons sns les trouver. (P, III, 608; cf. P, III, 862) series 'tnnements 1, Eptemologicl enquiry once more reduced fumblg drk out obscur cnnot produce truth by The questg nrrr's cmer vertg lie, but even when he like himself with ltest pho- equips object h desire snpshot, grphic drk-rooms try 'freeze' he reles tht such method, if it emerges t ll, be extrcted by ny relible mens t emerges only fter event cnnot time. picture, true which h use eqully monoperspectivl stronomicl telescope, lso doomed prtility, obsolescence error: je conclus l difficulte de presenter une imge fixe ussi bien d'un crctere que des societes et des pssions. Cr il ne chnge ps mos qu'elles, et si on veut clicher ce qu'il de reltivement immuble, on le voit presenter successivement des spects differents (impliqunt qu'il ne sit ps grder 1'immobilite, m bouge) 1'objectif deconcerte. <P, III, 830) se 'Hels! Alberte etit plusieurs cries despirgly, only lngge' 'ce bsolute: (AD, IV, 110); ' 1' idee de III, 840), nrrr she cn be fforded 'n'est <P, III, 573). frctionnement nombreuses prts, en de nombreuses Alberte' ence en moi' (P, which stbility que fictive et pour l commodite du th frgmenttion becomes personnes' After her deth d 1 Alberte en de becomes 'son seul mode d'ext- son unicite' becomes ' un posteriori

145 -140- constltue pr 1'imbriction contgente ni dsoluble reles tht (AD, IV, 136). The nrrr order de mes souvenirs' be ble 'fix' Alberte successfully he would hve be no longer love with her (P, III, 573f.), but irony such difference lies precely fct tht its longer chievement would men he would no terested enough her be be concerned undertke exerce. Experimentl Indifference We seem hve reched fitely frgmented picture for zero degree truth Alberte: knowledge dested rem for ever deferred. Proust's novel with th convergence desire Truth gives wy truths, monoperspectivl method, wher stronomicl or phogrphic, shown be dequte, but even Frn^oe, Alberte) its juxtposg one picture ( method boculr verted imge still unstfcry. So wht strtegy cn be dopted? error, which volves cceptg humn, 'vion', revlug ffirmg m. overcome perspectivl limittion by possible. s o humn limittions on our ll Nietzsche, 'knower' cn seek For givg gretest possible diversity terprettions, for him be ble dopt s mny subject-positions problem perspectivl solution Nietzsche hs t lest prtil do so it cumbent upon him possible, don s mny 'eyes' s Nietzsche usg th metphor h notebooks s erly s 1881, where we fd him givg himself perspectivtic prescription: Aufgbe: die Dge sehen, wle sie sd! Xittel: us hundert Augen uf Es wr e flscher Weg, ds sie sehen konnen, us vlelen Personen! Unpersonliche zu benen und ds Sehen us dem Auge des Nchsten ls

146 -141- Viele Nchste und us vielen Augen und us morllsch zu bezeichnen. luter personlichen Augen sehen - 1st ds Rechte. (KSA 9, 466) s -' In th sense hvg positive potentil for Nietzsche thn beg bility error. It n exerce weng oneself f those vlues one simply doctre evitself-dciple, cherhes, most first, most vested, (rtificilly t perspectives. n, perspectivm hs more eyes, hundred self-org, n experimentl those which one hs if need be) plurlg one's it lso pre-emently It philosophy strength, experimentl method, for th for it volves plurltion volves n experimentl rdicl 'difference 1, s Nietzsche puts it n importnt note from 1881: Vs frtiher m strksten reizte, Philosophie der Gleichgultigkeit. wirkt jetzt gnz ers, es wird nur noch ls Spiel ngesehn und gelten gelssen (die Leidenschften und Arbeiten) ls e Leben im Unwhren prcipiell verworfen, ls Form und Reiz ber stch genossen und gepflegt, wir stellen uns wie die Kder zu dem, ws friiher den Ernst des Dses usmchte. Unser Streben des Ernstes t ber lles ls werdend zu verstehen, uns ls Individuum zu verleugnen, moglichst us vielen Augen die Welt sehen, leben In Trieben und Beschftigungen, urn dmit sich Augen zu mchen, zeltwelllg sich dem Leben uberlssen, um hernch zeitweilig uber ihm mit dem Auge zu ruhen; die Triebe unterhlten ls Fundment lles Erkennens, ber wsen, wo sie Gegner des Erkennens werden: summ b wrten, wie weit ds lessen und die Vhrheit sich everleiben kbnnen - und wiefern ee Umwlung des Menschen etritt, wenn er endlich nur noch lebt, um zu erkennen. Dies t Consequenz von der Leidenschft der ErfcenntniB. (KSA 9, 494f.; cf. 441, 444, 480) 60 one cn be chieved only from For Proust, complete picture loved viewpot n difference which mrks ny terest knowledge he might over ex-lover no longer hs obt, but for Nietzsche 'difference 1 t lest be experimentlly ttempted. pot t which reltionship wrds object knowledge cn Mn's 'Leidenschft der ErkenntniB' my be recogned s msk for h 'Wille zur Mcht 1, but Nietzsche does not seek reby deny revlued it, esticlly, Schopenhuerin with pssion fshion: emphs on n element for knowledge ply, but

147 -142- reproduces highly th Moreover, for ll its 'nocence 1 procedure but becomg, nocence childlike ( one, s 'sentimentl' Herclitus's irony dtncg', opens up 'Spielrum' Zeus. 161 Schiller's terms) no 'nive 1 for, s Bed Allemnn pots h Gleichgultigkeit', out,* 13 Nietzsche's 'Philosophie der Triebe 1 which der 'Spiel Nietzsche for Scliiller's 'Spieltrieb 1 becomes 'pthos self- - precely tht ironic self- dtnce which Proust's nrrr will exploit such effect. Th urge eyes mny s cquire Nietzsche's publhed works only lter, perspectivtic period. s possible expression fds texts more explicitly In section 211 Jenselts, 'der wirkliche Philosoph* Zur brted development me e perspektivches Sehen, nur e Augen' (for only n cn he vlues), but Nietzsche's most cele- cretg become dequte h tsk vielerlei 'mit look must lern be ble Genelogie der Morl'. ' Es gibt nur perspektivches "Erkennen"; und je mehr Affekte wir uber ee Sche zu Worte kommen lssen, je xoehr Augen, verschiedne Augen wir uns fur dieselbe unser "Begriff dieser ezusetzen wsen, umso vollstiger wird Sche unsre Sche, 'Objectivity' for Nietzsche thus contempltion, or kd se' <GM, III, 12). very different from Kntin dterested objectivity which he orwe so criticl tic procedure, but tht "Objektivitt" it best for which science strives cn be pproched by th perspectivwe cn do, for only through such plurltic 'knowg' cn we be ny sense dequte relity.

148 -143Proust's 'Hew Objectivm 1 One most memorble scenes A l recherche, one clssic openg A 1'ombre des jeunes stnces its perspectivm, occurs t filles en fleurs, when nrrr on h between wdows on opposite sides composite picture dwn experimentl ttitude usg (JF, wy h tr order piece ger II, 16). metphor wdows': 'Gegen die erkenntnifioretchen <ich> es, bld us diesem, bld <mich> dr festzusetzen, hielt usully he uses metphor us sie Blbec obliged dsh Nietzsche, o, describes h 'lookg Dogmen out different tief mistruch, liebte jenem Fenster zu blicken, hiitete mich, fur 'donng schdlich 1 mny eyes', (KSA 12, 143). More but th one which Proust's nrrr lso dopts, Le CQte de Guerntes, scene where he first tkes dvntge h permsion wht Nietzsche wills hppens for ks Alberte. Proust's nrrr Here we fd tht its own ccord, voluntrily: Les dernieres pplictions de l phogrphie [...] - je ne vo que cel qui puse, utnt que le ber, fire surgir de ce que nous croyions une chose spect defi, les cent utres choses qu'elle est ut ussi bien, puque chcune est reltive & une perspective non mos legitime. Bref, de m6me qu' Blbec, Alberte m'vit souvent pru differente, mtennt, comme si, en ccelernt prodigieusement l rpidite des chngements de perspective et des chngements de colortion que nous fre une personne dns nos diverses rencontres vec elle, j'v voulu les fire tenir utes en quelques secondes pour recreer experimentlement le phenomene qui diversifie 1'dividulity d'un 6tre et tirer les unes des utres, comme d 1 un etui, utes les possibilites qu'il enferme, dns ce court trjet de mes levres vers s Joue, c'est dix Albertes que je v. (CO, II, 660) In h rhpsodic gloss on th effectively prllel with 'Objektivitt', he mkes 'Proust's perspectivm1 : pssge, Nietzsche's very strong Curtius new could not pot up more perspectivtic defition clims deed for import

149 -144- Dle Reltivierung des Rumlichen durch ds perspektivche Sehen gewnt ee neue Bedeutung: sie erwet sich ls Strukturform der gesmten seelchen Erfhrung. [...] Sie t der Augenpunkt der Proustschen Kunst. Sie t die schopferche Formel der Proustschen Velt. Sie t die gemesme Wurzel ll jener BewuBtsesverschiebungen, die wir Proust fden - Verschiebungen zwchen den Dimensionen von Zeit und Rum, von Kunst und Leben, von Sehen und kontempltivem Schuen, von Schlf und Vchen, vielleicht - von Leben und Tod. 15* Curtius keen for th Proustin reltivm not be mundersod, though, for it not 'universl reltivm' despirg or 'fute de mieux 1 kd: 'Sie konnte so versten werden, ls besge die Reltivitt lles Ses ee Vertdifferenz, ls hebe sie Bedeutung 113). und Qulitt der Dge uf (p. Insted, he proposes much more ffirmtive terprettion: In dem Sne, den ich hier zu fixieren suche, bedeutet die Unendlichkeit moglicher Perspektiven nicht ee Nivellierung oder Vernichtung des Objektiven, sondern ee unermebliche Erweiterung sees Bereiches. Dfi unzhlige Perspektiven mbglich sd, heibt nicht: kee t whr, sondern: jede t whr. Oder, wie Proust es eml usdruckt: L'univers est vri pour nous us et dsemblble pour chcun, (p. 114, quotg P, III, 694) Although Curtius hs lredy explicitly rejected ny compron Proust with 'ffietzschescher Vitlmus 1 (p. recll Nietzsche's 'Derselbe 17), Text very erlubt kee "richtige" Auslegung' (KSA 12, 39), erlier: 'die Velt [...] ht keen "Perspektivi sus"' (KSA 12, 315). sern wir die Mbglichkeit Interprettionen sich Curtius's 374 Auslegungen: es giebt especilly pssge quoted eltion schllebt. I6S t prospect 'die very Nietzschen eltion, Die frohllche Vsenschft, where world (rr thn God) s 'Unser neues vielmehr nicht understg tht perspectivm - h nlys here Sn hter sich, sondern unzhlige Sne kd Nietzsche shows section "Unendliches" 1 : 'Die Velt t uns unzhlige Unendlichkeit moglicher Perspektiven' lso he ffirms vlue life terms noch eml "unendlich" geworden: bween Curtius Nietzsche's konnen, db here even sie shows unendllcbe n cute spiritul trg progrmme,

150 -145- h experimentl 'Philosophie der Gleichgiiltigkeit' - mrks strtegic moment formulted precely response 'revlution vlues' which he so exhustively lte neteenth-century ' Vertdifferenz' (nihilm) nlysed. For Curtius, Proust's 'neuer Objektivmus' (p. 116), h 'Perspekeer BewuBtseswende 1 (p. 117): 'Durch tivmus 1 (p. 116), n 'Anzeichen 20. Jhrhunderts den des BewuStse werdende ds den Perspektivmus wird Reltivmus des 19. iiberwden' (p. 116). 'Proust's reltivm 1 representtion positive he critices Curtius' Nietzschen enthusm, though, Curtius's shre Smuel Beckett does not wrds end h Proust: 'Curtius speks Proust's "perspectivm" "positive reltivm" s Frnce. Renn neteenth century, scepticm reltivm negtive opposed lte I thk phrse "positive reltivm" n oxymoron, I m lmost sure tht it does not pply Proust, I know tht Contr Curtius, Beckett sserts tht negtive s tht Frnce, fr Beckett certly hs pot here, When nrrr ksg Heidelberg lborry."56 Proust's reltivm 's pessimtic employed Curtius for Alberte for elted s it proundly dppotg pokg cnnot help but feel tht Proust s n element comedy. [...] ffirms vlue tuition."57 he s Proust positive only so out cme it le goot du rose desire, j'ppr, en tr d'embrsser l Joue bility hold multiple & time he fr from fun when he hs h nrrr cry: de voir, i son ur mon nez, et sns connitre pour cel dvntge ces detestbles signes, qu'enf J'et d'alberte' imges first experience for him, reder 'hels! [...] ut d'un coup, mes yeux cesserent s'ecrsnt, ne percut plus ucun odeur, surely jumpg gun. (CG, II, 660f.). H temporry Alberte simultneous suspension, h snpshot genelogy ir reltionship, reveled s nothg more thn

151 -146- n tellectul conjurg trick, he brought unceremoniously bck down erth by physicl impct her body. Alredy Le C6t& de Guermntes, perspectives on Alberte be n, bewildered L PronniSre he grs mny more. nrrr hs gred enough by ir momentry ssemblge; When he tries g re put h phogrphs' Alberte ger mke composite picture, he still ends up with dcontuous series frgmentry snpshots which cn only pproximte lbility Alberte que des series d'alberte herself: seprees les 'Je ne possed dns m memoire unes des utres, completes, des prils, des stntnes; ussi m Jlousie se confit-elle une expression dcontue, l fo fugitive et fixee, et ux gtres qui 1'vient mene sur l figure d 1 Alberte' (P, III, 655). The 'soif de svoir' which jelousy chieves t best such perspectivtic collge, se objective truth for which nrrr but it not kd lookg: 'Combien de personnes, de villes, de chems, l jlousie nous rend si vides de connitre! Elle est une soif de svoir gr"ce lquelle, sur des pots oles les uns des utres, nous fsons pr voir voudrions 1 (P, III, utes 593). deth, when she no longer les notions possibles suf celle que nous Moreover, fter re provide ny furr corrobortion ( Alberte 1 s dppernce however problemtic kd), nrrr fds tht h 'telligence' sps f even more uncontrollble flights fncy, Alberte dlsprue number h desperte hyposes bout her creses exponentilly. Even if he trnsforms himself nrrr left 'thirsty' for n Bolle writes: 'l dprity des contrstes, une reconstitution hundred-eyed Argus, n, Proust's essentil spects, de 1'etre truth bout Alberte. lo de As Lou permettre, pr le jeu des d'alberte [.,,], emp^che Mrcel d'ttedre son essence. [...] L'emiettement multiplie 1'etre, m il ne nous

152 -147- livre ps son noyu. '** him. provides both pots knowledge 1 when considered from myrid Such experiences re for him 'object frgmenttion extreme n elegic mode enters 'snpshot 1 perspectives ccumultion lifeless with which Argus experience merely confirmtion nrrr Proust's tivm perspectivtic error, whenever he considers Nietzsche celebrtg perspec- from Jog Fr view, correspondg ' Le but de Proust, on le sit, est d'ecrire un frgmenttion observer. romn perspectivte grce 1 ( troduction de l "dimension du temps" dns l nrrtion', writes produced only n Descombes, 70 extreme dimension 'l but The dsemtion. du temps' wrds recogng Elstir's truth tht 'l sgesse so fr come hlf-wy hs nrrr hs [...] est un pot de vue sur les choses 1, but for moment, with h multiplicity 'pots de vue 1, he feels none wer, deed fitely emptier. nrrr ht possibili- Yet it Elstir who will lso give ties which still rem for A l him for overcomg perspectivtic frgmenttion, recherche re rttic experience', o, it tht provide it. In Prlsonnlere bout ever ffirmtive n midst understg version 'Argus chievements Elstir Vteuil nrrr's Alberte pround pessimm L fully, he hers Vteuil's septet gs n timtion solution h problem, specultg: Le seul veritble voyge, le seul b de Jouvence, ce ne serit ps d'ller vers de nouveux pysges, m d 1 voir d'utres yeux, de voir 1'univers vec les yeux d'un utre, de cent utres, de voir les cent univers que chcun d'eux voit, que chcun d'eux est; et cel nous le pouvons vec un Elstir, vec un Vteuil, vec leurs preils, nous volons vriment d'eiles en eiles. <P, III, 762; cf. TR, IV, 474) 71 Th potentil which rttic cretion provides ger h experiences will be consider how h elegic ne ddressed modultes nrrr with for piecg next chpter, which will more Hietzschen, ffirmtive

153 -148one which cn celebrte cretivity volved perspectivtic terprettion, for if 'truth' work rt, n work rt cn lso be 'truth 1. The trigger for th sight provided by voluntry memory, which returns epteropticl model which we hve so nrrr kd 'boculr 1 fr seen be unstfcry s method juxtposg conflictg imges order derive truth from ir experience voluntry memory mutul reltivtion. reches conclusion Proust's novel becuse it lie two importnt respects: it its triumphnt But boculr vdiction t different from n version bodily trigger, it perts self, true locus nrrr's recherche, which we must now turn.

154 Chpter 3. In Serch Self In th chpter I shll turn from Proust's knowledge externl world, h serch for self. For wheres plurled self plurled or prticulr, consider on Nietzsche's perspectivtic model world re event terprettion, Proust's nrrr tic frgmenttion self s n Ag, mjority th mode, for he only o implicted loth ccept perspectiv- conscious by n periodic context error personl identity ( essentil self exme those moments A where l tuition it erly on undertkg tkes plce n elegic frgmentry selves, but fter I hve considered problemted novel ech or ultimte truth embrks sted on quest for 'essence' self, prompted novel. nrrr's serch for relible recherche deth h vrious wys which self Uietzsche's genelogy s void), I shll turn nrrr flls opposite ssumption ( self s everythg) succumbs tempttion idelm. By nlysg prticulr, I shll show conflictg tht pssges Proust's for our enggement with world tkes from Le Temps retrouve nrrr's text-terprettion model him beyond ny dultic, subjective idelt prdigm, for he recognes tht re 'rel world', even if it sense creted by one's own multiple perspectives 'on' it. Returng ffietzsche, h (wht he clls 'Grundtext foregroundg homo nturl perspectives, I shll rgue tht Proust's s body its drives generr those novel, o, text body privileged signifier - especilly nrrr's own body, experience voluntry memory. Followg Blnchot ors dcountg

155 -150nrrr's own Intellectuled terprettion voluntry memory ffords, I shll rgue nrrr's complicted self bodily effect. be not complicted be compred Nietzsche's conception essences which trnscendent bstrction, but only hlf sry, though, for I difference essences rgue tht tht ir ffective power revels Such self-reveltion shll use Deleuze's nlys repetition Proustin temporlity voluntry memory cn eternl return, tht by writg h ubiogrphicl novel, Proust's nrrr ffirms necessity h chnce reveltions sme sense self-cretg 'ubermensch' ffirms end Proust's novel h mor fil Nietzsche's eternl return. At nrrr overcomes h eptemopticl pessimm cretion, fter comprg thus Ecce necessity by revlug s positive cretivity 'becomes wht he ' s self Homo, I terprettion n rt selfcreted shll with ITietzsche who conclude chpter with considertion some estic prciples which boculr perspective voluntry memory llows Proust's nrrr derive for h 'rtwork future'. 'Der Mensch ls Vielheit': Hietzsche on Personl Identity We sw previous eptemology s chpter how Nietzsche's perspectivm, redefg 'Perspektiven-Lehre plurltion 'subject', which nere Vielheit 1 (KSA becomes h wtchword - 12, 41). 'Der 'Der Ezelne glubt' (KSA 11, 108), he rgues - der Affekte 1, cknowledges rdicl he deconstructs ' perspektivche Mensch enthlt ls viel Vielheit 1 xoebr (KSA 11, 276) Personen, ls er plce ' Seelen-Antlk*

156 -151notions such s '"Seele Chrtinity, he substitutes (provionl, heurtic) ls Affekte'" (JOB 12).' Even Selbstzertellung ls meuschllches, entitled ' Morl und First Book Kenschlicbes, Allzu- self, pssges like section 57 Triebe fundmentl divibility stressg though, Nietzsche commonly der before perspectivtic period, texts Gesellschftsbu ls "'Seele or Subjekts-Vielheit" Menscben', where he des nticiptes h nlyses Zur Genelogie der Morl by rgug tht so-clled 'ltrutic' or 'unegotic 1 ctions der 'In how self cn be prt itself 'greter divided gst itself deed scrifice good'... nor prt itself: rr but itself, effce revel not how self cn fct 'multi-egotic 1, for y re Morl behelt sich der Mensch nicht ls dlviduum, sondern ls dividul <KA, I, 57). 2 From erly 1880s, hve we s mny eyes different tryg tech s possible, h period he lso explicitly uses pre- (or perhps better pro-)perspectivtic Argus motif, section plurlity with eptem- perspectivtic himself willgly ffirm th opticl metphor donng s Nietzsche seen, Xenscblicbes, Allzumenscbllches, Book Two 223 mub*. (I860), entitled ' Vobln mn reen 'Die unmittelbre Selbstbeobchtung reicht lnge nicht us, um sich kennen zu lernen' Nietzsche's prems here: Vergngenheit 'wir bruchen Geschichte, denn die uns fort; wir selber sd J nichts diesem Fortstromen empfden.' order In wreness, he recommends progrmme cn be lso kd time or, more sheltered Kultur&tufen, uf die mn trvel, less sich ls sce ds, ws wir jedem Augenblick von us for chieve th hricl trvellg, for trvellg spce it cn brg one contct with 'developed' stellen stromt hundert Vellen ntions, knn'. trvel order g th desired contct: 'festgewordene ltere Moreover one need not even

157 -152Nun glbt es ber noch elne felnere Kunst und Absicht des Reens, welche es nicht immer no tig mcht, vn Ort zu Ort und iiber Tusende von Meilen b den FuB zu setzen. Es leben sehr whrscbelich die letzten drei Jhrhunderte lien ihren Kulturfrbungen und -strhlenbrechungen uch unsrer Jfhe nur fort: sie wollen nur entdeckt werden. In mnchen Fmilien, j ezelnen Menschen liegen die Schichten schb'n und iibersichtlich noch ubereer. (MA, II, 223) The im ll th literl metphoricl trvel n immense expnsion 'werdenden und verwelten ego1 : 'ds Reen 1 trnsforms subject 'der Eiese 1 Argus with b hundred eyes/is, 'Selbst-Erkenntn 1 reby trnsformed 'All-Erkenntn': Ver, nch lnger ubung dieser Kunst des Reens, zum hundertugigen Argos geworden t, der wird see Jo - ich mee se ego - endlich liberl 1 hbegleiten und Agypten und Griechenl, Byznz und Rom, Frnkreich und Deutschl, der Zeit der wernden oder der festsitzenden Vblker, Rensnce und Reformtion, Heimt oder Fremde, J Meer, Vld, Pflnze und Gebirge die Ree-Abenteuer dieses werdenden und verwelten ego wieder entdecken. So wird Selbst-Erkenntn zur All-Erkenntn Hslcht uf lies Vergngene. <MA, II, 223) Mere 'externl' trvel turned here n ner dventure which grnts spirit ultimte freedom, llowg it enrich itself by tkg d- tnce from itself grg ll tht ors hve hir experienced. :3 Once Nietzsche hs thus dsolved 'dieses werdende und verwelte ego' (Dionysin) 'All-Erlebn 1, s he develops h notions perspectivm will power 1880s he cn dpense with it lger write self s merely plurlity terpretg forces. But lthough Nietzsche trets it s gross fllcy perst believg personl identity, lthough he dmses serch for ny 'essentil ego', or even 'prciple unity', s wholly mguided enterpre, self, like ll erroneous beliefs for our Nietzsche, erroneous belief such hs genelogy - it one which he prticulrly terested explorg. In section 13 First rgues tht our mtken Essy belief Zur Genelogle der Morl, Nietzsche cuslity which gve re

158 -153error self first plce: B Quntum Krft t e ebensolches Quntum Trieb, Wille, Wirken vielmehr, es t gr nichts eres ls ebendleses Treiben, Vollen, Virken selbst, und nur unter der Verfuhrung der Sprche (und der ihr versteerten Grundirrtumer der Vernunft), welche lles Virken ls bedgt durch e Virkendes, durch e 'Subjekt' versteht und mibversteht, knn es ers erscheen. [...] Aber es gibt ke solches Substrt; es gibt ke 'Se 1 hter dem Tun, Wirken, Verden; 'der lter' t zum Tun blob hzugedichtet - ds Tun t lles. COM, I, 13; cf. KSA 12, 391) The 'Grundirrtum der Vernunft' believe necessity re beg 'doer* 'behd 1 every 'deed', n, once g it pernicious effect lnguge subject-object grmmr dulity occsioned by priml th '"Ich1" which, Ds t zur just goes he s or 1 Horizont-Lie' (KSA 12, 91, 185), Dmnerungi 'ds Ich! Nietzsche, for it with its 635f.). The subsequently ner self fortified mted by spurious unifiction shpe 632f., differentition ct 11, KSA 54; 'Vorrede', (JGB, 'petrifyg 1 error, fundmentl th compound on Virkendes Vort, write Gotzen- Fbel geworden, zur Fiktion, zum Wortspiel: ds ht gnz und gr ufgehort, zu denken, zu fiihlen und zu wollen!' CGD, VI, bs th ' lteste und lngste 3; cf. KSA 12, 398). But it Psychologic', he rgues here, tht on mn hs nthropomorphlclly projected on world concepts 'Seln 1, 'Am' 'Dg 1, 'Gr nicht zu reden vom "Dg n sich", vom horrendum pudendum der Metphysiker!' <GD, VI, 3). Belief "'Ich" 1 n borigl entire philosophicl understg unmsked '"Subjekt" 1 First belief which hs vitited our world, Nietzsche rgues, hvg Essy Zur Genelogle der Morl, section 16 Second Essy he goes on nlyse (wy) similr fshion whole our subjcent '"nere elt"'. which 'Cd]ie gnze nere Velt, Here he describes process by ursprunglich din wie zwchen zwei Hute egespnnt' becomes extended - dtended - by ' Verlnnerllchuzg* (GM, II, 16),

159 -154 ternltion stctul drives frustrted 'Freudin* lnguge strikg), 'dmit wchst hern, ws mn spter see "Seele" nennt 1. The thus prsiticl <non-)entity, dulm: like dulm which Nietzsche Dnnerug IV, so so metphysicl mchievously o he its erst ds n den Menschen 'ner world 1 s whole growth just one more erroneous 'whre Velt 1 'schebre Velt' deconstructs deconstructs ir dchrge ( dulity 'Fbel' Gotzen- 'CdDiese "schebre Iznere Welt 1" 'die "ubere" Welt 1 (KSA 13, 53). 'Die "nere Velt" t voller us (GD, VI, 3), yet we Trugbilder und Irrlichter', Nietzsche wrns generlly ourselves unble cknowledge ner world with n ner unity. * th, perstg delusion n fiction self res out fd essentilg impulse lnguge, but belief its immutble chrcter n reforced vrious wys. by sociltion, for not only The do 'Kitteilungsbedurfn', s we hve lnguge seen Firstly consciousness derive from Hletzsche climg Die frobllcbe Wlssenscbft (FW 354), but our ntion endurg self, our 'festecr] Ruf CFV 296) lso derived from our beg world socil terction (one tempted sy, fter L Rochefouculd, tht 'on n'urit jm eu de moi, si on n'en vit jm endurg self perpetuted entendu by prler 1 ). philosophicl meten n slcb wie n vollendete Secondly, belief prejudice: ' Gluben nicht die usgewcbsene Ttscben? Hben nicht grobe Philosophen noch ihr Siegel uf dies Vorurteil gedruckt, mit der Lehre von der Unvererlichkeit des Chrkters?' (M 560). course Crtesin cogi, which ently s he does Kntin gretest significnce for Nietzsche 'Dg n compron (The trget here ttcks prodies s recurr- sich 1.) s with m Thirdly, Proust), though ( such mconceived doctre hs its bs reltively short humn lifespn. In section

160 -155 Kenschllches, Allzuioenschllches entitled ' Der unvererliche Chrcter 1, Nietzsche produces followg thought experiment: Dchte mn sich ber een Menschen von chtzlgtusend Jhren, so htte mn n ihm sogr een bsolut vererlichen Chrkter: so db ee Fiille verschiedener Individuen sich nch und nch us ihm entwickelte. Die Kurze des menschlichen Lebens verleitet zu mnchen irrtiimlichen Behuptungen uber die Eigenschften des Menschen. (MA, 1, 41) Were we truly underst nture mn's 'bsolut vererlichen Chr- one. mortl endurg entity, n immortl soul, but tht self not n corollry, its kter' n we would lso underst which JTietzsche develops Jenselts (JOB Th lst ide one h notebook August- 12) September 1885 (KSA 11, 631f., 647, 650), but g it first be found Kenscbllches, Allzujsenschliches, where he ' Gliick des Hlsrlk- considers 'eer [...], der, im Gegenstze zu den ers' be reltion tht he Metphysikern, glucklich driiber 1st, nicht "ee unsterbliche Seele", sondern vlele sterbllche Seelen sich zu beherbergen' (MA, II, 17). 'Vlele sterbliche Seelen': The Experience Self A l recherche Proust's nrrr course not 'immutble chrcter', h experience by, on contrry, hvg n Hietzsche wht 'bsolut vererlichen Chrkter', illusion hvg n tken terms 'die bestige Vergnglichkeit und Fluchtlgkeit des Subjekts* (KSA 11, 650). nrrr's self dsolved ws redg immeditely before moi-m6me ce dont prlit 1'ouvrge: Frnco l* r et de Chrles drem fllg Qut' outset novel, when from frgmenttion subject pprent 'subject' book he sleep: une (CS, 'il me semblit que j'et un qutuor, l rivlit6 de egle, I, Perspectivtic 3). Furrmore, th belief

161 -156momentrily vdes h until well, s world, wkg memory succeeds constructg nrrr's self for him, tkg its mterils not merely from own h pst from extrordrily, but, life whole hry civiltion: le souvenir - non encore du lieu ou j'et, m de quelques-uns de ceux que J'v hbites et ou J'ur pu etre - venit moi comme un souvenir d'en hut pour me tirer du nent d'ou je n'ur pu sortir ut seul; je pss en une seconde pr-dessus des siecles de civiltion, et I 1 imge confusement entrevue de lmpes & petrole, pu de chemes col rbttu, recomposient peu & peu les trits origux de mon moi. (CS, I, 5f.) follows Nietzsche's trvel drel through 'die letzten novel, n, Proust's nrrr voluntrily On wkg t openg progrmme Jhrhunderte for h self be ihren Kulturfrbungen und lien previous lyers civil- -strhlenbrechungen', trvellg through ll tion order surfcg from sleep precely, quite constituted s n 'exped ego' on Nietzsche's world-hric scle. So primry fct Proust's which nrrr regters precely plurlity diversity h selves - he fds no Crtesin 'ego 1 or Kntin 'unity pperception' t hert tion. The self s n elusive frgmentry s he fds, s frustrtgly knowledge', 'object self vilble trospec- or, but sterbliche Seelen sich zu beherbergen' quest try unify h selves some Proust's - fd so proundly dquietg unstfcry. Georges Poulet, A l recherche de son essence. 17 To nchor h who teches nrrr sets out on wy or thn through kd perspectivtic ssemblge which, cse secure unified, lienble, essentil Nietzsche, - be 'glucklich druber, viele ffirs himself celebrte th stte unlike Alberte, we hve seen him The nrrr's quest dividulity: Srtren terms ' le romn d'une extence & l recherche extence, nrrr seeks spiritul

162 -157centre with mysterious ner spurred on by tuition ffords, but which t first he recesses n 'essence cn neir H experience with mdelee genertes personlity, he self which mdelee justify nor expl himself. feelg ner certty truth, 'une Joie preille & une certitude' (TR, IV, 446) s he lter describes it; it gives him privileged ccess ' verite [.,.] en moi' (CS, I, 45), essence precieuse' Celle etit moi 1 (CS, I, 44)) which stels up on him leves him simply wonderg why it mkes him feel so hppy. Such fleetg moments 'self'-wreness problem self, however, self which he feels mortifyg selves only Jm ut un' <SG, III, 412), only o ny one time, highlight essentil cleft which exts between which rdiclly self-estrnged nrrr co-ext with him t only he o knows wre, by experience. n, The tht 'on n'est wre different selves which ech performg seprte function: 'CcJe serviteur terne' (SG, III, 108) who responsible for remdg him h enggements, for nombreux secretires que [!'hbitude] exmple; 'ces s'djot' (SG, III, 136), who write h tedious letters; or, even more use- fully, '[clet utre que soi-me'me qui vit en nous et sur qui on est ujours si content de se dechrger du frdeu felicity th divion lbour de penser' fds (JF, II, 261). its drker The pprent side, though, pessimm which comes so ten fore with nrrr's cute wreness wedge between self self, knowledge or thn n ironic self-deception (SG, III, 271). wedge which precludes ny form self- dmsion powerlessness before one's own 'Die gewdhnlichste Luge 1st die, mit der mn sich selbst belugt 1, writes Nietzsche Der Antichrt (AC 55), it not only Alberte who lies Proust's nrrr, himself. for he n dept t lyg

163 -158- gency time, for throughout divided self turn compounded through contrdicires, etres 'les 225), II, successives' (JF, self 'personnlites frgmenttion bre eqully (di)chronic selves through memory lys pst present novel Juxtposition on h (syn)chroniclly perspective The nrrr's schmtic, prmtic mechnt, le le sensible, le delict, le mufle, le desteresse, 1'mbitieux, qu'on est ur 'Je su un utre' (AD, IV, nrrr no sense From viewpot retrospective 221). e termittent succession, surveys conscious only n soul-destroyg bttlefield on which sks which he hs sloughed like 'moi's ded lie corpses h myrid he felt; be cn contuity epimed by lmost Rlmbldin sense liention which th brgs reified object, s externlly, wholly <CG, II, 682) perceived que nous vons ete utrefo 1 '[Clelui 221). ur chque Journee' <AD, IV, f. More thn 'Just 1 quest for self-knowledge, n, nrrr's quest lso struggle gst be evitble th bout optimtic soi-meme' which 'se notre gre, chque Jour 1 (AD, IV, 66). consomme notre su, u beso centre At times he cn de mort 'l gst deth, process, for h reltionships with Gilberte Alberte he ten wnts self p from mery he reles it most strikg imges for its 'moi feels positively relieved when delivernce. In one writes time-fte terveng destee tient en reserve pour llowed die, he its Jelousy or chgr be put out with nous one et que, hs sns hppened, welcomg th phenomenon, he de rechnge que l plus ecouter nos prieres qu'un medec clirvoynt et d'utnt plus uritire, elle substitue mlgre nous, pr une tervention opportune, u 174). But fct rems tht moi contct vriment trop blesse 1 (AD, IV, with loved one only ever

164 -159ggrvtes 'seril lterlty 1 self, sce self becomes dsolubly ttched imge 299) must endure its II, (JF, or termittence, its peripete, its deth (AD, IV, 71). To mke thgs even worse, we re occsionlly ld ors' opions mrkedly from h own. diverge nrrr, ech cse y Yet when him - 'elle dit que Je Jupien reports Frncolse's pprent denigrtion ne vl ps l corde pour me pendre et que J 1 vls cherch6 lui fire ut nrrr dwells on consequences for le ml possible* (CG, II, 366) - llow it reltive knowledge himself, o. h problemtlse chpter, but he refuses lst sw h knowledge ors, s we Fr from simply cceptg vlidity such opions concedg tht h own view himself my be open question, both nrrr-protgont possibility tht or cn retrospective nrrr constently reject ply ny prt estblhg identity h 'true self. cse Swnn, or person prmount, generl, nrrr only self-knowledge cn be vouchsfed socil constructedness from belief tht true wvers never self-exmtion, tht through dulgence superficil. follow ny or pth but n Wheres 'Beg world 1 '6tre mond 1 re synonymous for him, both fll under sign 'temps perdu 1 its more sense pessimtic world/outer world dichomy one recherche, contrst between 'm vie ou J'hbit mon epiderme 1 (CG, II, 'wsted time': ner most pervsive mes A l terieure' 'ces heures mondes 817), between ' le nent de l vie de slon (CG, II, 709) 'cette experience de soi-meme, qui est l seule vrie' (SG, III, 312). Pul de Mn hs convcgly demonstrted cn be collpsed, 9 nrrr's cse how tht ner/outer dichomy 'le nent de l vie de slon'

165 -160echoes with deepest confes sense tht t lest one h "moi" que je ne retrouv 'moi's qu'& nnees meme, n'ynt ps gri depu Combry, h nrrr sets prelpsrin imge ble feelg selfhood, now so lthough he does sometimes hs remed impervious decy - 'ce des <CG, II, 381) - deed gst self, d'tervlles, m ujours le depu m premiere rrivee Blbec' wreness beg divided self h besieged tht Combry h rel 'prd perdu 1, childhood bolster explicby doubt. We re constntly wre h fond memories its unchngg vlues seemgly fixed chrcters encpsulted by tremendous weight it Du cqte de chez imperfect tense which so domtes h depiction jsvnn. 10 Remcences childhood wreness loss, however, when he self tend only excerbte n contempltes frgmented selves which hve ccumulted sce n, through time, rupture most ccentuted when he ctully returns scene h childhood t end Albertlne dlsprue begng Le Temps retrouve. Proust'6 Idelm 'lotre moi est fit de l superposition 125), Proust's nrrr reflects, he de nos frequently led conclude tht etts successifs 1 (AD, IV, self, like or, Just perspectivl ssemblge fter ll, no more thn sum its prts. But by self s void, t times he self ll - tempttion wht Btille clls '1'bsurde contrst with th sense 'essentil lso tempted by opposg belief, tht (subjective) idelm, 11 or even solipsm, ruee de 1'ipee voulnt Krcel Rimond pots openg pges devenir le ut novel s n exmple th

166 -161l Recherche mettent en evidence un impulse, rgug: 'Les premieres pges de solipsme proustien qui, vec I 1 experience et l multipliction des pots de lessons perspectivm tempttion tellectuel 1 ffective vestment, entirely bnhed. re impressions ll strightforwrd phenomenon, tht 'perceived tht rele nrrr comes lern h s But vue, ur tendnce s'eclipser.' 1S relity' subject no 'un cte idelm never For if we ctively prticipte fbrictg truth s short step holdg tht outside work rt nywy, n it but world itself simply mentl construct. oscilltes unesily between fct nrrr Throughout novel, In A 1'ombre des jeunes filles en flevrs he reflects on relm idelm. 'm Gilberte fictive 1, recognes lredy drtg put lover's perspective, yet he still ble 'l Gilberte que je port contrst 'h' moi', en I, contully confound him (JF, positively Berkelein note, though, when qu nous cessons de le voir; Lter 616f.>. reelle', l '1'utre, with Gilberte(s) tht whose ctions book he sounds clims: 'Chque etre est detruit he son pprition suivnte est une cretion pu nouvelle, differente de celle qui 1' immeditement precedee, son de utes* <JF, II, 270). nrrr Ve hve seen how first kses Le Cdte de Guermntes< t moment when Alberte, 'rel her presence 1 temporrily eclipsed by nrrr's phogrph collection, L Prlsonnlere, where despirg nrrr wonders wher he will ever be ble rech truth bout Alberte, he writes 'un rideu de mensonges que nous prenons pour l relite* (P, III, 890). In whtever tempttions Alberte idelm, dlsprue, though, he emphses tht doctre constntly refuted it simply by our contct with outside world: Les 6tres ont un developpement en nous, m un utre hors de nous (je

167 -162l 1 vls bien sent! dns ces soirs ou je remrqu en Alberte un enrichsement de qulites qui ne tenit ps qu' m memoire) et qui ne lsent ps d'voir des rections 1'un sur 1'utre. [...] Si bien que cette longue plte de 1'me qui croit vivre enfermee en elle-meme n'est un monologue qu'en pprence, puque les echos de l rellt6 l font devier, et que telle vie est comme un essi de psychologie subjective spontnement poursuivi, m qui fournit quelque dtnce son 'ction' u romn, purement relte, d'une utre extence, et duquel leur ur les peripeties viennent flechir l courbe et chnger l direction de I 1 essi psychologique. (AD, IV, 82; cf. P, III, 577) In th pssge, which Tdi6 terms one most importnt texts Proust's we sw Chpter 1 chrctertion 'Hietzschen 1 St-Loup, on once more Proust's nrrr comes down idelm which 'philosophic' 'romn' which between oeuvre, '* we redcover contrst side ltter. doctre here, which philosophicl representtive It Proust's nrrr, like Dr Johnson kickg sne, wnts refute by ssertg brute fct extence dependent 'novel 1 relity, which tervenes dpel our idle philosophicl specultions. prevents nrrr from lter lpsg Hot tht th precely such specultions on 'l vie reelle, qui est mentle' (AD, IV, 122), or on extent which love reforces solipstic model: exterieur n'exte ps et que vie. 'Certs en c'est dent que le monde philosophes nous-m6me que nous developpons notre Quoi qu'il en soit, 1'mour, m me en ses plus humbles commencements, est un exemple frppnt du peu qu'est l relite pour nous 1 (AD, IV, 146). The split between subjective ner world n objective outer relity - ' ute impression est double, demi re-emphsed Le Temps retrouv& engee dns 1'objet, prolonge en nous-meme nous pourrions connitre' (TR, IV, 470) - prcesse Guermntes' nrrr g prettion meng h temporrily) position which pst pr but une utre moitie que seul durg tempted experiences 'Mtee chez l by more extreme ters cknowledgedly idelt. he dpts (t lest Bimond rgues: 'A

168 -163bsolu: certs moments, 1'idelme proustien est est dns le monde, m c'est le qui monde ce n'est ps Mrcel qui en Mrcel', 16 th est deed cse here: De m vie pssee je compr encore que les modres epodes vient concouru me donner l le^on d'idelme dont J'll priter ujourd'hui. Mes rencontres vec M. de Chrlus, pr exemple, ne m'vient-elles ps, meme vnt que s germnophilie me donn^t l m me leeon, perm, mieux encore que mon. mour pour Mme de Guermntes ou pour Alberte, que 1'mour de Slnt-Loup pour Rchel, de me convcre combien l mtiere est differente et que ut peut y etre m pr l pensee. <TR, IV, 489) But position Proust's rems nrrr mbivlent even here, for lthough shortly fterwrds he develops th notion tht 'ut peut y 6tre m que seule l perception grossiere et pr l pensee' CJe m'et rendu compte erronee plce ut dns 1'objet, qu ut est dns 1'esprit 1 (TR, IV, 491)), deed he reverts solipsm, de l relite' (TR, IV, 493, my pssges he g stresses: 'ce que comme dns l vue elle-m6me writg 'crctere purement mentl emphs), neverless between se two remrqu de subjectif dns l hlne je ps n'empechit que 1'objet pqt posseder des qulites ou des defuts reels et ne fit nullement s'evnouir l relite en un pur reltivme 1 <TR, IV, 492), be prtly ttributed fct The contrdictions se pssges cn tht Proust ws unble rework tht itself revelg. m stfcrily He seems before h deth, but hve been prticulrly unsure bout where plce observtion 'seule l perception grossiere et erronee plce ut dns 1'objet, qu ut est 'Pleide' edirs feel obliged give second occurrence only highlights ppended pssge which concludes vie 1, h oreticl duction 1*esprit 1, dns it twice, nrrr's h with result tht congruity its confusion retrospect lesson here, for it on 'les lecons de l idelm t th pot

169 -164fltly contrdicts wht now ptently more Nletzschen nlys: J 1 vls vu dns 1'ffire Dreyfus, pendnt l guerre, dns l medece, croire que l verite est un cert fit, que les mtres, le medec, possedent un oui ou un non qui n' ps beso d 1 terprettion, qui fit qu'un cliche rdiogrphique dique sns terprettion ce qu' le mlde, que les gens du pouvoir svlent si Dreyfus etit coupble, svient (sns voir beso d'envoyer pour cel Roques enqu6ter sur plce) si Srril vit ou non les moyens de mrcher en meme temps que les Russes. II n'est ps une heure de m vie qui n'eflt servi n'pprendre que seule l perception plutdt grossiere et erronee plce ut dns 1'objet qu ut u contrire est dns I 1 esprit. (TR, IV, 493) The nrrr's emphs here on qulify ll bsolute knowledge- need clims, on bsurdity ssertg truth be ' cert fct 1 without recogng fctlcity ssert 'ne, strikgly Nietzschen. Thtschen' positivts, s nur Nietzsche's response 'es giebt we hve seen, terprettion, Thtschen gerde es nicht, nur giebt rert Grdgrdin hrins Interprettionen* (KSA 12, 315), h similr: ' Fct! J Fct flct!' CM 307). The exmple medics terpretg n X-ry, which Proust's nrrr uses here order unmsk presumption scientific reson, implicitly gives lie h own previous ttempts tt truth by ppliction nrrr figured s botnt but lso, precely, s scientific stronomer mmticicin, zoologt, 'rdiogrpher' nlyticl methods - TR, (cf. IV, 297) - it echoes Nietzsche's ttck on scientts' terprettion world s beg poorest ll: 'Ee "wsenschftliche" Velt-Interprettion, wie ihr sie versteht, konnte folglich immer noch eer der dummsten, ds heibt snrmsten ller moglichen Velt-Interprettionen se' 373). Hvg thus successfully 'red' (' Vsenscbft ls Vorurteil', FV se text-terprettion nodel, however, Proust's schen conclusion proceeds throw h vocbulry subjective idelm for situtions usg Nietzschen nrrr hs shrks from Nietz- ir, lpsg bck conclusion which by now

170 -165non sequltur. In h 1886 prefce sy nrrr's mbivlence whose Proust, sme Temps retrouv I would rgue Le context se confused delibertions for usg Kntin outgrown it, hd Schopenhuerin lnguge when h philosophy tht one might himself chstes 'Versuch eer Selbstkritik', Nietzsche Die Geburt der Trgodie, edition second contrdicress here betrys fct tht old vocbulry 'subjective ity h ctul experiences 'reltiv- describe idelm* no longer suffices problem how underst Proust's nrrr fced with element cretivity mere self-deception, cretion n world without hvg dms it s soon s 'le monde reel 1 supervenes termittent illusion which bnhed s ( self s nothg), but reltivme 1 ( self s When ll). problem, h nswer, s we sw dultic, subjective idelt model power. But where does tht leve 'us 1? unmsk ' dlvlduuxt s drives constntly shiftg its 'centre tiven-lehre der Affekte 1 revlues body. ^ our th sme time voidg our enggement with world n power 'terpretg' will Nietzsche my deconstruct subject ' dividuuuf, sme t will wy self lger, nor does h reltivme', for he reterprets through previous chpter, supersede (while plce, works Nietzsche tempttion solipsm), by rgug tht event terprettion tkes or h 'un pur on lpsg without enggement with perspectivtic our volved self he does not reby spirit but strtegy leve him prey 'un pur s hierrched plurlity perspective': Nietzsche's 'Perspek'Identity' resitutes it

171 -166lietzschen 'Semiotics': Redg Body In celebrted pssge Jenseits vn tsk s beg 'den Jfenschen Gut und Bse, Nietzsche writes h nmllch zuruckiibersetzen die fftur; iiber die vielen eitlen und schwrmerchen Deutungen und Nebensne Herr werden, welche homo bher uber jenen ewigen Grundtext (JOB 230; cf. VS 17), he ntur gekritzelt und gemlt wurden 1 performs th tsk by unmskg consciousness with its ego s precely such presumptuous 'scrwl 1 : s erly s Jforgenrote he rgug tht 'll unser phntstcher Kommentr viber sogennntes BewuBtse een ungewubten, gefuhlten Text' (M 119; cf. JOB 22). e mehr oder weniger vielleicht unwibbren, ber Nietzsche's im, n, will be ssert primcy th 'gefuhlten Text': h doctre will power not demteriltion body (pce Krtev on Deleuze's Nietzschen Proust), but n bsolute ffirmtion it. Moreover, Nietzsche's ' Aufwertung' body timtely bound up with very model terprettion which he proposes, 'semiotics' - which, fter ll, primrily medicl term logt Nietzsche 'Arzt terprettion which he (sympmlogy). der proposes Cultur 1 meet Thus Nietzsche philo 'semiotic' model Gotzen-Dmmerung pssge which I quoted Introduction s beg centrl Deleuze's redg: Ds morlche Urteil t sern nie wortlich zu nehmen: ls solches enthlt es immer nur Vidersn. Aber es bleibt ls Semlotlk unschtzbr: es fenbrt, fur den Vsenden wenigstens, die wertvollsten Relitten von Kulturen und Innerlichkeiten, die nicht genug vubten, urn sich selbst zu 'verstehn'. Morl t blob Zeichenrede, blob Sympmlogie: mn mub bereits wsen, worum es sich helt, urn von ihr Nutzen zu ziehn. (GD, VII, I) 1 * All 'phenomen' (i.e. evlutions), Nietzsche suggests, need be terpreted ('red'), s physicin 'literlly', but t 'fce terprets vlue 1 - ir body: vlue y should s not be tken sympms which

172 -167etched experiences like reds philosophicl physiognomt on fce Coberflchlich - us Tlefe*. ' ). n, he stressg tht he When Nietzsche proposes 'semiotic 1 model, punkt vom Leibe', s he For ll terprettion. medics, but unlike m he sympmlogy tht nrrr) 'science 1 decipher efforts clicins' h notebooks. ls himself Proust's like Nietzsche, o, 'X-rys' body, recognes (with Proust's remds contully h will be n 'Ausgngs- tht Leibes", will philosophe 'Am Leitfden des body by pplyg rigorously 'objective' techniques, no mount X-rys will produce truth bout it, ironiclly enough, becuse scientts ignore fct tht it bodily drives Nietzsche runs very different kd terpretg re which imges produced. Dr criticl clic irs,^20 for h new model 'objectivity' 'Affekte zu Vorte kormen lssen' (GM, III, 12). bodily drives mselves re no defitive But Nietzsche recognes tht text beneth terprettions, tht y re mselves constituted re residue former evlutions. ble beneth bodily, The mterprettions, but it ffective 'text' my be recovernot text ' beneth 1 ll out contr Grnier, not terprettions: 'Grundtext', s Kmn pots some new metphysicl bsolute but itself constructed s n terprettion. 21 In n importnt section Also des Leibes', Zrthustr rerts Seele"': 'der Erwchte, der Wsende sprch Zrthustr, ' Von den Verchtern who child sgt: Leib b sys ich '"Leib b ich und gnz und gr, und nichts uberdem; und Seele t nur e Wort fvir e Etws m Leibe. I Der Leib 1st ee grobe Vernunft, ee Verchtern des Leibes'). He Vielheit contues eem Sne' mit by dtguhg (Z, I, 'Von den between self, which body, ego, which it mocks: 'Ich' sgst du und bt slz uf dies Wort. Aber ds GroBere t,

173 -168worn du nicht gluben willst - de Leib und see grobe Vernunft: die sgt nicht Ich, ber tut Ich. [...] Hter deen Gednken und Gefiihlen, me Bruder, steht e mchtiger Gebieter, e unbeknnter Veer - der heibt Selbst. In deem Leibe wohnt er, de Leib t er. (Z, I, ' Von den Verchtern des Leibes 1 )* So body site kd personl identity, s such it sub- stitutes for ny essentiled conception thk, refore I n' fvour "I" m'. But body no kestic senstions occur, refore unitry substnce, sense) 'complicted' ggregte will giebt een Begriff von der 11, 434; cf. 12, 205f.) - it sited body s 'Ich' - Nietzsche rejects 'I it rr ( Deleuze's power - 'Ds Studium des Leibes unsglichen Compliktion 1, Nietzsche remrks (KSA hierrchy competg forces not so much constitutg it, 23 so tht even though it privileged terpret t ionl terfce it must still be 'red 1 plurlticlly, gonlly: Ausgngspunkt vom Lelbe und der Physiologie: wrum? - Vir gewnen die richtige Vorstellung von der Art unsrer Subjekt-Eheit, nmlich ls Regenten n der Spitze ees Gemewesens, nicht ls ' Seelen' oder 1 Lebenskrfte*, sgleichen von der Abhngigkeit dieser Regenten von den Regierten und den Bedgungen der Rngordnung und Arbeitsilung ls Ermbglichung zugleich der Ezelnen und des Gnzen. Ebenso wie fortwhrend die lebendigen Eheiten entstehen und sterben und wie zum 'Subjekt' nicht Ewigkeit gehort; eben dt der Kmpf uch Gehorchen und Befehlen sich usdrvickt und e fliefiendes Mchtgrenzen-bestimmen zum Leben gehort. (KSA 11, 638) Nietzsche's 'Grundtext' must lso be red genelogiclly, though, for body ultimte tertext, it 565). bers trces its descent (KSA 11, The body chnges imperceptibly decys over time; it cn even be set gst itself when decdent desed question n bsolute vlue for 'humn genelogy, wht required prcted vielfch uberschriebenen Hschrift der (JGB 200), nture 1. 2A so re cn be no To red body its eye: 'B geubtes Auge, urn us der menschlichen Ziige und Gebrden die

174 -1698, 400). Vergngenheit deutlich lesen zu kbnnen' (KSA mn bck nture 1 we full 8): kd 'schlechte 'Vorrede', <GM, mster rt terprettion fculties criticl our use must In order 'trnslte Interprettions-Kunste 1 or 'schlechte "Philologie"' (JOB 22) prcted by most scientts ll ologins must be unmsked, we must lern 'die Kunst, gut zu lesen' (AC 52).* s The Prousti Body Although Proust, o, he recommends, hermeneutlc eye which Nietzsche cquires eventully terprettions, h nrrr primcy recognes lerns fter experience hs itilly spelled it out for him. bodily text its kd prcted h lesson only long As with perspectivm, it tkes him while come round Nietzsche's pot view, for Nietzsche tkes h 'Ausgngspunkt vom Leibe 1, but th respect, s ever, Proust's nrrr tkes h 'Ausgngspunkt von der (Eigen)Liebe'. In Le Cdt6 de Guermntes, 'les proles de Jupien' open nrrr's eyes world lies, but immeditely before pssge on which I concentrted previous chpter nrrr reflects on n importnt lesson which he could hve lerned from look pity with which Frncoe greeted h humilitions - djunction between ny voluntry bodily expression ness dmit himself tht he from relg th t time. semiotics body, but lso words greter truthfulness h own conceitedness, h unwillgten lies himself, prevented him The immedite context for th dcussion ppropritely nrrr sserts tht strength h enough, medicl one - belief truthfulness words

175 -170 ws t time comprble Frncoe's tht belief potentil efficcy quck pnces: K l premiere, Frn<;oe me donn 1'exemple (que je ne dev comprendre que plus trd qu 11 me fut donne de nouveu et plus douloureusement, come on le verr dns les derniers volumes de cet ouvrge, pr une personne qui m'etit plus chere) que l verite n' ps beso d'etre dite pour tre mnifestee, et qu'on peut peut-< tre l recueillir plus stirement, sns ttendre les proles et sns tenir msme ucun compte d'elles, dns mille signes exterieurs, meme dns certs phenomenes vibles, nlogues dns le monde des crcteres ce que les chngements tmospheriques. physique, sont, dns l nture J'ur peut- tre du m'en douter, puqu' moi-meme, lors, 11 m'rrivit souvent de dire des choses ou il n'y vit nulle verite, t que Je l mnifest pr tnt de confidences volontlres de mon corps et de nes ctes (lesquelles etient fort bien terpretees pr Frn oe), <CG, II, 365) Frnqoe better hermeneut words re ' nie wbrtlich tht nehmen 1, zu stge, th t n, for she knows tht voluntry lnguge expression gesture surer guide person 1 s chrcter thn ny words y my choose order mselves. express But by time L Pronnl&re, nrrr hs lso come pprecite tht omnipresence him dopt more direct methods lie socil terction requires i nterprett i on: moi qui pendnt tnt d'nnees n 1 vls cherche l vie et l pensee reelles des gens que dns 1'enonce direct qu'ils m'en fournsient volontirement, pr leur fute j'en et rrive ne plus ttcher, u contrire, d 1 importnce qu'ux temoignges qui ne sont ps une expression rtionnelle et nlytique de l verite; les proles elles-memes ne me renseignient qu' l condition d'etre terpretees l f^on d 1 un fflux de sng l figure d'une personne qui se trouble, l fcon encore d'un silence subit. (P, III, 596) seen, Even verted lie, s we hve only be pproched chnce, Even n, when it however, re ir no gurntee truth, which cn voluntrily, betryed between such betryls - Gilberte's first glnce Blbec - n vulgr evitble wordlessly, by temporl djunction gesture t Tnsonville, Chrlus's dequte decipherment, which cn only (if ever) tke plce retrospectively, s nrrr reles when he reviews

176 -1711 etymology' h vrious reltionships recovers h first impressions chrcters durg ' Bl de tes' Le Temps retrouvg <TK, IV, 549). A glnce my gretest yield ultimtely nrrr's recognition gretest truth regrd will pve wy for h ll experience voluntry ie when her eyes re closed, when recpitulted on still evitbly escpes him t ctches her nppg L Pronnl&re. he counter-pole frgmenttion Alberte epode hs he nrrr's experience ir first ks, for no sooner - multiplicity her But nrrr wre re highest for flly 'possessg 1 Albert- time, which why h hopes Here we re given kd memory. glnce or's tht significnce nture truth th chnce Proust's emphs on voluntry, bodily, quotient, n, truth now cknowledged s double, constg not only nrrr's 'imges successives 1 her, but lso her 'multipliction d'elle-mfime', which recognes he dependently him - thn he chnces upon her sleep. recumbent, unconscious body front him, hve tken plce Only now, when she does he feel tht she truly h 'proner*: Son moi ne s'6chppit ps us moments, comme qu nous cusions, pr les sues de l pens6e vouee et du regrd. Elle vit rppele & soi ut ce qui d'elle etit u dehors; elle s 1 etit refugiee, enclose, resumee, dns son corps. En le tennt sous men regrd, dns mes ms, J'v cette impression de l posseder ute entiere que Je n'v ps qu elle etit reveillee. <P, III, 578) However, th 'impression 1 only chieved divested herself not only ll her t sme time her very becuse fllg sleep she hs orwe errnt elusive selves, but humnity, becomg kd plnt Cune longue tige en fleur") reby even more foreign nrrr thn when she conscious. 26 Confronted with Alberte's demteriles it: 'Ce que J'6prouv lors body, nrrr promptly c'6tit un mour devnt quelque

177 -172chose d'ussi pur, d'ussi immteriel, devnt les cretures nimees que 578). d'ussi sont les mysterieux que si j'vls et6 beutes de l nture' CP, III, Her body becomes blnk slte on which nrrr feels he cn write t will - it becomes not just plnt, but mre lscpe, more: Moi qui conns plusieurs Alberte en une seule, il me semblit en voir bien d'utres encore reposer upres de moi. [..,] Des rces, des tvmes, des vices reposient sur son vge. Chque fo qu'elle depl<jit s t6te elle creit une femme nouvelle, souvent soupconnee de moi. II me semblit posseder non ps une, m d 1 nombrbles jeunes filles. (P, III, 580)*r Ironiclly, n, th contempltion mny fntsies on nrrr's prt it no cocidence tht when Alberte 1 s s he body genertes just s when she lter dppers dies, chnces upon her sleep g lter L PronniSre, her body represents for him th time not some vegetble vitl force but lifeless premonition deth <P, III, 862). When Alberte sleep her body scruty, tsk decipherg her delivered up nrrr for ctully becomes n impossible one, her ert body - 'ce corps signifint 1 (P, III, 862) - hs no meng except those which he imputes it. terpret her words, Even when hs movement: 'Je ne m1 quiet ps en dormnt, leur significtion she speks her sleep he unble drw des m'echppit, 581). leger comfort from her bodily mots qu'elle lsit prfo echpper connue qu'ils eussent designee, c'etit m, prfo nimee d'un delusory et, d'illeurs, quelque personne sur frson, m se m, sur m joue, que s crpit un stnt 1 (P, III, When she wke spekg, nrrr's old frustrtions return, he whes tht he could decipher her body better order rrive t somethg her own pst future rr thn just h projected fntsies: 'Et mtennt qu'elle m'vit dit un non ps rrcher son robe pour voir son jour: "Mile Vteuil", j'ur voulu corps, m, & trvers son corps voir

178 -173- vous' (P, III, 601). will never fd such 'bloc-notes' But nrrr only body nor - it ses prochs et rdents rendez- de et souvenirs ut ce bloc-notes de ses experience h own body tht he h gs ccess ' Vunderblock' he desires. body, impression he gs not When nrrr focuses on h own n niml, s openg plnt-like extence, but rr tht peut ment de 1'extence comme il s simplicity premiere le senti- dns scene novel: 'j'vls seulement d'un niml 1 (CS, I, 5). fond u fremir Anne Henry, comprg Proust's portryl wkg with Schopenhuer's, emph estblhment nrrr's bergs t ses role body begng A l recherche, identifie d'voir ou chmbre il dort, signifie son c'est--dire 1'orgne de 1'espce, qui corps, emergence du nent et c'est le ssure l reconnsnce l se glser dns une forme, dns memory: 'L pensee du nrrteur qui hesite une epoque, vnt tervention conscious before even She concludes: 'Proust depsse meme Schopenhuer en designnt le crctere pssif d'une telle resertion 1, yet body fr from 'pssive' Proust's nlys, body h own cse its (CS, importnce somtic stimuli contrsts memory 'm memory 'mon corps': f mon corps, grdiens reposls, n'urit jm dti oublier' He 'memory'. pensee' with more effective ffective le cot6 sur lequel Je for wht nrrr stresses bout I, Proust's nrrr slightest chnge even furr describes how one's one constructs on wkg, o: d'un psse que mon esprit Just s Nietzsche stresses 6).** drems new memories ssocitions (CS, I, fideles (MA, 13; GD, VI, 4), so for body posture durg sleep genertes 4>, 30 but Proust tkes th phenomenon sleepg nrrr ment' on wkg unfmilir bedrooms, but I, position cn ffect world experiences sense 'depyseeven when one wkes one's own

179 -174uncusmry s red rm blockg bed, he tells us, somethg s mimlly sme sense 'bouleversement' when produce out sun will suffice one wkes up (CS, I, 5). In h rticle 'Corps du corps', du texte/texte Serge Doubrovsky hs powerfully rgued for primcy dynmm nrrr's body from outset Proust's novel: Au commencement des commencements n'est ps le Verbe, m le corps. Ce qui 'cherche', ce qui 'duit', ce qui 'repere', ce qui grde l 'memoire', c'est cette tenebre sous-jcente & m conscience, mn conscient, & mon lngge et irreductible eux: mon extence corporelle. [...] Le prcipe chercheur, le moteur de l Recherche, ce qui 'oriente 1 ou 'imge', mieux encore, le support du lngge, son declencheur est notre etre-u-monde physique. 31 Doubrovsky concentrtes on Inciplt which ' le corps du texte ssume et nrrr's experiences l recherche, on moment t trnsmue le texte connu du corps', 32 but he lso stresses tht body returns novel, durg 'Bl de tetes' A ressert its primcy t end Le Temps retrouve.*13 memory voluntry tht It, however, h own bodily extence resserts itself fl book s 'prcipe (re)trouveur' A l recherche s well s its memory tht we must now turn, 'prcipe chercheur', it voluntry Time which voluntry memory llows for Proust's nrrr ultimtely reg time wholly scribed body. Involuntry Menory, 1) Proust, Schopenhuer, lietzsche From te-soked delee Du 'moments bienheureux 1 Le c6t6 de chez Temps retrouve, Swnn rest nrrr's voluntry memories re triggered by h senses, memories 'movg' with him, s well s joy which he subsequently feels, re lso very much physicl

180 -175senstions. Moreover, se 'senstions', out, :!Eul pots Bur Michel s unlike h erlier 'impressions', re ll provoked by senses or thn vion Nietzsche, delibertely verts trdi- like - lst resort Proust, tionl hierrchy senses so s privilege or senses over sight, most tht essentil himself believes order priority pprent from tstg mdelee, lost he Th one level it suddenly jolts him memory IV, (TR, he underok before, when s dmses experiences s 'purement mterielle' complex exmple phenomenon on becuse it doubly double experience: for memories moment he trips over pvg-sne Guermntes courtyrd, prticulrly bck sme serch nrrr m s secondry. element spiritul, he dmses mteril voluntry element Yet ll. 136 'spiritul' generlly conceived s between difference on 445); two deeper level it eventully tkes him bck h similr experience with snes Venice, but g he dmses h ttempts down on uneven prompt fo 'Chque pvg-snes: memory by rockg up que je ref rien que mteriellement ce meme ps, il me restit utile' (TR, IV, 446). I wnt rgue tht nrrr's order priority, h privilegg spiritul over mteril bodily, needs be reversed, tht body fct <by nrrr's own dmsion) stronger cidte for 1 moi permnent 1 s gurdin personlity thn bstrction with which he ultimtely stfies himself. But before voluntry memories, it first himself thks he cn derive we cn explore bodily nture necessry from m, nmely (most un-uietzschen) 'moi I shll problemte th bstrction prond'. by nlysg Proust's nrrr's terprettion context pssges Schopenhuer consider wht nrrr section which follows voluntry memory Nietzsche which tret similr

181 -176phenomen, Ptrick Grder hs poted Schopenhuer's terest ' qulity kds some "will-lessness" [...] chrctertic memory-experience' s pro-proustin, 3S but if we exme for moment Schopenhuer's conception voluntry memory, importnt become pprent. In Die Velt compron differences ls with Proust's will Vllle und Vorstellung, Schopenhuer writes voluntry memory s follows: Jene Seeligkeit des willenlosen Anschuens t es endllch uch, welche uber die Vergngenheit und Entfernung een so wundersnen Zuber verbreitet und sie so sehr verschonendem Lichte uns drstellt, durch ee Selbsttuschung, Denn dem wir lngst vergngene Tge, n eem fernen Orte verlebt, uns vergegenwrtigen, sd es uns die Objekte lle, welche unsere Phntsie zuruckruft, nicht ds Subjekt des VI liens, ds see unheilbren Leiden dmls eben so wohl mit sich herumtrug, wie Jetzt, ber diese sd vergessen, weil sie seitde schon t ern Pltz gemcht hben. Nun wirkt die objektive Anschuung der Ernerung eben so, wie die gegenwrtige wir ken wiirde, wenn wir es uber uns vermdchten, uns wlllensfrei ihr hzugeben. Dher kommt es, dfi besonders wnn mehr ls gewdhnllch irgend ee Nbth uns bengstiget, die plotzliche Ernerung n Scenen der Vergngenheit und Entfernung wie e verlorenes Prdies n uns voruberf liegt. BloB ds die Phntsie ruft Individuell-Subjektive Objektive, nicht ds zuriick. The imge which Schopenhuer memory, tht lost prde unmtkbly similr Proust describe uses s (cf. effect voluntry delivernce from life's trvils, IV, TR, Yet 449). Schopenhuer essentilly criticl th experience, for he writes delusory 'chrm' gg comfort from m. For memories one's 'self-deception' Schopenhuer, notion tht pst 'verlorenes Prdies' n illu- sion becuse we do not lso recollect hd experiences, essentilly different n or words compred immutble core our extence, sufferg 'Subjekt des Villens* who becuse we believe sted now, which will-ful sufferg. terprettion voluntry memory cn thus be tht we recogng were Schopenhuer's seen st opposition

182 -177th quottion tht Schopen- from see lso Proust's, lthough we cn huer's conception re cert blurrg dtction which Proust for lthough he ostensibly mkes between voluntry voluntry memory, referrg 'willenloses Anschuen', neverless re n element will He believes tht our memories ressert mselves prticulrly when volved. which wy cll m drtg s well s forth exigencies our present sitution it - we re need comfort m - we could refore be ccused unconsciously seekg deceive ourselves. Compred Schopenhuer's conception 'voluntry 1 memory, Proust's undoubtedly more will-less, s deed ll memory s somehow voluntry: writes deny phenomenon - deed he Nietzsche's, for Nietzsche does not 'ds Erlebte lebt fort "im GedchtniB"; dfi es "kommt", dfur knn ich nichts, der Ville t dfur unthtig, wie cf. 11, 595). Wheres beim Kommen jedes Gednkens' (KSA 11, 644; Schopenhuer becuse we believe we were voluntry clls 'essentilly' different memory delusion pst, though, 'essentilly' sme - for him, Proust's nrrr clims it revels we were 'Seeligkeit des willenlosen Anschuens 1 cn be ttributed precely its revelg kd 'Seele' - Nietzsche mts tht conclusions from such voluntry comprons, we cnnot drw ny he dmnt tht however one expls recurrence memories, no 'essentil self should be derived from m. ' In Betreff des Gedchtnses mn umlernen: hier steckt die mub Huptverfuhrung ee "Seele" nzunehmen, welche zeitlos reproduzirt, wiedererkennt usw. t.., ] Es geschieht etws, dessen etws Ahnliches wer ruft es? weckt es? 1 ich mir bewubt werde: jetzt kommt <KSA 11, 644; cf. KSA 11, 175; 11, 645f.). Proust's nrrr believes tht re (sgle) ' vri moi' (TR, IV, 451) which res bove debr h personlity 'epiphnies' Le

183 -176- Temps retrouv, but for Nietzsche 'soul', rested. tempttion prime not Nietzsche would rgue, for it tempttion which must be voluntry memory mplced, from prond 1 'moi To derive memory, n endurg personlity or sense th nor cse superstitious only belief need for n gent expl every ction, but it lso simply derive nor 'fct 1 <VS 11) by ' Gleichsetzen des Nicht-Gleichen' (KSA 1, 880). Nietzsche dmsg Schopenhuer echoes similrity present (remembered) pst selves s illusory, but he does so for different reson: 'Unser GedchtnlB beruht lso uf dem (/hgeuusehen; es t (/.Zeicehen und Gleichnehmen: dem uf urspriglich sieht fst lles gleich n 1 (KSA 9, mere epiphenomenon moi' Is condemned be von der grbfiten Grobbelt und So if Proust's nrrr's 493). on terms Nietzsche's To nswer th question nlys, wht it tht voluntry memory revels? wht we must consider nore detil vri Proust's nrrr ctully clims it revel, nmely n 'essence 1, deed number 'essences'. Involuntry Kenory, 11> 'Essences' - Involuntry memory llows Proust's nrrr or rr, 'Cll'etre qui etit rene en moi' <TR, IV, 451) - contemplte (TR, IV, 454), enjoy (TR, IV, 450) 'feed himself (TR, IV, 451) cchee des choses' (TR, IV, 451), momentrily coext with le essences s ' l fo dns on '1'essence permnente et hbituellement from two senstions which seem derived him. present et ctuels, ideux sns tre bstrits 1 (TR, IV, tion' which leds Deleuze qulify himself nrrr The dns describes h le psse, reels sns 6tre 451), it th 'complicserenity nrrr's own

184 -179- Plng ccount phenomenon, s n experience normlly hidden world Ides, by qulity gonl goes furr stresses neo-plnic prllel. 31 more suggestg But Deleuze voluntry memories: 'Heme qu le psse nous est redonne dns I 1 essence, 1'ccouplement du moment sentiments qui s'epousent ne font le lutte qu' un ccord, [...] deux une present et de 1'ncien ressemble plus luttnt, qu'en et ferment dns cette lutte un corps irregulier de peu de duree.' 3'5' Where Proust's nrrr emphses essentil smeness which cn be bstrcted from repetition, n, Deleuze emphses difference (he repetition, terpretg Proustin essences s does) Nietzschen will power: 'Les essences sont & l fo l chose & trduire et l trduction meme, le signe et le sens. 1 -*0 Deleuze ble mke th move becuse Nietzsche himself describes will power s 'essence' world. enough for such thoroughgog word 'Essenz' t ll, but nti-essentilt, Jenseits Velt, deren Essenz der Wille zu Mcht t' sme period he elbortes on wht " Vesenhelt* t etws Perspektivches und (KSA 12, 140).-* 1 Gut vn Understbly Nietzsche rrely uses und Bose he writes 'eer CJGB 186), notebook entry th might men: 'Die ".Essenz", die setzt ee Vielheit schon vorus' In one note, deed, Nietzsche even relents h dmsl (voluntry) memory s simply nlogg ssimiltg wy differ- ence, thus openg up possibility for compron with precely kd difference with repetition tht Deleuze stresses essences which Proustin voluntry memories corporte: Alles Denken, Urilen, Vhrnehmen ls Verglelchen ht ls VorusDs setzung e " C/JeicJietzen", noch friiher e "GJeicfcnclien11. Gleichmchen t dsselbe, ws die Everleibung der ngeeigneten Mterie die Amoebe t. Ernerung spt, sern hier der gleichmchende Trieb bereits Ernern ls e gebigt erschet: die Differenz wird bewhrt. Erubriziren und Eschchteln, ctiv - wer?' (KSA 12, 209)

185 -180- power, though, (where) does Proustin terpretg If we follow Deleuze fit dividul 'essences' s will th picture? In one sense, course, dividul (s kd unitry essence self which Proust's nrrr seekg) dpensed model: re no 'core' self, 132): 12, (KSA power notion n 'essentil self The 'Grundtext homo ntur* (JOB 230) fct contrdiction terms. synonymous with will with on Nietzsche's will--power will power bove person, beneth deepest 'moi', sce 'Per Indlvldul<lsim>' merely its 'bescheidenste Stufe' (KSA Proust's 503). 12, nrrr himself writes 'notre vri moi 1 s 'I'homme ffrnchi de 1'ordre du temps' (TR, IV, 451), s 'I'homme eternel' (TK, IV, 497), or words not relm dividul t ll. essence primry trnscends subjectivi- As Deleuze rgues, ty: 'L'essence n'est ps seulement dividuelle, elle est dividulnte.'^2 experience nrrr describes work It th essence which t t outset Proust's novel, dpersed personlity beg stct- ively 'red' self: 'Un homme qui dort, tient en cercle uur de lui le des mondes. fil des heures, 1'ordre des nnees et en s'evelllnt et y lit en une seconde le pot de l terre qu'il occupe, le temps qui s'est ecoule jusqu' son reveil' dog redg n one fced himself dmits when he modifies h ne dons meme ps nous) nous contenu* (SG, III, 371). (CS, I, 5). If one sks 'who 1 n pori - which nrrr with position et Gomorrhe: 'Alors du noir orge qu'il sorns II les consulte d*stct for similr scene Sodome nous semble voir trverse (m nous gnts, sns pensees: un "nous" sns Deleuze comments here: Certes ucun moi puqu'on est soion ne demer ps qui choit, meme choi, puqu'un cert moi se trouve choi chque fo que 'nous' chosons un etre imer, une souffrnee eprouver, et que ce moi n'est ps mos surpr de vivre ou de revivre, et de repondre & 1'ppel, non sns se fire ttendre. [...] En verite, il exte une

186 -181ctivite, un pur Interpreter, pur choir, qui n' ps plus de sujet que d'objet, puqu'elle ne choit ps mos I 1 terprets que l chose & terpreter, le signe et le moi qui le dechiffre. Tel est le 'nous 1 de 1' terprettion. «:3 But if Proust's '"nous" sns terprettion, i.e. will pure contenu' power, n Nietzsche's terms th pure terprettion neverless vests itself body s f der leibhfte Ville zur Mcht 1 (JOB 259). (TR, IV, 623), so volun- corpore' nrrr pprecite '[le] temps try memories embody essentil time 'Bl de tetes' llows 887), renders ' le temps sensible' (cf. P, III, difference s Just s love repetition, ir compliction compliction body s will power. Deleuze rgues tht two ffects locked n gonl embrce experience volun- but both re generted with corps un try memory ' forment dns cette lutte irregulier de peu de duree', hierrchic structure 'greter' body, body which, s Zrthustr pots out, 'sgt nicht Ich, ber tut Ich. ' Involuntry Memory, 111) Vill Power, The Body Eternl Return At begng L Prlsonnlere, soul' - 'en tete tete du soleil' (P, III, 522) vec - nrrr 'commung with h le petit personnge terieur, slueur chntnt relg tht h body undercuts gence, lthough he prefers not Proust's th importnt pssge shows him ctully essentilg impulse h telli- exp on consequences body's 'greter truth': De ceux qui composent notre dividu, ce ne sont ps les plus pprents En noi, qu l mldie ur fi qui nous sont le plus essentiels. de les jeter 1'un pres 1'utre pr terre, il en rester encore deux ou tro qui uront l vie plus dure que les utres, notmment un cert philosophe qui n'est heureux que qu il decouvert, entre deux oeuvres, entre deux senstions, une prtie commune. M le dernier de

187 -182us, je me su quelquefo deme si ce ne serit ps le petit bonhomme fort semblble un utre que 1'opticien de Combry vit plce derriere s vitre pour diquer le temps qu'il fit. (P, III, 522) most importntly, beneth, 'moi's, So beneth ll moribund philosophe 1, synsg 'moi' Le moi Temps retrouve who here reveled (pre-emptively, future perfect). be just nor perhble 'moi 1, 'moi 1 'bonhomme 1 verts dcussion wkg novel. pure stct, it he who Schopenhuerin pessimm The 'moi 1, The for he mrks very first which 'bonhomme' tl responsiveness, fct tht beneth ll testifies nrrr re n lienble potentil Th 'moi' who feels different deth becuse for joy life. sun comes out, philosophicl senstion niml brometrique'. bonhomme sophtiction represents reversion petit 'le lies telligence, philosopher Plng depths, or deed those h cous bonhomme de plomb' whom from 'un sommeil de plomb' hve used for corporel bs likens himself on wkg punngly Wht better figure could Proust 387). II, <CG, plumb h Le C6t6 de Guermntes> 'simple nrrr hope cnnot h nrrr's perspectivlsm thn th 'bonhomme' stg outside n opticin's shop? The body needs be recogned, n, genertions fleetg 'moi's which nrrr derives from s tht which persts through md, cludg spirituled 'moi' voluntry Temps retrouve, nrrr deed stresses memory. tht At openg Le voluntry memory body more pround retentive yet thn voluntry memory md, lthough g he ignores bodily version ( Plnic terms) s it une memoire volontire des implictions but membres, seeks dms 'ple copy': 'il semble qu'il y ple et sterile imittion de

188 -1831'utre, qui vive plus longtemps, telligents vivent plus longtemps comme Even ples de souvenirs engourd' <TR, IV, 277), which h lter ego, 'Proust from tht experience by end novel, book: 'Proust romncier 1 describes emptively vouchsfed him erlier very different kd les brs sont ll lessons which were pre- quite lernt it seems, nrrr hs not jmbes, Les I'homme. que nimux ou vegetux - certs philosophe', nlyses supernnuted vocbulry 'essences'. ete l ron d'etre de 1'oeuvre Blnchot writes: 'Cette terprettion qui de Proust et lquelle celle-ci ce depsse, cel n'est ps douteux, une pporte que As Murice Justifiction glorieuse, experience proprement dite lui son f rit dns s purete immedite. 1 '*'* Deleuze's emphs on difference repetition Froustin essences llows m be terpreted Nietzschen but s Ronld Bogue pots out, it terms s embodied will power, lso llows for n terprettion ir complicted temporlity eqully Nietzschen terms - terms eternl return: In lrge prt, origlity Deleuze's redg Proust lies h terprettion Proustin essences s bsolute ternl differences. Th chrcteriztion essences llows Deleuze rescue Proustin essences from relm murky mysticm mke m centre Recherche s whole. It lso ffords Deleuze mens effectg rpprochement Nietzschen Proustin mes, for eternl return, s Proustin essences, controllg concepts re those difference repetition. AS One does not need Bogue's gloss on redg Proust rrive t Deleuze's consider very section th conclusion, though, for it sufficient Also sprch Zrthustr where section 'Vom Gesicht und Rtsel 1 expled h 'bgrundlichen eternl Gednken 1 fterwrds he struck by n voluntry return Third strikes Zrthustr, Book. dwrf No sooner hs our hero here thn immeditely memory which Nietzsche gives s its

189 -184prbolic representtion: Also redete ich, und immer leer: denn ich fiirchtete mich vor meen eigenen Gednken und Htergednken. D, plotzlich, hbrte ich een Hund nhe heulen. Horte ich jemls een Hund so heulen? Ke Gednke lief zuriick. J! Als ich Kd wr, fernster Kdheit: - d hb'rte ich een Hund so heulen. Und sh ihn uch, gestrubt, den Kopf nch oben, zitternd, stilter llitterncht, wo uch Hunde n Gespenster gluben: - lso db es mich erbrmte. [...] Und ls ich wieder so heulen horte, d erbrrte es mich bermls. (Z, III, 'Vom Gesicht und Rtsel') Th lk between voluntry memory eternl return crucil, for it opens up possibility epiphnic moment movg voluntry beyond memory Nietzsche's 'ubermensch' cretes h bodily become ffirmtion self reveled kd self which eternl return. But who Nietzsche's 'ubermensch 1...? Dionysus, The 'God VIth1 : lietzsche's f Moment bienneureuz* 'L 1 experience de Proust ujours pru mysterieuse pr 1'importnce qu'il lui pr&te, fondee sur des phenomenes uxquels les psychologues n 1 ccordnt ucune vleur d*exception, bien que ces phenomenes eussent peut-6tre dej dngereusement trnsporte Nietzsche.' (Blnchot, Le Ilvre & venir, p. 22) Let us return for moment Bogue's relm 'murky mysticm1. In A l recherche, voluntry memory volves md's openg up vst expnse felt truth, bodily feelg ccompnied by qusi-orgsmic wordless unity md body, Its closest wht Doubrovsky clls 'dej senti 1 **3 plesure. personlity which t sme time relm essences. fleetg spills model ecstsy, s Bogue notes, re hve Th surge simultneity, tuition perfect over impersonlity deed been experience mysticl mny who hve given redgs

190 -185Proust light mysticm, 47 just s re hve been those who hve climed fd ' les pges mystiques de Nietzsche 1.*e Tdie, who remrks curtly Pommier's L does not pply Proust, writer rgue tht it cnnot strictly outside pply Btille substitutg for both mystique de Proust tht term religious sphere;*" I would Nietzsche, writers But I would gree with eir, would follow less metphysicl, more neutrl but ultimtely eqully rich conception 'ner experience In section 50 Xorgenrdte, Nietzsche 1 schwrmerche Trunkenbolde 1, he likewe experience 'Rusch 1 : 'Der Rusch gilt ihnen eigentliche Ich' (cf. M 87, FW 126). centrl plce Die Geburt der dmses mystics s dmsive mystics' ls ds whre Leben, ls ds But Nietzsche himself gives 'Rusch' Trgodle, deed confltion pst present durg nrrr's 'blessed moments' voluntry memory A l recherche bers close describes depiction resemblnce Dionysin ecstsy fusions which Nietzsche h first book. si Here tht ecstsy portryed terms 'die Vernichtung des Schleiers der Mj, ds Esse ls Genius der Gttung, j rebsorption prt der Ntur' (GT 2), with consequent whole: 'Unter dem Zuber des Dionyschen schliebt sich nicht nur der Bund zwchen Mensch und Mensch wieder zusmmen: uch die entfremdete, fedliche oder unterjochte Ntur feiert wieder ihre Versdhnung mit ihrem verlorenen Sohne, dem Menschen' (GT 1). S2 Now lthough Nietzsche subsequently condemns its metphysicl lnguge, neverless tsk hve seen, still 'trnslte mn bck between Nietzsche's representtion rtt Die Geburt der Trgodle Bcce Homo he describes h own most h Pie Geburt der Trgodle for he lter sets himself, s we nture'. S3 cretive The contuity 'Rusch' Dionysin lter position clerest when precious ' Augenblick 1, moment

191 -1861 spirtion 1 for Zrthustr which cme him over August 1881 s he ws wlkg beside Lke Sllvpln: Der Begriff Offenbrung, dem Sn, db plotzlich, mit unsglicher Sicherheit und Feheit, etws sichtbr, hbrbr wird, etws, ds een im Tiefsten erschuttert und umwirft, beschreibt efch den Ttbest. Mn hort, mn sucht nlcht; mn nimmt, mn frgt nicht, wer d gibt; wie e Blitz leuchtet e Gednke uf, mit Notwendigkeit, der Form ohne Zdgern - ich hbe nle ee Vhl gehbt, Ee Entzuckung, deren ungeheure Spnnung sich mitunter elnen Trnenstrom usldst, bei der der Schritt unwillkurlich bld sturmt, bld lngsm wird; e vollkommnes Aufier-sich-se mit dem dtktesten BewuBtse eer Unzhl feer Schuder und uberrieselungen b die FuBzehen; ee Gliickstiefe, der ds Schmerzlichste und Dusterste nicht ls Gegenstz wirkt, sondern ls bedgt, ls herusgefordert, sondern ls ee notwendlge Frbe nerhlb ees solchen Lichtuberflusses. (EH, III, 'Z', 3) s* both Nietzsche Proust experienced ir Aside from fct tht life tense reveltions on shores prllels between lkes, ss Sws ccounts voluntry memory re, Nietzsche's description here Proust's vocbulry epiphnic reveltion ('Offen- brung 1 ), synessi experience, deed its sheer bodiless I thk, strikg: religious b ('Schuder und uberrieselungen consequent plesure feelg certty ('Sicherheit', 'Ttbest') III, it gives ('Entzuckung', 'Gluckstiefe'; S7 cf, SG, TR, IV, 446: [.,.] trversee pr l certitude'), certitude'; its 'rhythm'), 66 FuBzehen 1, die 'une 155: 'cette felicite joie preille une ds een im Tiefsten erschut- Its overwhelmg effect ('etws, tert und umwirft') reclls 'Bouleversement de ute m personne' (SG, III, 152) which overtkes Proust's nrrr experiences h grmor's deth he when for returns first Blbec truly time; re, o, nrrr's momentry understg 'les termittences du coeur' leds him 'des snglots me secouerent, des lrmes burst ters (SG, 153: III, ruselerent de mes yeux 1 ). When Nietzsche writes h experience letter Koselitz 14 August 1881, he emphses tht h ters were 'nicht sentimentle Thrnen, sondern Thrnen des Juchzens 1 (KGB III/l, 112),

192 -187- ffirm tht p, 'Entsetzlichkeiten Dionysin precely from h bility derives it not without dmixture p, for Ecce Homo tht h plesure lthough it H s cler from h description des Dses 1. Vht Nietzsche presentg here, or words, tht 'Pessimmus der Strke 1 Greeks, which he hs t lst which he nlysed trgic drm chieved for himself. se Himself? Given tht experience "he"?' pssge contues by experience which gives resserts rtt-god Dionysus: h experience 'm poitre s'enfl, ' Glube n Inspirtion' Homo 'believer 1 - believer Ecce <KA, I, ), but Nietzsche welt jetzt so verziickt und one And In Xenschlicbes, Allzumenschliches critique experience Dionysin 152f.: III, SG, (cf. Nietzsche devotes two sections der wsen.' 'Alles geschieht im hochsten Grde unfrei- remplie d'une presence connue, dive'). ung' (GT 2) Die Geburt von Abergluben sich von Freiheits-Gefuhl, von Unbedgtse, von willig, ber wie eem Sturme once g, for god he now Rest possession by dive kum bzuween tht cert sense ' god with':...' skg 'who by dmittg tht th experimysticl se, zu ssertg Mcht, von Gbttlichkeit blob Inkrntion, bli Mundstuck, blob Vorstellung, Medium ubermchtiger Gewlten justified dem gergsten spirtion from without: 'Hit wiirde mn der Tt die quite one similr here tht pssge Nietzsche deed prefces ence might well pper describes one 'e vollkommnes AuBer-sich-se', Nietzsche h moment trnsfigurtion perfectly dive 'AuBer-sich-se' rtt 'uf jener Hbhe der SelbstentuBer- Trgodiei erhoben, 'ls wie er Gott fiihlt er sich, er selbst die Gotter im Trume weln sh' (GT 1). But dive qulity which most frequently emphsed Nietzsche's

193 -188ccount h spirtion Ecce specificlly wy which Homo its voluntress freedom CFreiheits-Gefiihl'), trnsltes Notwendigkeit'; ich hbe nie ee necessity h experience, Vhl < unwillkiirlich'), its feelg gehbt'; necessity Cmit 'ee notwendige Frbe'). Nietzsche's experience tkes him beyond relm humn contgency becuse he pproprites for himself dive spirtionl moment he wers msk Promen 'ubermensch' who, fter deth God, property self-groundg necessity: not s just msk Dionysus, but well. ss> reclims For it 'ubermensch' himself ll properties which for mnkd hd previously projected on divity, it 'ubermensch 1 who, specificlly, usurps dive prerogtive becomg himself, cretg himself, confltion chnce necessity which h 'Jsgen' eternl return, mor ftl. The 'uberensch 1 Aor ftl: Chnce, necessity, Self-Affirmtion The 'formul' mor ftl 'whtever fte might hve not simply sre', extence or 'Life 1 its tlity. but In bld, ftltic cceptnce rr n ctive ffirmtion section 'Zum neuen Jhre', impssioned New Yer's resolution which opens Fourth Book Die frobliche Vlssenschft, Nietzsche expls: Ich will immer mehr lernen, ds Notwendige n den Dgen ls ds Schone sehen - so werde ich eer von denen se, welche die Dge schdn mchen. Amor ftl: ds sei von nun n mee Liebe! Ich will keen Krieg gegen ds HBliche fuhren. Ich will nicht nklgen, ich will nlcht eml die Anklger nklgen. Vegsehen sei mee ezige Verneung! Und, lles llem und groben: ich will irgendwnn eml nur noch e Jsgender se! <FW 276) Significntly, mor ftl described here fundmentlly estic terms -

194 -189- even wht necessrily ugly cn deemed be trnsform trnsfigure it through 'universl ssumg nor Such love sserts th world s beutiful properties Dionysin trocity rr thn by veilg Dse stehn' (KSA 13, 492): beutiful, for one cn love', or words by trditionl Chrtin divity. by it ffirmg with trditionl idelt (Apollin) estics. s 'ChJochster Zust, den be it ll its 'schbner Sche 1 Nietzsche describes mor fti e Philosoph erreichen knn: dionysch zum bsence God, mn's spirtion for Nietzsche rems tht becomg godlike, but 'ubermensch' hs new god 'Dionysos philosophos' (KSA 12, 224). The Chrtin 'Fbel vom lieben Gott' (M 130), 'dive wtchmker' - ' der zwr die dunklen, fcrummen und wunderbren Vege liebe, ber zuletzt superseded, Greek Hoir hevens, s 'jene eernen des Zuflls schutteln', He doch lles "herrlich husfuhre"' - resred der highest reches Notwendigkeit, welche den Viirfelbecher Mn's tsk becomes tht msterg gme dice lerng ply well: 150 dive lw-giver, hvg been deprived h omncience new post-metphysicl climte determcy, rejected fvour 'lws' probbility, ender, rechnender Verst' <MA, I, 106), Vith h gret 'J 1 contgency who reby ssumes cosmic ll thgs, for s Deleuze (dest) n'est done Jm meme. bsence 'e llws- 'ds world, it 'ubermensch' responsibility writes: 1'bolition, 'Ce Rd der Welt' runs unchecked. que m ffirmg necessity Nietzsche l ppelle necessite combon du hsrd lui- L necessite s'ffirme du hsrd pour utnt que le hsrd est lui-meme ffirme.' 6 ' Tht ffirmtion tlity ffirmtion pst, present future Life which mor ftl mens mde cler when Nietzsche resttes

195 -190 me Ecce Homo-. Hee Formel fur die Grdfie m Menschen t mor fti: db mn nichts ers h ben will, vorwrts nicht, ruckwrts nicht, lle Ewigkeit nicht. Ds Notwendige nicht blob ertrgen, noch weniger verhehlen ller Idelmus t Verlogenheit vor dem Notwendigen -, sondern es lleben.., (EH, II, 10) thought mor fti. should strike Nietzsche So it no cocidence tht between two t sme time s tht necessry 1881, for reltion return, eternl return, Nietzsche's 'ubermensch' ffirms return, o, for only he who cn lerte ffirmg eternl In Horeover, one. ccomplhes own eternl h 'most byssl thought 1, he who would be willg relive every moment h own life eternlly, worthy 'formul 1 mor fti returng. s2 Nietzsche's formul for 'becomg 'Jsgen* wht sul s (cf. replces 'ubermensch' groundg ens cus 1 one recursive justifiction thus ultimte 'Ds Honig-Opfer 1 ) : IV, Z, logic celebrtion self- h own circulr necessity: lebendigsten und weltbejhendsten ubermutlgsten, ds Idel des Henschen, der sich nicht nur mit dem, ws wr und t, bgefunden und vertrgen gelernt ht, sondern es, so wie es wr und 1st, wleder hben will, lle Ewigkeit hus, unersttlich d cpo rufend, nicht nur zu sich, sondern zum gnzen Stiicke und Schuspiele, und nicht nur zu elnem Schuspiele, sondern im Grunde zu dem, der gerde dies Schuspiel no tig ht - und no tig mcht: weil er iimner wieder sich no tig ht - und nb'tig mcht - - Wie? Und dies wre nicht - circulus vltlosus (JGB 'Unersttlich d cpo rufend', 'redeemer'; willg nothg elements h pst life, hve he 'ubermensch 1 Nietzsche's been re-deems Zrthustr comments (Z, II, ' Von der different m s Erldsung 1 ), becomes new ffirmg ll hvg been necessry. As resentment t time's '"Es wr"' (regret, retrospective bonment n element self) ultimte destruction self, for re cn be no self return without recognition ffirmtion ll. self's pst, cludg ll errors

196 -191- which befell one long wy. By sme ken, though, self-redemp- tive ct 'ubermensch' ct self-cretion pr excellence, resurrection dmembered Dionysus: Trchten, dfi ich Bs dichte ' Und ds t ll me Dichten und und zusmmentrge, Rtsel und gruser Zufll' (Z, II, 'Von ws Bruchstuck t und der Erldsung'). The 'ubermensch' Nietzsche's prdigmtic 'Dionysin rtt 1, n rtt self. 'Les nneux necessires': The Aestics Self-Cretion If we return t th pot Proust's nrrr h experience voluntry memories, I would suggest tht self-cretive potentil Nietzsche's 'ye-syg 1 'ubermensch' yields prdigm terms which one cn under- st both why Proust's nrrr feels sense necessity h voluntry memories, sense self rescued from world humn contgency, why self-reveltions voluntry memory should led him on work rt - 'metphoricl' rt self-cretion. 6'* The mdelee epode gives ld, becuse it gives him n nrrr plesure it does, we re exhilrtg feelg relief from contgency - 'J'v cess6 de me sentir mediocre, only Le Temps retrouv6 th contgent, mortel 1 <CS, I, 44). peculir But sense necessity undersod s derivg precely from chnce nture memories' recurrence, for s nrrr reflects fter stumblg Guermntes courtyrd beg devit 6tre l griffe de leur un- remded Venice: 'Je sent que ce tlcite. Je n'v ps et6 j'v bute 1 (TR, IV, chercher 457). vlues, it defitive les Involuntry deux pves memory egux de l cour ou revlution ll vlortion difference, sce nrr-

197 -192- own life ( kd miml - 513) llows nrrr - by chnce focus h boculr vion on h tht voluntry memories experience), Argus le Temps' (TK, IV, '1'rtte, becuse Moreover, it time's destruction, rescue ny moment from 'choose' cn which differente' <P, III, 864), whim fte, 'l memoire r's whole pst becomes eqully importnt provide him with impetus wrds relg h rttic voction n rt self-cretion, for ir expliction pour l lecture desquels m 1 ider d'ucune regie, cette pouvit ne personne dynmic process de signes connus [...], terieur livre u 'redg' self-text: 'Qunt figured s lecture constit en un cte de cretion ou nul ne peut nous suppleer ni m me collborer vec nous 1 <TR, IV, 458). With cretive/terprettive 'decipherment' h 'livre terieur de tkes signes connus', Proust's nrrr himself ternles upon wkg mn forced ccomplh only tsk 'redg' self which externlly, contgently imperfectly s he 'lit en une seconde le pot de s'est l terre qu'il occupe, le temps qui 5). effected And th self-cretion be which will enble nrrr chnce h life turn decive nrrr reles tht rtt cn poos synsed with rtt's ffirmtion. 155 seize recognition necessity mor fti. For eternity experienced 'trnslte 1 'objective subjective H book will be quite literlly by n ct writg ffirmtion fleetg moment voluntry memory which cn be ecoule jusqu'd son reveil' (CS, I, it work rt lws' different chnce viewpot deth-defyg dul unlike conventionl relt novel, 'l litterture qui se contente de "decrire les choses", d'en donner seulement un merble releve de lignes et de surfces' <TR, IV, 463), for h nrrtive will drw on mteril provided by chnce remcences crfted

198 -193(TR, IV, 468), which he style 1 metphors, 'les nneux necessires d'un beu le rpport unique de l loi cusle dns le monde de explictly contrsts with life up n rid h breks l science 1, 'rpport unique' which mengless succession '"stntnes1" <TR, IV, 444). 'literl' most most dequte, trnsltion 'livre terieur' one. For difference metphoricl most will be, prdoxiclly, sense orgnic contuity, so life h tht nrrr cn resre cusle 1 h work rt 'loi ler It only by gog beyond repetition embodied nrrr's experiences voluntry memory lend 'livre terieur 1 itself: metphoricl chrcter textulity 'metphore reciproque'. ss poles two but productive tension between - wht Proust's nrrr, Vivonne', terms 'llitertion perpetuelle' (CS, describg 'les crfes de l I, 166). impliction mutul y set up n endless sce Metphors re herently circulr structure, hermeneutic reltion effced by irresolvble lredy lwys 'literlity' body-text Proustin metphor, which reproduces thus wht Foucult clls 'perpetuel jeu de miroirs 1 post-nletzschen terprettion,*57 itself perfect metphor for eternl return. &Q Alexer Nehms, writg 'Proust's nrrr, who cretes himself, out everythg tht hs hppened mbiguous reltion between him, dcovery h own writg', comments: ' cretion, Nietzsche's own view, lso cptures perfectly beg ble become who one 'nneux necessires' prllel experience Zrthustr, der Rge - dem Rg der '.** ctully necessity Viederkunft!' lk which Proust's nrrr mkes (Z, between mtches exctly tension very ide But not only do Proust's JFietzsche's 'ubermensch', or [...] 'brtig which nch dem hochzeitlichen Rg III, 'Die sieben Siegel'); 70 necessity ffirmed chnce

199 -194lso one which Nietzsche mkes. rttic self-expression metphors Die Geburt der Trgodle, s The experience Dionysin 'Rusch' portryed Kmn pots out, moment when trnsfigured rtt, trnsposed 'outside himself, becomes 'metphor 1 for tlity, 71 so it hrdly surprg tht Dionysin rtt, Proust's nrrr, should turn like respond by seekg express himself 'metphors', mobiltion ll symbolic fculties body, which becomes expression itself: Im dionyschen Dithyrmbus wird der Mensch zur hbchsten Steigerung ller seer synbolchen Fhigkeiten gereizt; etws Nieempfundenes Jetzt soil sich ds Vesen der Ntur drngt sich zur A'uBerung [...]. symbolch usdrucken; ee neue Welt der Symbole t ndtig, eml die gnze leibliche Symbolik, nicht nur die Symbolik des Mundes, des Gesichts, des Vortes, sondern die voile, lle Glieder rhythmch bewegende Tnzgebrde. (GT 2) And wht Nietzsche himself fds most tion' tht here, o, effble necessry metphoricl expression. bout h moment 'spir- strikg Cunsglich'> experience sues reflection on rhythm, pssge After from Ecce Homo quoted bove contues: Die Unfreiwilligkeit des Bildes, des Gleichnses t ds Merkwurdigste; mn ht keen Begriff mehr, ws Bild, ws Gleichn t, lles bietet sich ls der nchste, der richtigste, der efchste Ausdruck. Es schet wirklich, urn n e Wort Zrthustrs zu ernern, ls ob die Dge selber hernkmen und sich zum Gleichnse nboten. <EH, III, 'Z 1, 2) Like Proust's spirtion nrrr, writg Zrthustr^2 most best birth' 'gives metphoricl considers stylticlly o, Nietzsche, n, ll precely renderg Dionysin 'Gesmtentfesselung trnsltes h books, becuse ller h book, it moment Also sprch which he himself he succeeds symbolchen Krfte' 'dncg' written style, style bodily self-expression: Gut t Jeder Stil, der een neren Zust wirklich mitteilt, der sich iiber die Zeichen, iiber ds Tempo der Zeichen, u'ber die Gebrden lle Gesetze der Periode sd Kunst der Gebrde - nicht vergreift. [...] Die Kunst des gro eu Rhythmus, der grobe Stil der Periodik, zum

200 -195Ausdruck ees ungeheuren Auf und Nieder von sublimer, von ubernenschllcher Leidenschft, 1st erst von mir entdeckt; mit eem Dithyrmbus wie dem letzten des drltten Zrthustr, 'Die sieben Siegel 1 iiberschrieben, flog ich tusend Meilen iiber ds hus, ws bher Poesie hieb. (EH, III, 4) Nietzsche ends section Ecce Homo on spirtion for Zrthustr with: 'Dies t melne Erfhrung Inspirtion; von ich zweifle nicht, dfi mn Jhrtusende zuruckgehn nrufi, urn Jemen zu fden, der mir sgen drf "es t uch die mee". -' (EH, III, 'Z', 3). I would rgue, though, tht one need move forwrd only few decdes fd its prllel Proust, whose novel, s Gbriel Josipovici writes, ' moments true beg bout thn less end lost unitg bout spots time or body frgments dpersl such frgments.'"73 through ct writg which tells But A l recherche does not just mirror Nietzsche's Also sprch Zrthustr bodily metphor; it lso mirrors its emphs on Dionysin primcy text which Nietzsche chieves heights ' iibermenschlich' self-cretion for himself, Ecce Homo. 7* After Nietzsche's lookg bck over h t end A l recherche, th volves exmple: lthough Nietzsche spirtion ws without sserts prllel selective if not cse tht ll ws necessry (even if ffirmg mount judicious Homo like Proust's retrospective nrrr life, Ecce wht ll, previous over Homo tht Ecce To 'Vegsehen')? h tke one experience centuries, Richrd Vguer Byreuth he himself hd previously ttributed precely th kd spirtion Wgner. 7e But Ecce Homo testment Nietzsche's own bility, 'lles "Es wr" umzuschffen e "So wollte ich es!"' (Z, II, 'Von shown, th nowhere more cse der Erlosung 1 ),, s Kmn g hs thn with h repproprition h erlier 'crntions' such s Schopen- huer Vgner s 'metphors' for himself. 7*5 Nietzsche entitle fl chpter It th bility tht llows Ecce Homo ' Vrum ich e Schicksl

201 -196b 1 : Ecce Homo, Nietzsche ' riickwirkende Krft 1 which Die tht exerts frohliche Vsenschft (34) he ttributed every gret mn who hs hry rewritten h wke; Ecce Homo Nietzsche's lst testment h will, h chievement mor ftl which Die frohliche Vsenschft (276) ws posited s h highest spirtion. 'Life s Literture*? Ecce Homo it thus possible For both Proust's nrrr Nietzsche former dcerns Rg* Vgner's its with non ulterieure, 'me retrospectivement Comedie hune, with its Prefce Blzc's necessire' (P, III, 666), conferrg on it n 'Cu]nit6 retrospective estic unity which kd besw on one's life fctice' (P, III, 667); both, moreover, demonstrte how self-cretion s work rt 'trnsltes 1 Comprg A l recherche Ecce Homo cretion work rt self. th wy, I would follow Nehms contendg tht Nietzsche's idel deed 'Life s Literture', just s, for Proust's nrrr: 'L vrie vie, l vie enf decouverte et eclircie, l seule vie pr consequent reellement vecue, c'est l litterture' (TR, IV, 474). Now Nehms hs been rightly criticed on number counts over ten yers sce ppernce exmple, rejects h 'Hegelin' h groundbrekg redg Proust book: for Gry Shpiro, for sme resons I criticed Derrid's 'redg 1 my Introduction, 7 '7 while Richrd Schcht Aln White hve proposed or dnce) s more pertent models cretive for rts (respectively, ptg Nietzsche's conception 'Life'. 70 The most cive criticms hve come from those who hve dputed success

202 -197- Homo Nietzsche's self-unifyg project Ecce Henry Stten rgues tht Nehms's chrcter"' both ignores texture Thus rheric. tken by Nietzsche's ccount '"Nietzsche s literry 'comedin scetic idel ' \ question Nietzsche's beg netly Nietzsche's text sidesteps o ccused Nehms beg Dniel V. Conwy, o, reds Nietzsche gst gr, tkg hmmer Nehms's sche' emphsg elements 'idol Serious NietzEcce Homo; 90 most self-prody tht 'sted unifyg h entire recently, Jmes J. Wchester hs rgued life work with one literry chrcter, Nietzsche fers us crnivl chrcters. lei In light se criticms rgue tht Nehms's model would I 'Life s Literture' cn still be susted, but only if one mkes two importnt modifictions h Mileur, tht 'Nehms ccount text which could never s serve Mgnus, Stewrt out h own sight."32 notion 'literture' which I Firstly it essentil ber md hve been rgug both Nietzsche with cshg short up drws recognes, Proust subscribe, nmely metphoricl sufficiency or yield tled literry hermetic hermeneuticl self- model s its 'hero', but which chrcter dynmic unstble, for both text itself ny terprettions ' it re product conception unconscious identity unifyg thred nrrtive selection neir Nietzsche nor Proust sees fit self. 03 Proust's order rgue tht Proustin Nehms th but In h stresses thred with which tie up necessity literry Genevieve Lloyd rightly responds which metphor mde do bodily drives. chrcter literry contuity, by by potg work Nehms text, lthough she does so only voluntry memory 'trnscends' 'prdoxes' Nietzsche's ccount eternl return, wheres I hve been rgug here

203 -198tht two re more closely comprble. &+ Proust. chrcter cses both Nietzsche gestures, ir drems givg Bowie with regrd Proust's seekg enct such ir birth just s much textul idel lives, ir tlg rem fntsies mselves Pierre Klossowski Alphonso by novel, Kmn As Nietzsche. eb For unified 'Nietz- Doubrovsky (contr Deleuze) Mlcolm by mde control - pot which Lg with regrd nrrr, construct s Proust's Ecce Homo he sche 1 who hs become wht ccount uthor literry between seprtion creful importnce mtg Nehms's dded be needs which A second rider hs demonstrted fntsy re rgued, perils o poignntly by ll Nietzsche himself, whose lpse mdness occurs t precely pot when he succumbs tempttion identificry figures. e>s erse it why Which se fictionl chrcters with ir uthors, nive glibly remrks: 'We [ironts, crssly dtguh Swift from sev dlgntio, Zrthustr, Mrcel Proust from Mrcel Liberl Imgtion. wher We do not cre live up ir own self-imges. ' G7 leds him posit 'Nietzsche' metphoricl dtnce from h highly dngerous conflte s Richrd Rorty does when he literry critics] do not bor Hegel from Get, Nietzsche from nrrr, or Trillg from ny se writers mnged Rorty's irresponsibility th respect himself dmits tht h ccount 'Proust' s exemplry 'ironts', yet he Proust he 'skttg] on pretty th ice', QI3 while h Heideggerin ccount Nietzsche who oversteps notionl 'privte/public' dividg-le sells short h perspectivm with h lter 'metphysics' hs been duly pilloried recent Nietzsche criticm. es<

204 -199 lchtrg': The Artwork Future Keith Ansell-Person rgues tht both Nehms fer tremblg, contempt Rorty ms ' self-doubt, horror, bove ll, mockg nes self-prody Nietzsche's presenttion h uthorship',* Pul Ricoeur, similrly, stresses nxiety conclusion Proust's novel: 'Ce n'est ps, que se clot l Recherche, [,.,] L Recherche n' m sur engendre, *un selon next chpter I shll return en effet, sur un crl de triomphe sentiment le terim, celui d'une oeuvre encore fc fire which rems even t mot de de ftigue et d'effroi". H.R. Juss, qu'un temps et que l mort peut ruer. ISM In two writers' pprently hermetic self-conted circulr structures, rgug tht ir (self-)texts rem, Eco's sense, 'open works uthoril control. rt 1512 which But our dcussion ultimtely, necessrily, elude Proust's nrrr's reveltions Le Temps retrouve rems be concluded, for lthough we hve seen tht work he will write will be bsed on h own life, which he will recrete through 'nneux necessires' privileged metphors, 'revlution ll vlues' Le Temps retrouve provides him with number or estic prciples for h 'rtwork future' which we must briefly ddress. The nrrr reles retrospect wdom Elstir's dvice tht 'l sgesse C...] est un pot de vue sur les choses', he cn only do so fter event becuse tht ultimte 'pot de vue' complex retroperspective which voluntry memory ffords. life ssert tht even It llows flse steps him look bck over h whole were necessry, concurrg with Nietzsche tht re positive dnger 'understg oneself o soon: DB mn wird, ws mn t, setzt vorus, db mn nicht im entferntesten hnt, ws mn t. Aus diesem Gesichtspunkte hben selbst die Fehlgriffe des Lebens ihren eignen Sn und Vert, die zeitweiligen Neben-

205 -200wege und Abwege, die Verzdgerungen, die 'Bescheidenheiten', der Ernst, uf Aufgben verschwendet, die Jenseits der Aufgbe liegen. Dr kommt ee grie Klughelt, sogr die oberste Klugheit zum Ausdruck: wo nosce te Ipsum ds Rezept zum Untergng wre, wird Sich-Vergessen, Slch-lflBverstehn, Sich-Verkleern, -Verengern, -Vermittelmfiigen zur Vernunft selber. (EH, II, 9) retrospect purpose Elstir's So Proust's nrrr cn now underst II, CG, cf. premiere est fite 1 <JF, II, 194; 712) cote Doslevski de Me de Sevigne' (P, III, 880). illusions iont pter Elstir represents impressions, so Proust's nrrr present will For just s impresswhich re one's first with h erroneous first eptemologicl dynmic. n version, us - nlogous s errors y lredy presuppose terprettions privilege m, becuse furr terprettion, n choses telles qu'il optiques dont notre vion illusions ces svit qu'elles etient m selon les exposer ps ne de technique - '!'effort d'elstir As nrrr found out from Alberte L Pronnlere, truth only ever tion Le Temps retrouve tht version, it h rel- its be found somewhere between lie bipolr metphors spn tht eptemologicl no h ccomplh mn's l which llows him pprenticeship ccede terprettive competence. 'S3 The nrrr's onomstic project fils becuse he wstes h cretivity erly books A l recherche fillg out ors' nmes with h own rbitrry projections, but he lerns from Elstir Blbec tht rtt must ssume dive right beswg h own nmes: 'si Dieu le Pere vit cre6 les choses en les nommnt, c'est en leur 6tnt leur nom, ou en leur donnnt un utre qu'elstir les sense perfect JTietzschen recreif rtt (JF, figure, 'Gesetz-Gebung der Sprche' which he II, 191). Elstir th for Nietzsche himself revlues hd criticed 'uber Vhrheit und Luge 1, comes pre precely kd legltive origlity which

206 -201Proust's nrrr fds Etws sehen, ds noch keen ITmen es gleich vor ller Augen pter: ' Vs 1st Origlitt? prdigmtic h noch nicht gennnt werden knn, ob trgt, Menschen gewohnlich sd, mcht die Vie liegt. ihnen erst der Nme e Dg uberhupt sichtbr. - Die Origlen sd zumet uch die Nmengeber gewesen 1 (FW 261).'** 'Sich-selber-GesetzgebendeCr]' (FV 335) leglr - self-leglr, who sys ' flm ' (GM, III, 7). nrrr's self-cretion will lso be But he unlike scientt who become dive rttic will nture 1, serches for pre-extg 'lws self-communiction: deed nrrr, Proust's By writg h novel, n, wnts explicitly 'egom1 The utilble pour utrui' (TR, IV, 613). ** mke h 'un egsme rtt h chievement n 'ego 1, unique identity or 'perspective 1, self-becomg 'er which Nietzsche imputes Goe schuf sich' (GD, IX, 49) - or dziplierte sich zur Gnzheit, er Ecce himself Homo, it mde 'utilble pour utrui' by beg trnslted work rt which, through possibility self-reltion - one Such but no more thn tht. perspective (one 'universe'), one pth, Elstir's ptg Vteuil's music writg which Nietzsche gives nzeigen, sollte irmer een Sieg s n exmple ors one serve its unique style or tste (FV 290), cn which nrrr lerns from lesson (P, 762); III, it recipe for Xenschliches, Allzujnenschllches'. 'Schreiben und ee uberwdung seer selbst, zwr welche ern zum Nutzen mitgeteilt werden mub 1 (MA, II, 152); it lso, flly, lesson Nietzsche's Chrt yet g: "'Ds - t nun meln educr gret Veg - wo t der eure?" so ntwortete ich denen, welche mich 'nch dem Vege' frgten. nicht!' (Z, III, 'Vom Get communictive, eductive der function Schwere'). Zrthustr, prodyg ir Den Veg nmlich - den gibt es By stressg projects, both th wy Nietzsche

207 -202Proust, I would rgue, ccord m public, brodest sense 'politicl' purpose,, wek though th llows it be, my sense m void ccustion tht ir celebrtions estic unomy brcket politicl been levelled t Nehms Rorty's entirely, n ccustion which hs Justly mrepresenttions m. s"s end The perspectivtic ' epiphnies' t A l recherche furnh Proust's retrospective nrrr with estic prciples for h 'livre future will be n ffirmtion venir 1, n, but sce th rtwork future 'redemption' nrrr's pst, Ifor it Just t conclusion perfect temporlity set up. novel tht future perfect Proust's emerges s privileged temporl structure, deed we hve lredy encountered it erlier on novel, cse hrdiest 'moi' which nrrr L Pronlere feels sure 'qu l mldie ur fi de III, 522). In next I rem long fter ll ors, 1'un jeter les chpter will pres 1'utre pr terre' (P, explore shll complex temporlity greter detil, rgug tht th prticulr form 'logic future perfect 1 ctully domnt temporl logic A l recherche. just s Proust's nrrr's novel 'will destruction, so figure whom Nietzsche hve Moreover, been' h slvtion from time's clls h philosopher future 'will hve redeemed' nihilm contemporry culture on h dvent time beyond ctclysmic sgulrity future beyond future which Nietzsche time 'ubermensch'. mnkd's 'Untergng', clls 'ubermorgen', untimely

208 Chpter 4. Logics Future Perfect memory A l recherche Nietzsche's conception compred be cn complex temporlity voluntry tht In previous chpter I rgued eternl return, tht successful resolution self-cretion which puts h nrrr Proust's novel volves n ct A l recherche, like Ecce Homo, position Nietzschen 'ubermensch'. pot view from 'fter event' emerges s celebrtion superior - but Levsin terms 'un pss6 which llows n pproprition pst qui n' jm et6 present 11 'pres-coup') reterprettion. retrospective through - Cnchtrglich' or Nietzsche Proust's 'spirtion' or voluntry 'rel presence') 2 volve not experiences Just confltion present pst but both for However, nrrr neo-'mysticl' epiphnic moments memory (which precely re not serch for self n ttention future s well, cretion, on one h Also sce both kds experience open out on sprch Zrthuetr, on or A l recherche itself, 3 both works hvg chrcter Bildungsromn tht development hero trce y long h crooked pth wrds fdg h own true wy.* Sce h nrrr looks forwrd future s redemption temporlity eternl return pst, Proust ctully scribes looped conclusion A l recherche itself, s future perfect movement, but Also sprch Zrthustr, o, not only does overdetered 'Augenblick' serve s me en byme Nietzsche's gret temporl short-circuit <Z, III, 'Vom Gesicht und Rtsel'), but Zrthustr's set context n chrcter - h nticiption mensch', whose redemptive, overrchg future timtion eternl return temporlity which prospective philosopher perfect future, 'uber- perspective he constntly

209 -204- And lthough Ecce Homo Nietz- Erldsung 1 ). ppelg <cf. Z, II, ' Von der 'ubermensch 1, he neverless sche himself dopts perspective still writg for benefit h future reders, or ' libermenschen 1, who (he hopes) will grnt him h 'posthumous birth'. Zrthustr Ecce Homo demonstrte wht In th sense both Also sprch I wnt rgue philosophy s whole, domnt temporlity Nietzsche's chpter th For Nietzsche 'untimeless'. temporlity untimely philosopher, from four seemgly determed be considered UnzeltgenBe Betrcbtungen ( ), origlly tended be first long series such thirteen UnzeitgemBen' Gotzen-Dmmerung (1888). wre h own writg s Over 'counterblsts', 5 th 'Streifziige ees spn he constntly n nomlous, ten cultivtedly mbi- occupyg vlent position time, which he seeks by mens n ppel resolve posterity for h redership tht one most idiosyncrtic but strteh dtste for h own time giclly importnt spects h philosophy. deed such tht he elevtes concept untimeless structurl feture ny philosophy worthy nme. 6 question temporl structure my wys which both hve recourse wnt In th concludg chpter, n, I consider more detil two writers, explorg prticulr logic future perfect s response present time which y both conceive s problemtic. beg with Nietzsche, perfect s n who opportunity exploits both virtul critique perspective nihilm future contemporry culture celebrte redemptive potentil 'ubermensch'. second hlf chpter I shll turn I shll In Proust, who explores future perfect on more microcosmic psychologicl level, for it temporlity which permetes vitites nrrr's experience ny present moment,

210 -205- but which ultimtely fers him, o, possibility redemption, when it revlued t conclusion novel. lietzsche's Problemtic Present Zrthustr From h erly polemics through beyond, Nietzsche develops sophticted critique contemporry Germny generl, s he strikes t hert Europen nihilm. writes Jenselts von Gut und Bose: 'Dies lichen ee Kritik der Modernltt' (EH, Jenseits he directs constnt prticulr 'modernity 1 In Ecce HOJOO he Buch (1886) 1st llem Vesent- III, 'JOB', 2), deed especilly strem buse t 'Menschen der "modernen Ideen'" <JGB 202; cf. 222, 241, 282), while Zrthustr no less criticl 'die Herren von heute' (Z, IV, ' Vom hoheren Menschen', 3; cf. 'Der Zuberer 1, 2; 'Vom hoheren Menschen', 8-9). In Der Antichrt, Nietzsche mkes himself prticulrly cler on th pot; 'Und dmit ich keen Zweifel druber lsse, ws ich verchte, wen ich verchte: der Mensch von heute t es, der Mensch, mit dem ich verhngnvoll gleichzeitig b 1 (AC 38). Nietzsche's Zrthustr 1 s dy fllg-f, unworthy producg gretness deed cpble Zuberer', 2), for modern period lcks n epigonl ge dog so (Z, IV, 'Der deciveness resolution: 'nichts t so sehr zeitgemb ls Villensschwche' (JOB 212). One most importnt repercussions collective krsl which Nietzsche dignoses contemporry culture wy it hs jundiced temporl wreness ge, so tht its poverty excerbted outside itself it dequcy. cnnot but The result thus n tt by fct tht even when it looks pst 'untic' future with its pproch pst

211 -206- wrds hriogrphy (on which Nietzsche concentrtes begng h philosophicl creer, Second Unzeltgem'Be Betrchtung), compounded by lck cler vion future s well, which long run emerges s more serious ffliction sce it ffects present's bility ct t ll. Belief futurity future s one surest sense co tht he judges lck FV, 2); or side EH, 43; with ll tht he cherhes (AC 16, As well-beg. sympms brekdown culturl pr excellence for (FV 370), it ssocited culture judgg 'Dionysin' helth criterion Nietzsche for he rgues Zur Gene- logie der Morl, n ge when educted 'Gelehrten' hve come fore - ignorg irony tht for number, s he cknowledges7" - himself ws undenibly one ir he time 'Zukunfts-GewiBheit 1 own desty ly clim belief our bility crve out our future s our future (M 155), sgle decle, th s so mny goes by In Nietzsche's eyes we hve simply lost bord (GM, III, 25; cf. GD, IX, 39). evitbly most importnt reson for or contexts, Nietzsche clims be Chrt[...] inity, which runs counter 'lles ws dem Leben Zukunft verspricht 1 (AC 58). The only ntidote reflective, rective Guten 1, those self-righteous rectionries who hve 'Gelehrten 1 - 'die o much vested previlg system Chrtin, 'slve' morlity o much lose from its overthrow, Nietzsche's revlution (Z, III, 'Von JOB 260; GM, 'Vorrede', 6; EH, IV, 4-5) future-shpg philosopher with purpose. recuperte future, hs imprudent present slvge - it re lten und neuen Tfeln', 26; - 'ffirmtive ction' The only option for Nietzsche from denigrtion buse t will lie h untimeless. As he

212 -207defes term Second VnzeltgenSe Betrcbtung: Foreword und ddurch uf die Zeit und hfent- unzeitgemb - ds heibt gegen die Zeit lich zugunsten eer kommenden Zeit'. Streifzvige el nee Unzel tgemben' Nietzsche sets himself up s mn provoctively out step with h te, which he considers himself version 'gdfly 1 role hppened be born: h future for h self-justi- ppel hve unfortunte fiction, lst thg he wnts be ssocited with h own period, considered 'mn h time'. he recounts with some dmy Indeed one musg pssge from Ecce Homo Jftlonlzeltung described Jenselts von how Gut und Bose, ll h books, s times' <EH, III, 1). 'sign wenn uch nichts von heute sonst response belly-lugh: 'vielleicht, db, Zukunft ht, doch gerde unser Lcben noch Zukunft ht! 1 (JOB 223). mkes it out be feture H Nietzsche philosopher's lot be contrdiction - norms h dy (JOB 212) & h own idel trnscend h time be t lest one step beyond it, 'uber see Zeit hus 1 (FV 380; cf. section Die frobllcbe Wlssenscbft FV, 'Vorwort'). As he puts it entitled ' Wir Heljntlosen' : ' Vir der Kder wie vermocbten wir ziehen es bei weitem vor, uf Bergen diesem Heute zu Huse zu se! [...] wir zu leben, bseits, "unzeitgemfi", Zukunft, vergngnen oder kommenden Jhrhunderten' (FV 377; cf. F 382). Nietzsche's urge live outside h time extend mbit term pst s well s future. 'untimely', Clssicl s so strong tht he cn ten here, by hvg recourse studies, Foreword Second

213 -208UnzeltgenBe Betrchtung, serve s h 'untimely 1 dciple, course exmple he will contully identificry figures prdigms humnity, Npoleon, Cesre Borgi ll rest. he develops th me usg which g criticl leverge on pst very defition n rid pst for like Goe Greeks, In Jfenscbllches, Allzunenscbllches s n escpe, vntge pot from present, t sme time troducg one h fvourite extended metphors for time-trvellg - sefrg: Der Gegenwrt entfremdet. - Es ht grobe Vorteile, seer Zeit sich eml strkerem Mfie zu entfremden und gleichsm von ihrem Ufer zuriick den Ozen der vergngenen Weltbetrchtungen getrieben zu werden. Von dort us nch der Kite zu blickend, iiberschut mn wohl zum ersten Mle ihre gesmte Gestltung und ht, wenn mn sich ihr wieder nhert, den Vorteil, sie besser im gnzen zu verstehen ls die, welche sie nie verlssen hben. (MA, I, 616) As Nietzsche rgues UnzeltgeioBe Betrchtung^ though, pst Second must lwys be service future (UB, II, 4), so it th direction tht Nietzsche's 'untimely' critiques In order reforce h critique present he ten dopts heur- will evitbly propel him. tic strtegy conjurg up virtul imge future so s rgue tht its puttive, future perfect judgement on In th he recognes debt Goe, present would be unfvourble. whose words Eckermnn he quotes first UnzeitgemBe Betrchtung: 'Vir Deutschen sd von gestern. Vir hben zwr seit eem Jhrhundert gnz tuchtig kultiviert; lle es konnen noch e pr Jhrhunderte hgehen, ehe bei unseren Lsleuten so viel Get und hohere Kultur edrge und llgeme werde, d8 sie gleich den Griechen der Schonheit huldigen, db sie sich fur e hubsches Lied begetern und db mn von ihnen wird sgen konnen, es sei lnge her, db sie Brbren gewesen. '* Nietzsche mkes th sme Goen future present Second Third 4), g entitled Die frohllche perfect VnzeltgemBe Betrchtungen (UB, II, 10; III, Wlssenschft, Die zukunftige "Menschlichkeit"' by move t expense where he trnsportg opens section himself

214 -209- dopts th virtul vntge Zrthustr, when he reltes pssge time-mche-like lmost n rrestg n see eigentiimliche Sn1" CFV337). hrche pot ls fden zu Merkwiirdigeres Tugend und Krnkheit, gennnt "der so weifi ich n den gegen- hsehe, Augen ees fernen Zeitlters nch diesem wrtigen JCenschen nichts with dd: 'Venn ich mit den present future order look bck on Zrthustr Also sprch flight future t openg ' Vom Le der Bildung' Second Prt: Zu weit he flog ich die Zukunft: e Gruen iiberfiel mich. Und ls ich un mich sh, siehe! d wr die Zeit me eziger Zeitgenosse. D floh ich rxickwrts, heimwrts - und immer eilender: so km ich zu euch, ihr Gegenwrtigen, und s L der Bildung. Zum ersten Mle brchte ich e Auge mit fur euch, und gute Begierde: whrlich, mit Sehnsucht im Herzen km ich. (Z, II, 'Vom Le der Bildung') present fter th drmtic openg, him see through mock once he gets bck Zrthustr for Kot tht it ll 'pl silg' however, for h new perspective llows men present who re 'buntgesprenkelt* mottled with hricl prdigms from which y re unble choose. The future terest Nietzsche just becuse criticl not perspective it provides on present, though - s he rgues Jenseits 210, critics re but hmidens true philosophers - for it lso hs its own tegrity s 'pure 1 future, with ll enticements tht cn provide shpe 'philosophers Jenseits Ecce Homo, which ws (1886) t llem Vesentlichen Kritlk ee Typus' wsenschftliche Arbeiter 1 (JGB 211) Nietzsche's judgement on prt bove, contues: 'Dies Buch quoted Fgerzeigen zu eem Gegenstz-Typus, der eem vornehmen, eem Jsgenden future'. der Kodernltt [...], nebst so wenig (EH, III, simply modern ls mdglich t, process 'JGB', 2). Wheres pst, th 'neue Gttung von Philosophen' (JGB 42) hve s ir rw mteril future so

215 -210- y re doubly 'unzeitgemfi', doubly 'philosophers future 1, for not only re y products future but y fshion future ir turn embody renscent prciple role new philosophers Is: seen Wlllen, ls futurity which modern times lck. 'Dem Menschen die Zukunft des Menschen ls bhngig von eem Menschenwillen Vgnse und Gesmt-Versuche von Zucht 203). In ir sense purpose present contrst und Zuchtigung presence forcefully The zu lehren und grie vorzubereiten 1 (JOB will y re n 'ntidote' with 'Willensschwche' which blkered does hve view Nietzsche fds so chrctertic h time. Yet Nietzsche's present not utterly future, it just one which he cnnot brook - 'die Zukunft ls Fort- schritt' (KSA 12, 411), where: 'Der "Fortschritt" t blob ee moderne Idee, ds heifit ee 4; flsche Idee' Nietzsche tht future (AC s ssocited with present (s not sufficiently cf. seen different. coloned future lredy mpped it 12) 48). The problem for perspective o closely projection or extrpoltion from it) 'Moderne him: future not wht it used IX, from th mere (FV, 'Lieder des Przen Vogelfrei', GD, Menschen' hve quite effectively ll so tht its 'new ses' no longer unchrted enough for re be. out, It not just present which belongs 'Herden-Mensch' Nietzsche's eyes, n, but future, o, becuse present culpble so "Verbesserer" der Menschheit' (GD, VII) entirely but rr just lothsome h eyes: fe-tune 'Ds letzte, mny or wys, fct tht 'Die should ws sme ich Menschheit zu "verbessern"' (EH, 'Vorwort', 2). not old seek bolh humnity model versprechen mkes it even more wurde, wre, die The present does not hve good grce see when it should mke itself scrce, but Nietzsche himself hs no such qulms bout dpensg with humnity lger: becuse he pretends

216 -211- see shpe thgs he sees s n sidious contuity, he prospects lredy, so plce wht dvoctes rupture, Zrthustr sounds when ddressg h crowd 'Vorrede', 3) first me t very begng; uberwunden werden soil' (Z, ds etws, t 'Der Mensch imptient get beyond future he come, crefully deleted stges, Nietzsche number n extrpoltes development humnity ( decle) beyond 'hoherer 'der Mensch', vi 'letzter Mensch' Mensch, der untergehen will', ultimtely collpse nihilm with mn's nihiltic collpse. 10 Beyond Future: ' ubermensch' ' ubernorgen 1 'Vgt's mit meer Kost, ihr Esser! Morgen schmeckt sie euch schon besser Und schon ubermorgen gut! ' (FV, 'Scherz, Lt und Eche', 1) s fr s Nietzsche concerned, The only wy for humnity 'progress', future humnity circumscribed vi its self-bolition, for immedite by poverty its stge deme mn hs present. from projections Only fter fl reched lst remnnts current been (merely) future thkg hve been swept wy cn ' ubermensch 1, who be different order emerge beg, tg new millennium beyond dzzlg sgulrity ugur(s future envged by herd), 'ds Zrthustr-Eeich von tusend Jhren' (Z, IV, 'Ds Honig-Opfer 1 ). * ' rticultion t which th sgulrity boundry which cts s prophylctic occurs gst 'ubermensch' by our our future's time 'ubermensch' breched 'dlesseits'. Nietzsche exploits cnnot simply temporl The pot mrked by protective ny 'fection 1 time - for brrier not esily be broken djunction through which from mrks

217 -212horizon future s it cn be lies 'lwys ever 1 beyond it, present, proclims tht 'ubermensch' unchrted wters f creture 'Jenseits', gen', dy fter morrow, Schopenhuer ls Erzieher, selfh modern mn (UB, III, short-sighted In 'ubermorgen' 12). 11, KSA cf. 4; ptience beyond lies rgug lredy ITietzsche s which, As 'ubermensch' ' ubermor- decdence ' Ressentiment': time old. 12 be untted by modern 'ubermensch' monsters se like mp from pot view out npped present will not even figure s bd drem, drk ge civiltion 'ubermensch''s hry books, for it will hve been helthily forgotten mnner lid out Zur Genelogle Europen civiltion s we know protected him from collpse hve will from sort chrysl which The 'ubermensch' will emerge II, 1). (GM, - it new dwns ge future perfect. 13 In h most fr-sighted moments, comg 'new philosopher 1 or tively different Nietzsche would like n, Nietzsche 'ubermensch', th seer foretells but no mtter how qulit- chrcter be, he still function present function on present - s its redemption. In Zur Genelogie, Nietzsche leves us no doubt bout wht we re expect: irgendwnn, eer strkeren Zeit, ls diese morsche, selbstzweiflerche Gegenwrt t, mub er uns doch kommen, der erlosende Mensch der groben Liebe und Verchtung, der schopferche Get [...]. Dieser Mensch der Zukunft, der uns ebenso vom bherigen Idel erlosen wird ls von dem, ws us Ihm wchsen mubte, vom groben Ekel, vom Villen zum Nichts, vom Nihillsmus, dieser Glockenschlg des Mittgs und der groben Entscheidung, der den Villen wieder frei mcht, der der Erde ihr Ziel und dem Menschen see Hfnung zuriickgibt, dieser Antichrt und Antihilt, dieser Besieger Gottes und des Nichts - er mu elnst kowen... <GM, II, 24) So decdence present end hrdly mteril, even though

218 -213- Nietzsche hs litny grievnces ly terim period, stgg-post stretches between pst future. specific tsk effcg itself mtters tht re will its door, for it simply n gr Wht nrrtive before over pst, s such cn t more, redemption which present hs very redemptive power future be termed self-excludg middle. soon be upon us 'digest* pst (ir pst) dequtely All tht rce dividuls who cn who will be ble redeem us our untic temporl wreness through ir new 'ttitude rt'. Nietzsche's own role th process one sense he himself somewht mbivlent, for lthough 'philosopher future', keepg with strong sense term he (reluctntly) hs side with free spirits present, 'Herolde und Vorlufer' (JOB 44) who re merely preprg wy for 'true' philosophers come. Indeed Nietzsche recognes th stright fter rhpsodic pssge from Zur Genelogie quoted bove, t end Second Essy: 'Aber ws rede ich d? Genug! Genug! An dieser Stelle geziemt mir nur elns, zu schweigen: ich vergriffe mich sonst n dem, ws eem Jigeren lle freteht, Strkeren, ls ich b Gottlosen...' (GM, II, - ls ws 25). ich lle And Ich wrte des Vurdigeren; zerbrechen' (Z, II, 'Die Tfeln', 20). stillste ich ne b Stunde'; John nicht wert, n ihm uch nur zu Ill, ' Von lten und neuen cf. Bptt: 'Ver b mny wys ll o timely, with result tht chrctertions In Prefce pre-empts h unprlleled polemic turn (when not prodyg 'wir Modernen' 'wir modernen Menschen' become 'wir freien Geter 1. 1 * eem Zrthustr freteht, Zrthustr dem Ironiclly enough, Nietzsche he freely recognes fct, eem "Zukunftigeren", Zrthustr Chrt) explicitly mimics prophetic icb? b, gst s common h writg s Der Fll Wgner, for exmple, he Vgnerin ' nevrose' (FV 5),

219 -214frnkly dmittg: 'Vohln! Ich b decdence Wgner's 'modernity', by so gut wie Vgner ds Kd dieser Zeit, will sgen e decdent'. Der nowhere th restnce more Philosoph mir wehrte sich dgegen', For role future. love evidence thn h prticulr kd immeditely ich mich dgegen wehrte. db nur begriff, contues: 'nur dfi ich ds Nietzsche though, decdence, own h Hvg cknowledged Nietzsche, Zrthustr free spirits reltion philosophers one, lthough new philosophers re future not merely pssive more 'desty', neverless better. As Nietzsche expls y help cn Der Antichrt, given he emerge concern h with: wollen soil, ls den hoherwertigeren, 'welchen Typus Mensch mn zuchten soil, lebenswiirdigeren, zukunftsgewseren 1 CAC 3), it job free spirits concern mselves with 'die Umste, welche mn zu ihrer Entstehung teils schffen, teils usnutzen miibte' (JOB 203). Not content, n, Just sit bck wit rrivl new breed philosophers (JOB 2), Prefce First Book Jfenscbllcbes, Allzunenscbliches Nietzsche expls h consciously more ctive pproch: lngsm, lngsm; und vielleicht tue ich etws, beschreibe, unter nlgen, wenn ich zum vorus entstehn, uf welchen Vegen ich sie Zrthustr, s usul, kommen who most ' Ich sehe sie bereits kowen, um ihr Kommen zu beschleu- welchen Schickslen ich sie sehe?' (MA, I, 'Vorrede', 2), forthright bout urgg It tht 'ubermensch 1 be prepred for worked wrds, tht he should be set up s gol used provide humnity with prescription: 'Der ubermensch t der Sn der Erde. Euer Wille sge: der sei der Sn der Erde!' (Z, ubermensch 'Vorrede', 3), But Zrthustr will hve no prt stituted - he will hve hve ply new regime once it bowed out by tht stge gone under

220 -215with 'higher CUntergng') t end book Cuntergehen*), long Zrthustr 1 s ( fortiori precondition for dvent hve be cst side, 'uberwdung' both necessry ccepts tht he will he wys: t sme time he for it, welcomes deed down 1 ' ijbermorgen', but ubermensch' course Zrthustr(-Nietzsche) wnts it 'gog symbolic h eventul deme. 1S humnity's) h tht so men 1, lookg forwrd rg up g phoenix-like future (cf. M 568), Vere Zrthustr not die he would run or side hvg been forgotten. rk beg 'untimely 1 ppelg less sense 'behd times', lst thg he wnts do outlive h present unpopulrity: 'Stirb zur rechten Zeit; lso Tode'). es lehrt Zrthustr' (Z, I, ' Vom freien Zrthustr's deth, lthough implicit, neverless essentil only does h philosophy run counter promotion h philosophy, for not ' idel dy' durg h lifetime, but it cts like 'sleeper 1, he tends tht vicry. long run loser will w more thn Pyrrhic In dtnt future he 'knows 1 he will be redcovered, h philo- sophy 'ctivted* pprecited by those who her', retrospectively reterpretg him s sense tht Nietzsche tlks beg born by tht stge will hve 'ers precursor. posthumously, It th most notbly Foreword Der Antichrt'. Dies Buch gehort den wenigsten. Vielleicht lebt selbst noch keer von ihnen. Es mdgen die se, welche meen Zrthustr verstehn: wie durfte ich mich nit denen verwechseln, fur welche heute schon Ohren Eige werden posthum wchsen? - Erst ds ubermorgen gehort mir. geboren. (AC, 'Vorworf; cf. FV 365; GD, I, 15) The 'ubermorgen', n, lso time Nietzsche's own posthumousness: future volves millennil spirtions for h new breed msters: 'Ich schreibe fur ee Gttung Menschen, welche h mster pln for beg red noch nicht vorhen t: fur die "Herren der Erde"' (KSA 11, 50). 16

221 -216Ecce Homo Its Future Reders By time Ecce Homo, s seen, JTietzsche himself clims hve hve we become h fte reched stge which h works up till th pot he perspective ' ubermensch'. hs been herldg s redemptive 'E whose comg Zrthustr prophesies: 'forgg' h own fte, blcksmith figure, become tht gret Siegfried He hs Gewlt-Herr konnte kommen, grier e gewitzter Unhold, der mit seer Gnde und Ungnde lles Vergngene zwnge Vorzeichen und Herold und Hhnen- und wu'rde und zwngte: b es ihm Brucke schrei' (Z, III, 'Von lten und neuen Tfeln 1, 11). overcomg decdence he chrcteres h much, for when he now describes 2), himself s 'e wohlgertner Mensch 1 CEH, I, 'ubermensch 1 : 'Ds Wort scribes nme He deed cknowledges s which type he turn " uberztensch" zur Bezeichnung ees Typus hdchster Vohlgertenheit, im Gegenstz zu "modernen" Menschen, zu "guten" Menschen, zu Chrten und ren Hihilten' (EH, III, 1). But Nietzsche knows tht h time hs -come. In Ecce Homo he hs keit' (EH, I, 3) - he hs Dionysus will hve ( hve) qulms no become come tht he still unherd- possibilities for overmnkd- out 'untimely', tht he mppg yet not bout referrg 'mee Gbttlich- Dionysus second (' gegen den Gekreuzlgten' ) - but comg, for Zrthustr's truths re still fllg on def ers: Ich selber b noch nicht n der Zeit, eige werden posthum geboren. - Irgendwnn wird mn Institutionen notig hben, denen mn lebt und lehrt, wie ich leben und lehren verstehe: vielleicht selbst, db mn Interprettion des Zrthustr zur dnn uch eigene Lehrstuhle errichtet. Aber es wre e vollkommner Widerspruch zu mir, wenn ich heute bereits Ohren und He fur mee Vhrheiten erwrtete: db mn heute nicht hort, db mn heute nicht von mir zu nehmen weib, t nicht nur begreiflich, es schet mir selbst ds Rechte. (EH, III, 1> Even when he hs become h fte nnounces fct s loudly s he does

222 -217 Ecce Homo, Nietzsche still needs reders - or 'ubermenschen 1 - who crete competence h future He still needs red him right. 17 will proclim h gospel, for only fter him will re be mens describe re hs not yet been: ' Ich b e h desty, h tsk, like which frober Botschfter, wie es keen gb, ich (EH, IV, Ecce I). 119 von erst der Begriff dfur bher gefehlt ht; nungen 1 kenne Aufgben vn eer Hohe, dfi Homo opens, n gibt es wieder Hf- mir deed, with words 'In Vorussicht 1, for more immedite future he expectg proclim Umwerthung ller Ver: ' In Vorussicht, db sten Forderung n die Menschheit ich iiber kurzem mit der schwermub, herntreten die n sie gestellt je wurde, schet es mir unerlfilich, zu sgen, wer Ich b' (EH, 'Vorwort 1, 1). So Ecce Howot like A l recherche, future - Nietzsche wers msk turned 'An diesem vollkommnen Tge, wo Jnus: wrds pst lles reift und nicht nur die Trube brun wird, fiel mir eben e Sonnenblick hus, ich sh nie so viel und so uf me Leben: ich sh ruckwrts, ich sh gute Dge uf elnml meet openg These two fl birth* explicitly frmed perspectives - 'hus' 'ruckwrts 1 section, where Nietzsche's 'posthumous future perfect terms, s memory future: Ich kenne me Los. Es wird sich eml n meen Nmen die Ernerung n etws Ungeheures nknupfen - n ee Kr, wie es kee uf Erden gb, n die tiefste Gewsens-Kollion, n ee Entscheidung, herufbeschworen gegen lles, ws b dh geglubt, gefordert, geheiligt worden wr. Ich b ke Mensch, ich b Dynmit. (EH, IV, 1) monstrous future So ugurl sgulrity which gives birth 'ubermorgen 1 will lredy hve tken explosive force clevg hry Chrt: plce, two, becuse Nietzsche himself prodic Socrtes, prodic er bricht die Geschichte der Menschheit zwei Stiicke. ihm, mn lebt nch ihm' (EH, IV, 8>. 20 Mn lebt vor Aside from contgent fct tht

223 -218Ecce Homo itself ws 'born posthumously 1 it ws not publhed until tht time bomb, ctg t fter Nietzsche's deth, 1908, JTietzsche himself gift-givg 'ubermensch 1 who give dtnce <cf. FV 60), it present him lte birthdy present, lte birthdy (h birth presence). 21 Tes Sign In A l recherche A gret del t stke use future perfect, n, for Nietzsche's if h whole desty hngs on its logic, we return A l recherche t th pot, we shll see tht when Proust dwells on tht sme logic no less t stke for h nrrr. future Nietzsche For wheres fter Proust's nrrr fds morrow 1, wht tht strightforwrdly chieved. we which - rest th feels shll see hs n eqully ble bon both future which it projects, lepfrogg- problemtic present impoverhed g over ' dy dcussion exme reltion between chpter I wnt reorientte nrrr's present on h experience for but pst, present mutul reltivtion two chpters I concentrted on specificlly pst, Proust's nrrr's reltion h reltlvg effect. previous In Nietzsche 'pure 1 future beyond, once g dvoctes by no mens so Our nlys Nietzsche's untimeless produced two dtct types future perfect strtegy, first type where pst future simply present, which future perfect llows Nietzsche critique, second type where wht future threshold, It ' Zrthustr-Reich' beyond. lies Rubicon th pst from perspective whose ltter crossg type hs led which Nietzsche mkes

224 -219dtctively h own s he lmost routely ppels 'future beyond first type, for future', but Proust's nlys concentrted on most prt he denies h nrrr perfect novel Proust's The future ny such temporl trnscendence. proundly s emerges dquietg temporl cn never be 'simply' present for h nrrr, future perfect not so much nswer h problemtic structure - pst future present s problem with present itself. In Proust et 2es signes, Deleuze writg gst gr previous who give prmount importnce role criticm by those such s Beckett voluntry memory terpretg A l recherche, he seeks correct impression tht essentil movement 'Si importnt que soit psse.' 22 In order emphses prospective nture future vers le futur, non vers le A sign, l depsse l fo pr ses qui urnee est l recherche, Deleuze importnce eptemologicl orienttion deferred Interprettion sign novel hs sce become generlly he writes, 'l memoire n'ter- role 1, son L Recherche privilege memory privilege nrrr's 'pprentsge des vient que comme le moyen d'un pprentsge buts et ses prcipes. importnce where which fundmentlly prospective, signes', for model A l recherche He rgues by vertg its temporl hierrchy. delibertely plyed down so s novel wrds pst, cknowledged. Genette, for exmple, derives 'prcipe de l significtion differee ou suspendue', 23 refers Tdie; Tdie, turn, writes tht 'le lecteur recit, prce qu'il est 1'venir futur n'est nulle prt ussi de present l est sns cesse tendu vers 1'venir du connsnce 1, 2* concludg tht ' le que dns ce romn du psse', 2S referrg 'l primute du futur',*& quotg Deleuze. By developg n nlys temporl implictions sign for

225 presence 1 present, however, I shll rgue tht its future orienttion relly only 'hlf sry 1, tht Deleuze's reviont ccount itself needs be modified, for pst future re eqully importnt nrrr, but importnce both reltive tht problemtic I shll rgue tht A l recherche not primrily bout pst or present. future, but tht its m concern present which irremedibly with compromed both future pst t sme by sttus Jnus-like centrifugl movement wrds time, future perfect movement which viti- tes notion centrl presence t ll. The 'ttenution ctulity' 27" modernt literture hs long been criticl commonplce, but here I shll ttempt consider Proust's reltivtion 'presence' present new(er) light: context Derrid's notion 'differnce', conclusion, Lyotrd's exposition 'le l question: qu'est-ce que temporl structures A l le postmoderne?'.*13 recherche re modern' grmmlogy, if not presence'. postmoderne' full If novel 'A l h essy 'Reponse I shll rgue tht lredy potg wrds 'post- deconstruct ion recherche 'metphysics du temps perdu', n 'temps perdu' present (tense). I shll beg on Deleuze's lowest level semiotic ctivity, with 'le signe mond', for socil world A l recherche everythg sign becuse every thg hs been swllowed up signs. As Deleuze describes it: 'Le chose, il en "tient lieu", 1'ction comme l pensee, suffnt. D'ou son spect by vorcious ctivity givg signe 11 pretend nnule l vloir pensee stereotype, replces genue thought or ction with mond et neverless filled by 'pretence' its pour comme s void ne renvoie ps quelque un sens. 1'ction, vcuite.' ** II nticipe et se declre The socil sign meng, yet th void clim sense thus

226 -221highly specific type. For sign lest 'perfection rituelle 1 does its forml its pretence, s Deleuze himself notes: vcuite leur confere une perfection retrouver ps illeurs. ' hve, if properties, structure '[Ces signes] sont vides, m cette rituelle, The form not plenitude, n t comme 'signe un formlme qu'on ne mond 1 such tht it does not look bck Crenvoyer') presence ny pre-extg signified, wher thought or ction, but it substitutes itself for tht presence Cil en "tient lieu"') s well s nticiptg ny ctions or thoughts by its deferred terprettion future, present seeks The comm sign immeditely underme its pretence 'presence 1 purely forml relm virtul, extg sign future - future, only Deleuze's by virtue its 'present verted comms removg its msk. Its terprettion meng - subsequent, but moment' only dplcg reltivg but pst, usurps depends wholly on imgry by pr excellence socil sign bnhes presence nture, deferrl retrospective izrferrl thus significtion. The tense future perfect, for it succeeds not 'present' relity, but eclipsg present lger by th double strtegy. As n exmple socil sign, let us consider n cident which tkes plce durg Mme de Villepr's reception Le Cdt de Guernntes (CG, II, ), Here nrrr's converstion he currently love, punctuted occsion herself, she does fers mke '"Vous ne voulez ps que je vous donne elle est tres bonne1", me dit Mme Mme de Guermntes, with whom by embrrssg silences, despite St-Loup's diplomtic tervention she ite tht she, however, she with soon dtrcted. hlf-herted effort rescue nrrr une Perfect socil- tsse somethg et or drk: de th6 ou un peu de trte, de Guermntes, desireuse d'voir ete ussi

227 -222- Odette's entry sufficient for Orine imble que possible 1 (CG, II, 560). forget herself, though, she dpels once for ll even th pretence impression which she succeeds mkg The only rencontree 1, one might sy. 'desireuse de ne ps I 1 voir - retret hsty t solicitude s she bets on nrrr one rudeness: 'Et elle se lev sns me dire dieu.' At most bsic level, n, more thn socil mnoeuvre, for Mme de Guermntes' words represent nothg so not she much concerned bout show rel terest him, nrrr's true well-beg (she mkes no effort go beyond observg socil niceties) s simply crete n impression, quent ctions. The scene th cse betryed by her subse- lthough vcuousness her words recherche, where chrcters 'ct' Just s society typicl thus scenes A l de Guermntes does here, dop- Me tg msk socil person deferrg dems etiquette by usg wht Genette terms direct', lngge ' le semiotic fet. The direction compounded here by tense usge, though, for description Mme de Guermntes s fct tht present deferrg ete d*voir 'desireuse The 'ulterior motive' msked by Mme de spective terprettion future. Guermntes' words tht y should uthority moment retro- imble 1 mkes explicit n illusory posteriori effect - hve nrrr's believg tht 'Mme de Guermntes ws plesnt me' - fter fct tht hs never been. but ll tht noted by She whes her benevolence be born posthumously, nrrr, from h retrospective viewpot, implicit deception strtegy which he hd evidently seen through. 30 Mme de Guermntes seeks g somethg for nothg, s she ttempts illusory desire from words beh- led nrrr ferrg n viour he observes, but, unfortuntely for ploy. :31 She simply goes o fr, n, her, or he quite fmilir with perhps not fr enough - eir

228 -223wy, unmskg th little socil for chrcter present moment, strtegy hs pround implictions which emerges s lwys lredy lost from pot view projected retrospective which voked by th elborte circumlocution. The sttus present void left wke Derriden 'trce 1 here not so much tht dplcg movement sign, s tht movement 'differnce': 'ce qui s 1 effce ou d'vnce se soustrit, lsnt nenmos une mrque, une signture soustrite dns cel m me dont il se retire - 1'ici present - dont 11 fudrit tenir compte.' :32 Derrid's essy 'L differnce' perhps crucil ' deconstructive turn', move best exposition th from semiotics grmmlogy. h itil, recpitultive description Here 'l structure clssiquement deter- mee du signe 1 phrsed terms which re fmilir us from Deleuze: Le signe, dit-on courmment, se met ct l plce de l chose meme, de l chose presente, 'chose' vlnt ici ussi bien pour le sens que pour le referent. Le signe represente le present en son bsence. II en tient lieu. Qu nous ne pouvons prendre ou montrer quelque chose, dons le present, 1'etnt present, qu le present ne se presente ps, nous signifions, nous pssons pr le deur du signe. Nous prenons ou donnons un signe. Nous fons signe. Le signe serit done l presence differee. 33 The movement 'differnce 1 libertes fied, however, with obts. nire1" result Vith 'opposition 1 ny conception tht sign 'cette ' semiologie clssique 1 no longer movement here signified, from which deferred terprettion derivtive which sign evitbly significtion, economy sign from ny presence s signi- 'une differnce "origow' Cl'ici present') s sign will lwys be defers hierrchy superseded by opertion 'trce 1, 21* 'deur du signe' becomes 'deurnement' significtion itself: 'on ne pourrit plus comprendre l differnce sous le concept de

229 -224"signe" qui d'une representtion dire voulu ujours prtir et en vue de l regie const!tue dns un systeme (pensee ou lngue) presence et s'est presence.' 'L "primultite" de l premiere fo* or future perfect strtegies A l If we now turn look t some recherche, I shll try show tht structure socil sign repli- 1'mour*. semiotic level 'les signes de higher cted on wht Deleuze trets s Alredy Les Pllslrs et les Jours, Proust writes 'Critique de 1'espernce l lumiere de 1'mour', which he recommends dppot- ments love s best ntidote mguided optimm humn nture: A pee une heure venir nous devient-elle le present qu'elle se depouille de ses chrmes, pour les retrouver, il est vri, si notre Se est un peu vste et en perspectives bien mengees, qu nous 1'urons lsee lo derrlere nous, sur les routes de l memoire. [...] M certs hormes reflech et chgrs qui ryonnent plus rdemment encore que les utres l lumiere de 1'espernce decouvrent ssez vite qu'hels! elle n'emne ps des heures ttendues. (JS 139) In A l recherche, s critics psychonlytic from 'fort-d' rhythm deferrg plesures gs one h prcipl order grtifiction desire hve poted out, nrrr ll enjoy more sense conscious mstery he hs when he cn flly choose grsp n opportunity. 36 men tht desire mkes it redily pprent fulfilled never tht desire proves dppotg. tht shows The cse Mile de Stermri When give herself h first ks Blbec <JF, II, 285f.)), r he tells t ll, especilly - even such deferrl hzrdous cn nrrr (i.e. her: but cse Alberte - fulfilment h reles tht she willg fter she hs lredy deferred it "'Si vriment vous permettez que je

230 -225vous embrsse, J'imer mieux remettre cel & plus trd et bien choir mon moment. C...J II me fut un ' bon pour un ber"" (CG, II, 658). Th deferrl which Derrid writes: Differer en ce sens, c'est temporer, c'est recourir, consciemment ou consciement, l medition temporelle et temportrice d'un deur suspendnt 1'ccomplsement ou le remplsement du 'desir' ou de l 'volonte', 1'effectunt ussi bien sur un mode qui en nnule ou en tempere l'effet. e How fr deferrg execution will grtifiction desire A l recherche ultimtely 'en nnule ou en reltion it does eventully come tempere 1'effet 1 cn be seen when nrrr's desire ks Alberte, he fds 'present moment' vriously tempered. Not only, s we sw Chpter 2, does h celebrted, 'phomontge' retrospect ll h previous imges her, immeditely before ks, result h not ctully noticg tht he ksg her t ll until he hs lredy strted; 3'9 we 'l "primultimite" de l premiere lso meet curious but crucil notion fo 1 t work th epode, term which Genette tkes from Jnkelevitch referrg prdigmtic qulity ititions, glosses thus: le fit que l premiere fo, dns l mesure mfime ou 1'on eprouve tensement s vleur ugurle, est en meme temps ujours (dej) une derniere fo - ne serit-ce que prce qu'elle est Jm l derniere ci voir ete l premiere, et qu'pres elle, evitblement, commence le regne de l repetition et de 1'hbitude. * Here we fd nor future move, perfect n: ech ugurtion A l recherche, dlocry sgulrity first occurrence, t sme time tged with projected nostlgi retrospective future viewpot for loss previous wht Derrid clls 'l hbit. 41 pretention Th pre-emptive nostlgi countercts ugurle deed Genette 1 s 'ujours (dej) 1 formul Derriden 'trce*. Genette quotes s when nrrr first kses provides exmples Alberte, de s C...] ut InciplV, AZ n explicit lk phenomenon th moment well s scene where Swnn

231 -226- priml ks, Swnn, t expense hollow vicry Here, becuse ks chieved tlly destroyed by nrrr's plesure over h mor's will, its Du c6t& de cbez begng t mmn' le ber de 230), yet both re prefigured by I, possesses Odette for first time <CS, wreness tht chnge hs occurred new regime hs been stlled: II me semblit que m J'ur do etre heureux: je ne 1'et ps. mere venit de me fire une premiere concession qui devit lui etre douloureuse, que c'etit une premiere bdiction de s prt devnt 1'idel qu'elle vit concu pour moi, et que pour l premiere fo, elle, si courgeuse, s'vouit vcue, II me semblit [...] que cette soiree commencit une ere, resterit come une trte dte. <CS, I, 38) t The devlug present fo', 'premiere problem not just confed hs future perfect though, deed it felt Just s cutely when nrrr knows wht expect cn nticipte h dppotment, when n event conforms hbit rr thn representg complete rupture. We cn see th ce fut moi' (CS, I, douloureuse, de Swnn devt 1'objet d'une preoccuption knows sme epode 'le d'entre nous pour qui l venue seul ber de mmn' where, for exmple, 'le 23), becuse nrrr illustrted when tht from experience Swnn comes dner it simply n obstcle wy fulfilment h desire for ks. He even ble nticipte dppotment fulfilment, th epode, for lthough circumstnces he concentrtes re such tht its eventul beforeh, becuse ks such foreknowledge wht ks prticulr ks on which outcome 'premiere fo', regulr occurrence, he rmed with usully dppotment he usully feels fter it. like,, especilly, We re ld: ce bonsoir durit si peu de temps, elle redescendit si vite, que le moment ou Je 1'entend monter C...3 etit pour moi un moment douloureux. II nnoncit celui qui llit le suivre, ou elle m'urit quitte, ou elle serit redescendue. <CS, I, 13) Hbitution llows nrrr see beyond immedite future, her-

232 -227ks him lredy sd moment becuse g h mor come up stirs he lredy oppressed by thoughts when she 'will hve 1 left him. perfect ccordnce with step hed himself dtncg form Th phenomenon recurs tenses). sequence throughout A l recherche, for (here rendered s conditionl perfect future here he cn no s result hbit h becuse longer 'look forwrd 1 ksg h mor expecttion soured by plesurble, Alberte h nticiption first ksg Wheres nrrr order temper h irony, refusl generlly lookg get one plesure dvnce. Such himself tlly give moment, it betrys h need lwys step bck set thgs perspective, need which so conceit virtul he does not hve ny which set n event (i.e. if experience on which drw for context it 'premiere fo'), such if even tht deep-seted perspective must usully be mnufctured, by future viewpot. perfect be h own killjoy for fer obsessive sense self-preservtion leds him plesure for him - he feels some unplesnt surpre comg mr h pst: 'forme de 1'stct de s it need tme future by tretg ce desir qu'on ujours nous-memes, conservtion des meilleures prties de H highly developed, de ne ps voir et6 decu 1 (CS, I, 174). th recognition evitble dppotment pre-emptive delimittion h plesure, tht th time he cnnot use h power Thus pssge de come, nrrr's him try tke gretest defer h mor's rrivl, but cn ' De contues: J'im tnt, J'en rrivls souhiter ce que se prolonget le temps leds terim, 'ps encore', given dvntge h heightened wreness only hsten it. 'priml scene', we see tht novel's If we follow development repit qu'il ou sorte que ce bonsoir que vt le plus trd possible, dt mmn n'etit ps encore venue. 1

233 -228Tlie plesure nticiption moment true plesure - deferrl, sce wht one would expect be ks itself - reltived such dvnce powerless wh for nxious, n here becomes n extent tht only moments ledg up it cn be enjoyed, even n only negtively, s nrrr hunted by premonition time when she hs not yet come, with fterwrds, sense unese temporress. 413 Beyond Future: Interndttence, Indifference Afterlife One most significnt spects th lights dcrepncy between whole epode wy it high- reltively trivil, becuse predictble, dppotment which nrrr hbitully experiences thus steel himself cert Wht gives ugurl thnks h foreknowledge, extent, dppotment fr more powerful sense moment its here for which he cn occsioned effect by 'l premiere fo'. its reveltion domnt temporl struc- cipient structure termittence s one tures novel: nrrr not hppy when he eventully gets h wy becuse it no longer h wy, wy h present 'moi 1 when he gets it, but rr fossiled remnnt whose plns predictions, he temps de I 1 mour est un temps perdu, previous 'moi 1 whom, especilly now strnger. prce que As Deleuze writes: 'Le le signe ne se developpe que dns l mesure ou dprlt le moi qui correspondit & son sens. ' AA The sme epode 'le ber de future perfect which I olted mmn 1 thus demonstrtes both types bove Nietzsche, but ech cse Proust's text verts Hietzsche's positive evlution structure. first type double movement wrds Vith pst future leds here

234 -229- second type, which present, with beyond future, projection ttempted represents ) (plesure complete cncelltion Proust's nrrr's strtegy imed not t libertion but t dmge limit- tion, even n it evitbly fils. Not only present compromed o. signl bility present - even The 'premiere fo' shows up by mens 'deur' sre; it itites shift whtever surpres future 'will hve' held perspective which would never be pre-empted. The experience nrrr's defets dequte plns future illustrted by '1' termittence du coeur' ccount ny which th exmple shows cn but future 1, envgg time 'beyond tken been hve need - prepre dequtely for perfect future future flsified by it, terms Proust's by future perfect, but on wy termittence perfect tme future best h romntic enggements, so it se tht I now return. Deleuze seeks estblh signes de 1'mour 1 A l recherche lso nture 'les stressg tht not only does ech by nrrr's reltionships repet Crepete') love for h mor,'*6 but ech prospective essentilly h pst ones, especilly h ll while rehersg Crepete') its own end: les signes de 1'mour devncent en quelque sorte leur ltertion et leur nentsement. Ce sont les signes de I 1 mour qui impliquent le temps perdu 1'ett le plus pur. C...3 Si les signes de 1'mour et de l jlousie portent leur propre ltertion, c'est pour une ron simple: 1'mour ne cesse ps de preprer s propre dprition, de mimer s rupture. [...] II est bien vri que nous repens nos mours pssees; m il est vri ussi que notre mour ctuel, dns ute s vivcite, 'repete' le moment de l rupture ou nticipe s propre f.*s with Here g, n, we re presented recherche 'urne vers le futur 1 : cette repetition de I 1 sue'. + 7 The Deleuze's centrl rgument tht A l 'cette repetition urnee vers le futur, picture he gives resembles tht

235 -230Montigne philosophg himself 'imer, c'est pprendre mourir'. pssge revels future which sues compromed. right frme md for deth - Yet, once more, n nlys th future perfect reby Firstly, 'les signes de I 1 mour 1 revel present s ' le temps perdu 1'ett le plus pur 1 becuse, g, it lwys lredy lost once reltion tht reltionship not hs ber md th tht future not permnent reltivtion. even lredy tken plce (repetedly) tht which hs not yet tken lredy tken plce, only impulse 'mimer l rupture' beyond it future, not 'tmed' once more. thus The future it when 'performnce 1 will lwys be first which well s 'rehersl 1 for but which, refore, will hve lwys - plce s pst, for two resons. repetition tht which hs implies Secondly, though, we fd nywy, future 'pure 1 Deleuze's double use 'repetition 1 repet performnce. hs struck nrrr eternl from desire go furr res 'will Flly, though, be chieved 1, but when it 'will hve been chieved', course ttemptg imge beg ble show difference one's loved one fter reltionship over. with 'philosophy differ- 'Gleichgultigkeit', literlly 'tretg s Nietzsche terested experimentg ence' becuse Germn term equl vlidity', lends itself beg explored context philosophy evlution, but when Proust llied temporl structure mtes 'difference' 'termittence'. it primrily Ve hve seen tht nrrr fds present moment t ugurtion h reltionship with Alberte tged with projected nostlgi, durg reltionship h Jelousy prompts periodic nticiptions but stte difference which lw '1'termittence du coeur' he hopes such tht course ir not only its end, enjoy fter it. Yet true difference no longer

236 -231- cres express itself, for such when expression one's wh difference defition tht stge hs lredy been nrrr th respect s ssocited only with stge would pssed. 4'9 so mny mke difference, by It Swnn, precursor ors, who first mkes dcovery, which nrrr expls thus: M lors qu'utrefo, il vit fit le serment, si jm 11 cessit d 1 imer celle qu'il ne devit ps devoir etre un jour s femme, de lui mnifester implcblement son difference, enf scere, pour venger son orgueil longtemps humilie, ces represilles qu'il pouvit exercer mtennt sns rques [...], ces represilles 11 n'y tenit plus; vec 1'mour vit dpru le desir de montrer qu'il n'vit plus d'mour. <JF, I, 516) The nrrr sums it up with h rr PronnlSre tht beg different mens not flunt tht difference: 'Autrui nous n 1 vite ps l mechncete 1 (P, III, gloomy generltion L crg bout someone even enough est different et 1'difference 618). He hs experience Swnn drw on, but he soon fds out dequcy th strtegy for himself, retrospectively, with Gilberte: ' qu le but que nous nous proposions deviendr ccessible, il ur cesse d'etre un but pour nous 1 (JF, I, 617f.). In cse Alberte, though, deth ir reltionship, wht he jelousy. After deth becuse her physicl deth precedes self left with perstence h love, n, we must consider deth loved one, for here different logic comes ply, which th time shows up bility deth. The nrrr's gloss on future perfect project beyond physicl prdoxicl sitution which he fds himself fter Alberte's deth - fdg out thgs bout her which he whes he could let her know he knows, while t sme time relg tht hd she not been ded he would doubtless not hve found m out first plce - runs s follows: C'etit l encore une des consequences de cette impossibilite ou nous

237 -232- somides, qu nous vons ronner sur l mort, de nous representer utre chose que l vie. [...] Qu nous ronnons sur ce qui se psser pres notre propre mrt, n'est-ce ps encore nous vivnt que pr erreur nous projens ce moment-l? [...] les regrets de m Jlousie retrospective n'en procedient ps mos de l m6me erreur d'optique que chez les utres hommes le desir de l gloire posthume. (AD, IV, 101) We re lter ld: 'II y des erreurs dns 1'espce 1 (AD, IV, 173), optiques dns le temps comme 11 y en 'opticl illusion 1 engendered by desire envge fterlife prime exmple. ence, lthough it cn must be Just s future differ- expected, cn never be dequtely conceived by mens n extrpoltion future perfect, so o, if one tries imge fterlife, one cnnot but implictions deth, for one cnnot fil tke ccount full but imge, ologe or philosophe bout it from perspective life. Tdie writes: 'Le futur, c'est mos I 1 bsence fondmentle de l mort [...] centre lquelle th 'reve de l vie 1 du r ve que I 1 bsence lutte le r6ve de l vie 1,*9 nowhere more pprent thn future perfect strtegy - when we try imge wht it be like when we 'will hve died'. will We hve seen ITietzsche h Zrthustr confidently lyg clim ir own philosophicl 'fterlives', but Proust's novel lys bre presumption ny such clim revels th use future perfect be biggest confidence trick ll structure difference denies tht we future flity, so future perfect envgg ply on ourselves. deth Just s reltionship its fterlife denies deth ny sttus s boundry, or nee plus ultr, precely becuse it trnsforms deth threshold which it pretends future perfect such s elide hve gone beyond. The nture crossg threshold leve it s undersod - movement through brrier glossed over, wht one left with stte hvg emerged beg on or side,

238 -233lookg bck from beyond.* The future perfect Proust's novel not only but it lso resres mplced, nostlgi, tense wtful pre-emptive impossible optimm. d'optique' becuse it fils 'illusion It rems n termittence, mkes only some tke ccount 'prdigm shift 1 wht t stke th up Poulet sums necessry prmeter chnges. ultimte illusion: 1'etre hum tel que le depet Proust, se sent hnt6 pr 1'ngose de cette substitution de soi soi qu'est pour lui l mort. Centre cette ngose 11 n'y qu'un recours: se donner I 1 ssurnce d'une survie, croire qu'u del on pourr se retrouver. Or, cette foi, 11 est impossible de se l donner qunt u futur, puqu'on n'y peut retrouver rien d 1 imgble, puque ce futur est le present de 1'etre monstrueusement concevble en qui l mort nous ur chnge. De ce cote, du cdt6 de l mort & venlr, le foss6 est frnchsble. L'venir est clos pr l mort, et devnt cet venir clos il y notre ngose. S1 The ttempt imge 'u-del 1, wher deth, self, deth love, or physicl from ' monstrueusement concevble 1 becuse even imgtion cnnot dequtely deth. The result tht future th sense tht we conception future cn dequte derived from present be beyond deth bound fil, future pot view present project beyond boundry will lwys evitbly surpre, it how, see it s Proust frequently emphses, our becuse it lwys necessrily pst: 'nous nous represenns 1'venir corme un reflet du present projet6 dns un espce vide, t qu'il est le resultt souvent ut proch de cuses qui 824; cf. AD, IV, 27; TR, IV, 451). nous echppent pour l pluprt' (P, III,

239 -234'Qu on ur fi le livre... : The Postmodern Turn If would-be optimm future perfect with future residue - ttempt imge fterlife - thus thwrted by fundmentl bility imgtion cope with pre-empt surpres dppotments which future evitbly brgs, n it would seem tht Proust criticl precely strtegy which Nietzsche seeks dms 'ubermorgen' ' i/bermensch' sche uses for dmsg impoverhed - tht it suffers from escpble dopt, tht he would on sme grounds which Nietz- perspective (merely) futurl drtion beg projected on bs present, which flsifies its rdicl, monstrous novelty. first rection Proust's nrrr feelg tht future no longer holds h ny tude sur 1'venir, ut doute tellectuel becuse t end A l voluntry memory terrors for him - 'ute quieetient dsipes 1 (TR, IV, 445) - recherche nrrr, o, succeeds brekg through fterlife, n fterlife rtwork future perfect. signes de 1'rt' occupy first Yet which he right Deleuze highest plce constructs by mens h when he rgues tht 'les Proust's semiotic hierrchy, becuse by producg such signs h nrrr will revlue ir future perfect temporlity (which hs proven so problemtic on or semiotic levels) ssure himself, o, posthumous birth. Only t end novel literry voction hve been becuse it unity which 'nouvelle lumiere' cn nrrr h own voir vecu pour elle sns le svoir' (TR, imge for h life so fr, s we sw reder now see tht nrrr's 'teleology 1 which ties up whole, himself cn only confer on h life belted recognition: 'je me trouv IV, 478). Vhen he uses botnicl Introduction, he chooses

240 -235en herbe'), but b!6 Cle seed compre it not ripeng 'cet lbumen qui est Iog6 dns grdul constitution seed itself out 1'ovule des plntes' - or words, ripeng seed will only come longue nterieur).' S3 pres coup, u futur fdg h voction ll over The nrrr's voction lies urit pu et n'urit ps pu etre jour g: 'Asi ute m vie jusqu' ce romn v trns- qu'elle ur et6 en ce en conferee (significtion gesttion du '1'ecriture former Cl 1 extence du Nrrteur] progress!vement fit, une cn give birth itself nrrtive comments: As Gerrd Cogez retrospectively. when bout when he begs write, resumee sous ce titre: Une voction 1 (TR, IV, 478). novel just red tervene t th pot turn required But it reder who which one nrrr will hve written, ensurg tht ' les extremes se rejoignent 1 (P, III, 825) thus estblhg birth text, nrrr long with it, itself, for movement trtextul future which 'present time' 'writg presence 1 posthumous which presence reder necessry midwife The recursive structure whole. 6:3 cnnot from be generted by text nrrted time wrds nrrtion symptic. "1 The future one present or cn never cocide re lwys future residue needed bridge cn sy tht y 'will cn hve novel red, t irreducible cocided' hve ll. gp between m - ll one (must hve cocided) before one As Tdie writes: 'Asi, 1'venir dns le recit ur pr, grce & s conclusion, l forme meme de 1'venir de 1'oeuvre, et le temps du heros ser devenu, d'un m me mouvement, celui de 1'ecriv et du lecteur, du relecteur. (SS It not only nrrr for reder, o - s text who re born posthumously, n, re-reder. se In n importnt letter Alfred

241 -236Vllette, s erly s 1909 when he ws still thkg terms Centre Ste-Beuve, Proust writes: 'qu on ur voudr) que ut le romn n'est que l me en oeuvre des prcipes d'rt em dns cette derniere prtie, sorte de prefce f 1 (CMP, IX, 155). He thus dpenses le livre, on verr (je le si vous voulez me l wht he clls A l recherche with 'le lngge scere des prefces et des g with text wht mounts fi dedicces' <TR, IV, 489) by clud- prefce first re-redg. S7- By revelg both nrrr's voction estic prciples which nrrr 'will hve been' end observg, reder right bck its begng nrrr's voction. It A l recherche tkes order ressess re-red whole (especilly ll those moments t which ever mke grde s writer), nrrr hd doubted tht he would rmed with n 'pres-coup 1 foreknowledge now tht reder cn svour ll those proleptic 'nnonces' 'morces' which Proust's nrrr hs embedded h nrrtive, pots terference Zeit' which re so typicl A l furr drupt complexify its reder, who ech time by 'Erzhlzeit' 'erzhlte recherche s temporlity privileged whole, which serve from pot view with higher-level knowledge which dds reltivtion nrrr-protgont's viewpot. SQ Nietzsche seeks educte h future tsk terpretg him, so tence h future re-reders, reders Proust's who will who Just s might n be dequte nrrr ims crete compebe not just 'les propres lecteurs d'eux-memes' <TR, IV, 610), but better reders him, o. At very lest ments, n, I would rgue context tht one cn se multiple future perfect movelegitimtely spek 'postmodern Proust' 'Nietzsche s postmodernt 1, ss> strict, structurl sense which Lyotrd writes:

242 -237- L'rtte et 1'ecriv trvillent done sns regies, et pour etblir De l que 1'oeuvre et le texte les regies de ce qui ur et fit. ient les proprietes de 1'evenement, de l ussi qu'ils rrivent trop trd pour leur uteur, ou, ce qui revient u meme, que leur me en Postnoderne serit comprendre oeuvre commence ujours trop t. selon le prdoxe du futur (post) nterieur (jnodo). e' progrmme future, both Nietzsche By seekg educte ir reders, Jcce Homo Proust's nrrr t end A l recherche mke one fl ttempt leglte for ir ce sense, 'etblir les regies de qui ly reception, ur et6 down lw Lyotrd's fit 1. But by vokg prdoxicl logic future perfect y re bound fil, for 'postelude modern' ge dested nrrr recogne tht future will cn envge, but lst grsp. Both Nietzsche Proust's lwys be monstrously or thn one ir resort neir cn ccept th determcy, both ttempt fill gp with construction redemptive reder. Yet by dog so both lso cknowledge tht ir future out ir hs, both ultimtely surrender its control. rt redg well, we know tht For s good dciples educted we must bewre ir prescriptions overcome m, tht our fidelity ir texts must lwys be betryl. Their texts 'become wht y re 1 only when y become wht y re not never cn be on ir own - our texts, produced by our terprettions. only rems for us red m, tively: '"Rellsez ces chefs-d'oeuvre! le fire." 161 So it re-red m, criticlly creah! oui, c, pr exemple, il nous fut

243 Conclusion Le texte proustien est une substnce superbe pour le desir critique. C'est un veritble objet de desir pour le critique, cr ut s'epue dns le fntsme de l recherche, dns 1'idee de chercher quelque chose chez Proust, et, pr l meme, ussi, ut rend illusoire I 1 idee d'un resultt de cette recherche. L sgulrity de Proust c'est qu'il ne nous lse rien d'utre & fire que ceci: le reecrire, qui est le contrire meme de 1'epuer. 1 Perhps, n, followg Rol Brs, it only rems not for us re-red Proust but for me cknowledge tht th opertion rems be I ssessed hve rewritten him. - prettion verschw' (JOB 38), wher 'recherche d'un resultt illusoire'. my he Proust's own ttcks on Nietzsche Nietzsche legerement), (et quelques-uns de ses chems, Proust voeu nietzscheen selon lequel 'der Text unter der Inter- 'reserch' hs necessrily been But I hope dngers which Jen Srocchi courts when violemment wher t lest hve voided seeks ccount for violence by specultg: 'peut-etre, en refusnt non sns ccomplit-il, le The violence dciple jouterions-nous, en differer Jm l doit emprunter bien illeurs mieux qu'un Gide, le jeter lecture.' 2 pr le livre, et meme, Such n rgument seems me untenble, fr from seekg clim tht Proust ws 'dciple 1 Nietzsche, however 'Zrthustrn' or Giden rgue tht ories on A l which recherche represents its uthor ws sense, I hve sought sted brek nurtured, Nietzsche's philosophy ws not mong m it with tht philosophicl precely becuse ll more 'Nietzschen' novel. I hope, o, tht I hve debte on wht Dn terms mde modest contribution more generl 'philosophy /s/ literture'. 3 sd die sokrtchen Diloge unserer Zeit', 'Die Romne writes Friedrich Schlegel one

244 -239 h most fmous frgments, 4 lthough Nietzsche - unlike h precursor novelt jnnqu (even h Lichtenberg - hrdly considered himself be youth he seems such never hve ttempted project), neverless by trnsltg h metphor for perspectivm, 'seeg with mny eyes', plurlity competg 'voices' philosophicl systems re s ded s philosophy needs dopt some h it pproches th sme question from Forty's view tht Proust's God so survive enliven. opposite fr pproprite tht vicsitudes Proustin full direction, perspectivtic perspectivm fds its most "J"' show Proust be tkg cknowledges tht y covertly house, tht Nietzsche fils, lpsg bck metphysics power, 5 I would neverless go he prctices more usully ssocited with poetry, drm or nrrtive fiction if shre writgs, s novel Proust if I do not succeeds where with h philosophy will rgue tht philosophy expression nrrr on fictionl terms, h own 'neuer Veg zum dvntge opportunities which h chosen form permits for explorg its possibilities. In her essy 'Fictions Soul', Mrth C. Nussbum sets Proust gst Pl order vdicte h clim tht novels cn tt cert kd knowledge which different from, irreducible, philosophicl knowledge: The clim tht only novel cn convey psychologicl truth not Just clim tht it cn get round cert impediments more cleverly thn philosophicl text; it clim tht re t lest some knowledge, some importnt humn knowledge, tht it provides just virtue its beg novel, tht sy work tht leds its reder lughter sufferg, tht cnnot even prciple be provided more tellectul wy. 6 To grnt th clim not sy tht nrrtive fiction cn sfely dpense with philosophicl reflection or on it ( deed Nussbum sts on th pot when she returns Proust rr more criticlly 'Love's Know-

245 -240- ledge');^ nor it sy tht, Rorty's terms, philosophy should spire beg just nor 'kd It writg'. e, Niet2sche's philosophy prticulr should hve be, such potent force spurrg however, no surpre tht been, should contue literry cretivity novelts, poets drmtts sce h time. Proust ws certly no 'Nietzschen' th sense, but perhps my study, by settg up its own dilogue between two writers, will hve estblhed tht comprtive redg Nietzsche Proust cn be more productive thn eir might mselves hve conceded.

246 Notes Introduction I. Nietzsche Proust? Nietzsche Proust? 1. Wlter Kufmnn, Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologt, Antichrt, 3rd edn (New York: Vtge, 1968), p. viii. Cf. lso Peter Ptitz, Frledrlch Nietzsche, 2nd edn (Stuttgrt: Metzler CSmmlung Metzler', 62), 1975), p. 67: 'Die fensichtliche Bedeutung Nietzsches fur die moderne Litertur ermuntert zu zhlreichen Aufstzen und Dserttionen mit dem Titel: "Nietzsche und... H. Sogr ee fst 40seitige Abhlung uber "Friedrich Nietzsche - Krl My" [...] fdet Ahnlichkeiten bei ungleichen Auren.' 2. Cf. Interntionl Nietzsche Bibliogrphy, 2nd edn, ed. Herbert V. Reichert Krl Schlecht (Chpel Hill: University North Crol Press ('University North Crol Studies Comprtive Literture 1, 45), 1968); Nietzsche Scholrship In Englh: A Bibliogrphy , ed. B. Bryn Billird (Urbn: North Americn Nietzsche Society ('Nietzschen', 2), 1992); Nietzsche Scholrship In Englh: A Bibliogrphy , Supplement, ed. B. Bryn Billird Erl Nitschke (Urbn: North Americn Nietzsche Society ('Nietzschen', 3), 1993). 3. Nietzsche News, 11 (Fll 1992), Cf. Nietzsche ujourd'hui?, 2 vols (Pr: U.G.E. ('10/18', ), 1973); Vhy Nietzsche Now?, ed. Dniel T. 0'Hr (Bloomgn Indinpol: Indin University Press, 1985); Nietzsche heute. Die Rezeptlon sees Verkes nch 1968, ed. Sigrid Buschger, Susn L. Cocl Sr Lennox (Berne Stuttgrt: Frncke, 1988). 5. The New Nietzsche, ed. Dvid B. Allon (New York: Dell, 1977). 6. Cf. Nietzsche Asin Thought, ed. Grhm Prkes (Chicgo London: University Chicgo Press, 1991); Nietzsche Kodern Germn Thought, ed. Keith Ansell-Person (London New York: Routledge, 1991); Nietzsche Rheric Nlhlllsn: Essys on Interprettion, Lnguge Politics, ed. Tom Drby, Bel Egyed Ben Jones (Ottw: Crlen University Press, 1989); Lester H. Hunt, Nietzsche Orig Virtue (London New York: Routledge, 1991); Nietzsche Feme, ed. Peter Burgrd (Chrlottesville: University Press Virgi, 1994). 7. Jen-Yves Tdie, Proust (Pr: Belfond ('Les dossiers Belfond'>, 1983), p Kufmnn, p. viii, 9. Cf. TR, IV, 493, Willim Stewrt Bell, Proust's Nocturnl Xuse (New York London: Columbi University Press, 1962).

247 -242- 'n 10. Edmund Vilson certly levels th criticm t Proust, fdiangstudy element decdence h work 1 ('Mrcel Proust 1 ( Axel's Cstle: Imgtive Literture (London: Colls, 1961), pp. HIne 54), p. 153). For more nunced tretment th question, cf. Ani Compgnon, Proust entre deux slecles (Pr: Seuil, 1989). 11. Erich Auerbch, Xlmesls: The Representtion Relity Western Liter ture, tr. Villrd Trsk (Hew York: Doubledy, 1957), p ered 12. Cf. Mlcolm Bowie, The Morlity Proust: An Inugurl Lecture deliv before University Oxford on 25 November 1993 (Oxford: Clrendon Press, 1994). s 13. Jen Srocchi, for one, rgues tht it cnnot: 'il [Proust] ne v jmi ml pr del le bien, le ml; le bien, dns l Recherche, reste le bien, le est le ml' (.Versions de Proust (Pr: Nizet, 1972), p. 119). 13, 14. One books plnned for Uxwerthung ller Wer. Cf. KSAerste Cf. lso EH, IV, 2: 'Ich b der 194, 545f., 589, 604, 607, 613. Iwoorlt'. : 15. Cf. Srh Kmn, 'Nietzsche et I'obscurit6 d'herclite 1, Seductions pp. De Srtre & Herclite (Pr: Glilee CL philosophic en effet'), 1990), ) Cf. lso Proust's essy 'Centre 1'obscurite 1 from 1896 (CSB ' Jcques Holl de Reneville's 'Themes metphysiques chez Mrcel Proustby (Revue de ffetphyslque et de Xorle, 90/2 (April-June 1985), ) opens dit comprg Proust Herclitus, he contues: 'Sur Proust on ut red suf peut-etre cel' (218.). He course wrong: Proust comp Herclitus by Richrd Mcksey h 'The Architecture Time: Dilectics d Structure' ( Proust: A Collection Criticl Essys, ed. Rene Girr 104(Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hll ('Twentieth Century Views'), 1962), :pp.nizet, 21 (p. 107)), by Georges Cttui (Proust et ses metmorphoses (Pr 1972), p. 252), et (doubtless) l. z16. On Nietzsche's phortic style, cf. especilly Xurice Blnchot, 'Niet sche et 1'ecriture frgmentire' ( L'entretien fl (Pr: Gllimrd, 1969), pp ), Gilles Deleuze, 'L pensee nomde' ( Nietzsche ujourd'hui?, I, ). k, 17. Cf. Xrcel Proust: Theories pour une estique (Pr: Klcksiec 1981); Proust romncier: Le mbeu egyptlen (Pr: Flmmrion, 1983); Proust: Une vlet une oeuvre, une epoque (Pr: Bll CPhres'), 1986). 18. Cf. Jmes H. Reid, 'Lyg, Irony, Deconstruction: Nietzsche Proust', Style, 22/3 (Fll 1988), John Burt Foster, Jnr., Heirs Dionysus: A Nietzschen Current I Literry Hodernlsm (Prcen: Prcen University Press, 1981), p. 416., would certly wnt dpute extent Joyce's ' nti-nietzschenm1de o - cf., for exmple, Deleuze, Nietzsche (Pr: Presses Universitires sur Frnce, 1965), p. 31 ('Deux oeuvres modernes sont de prondes medittions et le Oui et le Non, sur leur unticity ou leur mystifiction: Nietzsche Joyce'), Joseph A. Buttigieg, 'The Struggle Agst Met(Phntsm)

248 -243- physicst Nietzsche, Joyce 207. "excess hry'", O'Hr, pp Cf. Eve Kossky Sedgwick, Eplstewology Angeles: University Cliforni Press, 1990). Closet (Berkeley Los 21. Cf. CMP, IV, 418f., George D. Pter, Mrcel Proust: A Biogrphy, 2 vols (London: Cht Vdus, 1965), I, 135f. 22. Cf. ' Ste-Beuve et Blzc 1 (CSB ), 'Ste-Beuve et Budelire 1 (CSB ), 'A propos de Budelire' (CSB ), 'A jouter Flubert 1 (CSB ) 'A propos du "style" de Flubert 1 (CSB ). For Proust's reltions ll three se writers, cf. Mrgret Me, A Foretste Proust: A Study Proust h Precursors (Westmed: Sxon ('Blzc') ('Budelire'), House, 1974), pp ('Flubert'). The or writer on whom Proust focusses Contre SteBeuve, Nervl, ws unknown Nietzsche he mkes no mention him, lthough Srh Kmn lks two illumtgly her Nervl: Le chrxe de l repetition. Lecture de 'Sylvle' (Lusnne: L'Age d'homme CCtre Ess', 6), 1979), p. 39n. 22, especilly Explosion I: De l'"ecce Homo" de Nietzsche (Pr: Glilee ('L philosophie en effet'), 1992), p. 27f. 23. For Nietzsche's reltion Budelire, cf. Jcques Le Rider, 'Prefce: Nietzsche et l Frnce, Presences de Nietzsche en Frnce' ( Nietzsche, Oeuvres, 2 vols, ed. Jen Lcoste Jcques Le Rider (Pr: Lffont CBouqus 1 ), 1993), I, xi-cxii), pp. xiii-xxxi CA 1'ecole de l "decdence" frnche et de Budelire 1 ). 24. Tdie, p Only few yers fter Ecce Homo ws written 1888, young Proust writes tht h 'uteurs fvor en prose 1 re 'Aujourd'hui Anle Frnce et Pierre Loti' (CSB 337); Loti, Lemitre, Bourget Frnce ll figure 'Mondnite' section 'Mondnite et Melomnie de Bouvrd et Pecuchet', from 1893 (JS 58-59), Proust successfully pproches Frnce write Prefce Les Pllslrs et les Jours 1896 (JS 3-4). H cresg dtnce from Frnce Bourget reflected/refrcted nrrr's chngg reltion Bergotte A l recherche (cf. Jen Levillnt, 'Notes sur le personnge de Bergotte 1, Revue des Sciences Humlnes, 65 (Jnury-Mrch 1952), 33-48), while h move wy from h erly 'pronde dmirtion 1 for Lemitre (CSB 236) lso evident one sketches for A l recherche (II, 'Esquse XI 1, 1091f.). 26. Aprt from here, Proust mentions Bourget only context h novels Le dciple (CSB 348) L'etpe (CSB 487, 572), wheres Nietzsche ws terested bove ll h Essls de psychologie contenporlne (1883) Giovnni Mcchi ttempts situte Proust 'Tr Nouveux essls (1885). Te e Bourget 1, despite h criticl remrks bout both men (cf. Proust e dlnrnl (Miln: Monddori, 1989), pp ). 27. Cf. KSA 11, 598 ('Stendhl, ds letzte grobe Ereign des frnzoschen Getes 1 ); JGB 39; GD, IX, 45; EH, II, 3, on Stendhl s 'eer der schdnsten Zuflle mees Lebens'. Cf. lso Kmn, Explosion I, pp

249 Cf. FV, 'Epilog'; GD, IX, 45 CdeCr] ezigle] gesgt, von dem ich etws zu lernen htte 1 ); AC 31, Psycholog[ e], nbei 29. For Proust Stendhl, cf. Alm Srydr, Proust dciple de Stendhl: Les vnt-textes d'un mour de Swnn dns Jen Snteuil (Pr: Lettres Modernes ('Archives des Lettres Modernes', 191), 1980); for Nietzsche Stendhl, cf. Jen Lcoste, 'Postfce: Nietzsche et l civiltion frn^e' ( Nietzsche, Oeuvres, I, ), especilly pp ('Stendhl et l decdence 1 ). 30. For Proust Dosyevsky, cf. Girrd, Xensonge romntique et verit romnesque (Pr: Grsset, 1961), especilly pp CProblemes de technique chez Proust et chez Doslevski'), Milivoje Pejovlc, Proust et (Pr: Nizet, 1987); for DostevsJci: etude d'une mtique commune Nietzsche Dosyevsky ( reltionship which hs generted phenomenl mount criticl terest - Reichert Schlecht lt some thirty-eight comprtive studies by 1968), cf. e.g. Bor de Schloezer, 'Nietzsche et Dosievski 1, Nietzsche, ed. Gilles Deleuze (Pr: Muit CChiers de Royumont 1 ), 1967), pp For Proust Pscl, cf. Me, pp ('Pscl'); for Nietzsche Pscl CDB ich Pscl nicht lese, sondern Hebe, ls ds lehrreichste Opfer des Chrtentums' : EH, II, 3), s well s or French morllstes, cf. V.D. Willims, Nietzsche French: A Study Influence Nietz sche's French Redg on h Thought Writg (Oxford: Blckwell, 1952); Brendn Donnelln, Nietzsche French Morlts (Bonn: Bouvier, 1982), especilly pp ; Lcoste, especilly pp C"Le premier de us les chretiens"') CQu'est-ce qu'un morlte?'). 32. Cf. Edurd Bumgrten, Ds Vorbild Emersons im Verk und Leben Nietzsches (Heidelberg: Wter, 1957); more recently Gry Shpiro, Alcyone: Nietzsche on Gifts, Noe, Woien (Albny: Stte University New York Press ('Contemporry Contentl Philosophy'), 1991), especilly pp ; George J. Stck, Nietzsche Emerson: An Elective Affity (Ans: Ohio University Press, 1992); Iren S.M. Mkrushk, Religious Imgtion Lnguge Emerson Nietzsche (Houndmills: Mcmilln; New York: St Mrt's Press, 1994); Grhm Prkes, Composg Soul: Reches Nietzsche's Psychology (Chicgo London: University Chicgo Press, 1994), pp ('The Menr from Concord'). 33. For Proust Emerson, cf. Reo Virtnen, 'Proust Emerson', Sympo sium, 6 (My 1952), , Everett Crter, 'The Emersonin Proust', Comprtive Literture Studies, 29/1 (1992), Bryn Mgee, Aspects Vgner, University Press, 1988), p nd edn (Oxford New York: Oxford 35. Nietzsche seems not hve red work which more cusmrily ttrcts th designtion, Huysmns' A rebours (1884), lthough it would undoubtedly hve fscted him, deed fct tht its uthor lter entered Trppt monstery merely confirms Nietzsche's nlys decdents s Jturen, die l Trppe nbtig hben, im Gleichn gesprochen (und ohne Cf. Mzzo Montri, 'Aufgben der NietzscheGleichn -)' (GD, V, 2)!

250 -245- Forschung heute: Nietzsches Auseersetzung mit der frnzoschen Litertur des 19. Jhrhunderts' ( Buschger, Cocl Lennox, pp ), p For collection essys which ddresses question tste Proust from vriety ngles, cf. Mrcel Proust: GeschmcX und Nelgung, ed. Volker Kpp (Tubgen: Stuffenburg CErlnger romntche Dokumente und Arbeiten', 4), 1989), especilly Bns Ulrich Gumbrecht, 'Vie snlich knn Geschmck ( Gumbrecht cites JGB 218, , der Litertur) se?' (pp ). rgug: ' Prousts Affitt zu Nietzsche liegt der von beiden vollzogenen uf ds Substrt ees Riickfuhrung des stchen Geschmcksbegriffs slnlichen Erlebens, welches e Erfhren des eigenen Korpers uslost und die Dimension der hrchen Dtnz ufhebt' (p. 116f.). 37. In notebook version th section (KSA 11, ), which Nietzsche lso drew on subsequently for Gotzen-Dmmerung Ecce Homo, he comments on Budelire: 'Im ubrigen wr Budelire der Mensch ees vielleicht verdorbenen, ber sehr bestimmten und schrfen, seer selbst gewsen Geschmcks 1 (KSA 11, 601), proceeds tke Budelire's tste s h own guide, contrstg him for exmple with 'Vicr Hugo, e "Esel von Genie" - der Ausdruck t von Budelire - welches immer den Ruth zu seem schlechten For Nietzsche's dply h tstes Geschmcke gehbt ht 1 (KSA 11, 601). French literture EH, II, 3, cf. Kmn, Explosion I, pp ('Re/cretions'). 38. The publhed version th pssge even more dtilled thn notebook version, which terse enough: 'Ich ls die ersten lettres d'un voygeur: wie Alles, ws von Rousseu stmmt, flsch, von Grund us, morltch verlogen, wie sie selbst, diese "Kunstler"' (KSA 13, 14). 39. Cf. CSB 578f., where h ne th time bitgly stiricl: 'SteBeuve nous dit: "L Chrtreuse de Froe n'est ps 1'oeuvre d'un romncier." Vous pouvez 1'en croire, il un vntge sur nous, il dit vec 1'uteur, lequel d'illeurs, homme de bonne compgnie s'il en fut, eot ete le premier vous rire u nez si vous 1'viez trite de gr romncier' (CSB 578). 40. Cf. Prkes, pp ('Philosophy s Aubiogrphy'). 41. Not tht th prevents judgements eir writer from fllg wide mrk on occsions ( ll more terestgly for tht). In Proust's cse, I shll rgue Chpter 1 tht th pplies h judgement on Nietzsche himself; Nietzsche's cse, I hve explored specific For Nietzsche's prejudice my forthcomg 'Nietzsche's Orientlm1. cultivtion 'pround superficility 1, cf. Michel Foucult, 'Nietzsche, Freud, Mrx' ( Deleuze, pp ), p. 186f. 42. Peter Jones, Philosophy Novel: Philosophicl spects 'Kiddlemrch', 'Ann Krenln', 'The Brors Krmzov', 'A l recherche du temps perdu', methods criticm (Oxford: Clrendon Press, 1975), pp Vcent Descombes, Proust: Philosophic du romn (Pr: Muit ('Critique'), 1987), p. 19, on chpter 'L'Optique des esprits 1 (pp ).

251 For pre-socrtics, cf. n. 15, bove. For Pl, cf. especilly Ernst Robert Curtius, Mrcel Proust (Berl Frnkfurt.M.: Suhrkmp, 1952), pp CPlnmus 1 ). In h Proust et les slgnes, 7th edn (Pr: Presses Universitires de Frnce ('Perspectives critiques'), 1986), Deleuze suggests number Plnic neo-plnic prllels (pp. 10, 51, 55, 58, 81, 122f., 135f.) which I shll be ddressg second prt th Introduction. For neo-plnics, cf. lso Mcksey, p. 106, Cttui, pp. 95f., 250f. For Descrtes, cf. Murice Muller, De Descrtes A Proust (Pr: Etre et Penser, 1943); Al de Lttre, L doctre de l rellte chez Proust, 3 vols (Pr: Corti, ), I, II, 61-64; de Reneville, 223. For Leibniz, cf. Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, p. 54f.; Lou Bolle, Mrcel Proust ou le coplexe d'argus (Pr: Grsset, 1967); de Reneville, ; For Spoz, cf. Henri Bonnet, 'L'eudemo Descombes, pp. 51f., 130, 247. nme estique de Proust', Entretlens sur Mrcel Proust, ed. Georges Cttui Philip Kolb (Pr The Hgue: Moun, 1966), pp. 7-14, especilly Le progres splrltuel dns 1'oeuvre de Mrcel Proust, 2 vols (Pr: Vr, ); de Lttre, I, , , II, For Locke, cf. Morr Weitz, Philosophy s Literture (Detroit: Wyne Stte For Knt, cf. John Porter Housn, The University Press, 1963), pp Shpe Style Proust's Novel (Detroit: Wyne Stte University Press, 1982), pp ('Ctegories, Noumen, Antimonies [sic]'); de Lttre, II, ; Everett W. Knight, Literture considered s Philosophy: The French Exmple (London: Routledge Kegn Pul, 1957), p For Hegel, cf. de Reneville, Jcques Derrid, h essy 'Force et significtion 1 ( L'ecrlture et l difference (Pr: Seuil ('Pots', 100), 1979), pp. 9-49), lso gives Hegelin redg A l recherche (p. 38f.) f which I shll be For Kierkegrd, cf. ddressg second prt th Introduction. Mcksey, pp ; Bolle, pp , 168f., 170n.2; Mry Ann Cws, 'Artful Mosic Nturl Turn: Representg Recll with Proustin Twt 1, Redg Proust Now, ed. Mry Ann Cws Eugene Sicole (Hew York, Berne, Frnkfurt.M. Pr: Lng <'Redg Plus', 8), 1990), pp ; Robert Chmpigny, 'Proust, Bergson or Philosophers' ( Girrd, pp ), p. 130f. - (or) 'or philosophers' beg Pl, Spoz Schopenhuer. For Eerson, cf. n. 33, bove. For Husserl, cf. Knight, p. 23; For Heidegger, cf. Houwens Post, Mcksey, p. 119; de Reneville, 227f. 'L'idee du temps dns 1'oeuvre de Mrcel Proust et ses rpports vec l philosophic heideggerienne de Seln und Zelt', BSAKP, 24 (1974), ; Hns Robert Juss, Zelt und Ernerung In Mrcel Prousts "A l recherche du temps perdu". B Beltrg zur Theorle des Romns (Heidelberg: Wter, 1955), pp. 49n. 158, 170; Mcksey, p. 107f.; de Reneville, 228. For Srtre (pce Descombes, p. 43: 'personne m connsnce ne veut que l Recherche soit un romn extentilte 1 ), cf. Pule Newmn, Mrcel Proust et 1'exlstentllIsme (Pr: Nouvelles editions ltes, 1952); Knight, pp. 23, 66; Mcksey, p. 106f. ; Girrd, Mensonge romntlque et verlt6 romnesque, p For Herleu-Ponty, cf. Angelo Crnf, Proust: The Cretive Silence (Lewburg: Bucknell University Press; London Toron: Associted University Presses, 1990), pp ('Proust Merleu-Ponty on Perception'), Juli Krtev, Le temps sensible: Proust et 1'experience lltterlre (Pr: Gllimrd (' nrf ess 1 ), 1994), pp To cite only most notble contributions Proust/Bergson debte, cf. Kurt Jckel, Bergson und Proust. Be Untersuchung uber die weltnschullchen Grundlgen von 'A l recherche du temps perdu' (Breslu: Priebtsch

252 -247- CSprche und Kultur der germnchen und romnchen Vblker 1, 10), 1934); Sybil de Souz, 'L 1 fluence de Bergson 1, L philosophic de Jfrcel Proust (Pr: Rieder, 1939), pp ; Flor Delttre, Bergson et Proust: ccords et dsonnces (Pr: Alb Michel Cfetudes bergsoniennes' 1), 1948); Chmpigny, pp ; Frncoe Fbre-Luce de Gruson, 'Bergson et Proust 1, Cttui Kolb, pp ; Joyce N. Megy, Bergson et Proust: Essl de me u pot de l question de 1'fluence de Bergson sur Proust (Pr: Vr, 1976); A.E. Pilkgn, 'Mrcel Proust 1, Bergson h Influence. A Ressessment (Cmbridge: Cmbridge University Press, 1976), pp ; Federic Sossi, 'Pss e ssenz. Henri Bergson 1, Filosi di Proust: Sggl sull scrittur e l morte (Miln: Unicopli, 1988), pp Cf. Smuel Beckett, 'Proust 1, Proust Three Dilogues (with Georges Duthuit) (London: John Clder, 1965), pp. 7-93; K. de Luppe, 'Mrcel Proust, dciple de Schopenhuer', Revue d'estique, 2 (Ocber-December 1949), ; Miln Hdus, 'The Philosophy Proust', The Proustin Vion (lew York: Columbi University Press, 1954), pp ; Jmes Acheson, 'Beckett, Proust Schopenhuer 1, Contemporry Literture, 19/2 (Sprg 1978), ; Michel Prt, 'Proust et l lnterne mgique de Schopenhuer 1, Revue de Lltterture Conpree, 218 (April-June 1981), ; Anne LonguetMrx, 'Schopenhuer-Proust: L scene moureuse 1, Schopenhuer et l cretion litterire en Europe, ed. Anne Henry (Pr: Meridiens-Klcksieck, 1989), pp Ptrick Grder, Schopenhuer (Hrmondsworth: Pengu, 1963), p Schopenhuer (Oxford: Clrendon Press, 49. Clement Bsset, L'estlque de Schopenhuer tires de Frnce CQudrige', 106), 1989), p. 31. (Pr: Presses Universi- 48. Bryn Mgee, 1983), p The Philosophy 50. Henry, 'Proust du cote de Schopenhuer' ( Henry (ed.), Schopenhuer et l cretion litterire en Europe, pp ), p Schopenhuer et l cretion litterire en Europe, p Proust, p Ibid., p Ibid., p I would lso wnt rgue tht Nietzsche's emphs on gonl bs extence throughout h philosophicl creer, from erly unpublhed essy 'Homer's Vettkmpf (KSA 1, ) through notes for Der Ville zur Xcht beyond, better qulifies him for title 'un penseur qui dmet l lutte comme un mode nturel de I 1 extence 1 thn Schopenhuer, origlity whose conception 'Wille' s fundmentl relity lies precely its unifyg potentilly conflictg rry Plnic Ides, for whom only objectifictions Will re contully t odds with one nor.

253 Henry, Mrcel Proust, p All pge references given m text section which follows re th work. 57. A clim which Henry ctully mkes with respect Proust's response Seilles, whose work, she rgues 'lui revele le systeme dns lequel il v se mouvoir ute s vie, quitte en remenger quelques rticles et revenir, ce qui est ut son merite de penseur, une orthodoxie plus stricte' (p. 86f.>. 58. Arthur C. Dn, Nietzsche s Philosopher (New York: Mcmilln, 1965), pp. 12, 13. Cf. lso p. 229, on ' irresponsibility h style'. 59. Ibid., p. 13. In light such clim, it supremely Ironic tht Dn should more recently round on those who mke it or philosophers: ' good bit writg on Descrtes by wy chivyg h rgumenttion nottions we re cert he would hve dopted hd he lived pprecite ir dvntges, sce it now so cler where he went wrong' ('Philosophy s// Literture', Presidentil Address, APA Estern Divion, 28 December 1983, cited Bernd Mgnus, 'The Use Abuse The Will Power' ( Redg Nietzsche, ed. Robert C. Solomon Kthleen M. Higgs (New York Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988), pp ), p. 219). 60. Cf. Dn, Nietzsche s Philosopher, p. movement reclim him s predecessor'. 14: 'it for [nlytic] 61. Cf. Andrew Bowie, Aestics Subjectivity; From Knt Nietzsche (Mnchester New York: Mnchester University Press, 1990), e.g. p. 236: will power 'little more thn Vitlt replcement Kntin metphysicl position 1 ; p. 246: 'In mny wys Nietzsche sys little tht fundmentlly new on subjectivity: much tht we sw Schopenhuer recurs'. Bowie 1 s fvourite piece reductivm rgue tht Nietzsche's positions re 'not tht fr from' Romntics' (cf. pp. 234, 246, 250). All pge references given m text section which fllows re th work. 62. A dtste which seems, however, be primrily politicl: 'Nietzsche's vion tht petit-bourgeo elitt it hs more thn problemtic subsequent hry' (p. 224). 63. Cf. e.g. p. 247, on how Nietzsche might hve come up with better nswer problem self-consciousness if he hd pid more respect Schleiermcher's view dividulity. Cf. lso Bowie's Schelllng Kodern Europen Philosophy: An Introduction (London New York: Routledge, 1993), p. 181: ' lter Schellg still philosophiclly importnt, precely becuse h voidnce some trps which Nietzsche h precursors, from Schopenhuer Feuerbch, fell, which Nietzsche's successors contue fll'. Bowie follows Henry ignorg Nietzsche's crucil difference from Schopenhuer on question gonl bs extence- 'Nietzsche's "terprettion" C...3 founded on n gontic view nture kd we sw Schopenhuer 1 (Aestics Subjectiv ity, p. 249) - but here, o, he typiclly wnts ssert primcy Schellgin prdigm: 'Schellg demonstrbly [but, ls, undemonstrtedly]

254 -249- sets scene for gontic universes Schopenhuer, ffietzsche, Freud ir epigones' (Schellg Modern Europen Philosophy, p. 13). 64. Henry, Mrcel Proust, p Emblemtic h desire chieve opposite wy which for A l recherche he jettons chpter Jen Snteuil CtL premiere clsse de M. Beulier] 1 : JS ) devoted schoolboy hero's philosophy techer < thly-veiled representtion Drlu - cf. Henry, Mrcel Proust, p. 78). As Tdie comments: 'Ses etudes superieures ne sont plus retrcees, comme si, Id encore, Proust vit voulu fuir 1'ubiogrphic et l tenttion d'une utile trnsposition' (Jen-Yves Tdie, Proust et le romn: Bssi sur les formes et techniques du rown dns A l recherche du temps perdu (Pr: Gllimrd ('Tel 1, 98), 1986), p. 25). 66. Cf. e.g. TR, IV, 459: ' L 1 impression est pour 1'ecriv ce qu'est 1'experimenttion pour le svnt, vec cette difference que chez le svnt le trvil de 1' telligence precede et chez 1'ecriv vient pres.' 67. A metphor which Ifietzsche deed frequently uses when trcg genelogy movement or n ide bck 'soil' from which it emerged Cf. GD, IX, 23, especilly h comments on which it rooted. Cf. lso Kmn, Nietzsche et l noxious plnt Chrtinity (GD, IX, 35). metphore, 2nd edn (Pr: Glilee CDebts 1 ), 1983), pp , Prkes, pp ('Husbg Soul: Vegetl Propgtion'). Criticg Henry's methodology hs fct 68. Tdie, Proust, pp. 209, 210. become somethg fvourite pstime more recent Proust criticm: cf. Pul Ricoeur, 'A l recherche du temps perdu: le temps trverse' ( Temps et recit 2. L configurtion dns le recit de fiction (Pr: Seuil ('Pots', 228), 1991), pp ), p. 250f.; Descombes, pp ; Sheil Stern, Mrcel Proust: Swnn's Vy (Cmbridge: Cmbridge University Press ('Lmrks I shll tret Juli Krtev's objec World Literture'), 1989), p tions below; Compgnon (p. 50n. 1) even quotes Der Fll Vgner rgug tht Henry would turn Proust's novel work decdence: 'Anne Henry, qui tend si ssimiler l Recherche du temps perdu un exercice de philosophic ppliquee, retrouve contre Proust 1'un des griefs formule pr Nietzsche contre l decdence: [...] "le fux-monnyge dns 1'imittion des gres formes"'. 69. Descombes, p Genette, 'Proust plimpseste 1 ( Figures I (Pr: Seuil ('Pots', 74), 1976), pp ), p. 53. The recent fte th importnt sight hs been ll o unfortunte: lthough Dvid R. Ellon, for exmple, cknowledges its importnce openg wy 'reevlution novel's metphoricl prx or productivity 1 (.The hedg Proust (Bltimore London: Johns Hopks University Press, 1984), p. 2), Krgret E. Gry mreferences it Kenymie chez Proust' (Postmodern Proust (Phildelphi: University Pennsylvni Press, 1992), p. 3), Descombes, presumbly becuse it 'uncnnily 1 Insted, susted pre-empts h own rgument, occludes it entirely. polemic gst Genette's position 'Dcours du recit 1, Descombes (p. 78) prefers quote Genette re writg (effectively gst h erlier self)

255 -250- 'vsion [...] du romn pr 1'essi' order quite unfirly debunk Genette's terprettion 'un pot cpitl 1. Genette resttes h erlier position t conference 'Proust et l nouvelle critique 1 (Pr, Jnury 1972) - cf. 'Tble ronde' ( Etudes proustiennes, 2, ed. Jcques Bersni, Michel Rimond Jen-Yves Tdie (Pr: Gllimrd CChiers Mrcel Proust', 7), 1975), pp ), p Mlcolm Bowie pplies sme rgument psychonlytic context: 'we shll be obliged look beyond smooth psychologicl specultions Proust's nrrr, dtrust h msterful voice sk wher n lterntive psychology - more unstble, more dilecticl more dcontuous - my not lso be gred Proust's text' (.Freud, Proust Lcn: Theory s Fiction (Cmbridge: Cmbridge University Press, 1987), p. 71). 72. Jcques Bersni, 'Introduction: Proust perdu et retrouve' ( Les criti ques de notre temps et Proust, ed. Jcques Bersni (Pr: Gmier ('Les critiques de notre temps', 7), 1971), pp. 7-12), p In Mrcel Proust (p. 86), Henry rgues tht Schopenhuer hd fct merely borrowed concept eternl return from Schellg, she refers 'Schopenhuer qui emprunte & Schellg son concept de force, d'eternel reur' (cf. Proust romncier, p. 88: 'Qu'on se rppelle le symbole de l roue qui psse de Schellg Schopenhuer, pu & Nietzsche'). If th wht she mens rgug tht '!'obedience Schellg gouverne I 1 boutsement du romn' (JferceJ Proust, p. 302), n I would certly gree with her, except tht Schellg's mythologicl stge 'rottg movement 1 overcome (cf. Andrew Bowie, Schellg Kodern Europen Philosophy, pp n. 21). Moreover, when Schopenhuer writes: 'Vir konnen die Zeit eem endlos drehenden Kree vergleichen' (Smtllche Verke, 3rd edn, ed. Arthur Hubscher, 7 vols (Viesbden: Brockhus, 1972), II, 329 (Die Welt ls Ville und Vorstellung, I, 54)), th no gr cosmologicl hypos but simply n id conceptulg extensionless present s 'der unilbre Punkt, der die Tngente beruhrt', it Nietzsche who will tke imge seriously, drmtg it section Zrthustr entitled ' Vom Gesicht und Rtsel' (Z, III). Deleuze prepred lk Dionysus Die Geburt der Trgodle with Schellg Schopenhuer (cf. Difference et repetition, 2nd edn (Pr: Presses Universitires de Frnce CBiblioque de philosophic contempore'), 1972), p. 354), but on question eternl return he mkes highly pertent pot: 'Nietzsche oppose "son" hypose 1'hypose cyclique. [...] Comment lui, connseur des Grecs, serit-il fonde estimer s propre pensee prodigieuse et nouvelle, s'il se contentit de formuler cette pltitude nturelle, cette generlite de l nture bien connue des Anciens?' (ibid., p. 14; cf. p. 312f, 'Conclusions: Sur l volonte de pusnce et 1'eternel reur' ( Deleuze (ed.), Nietzsche, pp ), pp ). For Deleuze, eternl return 'cercle ujours deplce' (Difference et repetition, p. 363): cf. Nietzschen 'gr fle' Difference et repetition (pp ); Nietzsche et l philosophic, 7th edn (Pr: Presses Universitires de Frnce CBiblioque de philosophie contempore 1 ), 1988), p. 32f.; Nietzsche, p. 37n. 1; my dcussion eternl return Chpter Cf. Henry, Proust, p. 202, Schopenhuer et l cretion litterlre en

256 ~251Europe, p, Henry, Proust, p Cf. Mrcel Proust, p. 366: 'Pourtnt les dleux sont morts'. For furr prllels with ( non-schopenhuer77. Henry, Proust, p. 266f. in) Nietzsche, cf. lso pp. 84, 104, 111, 174, f. 78. Krtev, pp All pge references section which follows re th work. given m text 79. Cf. Henry's sections on Proust Trde Jfrcel Proust, pp ('Le temps de l sociologie: le kleidoscope 1 ), Proust rowncler, pp CL'enfer des sous-groupes 1 ), Proust, pp ('L sociologie de Trde 1 ). Cf. lso Serge Gubert, Proust ou le rown de l difference (Lyons: Presses Universitires de Lyon, 1980), pp CUne sociologie de l difference: du cot6 de Gbriel Trde 1 ). 80. Cf. Henry, Mrcel Proust, p. 303: 'L Iitterlit6 de Schopenhuer spire poetiques et Jusqu' des trouvilles plus Proust ses phrses les d'ttitude'. 81. Cf. ibid., p. 302f.: 'l seule prtition que Proust dechiffre ici est rttche utes ses vritions il lquelle celle de Schopenhuer personnelles'. 82. Cf. ibid., p. 302: ' S presenttion se de Schopenhuer et de Schellg 1. de l musique v done tenter l syn- 83. Ibid., p Ibid., p Krtev, pp. 324, Cf. Deleuze, Nietzsche et l phllosophie, p. 116f. 87. Philippe Lcoue-Lbr, 'Le deur 1 ( Le sujet de l phllosophie (Typogrphies I) (Pr: Aubier-Flmmrion ('L philosophic en effet'), 1979), pp ), p. 58f. 88. Cf. Pul De Mn, 'Genes Genelogy 1 ( Allegories Redg: Flgurl Lnguge In Sousseu, Nietzsche, Rilke, Proust (New Hven London: Yle Unviersity Press, 1979), pp ), p. 96f. De Mn's position ny cse ctully rdicltion Lcoue-Lbr's rgument tht or erly but unpublhed texts Nietzsche mkes 'deur' vi rheric which, when substituted for music h hierrchy rts, lunches him on h own specific problemttion Schopenhuerin position. 89. Cf. Deleuze, Nietzsche et l philosophic, pp CL 1 evolution de Nietzsche'), Crol Jcobs, 'The Stmmerg Text: The Frgmentry Studies Prelimry The Birth Trgedy1, The Dsimultg Hrmony: The Imge

257 -252 Interprettion Nietzsche, Rilke, Artud, Benjm (Bltimore London: Johns Hopks University Press, 1978), pp Cf. Peter Heller, '"Chemie der Begriffe und Empfdungen". Studie zum 1. Aphorms von "Menschliches, Allzumenschliches I" 1, NSt 1 (1972), , my forthcomg 'Chemicl Solutions: Scientific Prdigms Nietzsche Proust 1, The Third Culture: Literture Science, ed. Elor Shffer (Berl New York: de Gruyter, 1995). 91. Although even while he lter unmskg '"Vsenschft" ls Vorurteil 1 FV 373, he simultneously sketchg out explntions will power terms (presciently reltivtic) physics 'Mchtqunt 1 (cf. KSA 13, ). 92. Cf. Krtev, p. 318: 'Pr 1' termedite de Hrtmnn, de Vgner et de Nietzsche, l pensee de Schopenhuer se propge en Frnce prtir de I It surprg tht Krtev should dopt Henry's dmsive ttitude wrds Nietzsche so unquestiongly here, sce lthough she could hrdly be clssed s Nletzschen thker, she t lest found Nietzsche's erly critique lnguge good del more terestg (if contestble) erlier her creer. Cf. Semeiotike: Recherches pour une semnlyse (Pr: Seuil ('Tel Quel'), 1969), pp. 8n. 1, 91, 93, 160, 163, 249n. 9, Nietzsche epigrphs, pp. 7, 90. All pge references given m text section which follows re Le temps sensible. 93. Juli Krtev, Proust Fber Fber, 1993), p. 97. Sense Time, tr. Stephen Bnn (London: 94. Descombes, pp Ibid., p Cf. lso Mlcolm Bowie, The Morlity Proust, p. 6: 'Abstrct tlk bout vice becomes its own exerce seduction, process mssive trnsvlution vlues my occur.' In Chpter 3 I shll return Elstir 96. Descombes, pp. 276, 278. chrctere him s prdigmtic Nietzschen rtt figure. Introduction II. Jietzsche Proust: Towrds Comprtive Study 1. Murice Rost, 'Quelques lignes propos d'un livre unique', Conoedi, 26 December 1913, Cf. Edmond Jloux, L'Esprit des llvres (Pr: Plon-Nourrit, 1923), p Vilson, p Edith Vhrn, 'Mrcel Proust' ( ner, 1925), pp ), p The Writg Fiction (London: Scrib-

258 Pierre F. Quesnoy, ' Le morlme de Proust 1 (le Rouge et le Nolr, 15 April 1928, 94-98), 98 (cited Mrcel Proust: The Criticl Heritge, ed. Leighn Hodson (London New York: Routledge ('The Criticl Heritge 1 ), 1989), p. 373). 6. Hdus, p. 255f. The pssge he gropg for Z, I, ' Vom Lesen und Schreiben 1, where Zrthustr remrks: ' Ich wurde nur n een Gott gluben, der zu tnzen verstide'. 7. Mcksey, p Pierre V. Zim, L'Indifference Le Sycomore, 1982), p. 48. rojnnesque: Srtre, Xorvl, Cmus (Pr: 9. Cf. ry 'Studied Indifference: A Modernt Topos Nietzsche, Proust Musil 1, New Compron, 15 (Sprg 1993), 62-86, especilly 63n Genevieve Binqu, Nietzsche en Frnce: L 1 Influence de Nietzsche sur l pensee frnclse (Pr: Alcn, 1929). 11. Pierre Boudot, Nietzsche et les ecrlvlns frncls Aubier-Montigne CIO/18 1, 937), 1975), pp (Pr: 12. Cf. my 'Trnslr's Introduction 1 Srh Kmn, Nietzsche Metphor (tr. Duncn Lrge (London: Athlone Press; Stnford: Stnford University Press, 1993), pp. vii-xl), pp. ix-xi. 13. The title 1948). study by H.A. Reyburn (London Hew York: Mcmilln, 14. For Btille, cf. 'Digression sur l poesie et Mrcel Proust', L'experience Interieure (Pr: Gllimrd ('Tel', 23), 1978), pp (f.p. 1943); 'Mrcel Proust et l mere prnee 1, Critique, December 1946; 'Mrcel Proust', L'Arc, 47 (1990: 'Mrcel Proust'), 3-4 (f.p. Critique, December 1948); 'Proust', L lltterture et le ml (Pr: Gllimrd Cldees', For Blnchot, cf. 'L'experience de 128), 1967), pp (f.p. 1957). Proust 1, Fux Ps (Pr: Gllimrd, 1943), pp ; 'L'experience de Proust', le llvre A venlr (Pr: Gllimrd ('Folio ess', 48), 1986), pp (f,p. 1959). 15. Philippe Sellers, 'Le monde u telescope* (Le Nouvel Observteur, 5 July 1971, 41-42), 41; reproduced Mrcel Proust, ed. Jcques Borel (Pr: Pierre Seghers ('tcrivs d 1 Hier et d'aujourd'hui', 39), 1972), p. 174f.>, cited by Jeffrey Mehlmn (A Structurl Study Aubiogrphy (Ithc, NY: Cornell University Press, 1974), p. 63) turn by Rolph Splitter (Proust's Recherche: A Psychonlytic Interprettion (Bosn, London Henley: Routledge Kegn Pul, 1981), p. 121) Ellon (p. 3). 16. Serge Doubrovsky, L Plce de l jodelelne: Proust (Pr: Mercure de Frnce, 1974), p. 21. Zcrlture et fntsne chez 17. Mlcolm Bowie, 'Proust, Jelousy, Knowledge' (London: Queen Mry College, University London, 1978), p. 1 (reproduced Freud. Proust Lcn, p.

259 -25446). 18. Gry, p. 2; ci, lso pp ('Criticm, Violence, Desire 1 ). 19. Cf. Sellers, 'Le monde u telescope' ( Borel), p Neir Bersni nor Tdie clude ny Btille ir selections from previous Proust criticm, both lso publhed 1971 (respectively, Les critiques de notre temps et Proust Lectures de Proust (Pr: Arm Col)): Tdie refers Btille one footnote (p. 144n. 2), s reviewer Fretet's I'lien tion poetlque, even 'Biln critique 1 section h Proust (p. 170f.) he dcusses only L lltterture et le ml. 20. Cf. Georges Btille, Oeuvres completes, (Pr: Gllimrd, ), (identicl) cited by Derrid 'L mythologie blnche: philosophique' ( Mrges de l philosophie 1972), pp ), p. 324n. 59, Kmn 154n. 1. ed. Den Hollier, 12 vols lts essys from volume I l metphore dns le texte (Pr: Muit ('Critique'), Nietzsche et l metphore., p. 21. De Mn, p Ibid., pp ('Rheric Tropes'). 23. Cf. Ellon, p. 97: ' deconstruction possession-tkg t core Proustin nrrtion, or, use terms Pul De Mn, C...3 Recherche s nrrtive form "llegory" th deconstruction'. Cf. lso Leslie Hill, 'Proust Art Redg', Comprtive Criticm, 2 (1980), , Wlter Ksell, Mrcel Proust Strtegy Redg (Amsterdm: Benjms CPurdue University Monogrphs Romnce Lnguges', 4), 1980). Sce Ellon, cf. Hyden White, 'The Rheric Interprettion 1, Poetics Tody, 9/2 (1988), ; feric Blondel, 'Interpretg Texts With Without Nietzsche', tr. Gyle L. Ormn, Trnsformg Hermeneutic Context: From Nietzsche Nncy, ed. Gyle L. Ormn Aln D. Schrift (Albny: Stte University Hew York Press ('Intersections: Philosophy Criticl Theory'), 1990), pp ; Reid. 24. Cf. Derrid, 'L mythologie blnche 1, llof.). 25. Cf. Ellon, pp ('Proustin ity'), especilly pp p. Metphor 258 (lso cited by de Mn, p. Question Redbil- 26. Ellon, p Cf. Jen Rousset, 'Mrcel Proust. A l recherche du temps perdu', Forme et Significtion: Essls sur les structures lltterlres de Cornellle Cludel (Pr: Corti, 1962), pp Derrid, 'Force et significtion', p. 38; cf. pp. 39, 41, 43. All pge references given m text section which follows re th work. 29. For Nietzsche's opposition teleology, cf. Jen-Luc Nncy, 'Nietzsche's

260 -255ed. Thes on Teleology', tr. Peter Connor, Lookg After Nietzsche, erseclurence A. Rickels (Albny: Stte University New York Press ('Int tions: Philosophy Criticl Theory'), 1990), pp mbi30. For more sightful redg th pssge which recognes its vlences, cf. Blnchot, Le llvre & venlr, p. 26f. de 31. Derrid, 'Freud et l scene rence, pp ), p l'6criture' ( L'ecrlture et l diffe 32. Ibid., p de 33. Splitter (p. 29) fct borrows rguments from 'Freud et l scene her 1'ecriture' 'L prole soufflee' order precely weve get Proust, Derrid Freud; Mlcolm Bowie similrly suggests tht one be cn Proust's nrrr's ccounts conscious thought Albertlne dlsprue (Freud, directly compred Freud's 'Wunderblock' model consciousness Proust Lcn, p. 69). 34. Derrid, Donner le temps philosophic en effef), 1991). 1. L fusse monnie (Pr: Glilee ('L 35. Ibid., p. 51f. e36. Cf. Kmn, ffervl, p. 31f. (quotg Proust on Hervl Centre Slntnt Beuve), most recently 'Nietzsche et Wgner: Comment l musique devie she bonne pour les cochons' (Furor, 23 (My 1992), 5-28), 27n. 34, where 1 compres Nietzsche Proust on necessity for rtt 'forget genes work rt. 37. Aprt from Mlcolm Bowie (Freud, Proust Lcn), Doubrovsky, Splitter, cf. lso Jen-Lou Budry, Proust, Freud et 1'utre (Pr: Muit A l 1984); Michel Ermn, L'oeil de Proust: Scrlture et voyeurlsme dns g recherche du temps perdu (Pr: Nizet, 1988); Jerry Ale Flieger, 'Bury The Tresure: Forgettg s Cretive Work Freud Proust' ( ey Psychonlytic Study Literture, ed. Joseph Reppen Murice Chrnt(Hillsdle, NJ: Anlytic Press, 1985), pp ); Hendrik C. Hlberstd, Freud, Freud, Proust, Perversion Love (Amsterdm: Swets Zeitlgerdu 1991); Rob M.J. McKenzie, '"L 1 conscient" Proust's A l recherche rl temps perdu: Nrrril Comment Textul Structure' (unpublhed doc A s, University Cmbridge, 1992); Miln Miller, Nostlgi-, Psychonlytic Study Proust (Bosn: Houghn Miffl, 1956). enne, 38. Kmn, L'enfnce de 1'rt: Une Interprettion de 1'estlque freudl femne: 3rd edn (Pr: Glilee CDebts'), 1985), p. 127f. Cf. L' nlgje de l ic L Femne dns les textes de Freud (Pr: Glilee, 1980), pp , polem gst Rene Girrd's Des choses cchees depuls l fondtlon du monde bien nme Nietzsche Freud Cux yeux buses de Girrd, Proust en sit step plus long que Nietzsche, en ut cs que Freud 1 : p. 74). Tdie goes en furr thn Kmn, rgug: 'le romn de Proust reste, presque seul psychfrnce u XX- si6cle, u formidble bouleversement que Freud et l nlyse font subir l litterture' (Proust, p. 75).

261 Doubrovsky, p Krn, L'enfnce de 1'rt, p. 126, cited Doubrovsky, p Erich Heller, 'Nietzsche's Terrors: Time Inrticulte' ( The Importnce Nietzsche: Ten Essys (Chicgo London: University Chicgo Press, 1988), pp (f.p. Slmgundi, Fll 1985-Vter 1986)), p Literture s 42. Alexer Nehms, Nietzsche: Life London: Hrvrd University Press, 1985). (Cmbridge, MA 43. Ibid., p. xiii; cf. Pter, II, title pge. 44. Nehms, p Richrd Rorty, Contgency, Irony, solidrity (Cmbridge: Cmbridge Nehms cknowledges h dcussions with University Press, 1989), p. 98. Rorty s hvg hd direct berg on Nietzsche: Life s Literture itself (p. ix); Rorty turn devotes whole chpter 'Self-cretion ffilition: Proust, Nietzsche Heidegger' (pp ), tkg Nehms's s s h strtg-pot. 46. Cf. Gry Shpiro, Nletzschen Nrrtives (Bloomgn Indinpol: Indin University Press, 1989), pp ; Aln Vhite, With Nietzsche's Lbyrth (New York London: Routledge, 1990), especilly pp , ; Genevieve Lloyd, Beg In Time: Selves nrrrs In philosophy literture (London New York: Routledge, 1993), pp In th context, but from slightly different direction, cf. lso Robert C. Solomon, 'Introduction: Redg Nietzsche' ( Solomon Higgs, pp. 3-12): 'Nietzsche, like Srtre's Proust, no one or thn net effect h writgs' (p. 10). 47. Krtev, Le temps sensible, p. 312f. 48. Ibid., p. 313n Cf. Henry, Mrcel Proust, p. 89: ' Et si pr un reste de wckelmnnme Schopenhuer utilit le terme d'idees, il 1'entendit son su u rebours de Pln pour designer, 1'oppose d'une essence tellectuelle, les prcipes de production d'un univers mouvnt. ' 50. Cf. ibid., pp. Ill ( prticulrly ptrong dig), 119, 248, Ibid., p Cf. Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, pp Cf. Jen-Pierre Richrd, ('Pots', 208), 1990). Proust et le monde sensible (Pr: Seuil 54. Krtev, Le temps sensible, pp. 307, 311, Cf. Deleuze, Le pll: Leibniz et le broque (Pr: Muit ('Critique'),

262 ). 56. Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, p. 58. All pge references given m text section which follows re th work. 57. Eonld Bogue, Deleuze Guttrl (London ('Critics Twentieth Century 1 ), 1989), p. 38. flew York: Routledge 58. Cf. Deleuze, Spoz et le probleme de 1'expression (Pr: Muit, 1968). 59. Deleuze, Nietzsche et l philosophic, p By strong redg p. 75: ' L'essentlel, c'est l difference Interlorlsee, devenue ijnonente'. 61. Deleuze, Nietzsche et l philosophic, p. 87; cf. p Cf. Deleuze, Difference et I 1 essence de l repetition'. repetition, p. 31: 'Notre probleme concerne 63. Cf. Pul Ptn, ' Anti-Plnm Art', Gilles Deleuze Theter Philosophy, ed. Constnt V. Bounds Doro Olfcowski (New York London: Routledge, 1994), pp Cf. lso Bogue, pp ('Simulcr Ides: Overturng Pl Knt 1 ). 64. Difference et repetition, p. 82 (cited Ptn, p. 143). Cf. lso Deleuze's erlier rticle on Nietzsche, 'Renverser le plnme' (Revue de Xetphyslque et de Morle, 71/4 (Ocber-December 1966), ). 65. Cf. Ptn, pp Krtev, Le temps sensible, p. 308f., citg CSB 394f. 67. Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, p. 112f. Cf. h question 'Qu'est-ce que le corps?' Nietzsche et l phllosophle, which he nswers with sme generltion 'corps': 'Ce qui defit un corps est ce rpport entre des forces domntes et des forces domees. Tout rpport de forces constitue un corps: chimique, biologique, socil, politique' (p. 45). 68. For helpful nlys development Deleuze's thkg on body, from Nietzsche et l philosophic h collbortions with Guttri, cf. Doro Olkowski, 'Nietzsche's Dice Throw: Trgedy, Nihilm, The Body without Orgns', Bounds Olkowski, pp Deleuze, Nietzsche et l philosophic, p. 3 (cf. p. 84f.). Cf. lso JenMichel Rey, L'enjeu des slgnes: Lecture de Nietzsche (Pr: Seuil CL'ordre philosophique'>, 1971), p. 32n. 15; Kmn, Nietzsche et l etphore, pp. 93 (especilly n, 1) , Foucult nunces Deleuze's pot h 'ffietzsche, Freud, Mrx', rgug tht Nietzschen hermeneutics (n endless terprettion) should be opposed semiology 'proper' (which rems nchored sign), lthough strong terms which he couches h rgument (' 1 'herneneutlque et l semologle sont deux frouches ennexles' : p. 192) do not prevent Deleuze himself from cknowledgg its vlidity (cf.

263 -258subsequently o, Brs, 'Conclusions', p. 277). dtction <cf. 'Tble ronde', p. 94). dopts Foucult's 70. Cf. Nietzsche et l wetphore, p Kmn lso nlyses Nietzsche's or 'Egyptin' metphors, mummy pyrmid (pp ). 71. Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, p. 112 (cf. p. 10). 72. Cf. Henry, Proust romncler, especilly p. 5f. 73. Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, p Cf. Nietzsche: 'Gegen den Positivmus, welcher bei dem Phnomen stehen bleibt "es giebt nur Thtschen", wxirde ich sgen: ne, gerde Thtschen giebt es nicht, nur Interprettionen' (KSA 12, 315). Splitter quotes Deleuze's renderg but rgues tht it 'might seem prllel Derrid's critique "1egocentric" fith fl or origl truths' <p. 122) - thus entirely msg Nietzschen tertium comprtlonls. 74. Jen-Frnco Lyotrd, 'Avnt-Propos' (Les immteriux (Pr: Centre Georges Pompidou, 1985)), p. 2. For Lyotrd's reltion Nietzsche, cf. h recent terview with Richrd Berdsworth, 'Nietzsche Inhumn 1, Journl Nietzsche Studies, 7 (Sprg 1994), Deleuze, Nietzsche et l philosophie, pp ; cf. lso Difference et repetition, pp CL' imge de l pensee'). All pge references given 76. Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, p m text section which follows re th work. 77. Kmn deconstructs th opposition by demonstrtg how Nietzsche mnges figure Socrtes even s Jewh (cf. 'Socrte Juif, Socrte(s) (Pr: Glilee ('L philosophie en effef), 1989), pp ) - but n he still ('just') Nietzsche's-Socrtes: 'Nietzsche pr-devnt, Nietzsche pr-derriere et Cchimere] u milieu' (Kmn, Explosion I, p. 25). Only sense th 'Plnic Nietzsche', I would contend, might it be possible beg rgug for 'Plnic Proust'. 78. Cf. Deleuze, Proust et edition'). les signes, p. v ('Avnt-propos de l troieme 79. Gry, p Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, p Cf. Georges Cttui, who cites th title lone s pro Deleuze's nti-plnm h dtnce from Curtius (Proust et ses metmorphoses, p. Although Krtev (erroneously) cites Deleuze's 250n. 8; cf. p. 95n. 10). book s 'Proust et les slgnes, 1964' throughout Le temps sensible, it cler from her pge references tht she ctully usg fourth edition. 82. Deleuze, Proust et les signes, p Deleuze, Nietzsche et l philosophie, p. 71.

264 Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, references given m text work. p. 131 <cf. pp. 10, 81). All pge section which follows re th 85. Cf. KSA 12, 139: Der Wille zur Mcht Interpretlrt' ; KSA 12, 140: 'Mn drf nicht frgen: " wer terpretirt, denn?" sondern ds Interpretiren selbst, ls ee Form des Villens zur Mcht, ht Dse 1. Deleuze glosses both se pssges Nietzsche et l phllosophie <p. 60). 86. Cf. Deleuze Guttri, Muit ('Critique'), 1975). Kfk: Pour une lltterture mlneure (Pr: 87. A development erlier clim: ' Le style n'est ps I'homme, le style, c'est 1'essence elle-meme* (p. 62). Krtev evidently fds th highly provoctive terprettion Proust's style beyond ple, citg Deleuze conjunction with Cele '!'imge cricturle que certs se sont plu donner de Proust' (le temps sensible, p. 252n. 2). Srocchi lso tkes sue with Deleuze on th pot (p. 28), lthough h preferred lterntive ('"le style, c'est I'me"') hrdly seems me dvnce our understg. 88. Wheres Deleuze bses h terprettion spider Kietzsche on section ' Von den Trnteln* Also sprch Zrthustr (Z, II), reds it s metphoricl representtion 'I 1 esprit de vengence' (.Nietzsche et l philosophic, p. 31; Nietzsche, p. 44), he troduces spider A l recherche s metphor for nrrr: 'Le Nrrteur-rignee, dont l ile meme est l Recherche en tr de se fire, de se tlsser vec chque fil remue pr tel ou tel signe: l ile et 1'rignee, l ile et le corps sont une seule et m6me mche' (.Proust et les slgnes, p. 218). The spider th sense textul producer does, however, ccord well with redgs spider Fietzsche put forwrd by Kmn (Nietzsche et l metphore, pp ) Derrid ( perons: Les styles de Nietzsche (Pr: Flmmrion ('Chmps'), 1978), p. 82). Deleuze returns metphor spider Nietzsche, th time context Aridne myth, 'Mystere d'arine selon Hietzsche 1 (Critique et cllnlque (Pr: Muit CPrdoxe'), 1993), pp ), p Cf. redg Proust Gilles Deleuze Felix Guttri, Cpitllsme et schizophrenic: L'Antl-Oedlpe, 2nd edn (Pr: Muit ('Critique'), 1973), pp (but cf. lso Arnud Dleu, Mrcel Proust: S reveltion psychologlque (Pr: Firm-Didot, 1930), pp ('L schizoldie et 1'oeuvre d'rf) ('L schizoldie de Proust')!). 90. Cf, e.g. Bolle, pp ; Rol Brs, 'Proust et les noms 1 ( Le Degr6 zero de 1'ecrlture suivi de Nouveux Essls critiques (Pr: Seuil ('Pots', 35), 1972), pp ), p. 125n. 2; Gbriel Josipovici, The Vorld Book: A Study Modern Fiction (St Albns: Pld, 1973), p. 319; Richrd, p. 178; De Lttre, II, 'Les signes de 1'rt et 1'Essence', notre temps et Proust, pp ; 'L 1 imge Lectures de Proust, pp Bersni (ed.), Les critiques de de l pensee', Tdie (ed.),

265 Bersni, p. 147, 93. Cf. Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, p. 11, Bersni, p. 12. Otters who hve dopted formultion clude Brs (p. 125) Doubrovsky (p. 23), lthough re hs lso been good del restnce redg A l recherche s Blldungsronn-. cf. Blnchot, Le llvre A venlr, p. 26; Srocchi, p. 74; de Lttre, I, 16-19; Ricoeur, p Bersni, p Tdi6 evidently unsettled by 95. Tdie, Lectures de Proust, p Deleuze 1 s ' underhedness 1 not signllg h debt previous criticm: 'ITons que Deleuze, suf dns son dernier chpitre, ne cite ps de critiques: on ne sit done s'il doit quelque chose Poulet, Blnchot (qui n 1 en citent ps non plus d'illeurs), proches de lui & certs egrds 1 (p. 183n. 1). All pge references given m text section which follows re th work. 96. Cf. Krtev, Le tenrps sensible, pp Cf. Tdie's criticm Henry, cited first prt th Introduction. Genette seems shre th dprgg view Deleuze h ilk - ll h writg on Proust he cites Deleuze's study only once, t outset 'Proust et le lngge direct' ( Figures II (Pr: Seuil ('Pots', 106), 1979), pp ), p. 223n. 1; 'Dcours du recit: essi de methode', most exhustive ll structurlt redgs Proust ( Figures III (Pr: Seuil CPoetique'), 1972), pp ), he cites Tdi6 Deleuze more generous copiously while ignorg Deleuze 1 s study entirely. return (cf. Proust et les slgnes, pp. 147n n. 1), lthough ech keen stress h greement with or's terprettion durg 1972 'Tble ronde' (cf. pp. 99, 103f.). 98. Tdie, Proust, p Cf. Deleuze's own clssifiction h work on side cover h Dilogues with Clire Prnet (Pr: Flmmrion, 1977): 'des monogrphies, ou 11 essyit de se donner une methode prticuliere [.,.]; des etudes ou il pensit dvntge prler pour son compte [...]; une collbortion vec Felix Guttri' 'The Signs Mdness: Proust', tr. Constnt Bounds, The Deleuze Reder, ed. Constnt V. Bounds (New York: Columbi University Press, 1993), pp Th especilly puzzlg cse Michel Hrdt's Gllles Deleuze: An Apprentlcsehlp In Philosophy (London: UCL Press, 1993), which Cf. lso specil sue focusses exclusively on Deleuze's erly work. PLI, Deleuze Trnscendentl Unconscious, ed. Jon Brodhurst (Ocber 1992), Bounds Olkowski Cf. Bogue, p. 167n Cf. Andr6 Colombt, Deleuze et l lltterture (New York, Berne, Frnkfurt

266 -261.M. Pr: Lng ('Americn University Studies', 11/132), 1991) Robert Muzi, 'Les complexes et les signes', Critique, 225 (Februry 1966), (cited Bogue, p. 167, Colombt, p. 13) Cf. Colombt, pp CQu'est-ce qu'interpreter? (Proust, Nietzsche) 1 ), especilly pp Cf. lso p. 41 (on Deleuze's 'Le sens des signes est une essence ffirmee dns ute s pusnce'): ' Remrquons ici que "ffirmer" et "pusnce" sont pr dns un sens nietzscheen selon lequel ute volonte de pusnce est volonte d'ffirmer l difference, l pusnce d'un "oui M dionysique centre le "non" hegelien.' 105. Cf. ibid., pp. plnicien 1 ), , 23, 41, 39, 48 ('pour Deleuze, Proust est 106. Deleuze, Proust et les signes, p Cf. Colombt, p. 3: 'Tout est l, des le deprt. [...] II n'y ps d 1 evolution m des selections, des metmorphoses et des reurs tensifs.' 108. Th Bogue's redg, which I shll return Chpter Cf. Colombt, pp CLe present et les deux memoires: (Proust, Bergson)'), Deleuze, Le bergsonwe (Pr: Presses Universitires de Frnce CLe philosophe'), 1966) Cf. Mgnus, 'The Uses Abuses The Vill Power' Cf. Giorgio Colli, Apres Nietzsche, tr. Pscl Gbellone (Montpellier: feclt ('Philosophic imgire', 4), 1987), p. 148f. (' Cittions terdites* ). Chpter 1. Proust's Hietzsche 1. Cf. Binqu, p Cf. ibid., p. lof. 3. Andre Gide, Pretextes: Reflexions sur quelques pots de litterture et de morle, 21st edn (Pr: Mercure de Frnce, 1938), p Cf. Binqu, pp f. ; Frnce" et Henri Albert 1 ). Le Rider, pp. xxxv-xlvi CLe "Mercure de 5. 'Le Cs Vgner, un probleme musicl', tr. Dniel Hlevy Robert Dreyfus, L Societe nouvelle, 15 (Jnury-Februry 1892), ; publhed book form followg yer (Pr: A. Schulz). 6. Cf. KGB HI/5, 419f., 421, 426, 447, 531, 534. letters my forthcomg 'Nietzsche und see memorim Srh Kmn'. I nlyse se or frnzdschen Leser. In

267 Cf. Tdie, Proust, p. 242, Pter, I, Robert Dreyfus, Souvenirs sur Mrcel Proust: Jfrcel Proust (Pr: Grsset, 1926), p. 107f. Avec des lettres Inedltes de 9. Ibid., p. 79f. Dreyfus exggertes with clim tht rticle 'projetit les premieres lueurs qu'on it recues en Frnce sur le philosophepoete', sce pieces by Jen Bourdeu, Eugene de Roberty Teodor de Vyzew hd lredy preceded it <cf. Binqu, p. 4f.). 10. The first sue Le Bnquet (Mrch 1892) hd conted Proust's review 'Un conte de Noel 1 (CSB ). Subsequent sues Journl conted followg pieces: Ho. 3 (My 1892): Dreyfus, 'L philosophie du mrteu' (rticle on Gotzen-D'jnmerung' ); Proust, 'L'irreligion d'fett' (review: CSB ) five 'fetudes' (JS 40f., 41, 42f., 43, 43f.). Ho. 4 (June 1892): FCern] GLregh], 'Vri 1 (review: ). Ho. 5 (July 1892): Proust, three 'fetudes' (JS llof., lllf., 125). Ho. 6 (Hovember 1892): Dreyfus, 'Frederic Nietzsche et Peter Gst 1 (rticle: ); FCern] GCregh], 'Vri 1 (review: ); Proust: ' Tel qu'en songe pr Henri de Regnier 1 (CSB 354f.), two 'fetudes' (JS , 166f.). Ho. 7 (Februry 1893): Proust, 'L conference prlementire de l rue Serpente' (report: CSB ); 'Violnte ou l mondnite' (short sry: JS 29-37). 11. Chrpher E. Forth, 'Nietzsche, Decdence, Regenertion Frnce, ' (Journl Hry Ides, 54/1 (1993), ), Dreyfus Hlevy's publictions Sevue blnche were s follows: August-September 1892: 'Frederic Nietzsche, Frgments', tr. Dniel Hlevy (95-100). November 1892: 'Frederic Nietzsche, Frgments', tr. Dniel Hlevy (25160). Ho. 12, 1897: Dniel Hlevy Robert Dreyfus, 'Frederic Hietzsche: etude et frgments' (57-68: 'Biogrphie de Nietzsche 1, 57-61). Proust's publictions Revue blnche were s follows: July-August 1893: 'Mondnit6 de Bouvrd et Pecuchet' (pstiche: JS 57-62) eight 'fetudes' (JS 46-48, 48-50, 50-53, , 114f., 119f., 120, 120f.). September 1893: 'Melncolique villegiture de Mme de Breyves' (short sry: JS 66-79). December 1893: seven 'fetudes 1 (JS 44, 45, 45f., , , , ). July-August 1896: 'Contre 1'obscurite' (essy: CSB ). 13. The prcipl rticles by Hlevy which ppered durg Proust's lifetime were s follows: 'Nietzsche et Wgner, ' (L Revue de Pr, Hovember December 1897, , ), 'L'enfnce et l jeunesse de Nietzsche 1 (l Revue de Pr, 1 My 1907, ; 15 My 1907, ), 'Nietzsche et 1'Empire llem, ' (L Revue de Pr, 1908), Le trvil du Zrthoustr (Pr: Chiers de l Quze (10/12), 1909 (pmphlet)), 'Mile de Meysenbug et Frederic Nietzsche 1 (.Journl des Defets, 18 August 1909, 3), 'Sur un mi de Frederic Nietzsche' (L'Opion, 10 April 1920, ).

268 -263- nds (Urbn: University 14. Lurent Lesge, Krcel Proust H Literry Frie re', 45), 1958), Illo Press ('Illo Studies Lnguge Litertu Proust: Corresel p. 44. Cf. lso Jen-Pierre Hlevy, 'Introduction 1 Mrc Hlevy (Pr: de pondnce vec Dniel Hlevy, ed. Anne Borrel Jen-Pierre Fllo, 1992), pp mn 1888 (Krcel 15. Cf. lso Proust's sonnet Hlevy ('Pederstie') Autu Proust: Correspondence vec Dniel Hlevy, p. 49). Anne Borel (Pr: 16. Cf. Krcel Proust: Merits de Jeunesse , ed. Mrcel Proust et Institut Mrcel Proust Interntionl Societ6 des Am de (1893): w Le romn de Combry, 1991), pp CUne nouvelle Crolx de Berny pr lettres de Mrcel Proust"').. Cf. Proust's 17. L Vie de Frederic Nietzsche (Pr: Clmnn-Levy, 1909) Proust: Corresel thnk-you letter Hlevy on receipt h copy, Krc pondnce vec Dniel Hlevy, p re Vlltte, Jen18. Albert, ll French trnslrs fter him (Alex Ecce HOJSO entitled Clude Hemery, feric Blondel), trnslte section Even 1922, Proust Vrum ich so wee b' 'Pourquoi je su si sge'. ). still referrg Nietzsche s 'sge' (cf. CMP, XXI, 301f. te-beuve suivi de 19. Bernrd de Fllo, 'Prefce' ( Proust, Centre Sln 1954), pp. 7-50), Nouveux Melnges, ed. Bernrd de Fllo (Pr: Gllimrd, p. 45. Lrk B. Price 20. Cf. Krcel Proust: Textes retrouves, ed. Philip KolbPress, 1968), p. 31 (Urbn, Chicgo London: University Illo (corrected by Clrc Sre t JS 743). icien' (L Revue 21. Teodor de Wyzew, 'Frederic Nietzsche, le dernier metphys bleue, 48 (7 November 1891), ), 592, cited Forth, Cf. Forth, loon. 1. ext ctully 23. Although th remrk tended s criticm, cont Rusk (s well defence Nietzsche who, here g, cited ger with beg tht gret s Goe, Stendhl Tolsy), Proust's overll rgument sionl mjudgewriters should not be dcounted simply becuse ir occ ments (cf. 'Tolsi contre Shkespere', CSB523f.). Alcn, 1898). 24. Henri Lichtenberger, L pnilosophle de Nietzsche (Pr: zsche', L Revue 25. Lichtenberger, 'L Frnce et I'Allemgne Jugees pr Niet de Pr, 1 Ocber 1900, 645. Frnce, 1909). 26. Ecce Homo, Poesies, tr. Henri Albert (Pr: Mercure de ', le Figro, Robert Dreyfus, 'Notes d'un Prien: Qui c, Lemoe? t, p. 245, April 1909, 3. Cf. lso Dreyfus, Souvenirs sur Krcel Prous Pter, II, 122.

269 Cf. Kolb, CMP, IX, 75n. 3, Jen Milly, Les Pstiches de Proust (Pr: Arm Col, 1970), p. 20n Cf. Piitz, p. 71f. 30. After 1904 Proust mkes no furr mention Nietzsche h publhed writgs outside A l recherche, fter 1909 he mentions Nietzsche only twice more correspondence, both times pssg (CHP, XI, 521; XXI, 301f.), lthough side h letter 10 November 1921 Jcques Boulenger does revel extent which by th stge he thks it will be cler tht he not Nietzschen: 'Or dns l derniere ff.r.f. l "Revue des Revues", on cite un Frgment de Sures sur Nietzsche (ou nturellement nl moi ni Germ ne sommes ves!>' (CMP, XXI, 521). 31. Proust's references h or publhed writgs philosophers besides Nietzsche re eqully spordic, for most prt, gesturl. Cf. CSB 392: 'les Knt, les Spoz, les Hegel, ussi obscurs qu'il sont pronds, ne se lsent ps penetrer sns des difficultes bien gres 1 ; CSB 624: 'Et de grs metphysicins purent fire une hire de l philosophie universelle sns prononcer une seule fo les noms bhorres de Leibnitz, de Knt et The two exceptions here re Descrtes, de Hegel, sns compter les utres 1. who merits long footnote 'A propos du style de Flubert 1, where Proust writes tht 'j'essye dns mes romns de me mettre & son ecole 1 (CSB 586n. 1), Knt, with whom he fvourbly compres Flubert: 'Et l revolution de vion, de representtion du monde qui decoule - ou est exprimee - pr s syntxe, est peut-6tre ussi gre que celle de Knt deplcnt le centre de l connsnce du monde dns 1'me' (CSB 299, cf. 586). 32. Cf. Emile Bedriomo, Proust, Wgner et l cocidence des rts (Tubgen: Frr; Pr: Editions Plce C6tudes litterires frnches', 34), 1984); Richrd E, Goodk, 'Proust Wgner: The Climb Octve Above, or, The Scle Love ( Deth) 1, Around Proust (Prcen: Prcen University Press, 1991), pp ; Georges Mre Irene Mecz, Muslqve et structure rownesque dns l Recherche du temps perdu (Pr: Klcksieck, 1972), pp CVteuil et Vgner'); Mrgret Me, 'Proust Wgner*, Journl Europen Studies, 19/3 (September 1989), ; Jen-Jcques Nttiez, 'Prsifl comme modele redempteur de 1'oeuvre redemptrice 1, Proust nruslclen (Pr: Chrtin Bourgo, 1984), pp Frnces Stern goes so fr s juxtpose series extrcts from Du cdte de chez Swnn Prsifl order rgue tht Wgner's oper systemticlly exploited by Proust s source (cf. A Concordnce Proust (London: Adm Books, 1987), pp ). 33. Enrico Gurldo, Lo Specchlo dell differenz: Proust e l poetlc dell Bedriomo glosses th: 'Dns l Recherche (Rome: Bulzoni, 1977), p polemique nietzscheenne, Proust prend le prti nti-decdent de 1'Estme' (p. 18), though how exctly th would mke Proust's position ' nti-decdent 1 Nietzsche's terms moot pot. 34. Le Rider, p. xlii; cf. Forth, The tl for Pl cludes Brichot's reference Symposium (P, III, 786); tht for Pscl cludes nrrr's reference Pensees (AD, IV, 124) St-Loup's llusion Le Xemorll (CG, II, 401); tht for

270 -265Leibniz cludes St-Loup's llusion Mondology (CO, II, 413). 36. Tdie, Proust et le rown, p, 195f. 37. Cf. lso JF, II, 57, Bptt. where Frncoe 38. Cf. especilly SG, III, 438f., where P, III, 786; TR, IV, 371. he compred Pl John Cottrd vie with ech or; 39. These re when St-Loup t Doncieres: 'Sur s tble il y vit des livres de trvil et Alnsi prl fsic7 Zrthoustr' (II, 1126, 1561) t Front durg Vr: 'II lir Asi prllt Zrthustr devnt les Boches et leur siffler le XV- qutuor 1 (IV, 1377; cf. IV, 1249). 40. Here g, Proust exces mteril which would hve furr chrctered her. In JF, 'Esquse XXXVIII 1, we fd description her 'ncesr 1 : ' Mme de Chemey pssit ute s mtee lire des ouvrges tels que les Premiers prcipes d 1 Herbert Spencer, Xtlere et memoire de Bergson et certs ouvrges de Guyu' (II, 914). 41. As Chrlus pots out, though, th does not prevent him from denigrtg Nietzsche cludg him h sweepg nti-germn sttements durg Wr: 'Qu'il s'gse du plus gr Allem, de Nietzsche, de Goe, vous entendrez Cottrd dire: "Avec 1'hbituel mnque de psychologie qui crctere l rce teunne" 1 (TR, IV, 358). 42. Cf. celebrted openg Contr Ste-Beuve: 'Chque jour j'ttche mos de prix 1'telligence' (CSB 211). St-Loup rems ssocited with Nietzsche very end h life: from Front he sends letters nrrr which he does not shrk from mltg rque llusions ' une pge de Rom Holl, voire de Nietzsche' (TR, IV, 334). 43. Cf. II, 1385, Pierre Miquel, L'Affire Dreyfus, 4th edn (Pr: Presses Universitires de Frnce ('Que s-je?', 867), 1968), pp Georges Cttui notes similrity between two nmes 'Robert de St-Loup-en-Bry' ' Bertr de Fenelon' (JfrceJ Proust: Proust et son temps, Proust et le temps (Pr: Jullird, 1952), p. 104n. 1), lthough he lso notes tht syllble shred by 'Alberte', 'Gilberte 1, Proust's friend Edgr Aubert. Jen-Frnc Reille (Proust: Le temps du desir. Une lecture textuelle (Pr: 6diteurs Frnc Reun, 1979)) goes much furr thn Cttui, redg St-Loup s one ciphers for Proust's bror Robert (p. 211) remrkg: 'On est surpr du nombre de ROBERT ou de -BERT- qui enure Proust dns l vie, de tres pres et souvent dns un contexte d'homosexulite', citg nor eight such nmes besides Fenelon Aubert (p n. 1; cf. Jen-Pierre Richrd's 'petit circuit sur les noms' (specificlly ' le groupe br' ) Proust et le monde sensiblet pp n. 3). Serge Gubert (!) tkes th 'jeu de 1'Alphbet' n bsurd extreme: 'Or ne trouve-t-on ps dns le nom du mrqu utes les lettres du prenom de l jeune fille [Alberte]? Et n'est-il ps ennnt que celles qui restent soient precement celles qui, composees, forment le nom Proust? "Robert St-Loup" = "Alberte" + "Proust" 1 CLe jeu de 1'Alphbet' ( Recherche de

271 -266- Proust, ed. Gerrd Genette Tzvetn Todorov (Pr: Seull ('Pots', 113), 1980), pp ), p. 76). To which one cn only reply 'no', for if one dds necessry 'prticule', 'd' rems. I shll not be tempted specultg on wht th '"d"-negtion 1 might signify - for furr onomstic gymnstics on 'd 1 0 dette' letter 'd', cf. Tom Conley, 'The Improper Nme', Cws Nlcole, pp ; on syllble 'BXber(t)' context Proust's 'onomstique orgstique', cf. Al Roger, Proust: Les pllsirs et les noms (Pr: Denoel CL'Inflnl'), 1985), pp , especilly pp Mlcolm Bowie, drwg ttention pssge Le Temps retrouve where nrrr revels tht Lrivieres re only chrcters h novel who re 'gens reels, qui extent' (TR, IV, 424), right voke 'those who would hsten pot out tht such protesttions mselves belong strightforwrdly enough rheric fiction, tht vible work ironic self-construction still gog on here even s irony dclimed' (Tie Morlity Proust, p. 15), for nrrr hs lredy flsified h own ssertion, not only by tesg 'dclosure' identity Chrles Hs s one models for Swnn (P, III, 705), but lso by th erlier epode. Roger Shttuck thus simply wrong climg ( sme pssge which Bowie highlights): 'There nothg like it elsewhere Serch' (.Proust (London: Fontn/Colls CFontn Modern Msters'), 1974), p. 27). In ll three se cses, 'Proust seemgly steps outside confes h own fictionl text' (Bowie, ibid., p. 14) order py homge people h own life for whom he felt prticulr ffection. 46. St-Loup's contued enthusm for Proudhon, s for Nietzsche, pl: he sent rptures when nrrr's grmor mkes him present some origl Proudhon letters (JF, II, 221), subsequently t Doncieres he ssures nrrr: '"Son Proudhon ne me quitte ps'" (CO, II, 372). 47. Cf. R. Hn Thoms, Nietzsche ID Germn Politics Society, (Mnchester: Mnchester University Press, 1983), p. 4: 'Socilm could lern from Nietzsche, one red socilt press; Nietzsche socilm belong ger.' Cf. lso Steven E, Aschheim, The Nietzsche Legcy In Germny, (Berkeley, Los Angeles London: University Cliforni Press, 1992), pp ('Nietzschen Socilm: Left Right'), Seth Tylor, Left-wg Nletzschens: The Politics Germn Expressionm, (Berl New York: de Gruyter ('Monogrph!en und Texte zur NietzscheForschung', 22), 1990). 48. Cf. Le Rider, nietzscheen'). pp. xlix-liii, Binqu, pp CLe socilme 49. Pierre-Andre Tguieff, 'Le prdigme trdltionnlte: horreur de l modern!te et ntilib^rlme. Nietzsche dns l rherique rectlonnire 1 ( Pourquol nous ne sommes ps nletzscheens, ed. Luc Ferry Al Renut (Pr: Grsset CLe College de Philosophic'), 1991), pp ), p Cf. Hlevy, Essl sur le mouvement ouvrler en Frnce (Pr: Societe Nouvelle de Libririe et d'feditions, 1901) L Jeunesse de Proudhon (Pr: Chiers du Centre, 1913). After Proust's deth Hl6vy lso publhed Proudhon

272 ) Le mrige d'pres ses crnets edits ( ?) (Pr: Sequn, Dni el Hlevy H Cf. Al Silver, de Proudhon (Pr: Sck, 1955). c, BY: Cornell Times: A Gentlemn-Commoner Third Republic (Ith two subjects University Press, 1966): 'It no doubt significnt tht course Hlevy's biogrphicl lbors, which he returned repetedly t, Proudhon long writg creer, should hve been Nietzsche rcr who, when seen plebein - two men rdiclly different temperments kg similrities' through Hlevy's biogrphicl prm, pper lked by stritht Hlevy served (p. 75). Philip Kolb entirely overlooks possibility hve been ttrcproust s model for St-Loup, presumes Fenelon must ted by socilm (cf. CMP, XIV, 73n.>. erstion A l 51. For negtive connottions friendship conv I, Le progres spiritul, Bonnet, recherche, cf. especilly CL'mitie'). ip, 'breuvge', 52. The metphor which Proust's nrrr uses here for friendsh Combry (CS, lso pplied voluntry memory-genertg fusion /Y, 1996) I drw on I, 45). In my forthcomg 'Proust's Phrmcy' (Q/W/B/R/Tmcl e de Pln', Derrid's nlys phrwkon Pl (cf. 'L phr ) dcuss L dsemtion (Pr: Seuil ('Tel Quel'), 1972), pp.'s childhood (CS, I, Proust's 'origl' mdelee epode durg nrrr ry (from which 50f.), significnce M. Rp's phrmcy Combry s 'une espece de fusion bought), lter description memo phrmcie' (P, III, 892). sme ve s Proust's erly text 'L'Amltie' (JS 120) very much different oits th pssge Le Cote de Guernntes, though it expldns l chleur de metphor: ' II est doux qu on du chgr de se coucher n d'odeurs dives. son lit [...]. M 11 est un lit meilleur encore, plei e. Qu il est C'est notre douce, notre pronde, notre impenetrble mitl trte et glce, j'y couche frileusement mon coeur.' nur ds Journl des 53. Cf. EH, III, 1 Cich selbst lese, mit Verlub,erch e chrcter who In A l rech Debts 1 ); KGB HI/5, 528, 531, 535, 556. prents every dy sits on Chmps- lysees tlks Gilberte bout hereqully proprierwhile nrrr looks on enviously, Mme Bltln, hs n ses petits-enfnts il feelg wrds Nietzsche's 'Bltt': 'Pendnt quequ'elle ppelit "mes jouient plus lo, elle lit ujours les Debts mtter s mens Proust's use redgvieux Debts1" (CS, I, 390). s books, h chrctertion extends clude newsppers s well (JF, I, 426) lked mentions Journl des Debts re ll but one csereference referred Mme Blt, who fter th first, reltively detiled 398), 'l dme ux simply s 'l vieille lectrice des Debts1 (CS, I, les Debts' (CS, I, Debts' (CS, I, 399), 'l vieille dme qui lit 406). des Debts: se 54. Bourdeu himself lso wrote on Nietzsche Journl ee contempore: vrious rticles were collected Les nsitres de l pens Stendhl, Te, Nietzsche (Pr: Alcn, 1904), pp edition 55. L Vie de Frederic Nietzsche, p. 104; or p. 154f. )) which ll (.Nietzsche (Pr: Le Livre de Poche CPluriel 1, 8307), 1977 furr references re mde.

273 'Je n'dmets les utres que conone dicteurs excitnts [...]. Mensonge de 1'mitie prce que rien dns les utres' (le Grnet de 1908, pp v ). 57. In denigrtg philosophy, Proust turns h bck here on Drlu, h philosophy techer t Lycee Condorcet, whom he hd cited ger with Boutroux, h philosophy pressor t Sorbonne, s h two ' heros dns l vie reelle' questionnire which he completed h twenties <CSB 337), whom he hd referred 1894 s le gr philosophe dont l prole spiree, plus sflre de durer qu'un ecrit,, en moi comme en tnt d'utres, engendre l pensee' (JS 8). Cf. Andr6 Perre, les nnees de college de Xrcel Proust, 5th edn (Pr: Gllimrd ('Voctions', 8), 1959), pp ('Dciple de Drlu ( )'); Bonnet, Alphonse Drlu: Mltre de phllosophle de Mrcel Proust (Pr: Nizet, 1961); Robert Coq, Alphonse Drlu: Presseur de Mrcel Proust (Bordeux: Bergerc, 1963). 58. Even though St-Loup's nme emerges from lter chnge, context rems remrkbly constent: 'vite Prent-Montrg qu'on ne svit ps Pr, comme gie lnpe' (.Le Grnet de 1908, p. 39). Proust contues drw on Hlevy for yers fter Le Grnet de 1908: furr exmple h usg Nietzschen termology expression '"egolsme scre"' which occurs h letters 31 My 1918 Mme Strus (CMP, XVII, 270) 26 Jnury 1920 Jcques Riviere (CMP, XIX, 98), which, s Kolb notes, ws borrowed from Hlevy 1 s (somewht stred) trnsltion h biogrphy term 'Selbstsucht' Nietzsche's lst letter Lou Andres-Slom6 (cf. CMP, X7II, 272n. 6). Cf. lso n. 60, below. 59. Cf. Hlevy, Nietzsche, pp , Criticl Life (London: Qurtet, 1981), p. 128f. Ronld Hymn, Nietzsche: A 60. Cf. letter Pul Mor, 12 April 1920 (CMP, XIX, 206f.): 'Ce qui me desole surut, [...] c'est de voir des gens de 1'telligence de Dniel Hlevy mettre le gout vnt ut, ou du mos ce qu'ils nomment tel, et nier d'vnce ut ce que produent les ges "brbres" (1'djectif est de lui) qui vont venir.' Kolb suggests tht phrse 'ge brbre 1 tken from Hlevy's 1920 rticle on Burckhrdt, 'Sur un mi de Frederic Nietzsche' (cf. CMP, XIX, 208n. 12). 61. Proust lso criticg St-Loup more subtly for beg Vgnerin fshion victim. Not only does nrrr refer 'le romn demode' M. de Mrsntes's extence (JF, II, 92), s we hve seen, but St-Loup himself lso dmses h fr's tste literture '"puque ce qu'il entendit pr litterture se compose d'oeuvres perimees" 1 (JF, II, 93). H enthusm for Wgner, nrrr implies, s shllow s tht shown by Odette ('qui n'etit ps cpble de fire de difference entre Bch et Clpson*: CS, I, 296) seekg hire one Ludwig II's Bvrin cstles for Verdur cln durg Byreuth seson, or enthusm which Proust suspects ws shown by h own clssmtes, who greeted even Wgner's more sipid pieces with dcrimtely rpturous ppluse simply becuse composer ws 'lors honore 1 (CSB 623). 62. Compgnon (p. 46) pots out tht even more cruel, ddg compron Monsieur, Mdne et Sebe version th pssge ws Gustve Drot's comedy mnners

274 Cf. Hlevy, Nietzsche, p Cf. lso KSA 12, 344, 522; KSA 13, 497, 532, 596; Kmn, Le des Julfs: Nietzsche, les Julfs, 1'nt 1 semitue sophie en effet'), 1994), p. 21f, (Pr: Glilee CL philo- 65. Cf. Jen-Pierre Hlevy, p Cf. 'Letter Elbeth Nietzsche, 22 Jnury 1887' (Friedrich Nletzsches Gesxwelte Briefe, ed. Elbeth Forster-Nietzsche, 5 vols (Berl Leipzig, Schuster und Lfler; Leipzig: Insel, ), V/2, 710f.). 67. Nietzsche here tries (vlintly but unsuccessfully) red Prsifl s Vgner's prtg styr ply - Offenbch, s we hve seen, he fds more conducive styrt. Cf. Kmn, 'Nietzsche et Wgner Hlevy, Nietzsche, p. 486f. All pge references given m text section which follows re th work. 69. Cf. EH, III, 'MA 1, 5, Kmn, Explosion II: Les enfnts de Nietzsche (Pr: Glilee ('L philosophie en effet'), 1993), pp ('Croement'). 70. Hlevy, Nietzsche, p In rticle 'Mile de Meysenbug et Frederic Nietzsche 1 he writes: 'II semblit que deux hommes s'ffrontssent en lui, deux genies hostiles qui s'exltient 1'un 1'utre', does Nietzsche no fvours dmsively excusg h 'genie de mensonge' comment by rgug: 'Mile de Meysenbug urit et6 mos severe si elle vit prevu le desstre imment: tro mo pres, Nietzsche etit fou.' 71. Binqu greets Hlevy 1 s 'chrmnt livre 1 (p. 32) with unreserved enthusm; more recent critics hve been decidedly more circumspect. Cf. Michel Espgne, 'Lecteurs juifs de Nietzsche en Frnce uur de 1900' ( De SilsKrl Jeruslem: Nietzsche et le judlsme, Les tellectuels Julfs et Nietzsche, ed. Domique Bourel Jcques Le Rider (Pr: Editions du Cerf CL nuit surveillee'), 1991), pp ), pp ('Le Nietzsche de Dniel Hlevy et des collborteurs du "Bnquet" 1 ), especilly Silver, p. 72f. 72. Kufmnn, p 'Nietzsche's Letters Poem' ( 87; cf, pp Chrles Andler, Nietzsche, s vie ), II, 423. et Solomon Higgs, pp ), p. s pens e, 6 vols (Pr: Bossrd, 75. Cf. Elbeth Forster-Nietzsche, Der elnsme Nietzsche (Leipzig: Kroner, 1922), pp CFreundschft'). In th context (exceptionlly) I would give Elbeth more credit thn does Erich Podch, who dmses '[die] von der Schwester usgehecktec1 Legende vom edlen und idelen Freund Nietzsche, der m schnbden Verhlten seer Freunde so schwer gelitten hbe' (Erich F. Podch, B Bllck Notlzbucher Nletzsches; Ewige Wlederkunft, Ville zur Kcht, Aridne. Be schffensnlytche Studle mit 4 Abblldungen (Heidel-

275 -270For dilectic between friendships berg: Ko, 1963), p. 184). In solitude Nietzsche's life, cf, lso Krl Jspers, Nietzsche. Efuhrung ds Verstn sees Phllosophierens, 2nd edn (Berl: de Gruyter, 1947), pp CFreunde und Esmkeit 1 ), 76. Hlevy, Nietzsche, p Te Fllo, p As Kufmnn pots out (p. 365), Nietzsche shifts th respect from te, position he dopted notes for Die Geburt der Trgodie: 'Ds Hochs dws die bemibte Ethik der Alten erreicht ht, t die Theorie der Freun des schft: dies t gewib e Zeichen eer recht queren Entwicklung ethchen Denkens, Dnk dem Husgeten Sokrtes!' (KSA 7, 25). 79. Leo Berg, cited Forster-Nietzsche, p. 385f. 80. Kufmnn, p Ibid., p. 34n Sedgwick, p All pge references section which follows re th work. given m text 83. Kmn, Explosion II, p Srocchi (p. 78) compres Proust with Nietzsche on precely th pot: l 'Nietzsche et Proust semblent tres proches: us deux refusent l methode,ient pedgogie u sens trditionnel, et lul substituent ce que les Grecs nomm l pidei, c'est-&-dire l culture dns le sens d'une violence fite H pensee. Ce me exclut l pieuse imge du mltre et du dciple'. ze's reference Heidegger, but he seems ctully be prphrsg Deleu Nietzsche et l philosophie, p e en 85. Cf. Derrid, Polltiques de 1'mitie (Pr: Glilee ('L philosophi et effet'), 1994), especilly pp ('Aimer d'mitie: peut-6tre - le nom 1'dverbe 1 ) CCette "verite" folle: le juste nom de I'mitie'). see 86. Cf. lso MA, II, 231, 241, 242, 252: ' Sllentlum. - Mn drf uber In Freunde nicht reden: sonst verredet mn sich ds Gefuhl der Freundschft'. r 'Nchspiel' First Book Menschliches, Allzumenschliches, 'Unte Freunden1, 'Schon ts, miteer schweigen 1 immeditely modultes 'Schoner, miteer lchen 1, but only becuse lughter bres teeth. 87. Kufmnn, p wide 88. The question 'eduction' Nietzsche hs been ddressed from ure" vriety criticl perspectives. Cf. Kmn, 'Le/les concept(s) de "cult scene dns les Intempestives ou l double dsimultion', Nietzsche et l E. philosophique (Pr: U.G.E. ('10/18', 1349), 1979), pp ; Dvid n: Cooper, Aunticity Lerng: Nietzsche's Eductionl Philosophy (Londo de Routledge Kegn Pul, 1983); Derrid, Obiogrphies: L'enseignenent Nietzsche et l politlque du nom propre (Pr: Glilee ('Defets'), 1984);

276 -271Lurence Lmpert, Nietzsche's Techg: An Interprettion Thus Spoke Zrthustr (flew Hven London: Yle University Press, 1986), especilly pp ('Conclusions: Nietzsche s Educr 1 ); Richrd Schcht, Mkg Sense 1 Zrthustr/2rt ustr s Educr', forthcomg Nietzsche (Urbn: University Illo Press, 1995). 89. Cf. Becfcett, p. 64f.; de Fllo, p. 41; Reid. Descombes likens St-Loup 'Nietzsche et les utres pnegyrtes de 1'mitie' (p. 303), but he t lest cknowledges tensions Nietzsche's position when he writes tht 'St-Loup, en bon tellectuel lecteur de Nietzsche [...], conceit lui ussi le sens de l vie comme & trouver dns l reltion d'un soi dividuel' (p. 299). 90. Jmes Joyce, Dublers (London: Grnd, 1977), p Deleuze, Proust et les signes, p. 116; cf. p. 41. Bogue notes tht 'Deleuze brgs Proust closest Nietzsche [...] h nlys Proust's reltion philosophy' (p. 44f.); cf. lso Colombt, pp ('L critique de I 1 telligence, de l bonne volont6 et de 1'mitie'). 92. Xrcel Proust et Jcques Riviere: Correspondnce ( ), ed. Philip Kolb (Pr: Plon, 1955), p. 67 (1, 2, 3 December 1919). Cf. Le Grnet de 1908, p. 39, Cttui, L'Amitie de Proust, 4th edn (Pr: Gllimrd ('Les Chiers Mrcel Proust', 8), 1935), p Cf. Bonnet, 'L'mour de Proust pour Bertr de Fenelon', Les mours et l sexulite de Xrcel Proust (Pr: Nizet, 1985), pp For Proust Hlevy's tellectul differences, cf. Lesge, p. 45, Jen-Pierre Hlevy, pp The ltter rgues tht two men hd more common thn y cknowledged, he stresses tht ( ory t lest) y both shred dtrust tellect (p, 10); Richrd ttcksey even mnges compre Proust with Hlevy's (or) hero Proudhon (p. 108). 95. 'Entre ces deux grs esprits, m lors si jeunes, que s'est-il psse de si fort pendnt leurs nnees communes ( ) u lycee Condorcet qu'ils ne 1'oublieront jm, mlgr6 utes leurs differences, us leurs eloignespecultion side, one cn t lest ments? 1 muses Jen-Pierre Hlevy (p. 9). chrctere ir reltionship s 'Sternen-Freundschft 1 Nietzsche's sense: 'Vir wren Freunde und sd uns fremd geworden. Aber ds 1st recht so, und wir wollen's uns nicht verhehlen und verdunkeln, ls ob wir uns dessen zu schmen htten. [...] DB wir uns fremd werden misen, 1st ds Gesetz tiber uns: eben ddurch sollen wir uns uch ehrwiirdiger werden! Ebenddurch soil der Gednke n unsere ehemlige Freundschft heillger werden!' (FV 279).

277 Chpter 2. Eptenoptlcs: Proust's Perspectivlsm 1. Descombes, p. 47. Th clim lter strengned - 'l Recherche [...] est, pour reprendre les propres termes de Proust, un romn perspectivte' (p. 225) - but here Descombes goes o fr, sce Proust himself never used term. 2. Genette, 'Dcours du recit', p Genette refers h reder footnote Michel Rimond's L re du rown: Des lendems du Nturlms ux nnees vgt (Pr: Corti, 1966), pp , lthough, like Proust, Rimond does not ctully use term 'perspectivme'. 3. Nehms pots out tht term ws ctully coed by Nietzsche's Bsel collegue Gustv Teichmuller h Die wirkliche und die schebre Welt 1882 <cf. 'Immnent Trnscendent Perspectivm Nietzsche' (JKS*, 12 (1983), ), 474 n. 7), deed 'Perspektivmus' does not occur Nietzsche's writgs until fter he reds Teichmuller 1883 <cf. KSA 10, 292, 310, 528, 590). The vocbulry 'perspective' still bsent from (ll four prts ) Also sprch Zrthustr ( ); from Sprg 1884 Nietzsche's notebooks beg feture terms 'Perspektiven' (KSA 11, 38, 57), 'Perspectiv-Apprt 1 (KSA 11, 99) 'perspektivch' (KSA 11, 146f.), lthough for bstrct noun he fvours 'ds Perspektivche' (KSA 11, 639; 12, 188; MA, I, 'Vorrede 1, 6; GT, 'Versuch eer Selbstkritik', 5), it not until lte 1886/erly 1887 tht he begs write 'Perspektivmus' (KSA 12, 303). Notbly, one first stnces term (KSA 12, 315) enclosed verted comms, Nietzsche's remrk t FV 354 ("Dies t der eigentliche Phnomenlmus und Perspektivmus, wie ich n verstehe') would suggest tht it lredy hd some currency when we ws writg (1887). However, it undoubtedly Nietzsche's work which gve term its wider currency Germny (it does not occur Grimm when relevnt volume Deutsches Vorterbuch publhed 1889), it through trnsltions Nietzsche tht, s 'perspectivm', 'perspectivme', 'perspectivmo' (etc.), it pssed or Europen lnguges. Thus first cittion for term 'perspectivm' OBD from Thoms Common's 1910 trnsltion FW 299; 'perspectivme' defed Dictionnire hrique de l lngue frnce (ed. Al Key (Pr: Dictionnires Le Robert, 1992), p. 1489) s follows: 'terme de philosophie (1913), est emprunte 1'llem Perspectivmus (chez Nietzsche)' ( dte 1913 here ctully rr lte, given tht Henri Albert's trnsltions GM (1900), FV (1901), JGB (1903) ll cme out t lest decde erlier). 4. Doubrovsky, p To cite only most notble exmples, cf. Lou Mrt-Chuffier, 'Proust et le double "je" de qutre personnes 1, Confluences, 3 (July-August 1943), 55-69; Brin Rogers, Proust's Nrrtive Techniques (Genev: Droz, 1965); Mrcel Muller, Les voix nrrtives dns 'L recherche du temps perdu' (Genev: Droz, 1965); Rimond, pp ('Les significtions du pot de vue'); Tdie, Proust et le romn, pp ('Pot de vue et perspectives'); Genette, 'Dcours du recit', pp Roger Allrd, ' Sodome et Gomorrhe ou Revue Frnce, 1 June 1922, 644f. Mrcel Proust morlte', Nouvelle

278 Cf. especilly Cmille Vettrd, 'Proust et Este', Nouvelle Revue Frnclse, 19 July 1922, 'A propos de Proust 1 ( Du cqte de chez... Vlery Peguy * Rem Roll - Proust - Glde - Brres <fr Soury - Srtre - Bend Nietzsche (Pr: Tete Noire, 1946), pp ), pp (Although ltter book lso conts 'Digression sur Nietzsche 1 (pp ), no lks with Proust re mde.) Cf. lso Wilson, pp. 133f. 153, more recently John D. Erickson, 'The Proust-Este Reltion: A Study Reltive Pot View', Mrcel Proust: A Criticl Pnorm, ed. Lrk B. Price (Urbn: University Illo Press, 1973), pp Curtius's essy ws first publhed Frnzo7. Curtius, pp. 113, 116. slscher Gelst 1m neuen Europ (Stuttgrt: Deutsche VerlgsAnstlt, 1925), pp Cf. Jos6 Orteg y Gsset, Obrs Complets, Revt de Occidente, 1963>, II, 18-19n Mrcel Proust, tr. Arm 1928). Pierhl (Pr: 6th edn, 11 vols (Mdrid: Editions de l Revue Nouvelle, 10. Beckett, p Ibid., p. 85. One should perhps sy tht Bolle's n ostensibly 12. Bolle, p. 30. Leibnizin Proust, for I shll show next chpter tht, like Henry, he drws Nietzschen prllels t importnt stges h rgument. 13. Cf. Henry's two chpters on ' Le perspectivme nrrtif', Proust (pp ) Schopenhuer et l cretion lltterlre en Europe (pp ). 14. Roger Shttuck, Proust's Boculrs: A Study Memory, Time, Recognition In A l recherche du temps perdu (London: Cht Vdus, 1962), p Cf. Kmn, 'Nietzsche: L chmbre des petres 1, Cmer obscur: de 1'ldeologle (Pr: Glilee ('L philosophie en effet'), 1973), pp Aprt from works by Shttuck, Bolle firmn lredy cited, cf. lso Howrd Moss, The Mgic Lntern Mrcel Proust (London: Fber Fber, 1963), Dvid Mendelson, Le verre et les objets de verre dns 1'unlvers imglnlre de Mrcel Proust (Pr: Corti, 1968). 17. Frnc Bcon, 'Of Truth' ( Essys, ed. Ernest Rhys (London: Dent; New York: Dutn ('Everymn's Librry', 10), 1906), pp. 3-5), p. 3. For Nietzsche Bcon, cf. Lurence Lmpert, Nietzsche Modern Times: A Study Bcon, Descrtes, Nietzsche (New Hven: Yle University Press, 1993), Bernd Mgnus, Stnley Stewrt Jen-Pierre Mileur, Nietzsche's Cse: Philosophy s/ Literture (New York London: Routledge, 1993), pp In Bible relevnt pssge for lter quition scene with Pilte ctully runs: 'Jesus nswered, C...3 for th cuse cme I Every one tht world, tht I should ber witness un truth.

279 -274- truth hereth my voice. Pilte sith un him, Vht truth?' (John ). Cf. KSA 12, 381: 'se CPiltus'] Ekel Hsicht uf jenes nie genug zu verurilende Vort "ich b die Vhrheit"'. 19. Cf. KSA 12, 381: * Plltus die ezige honnete Person Cim neuen Testment], se ded vor diesem Juden-Geschwtz von "Vhrheit", ls ob solch Volk mitreden diirfte, wenn es sich urn Vhrheit helt Cf. KSA 13, 207: 'Erster Edruck des neuen Testments. Mn nimnrt Prtei fur Piltus und dnn, behe, fur die Schriftgelehrten und Phrer'. Cf. lso Kmn, Explosion I, p. 47f.: 'Ponce Pilte le Rem est 1'ncetre de Nietzsche: en posnt l question sceptique, il rend possible et prepre l question genelogique. [...] L'terrogtion sceptique de Ponce Pilte engendre, en un mot, 1'Antechrf. 21. Cf. Kmn, metphore'). Nietzsche et l etphore, pp CL'oubli de l 22. Alln Megill wrns gst redg th essy simple Kntin terms, though: 'Knowledge not for Nietzsche oreticl comprehension relity, s Knt, but rr n entirely self-conted set nthropocentric illusions' (.Prophets Extremity: Nietzsche, Heidegger, Foucult, Derrld (Berkeley, Los Angeles London: University Cliforni Press, 1985), p. 53). The debte surroundg 'uber Vhrheit und Luge' hs been extensive tense, especilly recent Americn criticm. It ws Dn who first red Nietzsche's ccount nihilm s ' highly drmted rejection Correspondence Theory Truth 1 (p. 33), focussed on 'uber Vhrheit und Luge' s contg n nswer 'tht he never sw fit modify ny essentil respect' ' old, cynicl question, Vht truth? [...] tht occupied him throughout h entire philosophicl life' (p. 38). John T. Vilcox ('Nietzsche Scholrship "The Correspondence Theory Truth": The Dn Cse 1 (NS, 15 (1986), )) rejos tht ' Correspondence Theory Truth' itself, s Dn defes it (or, more precely, fils defe it) ultimtely mystificry, lthough I m more greement with Mudemrie Clrk (Nietzsche on Truth Philosophy (Cmbridge: Cmbridge University Press ('Modern Europen Philosophy'), 1990), pp ) tht 'uber Vhrheit und Luge 1 subscribes 'metphysicl correspondence ory 1 which Nietzsche lter rejects. As will become pprent course th chpter, however, I dgree strongly with Clrk1 s clim (p. 134f.) tht Nietzsche's perspectivm cn be clssed s just nor, weker ('miml', 'neokntin') kd 'correspondence ory' - clim which Brin Leiter hs recently echoed ('Perspectivm Nietzsche's Genelogy Korls', Nietzsche, Genelogy, Korlity: Essys on Nietzsche's Genelogy Morls, ed. Richrd Schcht (Berkeley, Los Angeles London: University Cliforni Press, 1994), pp ). The ccount reltion between 'uber Vhrheit und Luge' Nietzsche's lter work with which I m most greement tht given by Aln D. Schrift, who rgues tht 'strtegy lgutic deconstruction mkes up n essentil spect Nietzschen trnsvlution' (Nietzsche Question Interprettion: Between Herneneutlcs DeconstructIon (New York London: Routledge, 1990), p. 141). 23. Nietzsche's term 'usuell 1 vites th gloss, sce It itself highly

280 -275uusul word for 'usul' Germn, re remrkble similrity here with pssge Du cdte de chez Swnn where Proust's nrrr reflects: 'Les mots nous presentent des choses une petite imge clire et usuelle 1 (CS, I, 380). For lk between 'use', 'usury* metphor effced effigy, cf. prticulr openg Derrid's 'L mythologie blnche'. 24, On chos flux world, cf. lso VS 11; FV 112, 277, 322. Heidegger, Heidegger-spired Nietzsche terpreters, hve mde much Nietzsche's 'onlogy' chos: cf. Heidegger, Nietzsche, 2 vols (Pfullgen: Neske, 1961), I, , ; Jen Grnier, 'L pensee nietzscheenne du chos', Revue de Xetphysique et de Morle, 76/2 (1971), , Nietzsche, 3rd edn (Pr: Presses Universitires de Frnce CQue s-je?', 2042), 1989), pp CLe texte et le chos'). 25. For Nietzsche's reltion nturl sciences, cf. Ann! Anders, 'Jietzsches Verhltn zu den Nturwsenschften den Jhren 1872 b 1875', Krl Schlecht Anni Anders, Frledrlch Nietzsche. Von den Cnnsttt: (Stuttgrt-Bd Phllosophlerens sees verborgenen Anfngen Friedrich Frommnn, 1962), pp , Bbette E. Bbich, Nietzsche's Philosophy Science: Reflectg Science on Ground Art Life (Albny: Stte University New York Press ('The Mrgs Literture'), 1994). 26. On Nietzsche's replcg question 'wht?' by question 'who?', cf. Deleuze, Nietzsche et l phllosophle, pp ('L formule de l question chez Nietzsche') Hrdt, p. 30f.; Foucult, 'Nietzsche, Freud, Mrx', p. 191f. Les jzots et les choses: Une rcheologle des sciences huxolnes (Pr: Gllimrd CBiblioque des sciences humes'), 1966), p. 316f.; Kmn, Nietzsche et l metphore, pp Cf. 'deconstructive' (fluxt) position which Socrtes temporrily dopts Pl's Theetetus (157-b): 'nothg Is its own right, but The verb " be" should be deleted lwys beg generted some reltion. from ll contexts, despite fct tht hbit ignornce ten force us employ it' (tr. Rob A.H. Vterfield (Hrmondsworth: Pengu, 1987), p. 40). Cf. lso 28. Grnier, 'L pensee nietzscheenne du chos', 132f., , pp. Blondel, 'Interpretg Texts Vith Without Nietzsche', Johnn Figl, Interprettion ls phllosophlsches Prlnzlp. Frledrlch Nletzsches unlversle Theorle der Auslegung 1m spten JfchlB (Berl flew York: de Gruyter ('Monogrph!en und Texte zur Nietzsche-Forschung', 7), 1982). 29. Cf. Kmn, Nietzsche et l metphore, p Ibid., pp. 90, 121f., 143f. 31. Philippe Lcoue-Lbr, 'The Response Ulysses', tr. Avitl Ronell ( Who Comes After Subject?, ed. Edurdo Cdv, Peter Connor Jen-Luc Fncy (New York London: Routledge, 1991), pp ), p Cf. Richrd Schcht, Nietzsche (London: Routledge Kegn Pul, 1983), pp ('The ory ffects') Dvid Owen, 'Nietzsche's squered seductions: Femm, body politics genelogy' ( The Fte

281 -276- (Aldershot New Nietzsche, ed. Keith Ansell-Person Howrd Cygill pp ('A Brookfield, VT: Avebury, 1993), pp ), especilly perspective ory ffects'). Nehms, pp. 34. Cf. Splitter, pp thkg'). CXrcel 33. Cf. KSA 12, Life'). 550, ('Untruth Vonderl, s Condition or logic mgicl regrdg both 35. For dpellg nrrr's 'illusion semntique' ge direct', personl geogrphicl nmes, cf. Genette, 'Proust et le lngmens httnt pp Just s Nietzsche uses etymology s n impor concepts <GK, oriclly ('genelogiclly') reltivg morl metphysicl expose h ies I, 4-5; KSA 11, 613), so Proust uses competg etymolog de Combry's nrrr's erlier illusion, when ppropriteness cure reltived by etymologies Du cdte de chez Swnn (CS, I, ) plce-nmes Brichot's lterntive versions Sodowe et Gomorrhe for region round Blbec (SG, III, ). voit, qu'u36. For Proust Beckett, cf. Doubrovsky, pp ; 'Qui ne del& de Proust, tnte Leonie enfnte Beckett?' (p. 99). generl s 37. Deleuze chrcteres Nietzsche's ' n&thode trglque1 89), 'methode de drmttion' (Nietzsche et l philosophic, p. '1'ffite preme Kmn's Nietzsche et l scene philosophique rique 1 (p. 11). essentielle, perdue pr Nietzsche, entre le tre et le ob Versuch i/ber Cf. lso Peter Sloterdijk, Der Philosoph uf der Buhne, ('Edition Nletzsches dionyschen Mterilmus (Frnkfurt.)f.: Suhrkmp Suhrkmp', 1353), 1986). se Schtten 38. 'A 1 'B' mke ir first ppernce Der Verer und e's next two (VS 71, 90), y return feture promently Nietzsch 3; FW 93, 172, texts (cf. M 226, 232, 234, 255, 465, 472, 477, 483, 485, The fluence Chmfort's 'petits dilogues 181, 190, 255, 262, 320). cf. Chmfort, philosophiques 1 would seem be prticulrly strong herees,- crcteres et Prodults de l civiltion perfectlonnee: Xximes et pense Cf. lso necdotes (Pr: Grnier-Flmmrion CGF', 188), 1968), pp. prodic ctechms t FV GD, IX, Asi prlit Zrthoustr, dpttion pour l scene Brrult, tr. Arthur Goldschmidt (Pr: Gllimrd, 1975). de Jen-Lou : 'In Norden 40. Cf. lso 'Lieder des Przen Vogelfrei' poem ' Im Suden 1 dern: I "Die ich gestehs mit Zudern - I Liebt ich e Veibchen, lt zum Schu Vhrheit" hiefi dies lte Veib'. books 'Symposion' figures Nietzsche's lt h most-red (Munich: Hnser, (Friedrich Nietzsche: Werke, ed. Krl Schlecht, 3 vols sket ch from 1864, 1956), III, H2), 'Me Leben', h ubiogrphicl he refers it s h 'Lieblgsdichtung 1 (ibid., Ill, 118). sche: "Qui" 42. Cf. K mn, Socrte(s), pp CLes Socrte(s) de Nietz

282 -277est Socrte?'). cl enquiry, 43. On key importnce jelousy s spur eptemologl (London, Oxford cf. Leo Bersni, Xrcel Proust: The Fictions Life Art('The Anguh Few York: Oxford University Press, 1965), pp Knowledge'. Inspirtion Jelousy') Mlcolm Bowie, 'Proust, Jelousy, 44. Tdie, Proust, p. 92; cf. Shttuck, Proust, p st's Metphors 45. For Proust's scientific metphors, cf. Reo Virtnen, 'Prou 59; Vicr E. from Nturl Exct Sciences', PXLA, 69 (1954), 1038 Style', 2), Grhm, The Jjgery Proust (Oxford: Blckwell ('Lngugemetphores scien1966), pp ; Cttui, 'Proust et les sciences: Les In my tifiques de Proust', Proust et ses metmorphoses, pp. both Proust 'Chemicl Solutions', I hve ttempted demonstrte tht for re ultimtely metphors privileged scientific most Nietzsche (l)chemicl. one h very 46. No stronomer mentioned by nme Proust's novel, but from Mrch 1886 first literry productions, schoolboy essy 'L 1 eclipse' Columbus, it (CSB ), tells sry figure der Nietzsche, stronomer, tht Columbus's knowledge s scientt, specificlly s ncf. Mrie MiguetProust chooses mke essence h herom, ', Etudes Ollgnier, 'Chrphe Colomb, h6ros mythique d'un pprenti ecriv my 'Nietzsche frnclses, 28, 2/3 (Autumn 1992-Vter 1993), , Alth ough Nietzsche Figure Columbus', forthcomg NS, 24 (1995). h stronomer denounces ll 'ologche Astronomic' (GM, III, 25), Pol UB, III, 6; Copernicus rems n importnt identificry figure for him (cf. ssert JGB 12) s he seeks emulte Knt's 'Copernicn Revolution*II, pp h own descent from Polh nobility (cf. Kmn, Explosion CUne genelogie fntstique')). nrrr's 47. Cf. Genette's nlys th pssge terms ', p. 155). 'recherche ngosee d'une loi de recurrence' CDcours du recit pp CLe 48. Cf. Gubert, Proust ou le romn de l difference, cil ly p. 264f. espe d'optique'), romncier stronome: ses struments CL' telligence et l loi'). d'hdrien'). 49. Cf. Bolle, pp CLe jrd de l Rspeliere ou l vill, Nietzsche: 50. Cf. Dvid Luke, 'Nietzsche Imgery Height 1, pp Ijngery Thought, ed. Mlcolm Psley (London: Methuen, 1978) ersion ofor relted imgery flight, cf. lso Kmn, 'Bubd: Pervpp ), logique et Fetichme' ( Nietzsche et l scene phllosophlque, pp Revue Critique 51. Cf. Rmon Fernez, Proust (Pr: Editions de l Nouvelle mir Nbokov, CA l gloire de...'), 1944), p. 39; Rousset, p. 142; Vldi ture, ed. Krcel Proust: The Vlk by Swnn's Plce' ( Lectures on Liter Fredson Bowers (London: Pn, 1980), pp ), p rse 1 ); Vlerie 52. Cf. Shttuck, Proust, pp ('An Overdetermed Unive

283 -278- Mogue, Proust: Du cdte de chez Swnn (London: Edwrd Arnold, 1973), pp ('Superimposition frmes'); Krtev, pp CSurimpressions 1 ). 53. Cf. Genette, 'Proust plimpseste', Alberte 1 ). Ksell, pp ('The Textulity 54. Schopenhuer, VI, 50 (Prerg und Prllpomen, II, 33). 55. For Proust's similr use Gry, pp imgery 'lgebr' th context, cf. 56. For structurl importnce 'lw 1 version A l recherche, cf. Brs, Une idee de recherche', Genette Todorov, pp For timte reltion between 'version', 'perversion 1 'renversement' Nietzsche, cf. Kmn, 'Bubo'. 57. Cf. similr epode where she expresses doubt over wher she will go Trocdero, nrrr's subsequent meticulous dsection For dcussion Proust's use stges her lie (P, III, ). economie de 1'ecriture' Sussure 'une context 'ngrmme' here In Freud, cf. Jen-Michel Key, Prcours de Freud: economie et dlscours (Pr: Glilee ('Digrphe'), 1974), pp For comprehensive redg Proust's phogrphic metphors, cf. Stephen C. Infnte, Phogrphic Vion Proust (Hew York: Lng ('Currents Comprtive Romnce Lnguges Litertures', 6), 1992), especilly pp CProustin Phoghosts') ('Opticl Inversion'). 59. Cf. Kmn, Nietzsche et l n&tphore, pp ('Avoir mille yeux'), Nietzsche et l scene phllosophlque, pp CMultipliez vos yeux'). 60. Cf. my 'Studied Indifference' for more extended dcussion th note It ppended h context Nietzsche's reltion Sicm. first sketch for book on 'Die Wiederkunft des Glelchen', Dvid Frrell Krell dcusses it h illumtg nlys problemtic sttus Cf. h forthcomg 'Eternl Recurrence 'ds Gleiche' whole notebook. - Sme? A Redg Notebook M III I 1, Infectious Nietzsche (Bloomgn Indinpol: Indin University Press, 1995). 61. Cf. PTZ 8; Z, I, 'Von den drei Verwlungen'; Kmn, Nietzsche et l n&tphore, p Cf. Friedrich Schiller, 'uber nive und sentimentlche Dichtung 1, Smtllche Verke, ed. Helmut Koopmnn, 5 vols (Munich: Wkler, 1968), V, For 'Spieltrieb', cf. 'uber die stche Erziehung des Kenschen 1 (V, ). For Nietzsche Schiller, cf. Helmut Rehder, 'The Reluctnt Dciple: Nietzsche Schiller 1, Studies Nietzsche Clssicl Trdition, ed. Jmes C. O'Flherty, Timothy F. Sellner Robert M. Helm (Chpel Hill: University North Crol Press ('University North Crol Studies Germnic Lnguges Litertures', 85), 1976), pp , Schcht, 'Zrthustr/ZrtJiustr s Educr'. 63. Cf. Bed Allemnn, Ironie und Dichtung, 2nd edn (Pfullgen: Neske, 1969),

284 -279p Curtius, p. 112f. All pge references section which follows re th work. given m text 65. Cf. Krl Lbwith, 'Nietzsche et s tenttive de recupertion du monde 1, tr. Arion L. Kelkel, Deleuze, pp Beckett, p Ibid., p. 85f. Cf. lso Shttuck (Proust, pp ), who trets th scene s prdigmtic illustrtion Proust's 'comic vion'. 68. For terprettions Proust's perspectivtic method light Cubt estics, cf. Clude Gelmn, 'Proust s Cubt 1, Art Hry, 2/3 (September 1979), , Luc Frse, Le processus de l cretion chez Mrcel Proust: Le frgment experimentl (Pr: Corti, 1988), pp , Bolle, p Cf. lso Georges Poulet, L'espce proustlen (Pr: Gllimrd ('Tel 1, 68), 1982), p. 110: 'Alberte decuplee, multipliee, c'est Alberte dprue Descombes, p Shttuck mnges clim tht th pssge 'hs desperte rg 1 (Proust, p. 105), tht it illustrtes cert (hopeless) 'pthos self (p. 106). I would rgue, rr, tht it illustrtes more positive Nietzschen possibility 'pthos self-dtnce 1. Chpter 3. In Serch Self 1. For 'politics soul 1, cf. Thiele, especilly pp ('The Soul s Plurlity'), Pries, especilly pp ('Orderg Psyche Polytic 1 ). 2. Nietzsche returns question 'egom1 periodiclly throughout erly 1880s (cf. KSA 9, 513f., 528, 557f.; FW 14, 162), but cresgly period , where pssges such s ' Gescblchte der Vermorllslrung und Entmorllslrung* t KSA 12, (cf. KSA 12, 319, 349) re by now preprry stges for h gr critique so-clled 'unegotic ctions' h nlys scetic idel Zur Genelogle der Morl (cf. GM, I, 2, 3; II, 18; III, pssim). 3. Giulino Cmpioni fds sources Emerson for number Nietzsche's ides imges 'Woh mn reen mub' (cf. '"Voh mn reen muss." uber Nietzsches Aphormus 223 us Vermlschte Jfelnungen und Spruche', JfS, 16 (1987), ), he pots out (223n. 19) tht two frgments which Nietzsche wrote h copy Emerson's Essys (KSA 9, 619: 13 [5] 13

285 -280 cler from exmple C7]) mte 'seeg with mny eyes', lthough it ctul Argus imge which he gives order try demonstrte tht Argus conspicuously e 'nochmls von Emerson stmmend' (222n. 18), wher bsent, tht it not Emerson's imge but Nietzsche's. Errors: The soul'), 4, Cf, Schcht, Nietzsche, pp ('Metphysicl Gllimrd ('Tel', 220), Michel Hr, Nietzsche et l metphyslque (Pr: vite'). 1993), pp ('Critique et subversion de l subjecti 549. Cf. lso Bernrd 5. Cf. FV 276; JOB 16, 17, 54; KSA 11, ; KSA 12, Nietzsche (Pr: Seuil Putrt, Versions du soleil: Figures et systene de mposition du cogi'), CL'ordre philosophique'), 1971), pp ('L deco pp ('Descrtes Kmn, Nietzsche et l scene philosophique, piege'). scene, ' which 6. Cf. Roger Shttuck's strikg description th Humpty-Dumpty out frgmentry like Nrrr puts himself ger ng chieve 'selfimpressions wkg dremg 1, vly ttempti cretion ex omnibus1 (Proust, p. 30). (Pr: Plon, 1950), pp. 7. Poulet, 'Proust 1 ( Etudes sur le temps huioln ), p utre'). 8. Cf. Henry, Proust ronncler, pp CJe est un 9. Cf. de Mn, pp ('Redg (Proust)'). Mrcel Prousts "A l 10. Cf. Friedrich Krotz, Ps Kd und Combry ), especilly pp recherche du temps perdu" (Heidelberg: Vter, 1990 ('Combry, ee Mentlitt 1 ), (Pr: Ngel, 1952), 11. Cf. Noel Mrt-Desl, Idelm de Proust Krcel Proust: Critique Rene de Chntl, 'L'idelme de Mrcel Proust 1, de Montrel, 1967), I, lltterlre, 2 vols (Montrel: Presses Universitires Btille, L'experience terleure, p Rimond, p Cf. Tdie, Proust et le rown, p Rimond, p psychologicl reltivity 16. De Lttre shows how Proust's preoccuption with (II, 176), but only fr removed from ny Kntin trnscendentl idelm 'idelme subjectif, order n develop compron between Proust's Spoz. Descombes concu dns le niveu de l croynce* (II, 180) 'l philosophic du ironiclly dmses such ccounts s constructions pensees de Mrcel (le pseudo-mrcel', 'un philosophe connu, dont les personnge de l Recherche} sont comme 1'echo' (p. 34). e I m followg Kmn 17. By stressg primcy bodily Nietzsch

286 -281redg, which seeks (Explosion I, pp ) rejectg Heidegger's<cf. Nietzsche, I, , bstrct Nietzsche from h 'lleged biologm1 lr position response ), Dniel V. Conwy, who dopts simi r Rorty', NS, 21 (1992), Rorty (cf. ' Dembodied Perspectives: Nietzsche cont redg Nietzsche ). My rgument tended s corrective ptic Downcst Eyes: The which Mrt Jy gives h brethtkgly syno ch Thought (Berkeley, Los Denigrtion Vion Twentieth-Century Fren s, 1993), for lthough Jy Angeles London: University Cliforni Presoculr vion 1 (pp , stresses importnce both Proustin 'b ) subvertg citg Shttuck) Nietzschen perspectivm (pp. less rgues: ' It ws not domnt (Plnic) monoculr trdition, he never were explicitly set gst [.,.] until Bergson tht rights body Gog beyond residully vul implictions tyrnny eye. critique oculrcentrm tht perspectivm, he developed fundmentl.). outdtnced even tht Nietzsche' (p. 191f Ecce Homo, when he 18. Nietzsche resttes primcy semi otic h he ws writg h rgues tht 'Schopenhuer 1 'Wgner' whic iotic' terms s ciphers 'sem erly UnzeitgewBe Betrchtungen should be red tes bedient, ls eer for himself: 'Dergestlt ht sich Pl des Sokr Semiotik fur Pl' (EH, III, 'UB*, 3). cf. KSA 11, 282, 565; KSA 19. For philosophg 'Am Leitfden des Leibes 1, KSA 11, 635. On impor12, 92, 106; for 'Ausgngspunkt vom Leibe 1, cf.., 286f., ; KSA 11, tnce body generl, cf. lso KSA 10, 284f 43, ; KSA 12, Cf. Deleuze, Critique et clique ('Genelogie, ter21. Cf. Kmn, Nietzsche et l jn&tphore, pp. lso be used gst Putrt prettion, texte'). Kmn 1 s rgument here could 'Grundtext 1 JGB 230 s who, like Grnier, reds Nietzsche's ppel (however 'strtegiclly') metphysicl (pp )., cf. Ds Ich und ds Es 22. For Freud's similr thkg on ' bodily ego' Ann Freud et l., 18 vols ( Sigmund Freud, Gesmelte Verke, 5th edn, ed. ('Ds Ich 1st vor llem (Frnkfurt.M.: Fcher, 1967), XIII, ), 253 ly ego 1, Philosophicl e kbrperliches'), Richrd Wollheim, 'The bod (Cmbridge: Cmbridge Essys on Freud, ed. Richrd Wollheim Jmes Hopk University Press, 1982), pp 'Qu'est-ce que le corps? 23. Cf. Deleuze, Nietzsche et l philosophic, p. 45: chmp de forces, un milieu Nous ne le defsons ps en dnt qu'il est un Cr, en fit, il n 1 y ps nourricier que se dpute une plurlite de forces.. II n'y ps de quntite de "milieu", ps de chmp de forces ou de btille e. 1 Cf. lso Pul Ptn, de relite, ute relite est dej quntite de forc ogrphies: Poststructurl'Nietzsche body philosopher 1, Crt Roslyn Diprose Robyn n Mppg Bodies Spces, ed. 4, especilly pp ( Ferrell (London: Alien Unw, 1991), pp Deleuzo-Guttrin redg 'Bodies Powers'). e, cf. especilly Michel 24. For genelogy body Nietzsch Homoge & Jen Hyppolite Foucult, 'Nietzsche, l genelogie, 1'hire',

287 -282(Pr: Presses Universitires de Frnce ('tpimee), 1971), pp On th question philosophy s 'rigorous philology', cf. trie Blondel, Nietzsche, le corps et l culture: L philosophic comme genelogle phllologlque (Pr: Presses Universitires de Frnce ('Philosophic d'ujourd'hui 1 ), 1986), pp ('Nietzsche et l philologie genelogique'); Kmn, Nietzsche et l netphore, p. 194; Nncy, '"Our Probity!": On Truth Morl Sense Nietzsche', tr. Peter Connor ( Rickels, pp ), especilly p. 71f.; Schrift, pp The textulity body hs received gret del ttention French Nietzsche criticm: prt from rguments Deleuze, Foucult Kmn lredy cited, cf. lso Key, pp CLe corps et le texte'); Blondel, Nietzsche, le corps et l culture, pp CLe corps et les metphores'); Pierre Klossowski, Nietzsche et le cercle vicleux, 2nd edn (Pr: Mercure de Frnce, 1975), pp ('Les etts vletudires 1'orige d'une semiotique pulsionnelle') ('Note dditionnelle sur l semiotique de Nietzsche 1 ). 26. For vegetl qulity Proust's chrcters, cf. Wlter Benjm, 'Zum Bilde Prousts' ( Illuilntionen. Ausgewhlte Schrlften (Frnkfurt.M. : Suhrkmp ('Suhrkmp Tschenbuch', 345), 1977), pp ), p. 341f. 27. The fntstic implictions th pssge re explored greter detil by Leo Bersni (p. 79f.) Gerrd Cogez (Mrcel Proust: A l recherche du temps perdu (Pr: Presses Universitires de Frnce C tudes lltterires', 24), 1990), pp ). 28. Henry, Mrcel Proust, p Shttuck (Proust, pp ) drws strong prllel between Proust's ffective memory Bergson's 'souvenir spontne' (cf. Mtiere et wemolre: Essi sur l reltion du corps 1'esprit, 36th edn (Pr: Presses Universitires de Frnce ('Biblioque de philosophie contempore'), 1941), pp ('Les deux formes de l memoire')); de Lttre counters by rgug tht body plys much greter role Proust's conception voluntry memory thn Bergson: 'C'est done directement que le corps, chez Bergson, est 1'strument de l restitution du souvenir, t que c'est dlrectejoent, rppel, puqu'il en est le seul chez Proust, qu'il en grntit le depositire' (I, 148; cf. II, 239f.). 30. Cf. Rob M. J. McKenzie, 'Proust: Studies, 19 (Wter 1991), The Body Drem1, Romnce 31. Serge Doubrovsky, 'Corps du texte/texte du crps' ( Etudes proustiennes, 6, ed. Jcques Bersni, Michel Rimond Jen-Yves Tdife (Pr: Gllimrd CChiers Mrcel Proust', 14), 1987), pp ), p Ibid., p 'L quete de 1'identite, de 1'ipseite, en un mot, l Recherche, mlgre les tenttions ideologiques de 1'idelme, dont Proust n 1 est ps demne, ne surit renvoyer, u terme du prcours qu'& un Temps enrce dns le corps [...], vible sur les squelettes qui prdent l mt6e Guermntes' (p.

288 -28366). 34. Cf. Michel Bur, 'Les "Moments" de Mrcel Proust 1 ( Reperire: Etudes et conferences, (Pr: Muit ('Critique'), 1960), pp ), p Cf. Kmn (Nietzsche et l m&tphore, pp ), who reds Nietzsche with Btille order emphse tht 'perspectivm1 not just n opticl metphor: 'en meme temps qu'il repete l metphore de 1'oeil, NietzII lui ccole us les utres sens' (p. sche s'en joue de mille mnieres. 155). 36. Grder, p Schopenhuer, II, 233f. (Die Velt ls Vllle uztd Vorstellung, I, 38). 38. Cf. Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, p Ibid., p Ibid., p Cf. Henri Birult, 'L betitude chez Nietzsche' ( Deleuze, pp ), p. 19f.: 'L'essence, on le voit, n'est done pot ici logee u coeur des choses, elle n' rien d'eidetique ou d 1 onlogique; elle est u contrire le resultt d'une certe subsomption, d'une certe schemttion, d'une certe Imposition [...]. C'est pourquoi, bien lo d'etre 1'en-soi ou le vri, elle est une vue, une perspective, une position pre sur l chose prtir de quelque chose d'utre qu'elle-mse'. 42. Deleuze, Proust et les slgnes, p Ibid., p Blnchot, 'L 1 experience de Proust' ( Fux Ps), p. 57. Btille mkes th sme pot number plces: cf. On Nietzsche, tr. Bruce Boone (London: Athlone Press, 1992), p. 55; 'Mrcel Proust', 4; L'experience Interleure, p. 163f. Cf. lso Emmnuel Levs, 'The Or Proust', tr. Sen H ( The Levs Reder, ed. Sen H (Oxford: Blckwell, 1989), pp ), p. 161: ' mute nlys which we once thought so mrvellous no longer enough In our eyes, while "explntions" ten dded by Proust h nlyses re no longer lwys so convcg Bogue, p. 44. Cf. lso Lou Bolle's Nietzschen terprettion 'Bl de tes': 'II ne s'git ps de juxtposition, de surimpression, de Repetition (ou retrouvvion stereoscopique, m d'une re-ffirmtion. ille) qui mesure une duree (vgt ns), et qui, surut, enonce le me de 1'eternel reur. Le messge de l musique de Vteuil, de 1'Ange d 1 or du cmpnile, des oeux de St-Mrc: que ut dolt revenir, se rele enf, le cercle se ferme 1 (p. 154). 46. Doubrovsky, L Plce de l wdelelne, p. 107.

289 Cf. especilly Jen Pommier, L mystique de Mrcel Proust (Pr: Droz, 1939); Jen Moun, Proust (Pr: Desclee De Brouwer ('Les ecrivs devnt Dieu', 19), 1968), pp ('L sensibility religieuse 1 ); Brbr J. Bucknll, The Religion Art Proust (Urbn, Chicgo London: University Illo Press ('Illo Studies Lnguge Literture', 60), 1970), pp ('Mysticm'). 48. Cf. especilly Arm Quot, Les pges mystiques de Nietzsche, 2nd edn (Pr: Testniere-Forclquier, 1955); Willims, pp ('The Erly Mystic'); Jorg Slqurd, 'Der ungeheure Augenblick 1 (NS, 18 (1989), ), CNietzsches Mystik'); Jon Stmbugh, 'The Or Nietzsche' (i.e. Nietzsche poetic mystic'), The Or Nietzsche (Albny: Stte University Hew York Press ('Philosophy'), 1994), pp Cf. Tdie, lectures de Proust, p. 272; Proust, p Jcques Bersni, o, fds Pommier's 'un titre contestble 1 (.Les critiques de notre temps et Proust, p. 48). For Proust's mbivlent reltion mysticm, cf. lso Shttuck, Proust, p. 146, Henry's chrctertions h 'mystic!se llque 1 (.Proust romncler, pp ; Proust, p. 85f.). 50. Cf. Btille, L'experience terleure, p. 15: 'je songe mos I 1 experience confesslonnelle, lquelle on dti se tenir jusqu'ici, qu'& une experience nue, libre d 1 ttches, m me d 1 orige, & quelque confession que ce soit. C'est pourquoi je n*ime ps le mot mystique. ' Btille himself lter writes Nietzsche's experiencg eternl return 'sous une forme proprement prler mystique, en confusion vec des representtions dcursives' (p. 40), lthough it cler tht by th stge he hs widened h defition term well beyond itil dtction. In th sense both Nietzsche Proust betry purity ner experience by deliverg it over 'l mnie dcursive de connitre' (p. 162). Cf. lso Btille 1 s response Srtre's designtion him s ' Un nouveu mystique', 'Reply Jen-Pul Srtre (Defense Inner Experience)' ( On Nietzsche, pp ). 51. Cf. Benjm, p. 344: 'Mit Recht ht Fernez e me de I'eternit6 bei Proust vom me du temps unterschieden. Aber durchus t diese Ewigkeit kee plnche, kee upche: sie t ruschhft.' 52. On importnce 'Rusch' n pprecition Nietzsche's 'Physiologie der Kunst 1 generl, cf. Heidegger, I, ('Der Rusch ls stcher Zust') ('Der Rusch ls formschffende Krft'). 53. For Nietzsche's reltion Sicm th respect, cf. Kmn, Nietz sche et l scene phllosophlque, pp ('L comedie du slcme'), Hr, pp ('Vie et tlity nturelle'). 54. For n nlys prody Plnic terms Kmn, Explosion II, pp ('"Mon" spirtion'). th pssge, cf. 55. Proust's ttr-voluntry memory seems hve occurred beside Lke Genev durg h sty t fevin September 1899, Judge from section '[Souvenirs de l mer devnt le Lc de Geneve]' Jen Snteull (JS ). Cf. Pter, I, 254f,, Cttui, Proust et ses metmorphoses, p. 249.

290 -285 cretion, 56. For bodiless experience rttic spirtion Ursprung der cf. lso KSA 11, 565f., Gunter Remmert, Lelberleben ls. Kunst. Zur Astik Frledrlch Nietzsches (Munich: Berchmns, 1978) vri bonheur 57. Cf. Birult, p. 15: 'Nietzsche percoit 1'blme qui sepre le le bonheur du (Gluck) de l betitude (Sellgkelt). Le vri bonheur (non ps de l chnce, du dernier homme - forme btrdie de l betitude) releve it 1. hsrd, de 1'ccident, de 1'evenement, de l fortune, du fortu CL'essence du 58. Cf. Deleuze, Nietzsche et l philosophic, pp trgique'), Hr, pp ('L Joie trgique 1 ). Jenselts von 59. 'Alles, ws tief t, liebt die Mske*, Nietzsche writes lter Gut und Bose (JOB 40), but here he more like Werer from278). NietzBe zweite Mske"' (JOB sme book, cryg '"Be Mske mehr! pots out: sche's thought comes him 'wie e Blitz 1, s Zrthustr 'dieser Blitz ber heibt ubermensch' (Z, 'Vorrede', 4). de des'). 60. Cf. Deleuze, Nietzsche et l philosophic, pp ('Le coup de Gillc 61. Ibid., p. 30, echoed by Birult (p. 31f.) when he responds dcussion followg h pper. spect de 62. Cf. Deleuze, Nietzsche et l philosophic, pp ('Deuxieme ns', p. lusio 1'eternel reur: conme pensee ethique et selective') 'Conc que doctre 284f.; Klossowski, pp CLe cercle vicieux en tnt Klus Lermnn selective'); Ginni Vttimo, Nietzsche: Ee Elnfuhrung, tr., pp (Stuttgrt Veimr: Metzler CSmmlung Metzler 1, 268), 1992) nso Lg, ('Der Ville zur Mcht und ds Schicksl des Subjekts'); Alpho emphs on 'The Vill Power 1 ( Allon, pp ), p. 60. Deleuze's Henry Stten, th selectivity hs proven prticulrly controversil (cf., 1990), pp. JITietzscie's Voice (Ithc, NY London: Cornell University Pressicl Thker: 71-74, Ansell-Person, An Introduction Nietzsche s Polit, p. 115f.), The Perfect Nihilt (Cmbridge: Cmbridge University Press, 1994) th pot on lthough Dvid Wood persusively defends Deleuze Klossowski n produces by rgug tht (Derriden) undecidbility returvlution trnsvlutive 'explosion Moment' ('Nietzsche's Trns ities Press Time', The Deconstruction Time (Atlntic Highls, NJ: Humn Interntionl, 1989), pp ). r'). 63. Cf. Klossowski, pp ('L'experience de 1'eternel reu quence 64. Cf. Girrd, 'Introduction 1 ( Girrd, pp. 1-12): 'Th conse 1 ], seen "God's deth" ['tht humnity must ssume ttributes divity perhps clerly only by Nietzsche Dosevski before Proust's time constntly obscurely t work mong those chrcters novel who rebe, t lest seekg mysticl union with pseudo-divity must refore subconsciously, committed self-diviztion 1 (p. 5). here, by 65. Bolle estblhes prticulrly strong prllel with Nietzschen 'coup de uncknowledgedly drwg on Deleuze's nlys Nietzsche jm des 1 : 'Comment 1'epiphnie proustienne, lquelle ne se produit ce hsrd, volonte et demeure soume u cprices du hsrd, peut-elle, de

291 -286- tirer le double-six? [...] Le dernier Nietzsche [...] voit son slut dns une redupliction, une reffirmtion de I 1 ffirmtion: Dlonysos est un mlrolr dns SOD julrolr. A 1'ne (le chercheur) chrge de memoires et de reliques et son i-i, il oppose le creteur qui dit oui deux fo. Pour Mrcel Proust, 1'oeuvre se btsnt, grsnt, ouvrnt uur d'elle un reseu de routes de plus en plus riche, s'ffirme ussi comme une gre Memoire, nmnese slvtrice, miroir dns le miroir qui redouble et repete 1 (p. 32). 66. Genette, 'Menymie chez Proust 1 ( Figures III, pp ), p. 54; cf. lso Philippe Lejeune, 'Les crfes de l Vivonne' ( Genette Todorov, pp ). For n terprettion 'llitertion perpetuelle* reltion undecidbility lir prdox, cf. Edourd Morot-Sir, 'The Prdox Lir Writg I Proust 1 ( Cws Nicole, pp ), p Cf. Foucult, 'Nietzsche, Freud, Mrx 1, p Cf. Proust's celebrted side h essy 'A propos du style de Flubert 1 : 'l metphore seule peut donner une sorte d'eternit6 u style' (CSB 586). Wht Genette clls Proust's ' ivresse de 2 'itertion* CDcoursdu recit', p. 153) lso lends itself compron with eternl return, s Genevieve Lloyd demonstrtes (p. 146). 69. Nehms, p Cf. Deleuze, 'Mystere d'arine selon Nietzsche', p. 134: 'L'feternel reur est ctif et ffirmtif; il est 1'union de Dionysos et d'arine. C'est pourquoi Nietzsche le compre, non seulement 1'oreille circulire, m 1'nneu nuptil.' 71. Cf. Kmn, Nietzsche et l n&tphore, p As Wood stutely pots out (p. 28), writg trudes even on 'Augenblick' which Nietzsche mtes Z, III, 'Vom Gesicht und Rtsel': 'Der Nme des Torwegs steht oben geschrieben: "Augenblick1". Nietzsche refers eighteen-month period between 'conception' publiction Zrthustr s 'Schwngerschft' (EH, III, 'Z', 1), Zrthustr himself not only mkes repeted reference h 'children 1 h 'children's l' (cf. Z, II, 'Vom Le der Bildung'; III, ' Von der Seligkeit wider Willen'; IV, 'Die BegriiBung'), but lso rgues: ' Dfi der Schffende selber ds Kd sei, ds neu geboren werde, dzu mub er uch die Gebrer se wollen und der Schmerz der Gebrer' (Z, II, 'Auf den gluckseligen Inseln 1 ). For metphor givg birth oneself Proust, cf. Doubrovsky, L Plce de l Mdelee, p. 56f. For metphor mle morhood Nietzsche, cf. Alon Aley, '"Idel Selfhness": Nietzsche's Metphor Mternity', Exceedgly Nietzsche: Aspects Contemporry Nietzsche-Interprettion, ed. Dvid Frrell Krell Dvid Wood (London New York: Routledge ('Wrwick Studies Philosophy Literture', 1), 1988), pp ; Prkes, pp ('True Pregnncies Ultimte Issues'); Kmn, Explosion II ( subtitle which, 'Les enfnts de Nietzsche', derives from Nietzsche's own repeted references h books s h 'children'), especilly pp ('Gesttion et nsnce de Zrthoustr') ('Post prtunf ).

292 Josipovici, The Book God: A Response Bible (New Hven Cf. lso The Vorld London: Yle University Press, 1988), p. 149f. Book, p For n illumtg nlys bodily Rodolphe Gsche, Ecce Howo or Written Rickels, pp metphors Bcce Homo, cf. Body 1, tr. Judith Still, 75. Cf. Kmn, Explosion II, p. 264f. 76. Cf. n. 18, bove, ('Accessoires'). Kmn, Explosion I, pp ; Explosion II, pp. 77. Cf. Shpiro, Nletzschen Nrrtives, p. 89, lso h effective counter Nehms's redg Ecce Homo: 'Nehms's clim should be reved by representg Nietzsche not s self-creted chrcter but s text' (p. 161). 78. Cf. Schcht, 'On Self-Becomg: Nietzsche Nehms's Nietzsche 1, NS, 21 (1992), , White, pp Cf. Stten, pp Cf. Conwy, 'Nietzsche's Doppelgnger'. Affirmtion resentment Ecce Homo', Ansell-Person Cygill, pp Jmes J. Wchester, Nietzsche's Aestic Turn: Redg Nietzsche fter Heidegger, Deleuze, Derrld (Albny: Stte University New York Press ('Contemporry Contentl Philosophy'), 1994), p Mgnus, Stewrt Mileur, p Cf. my '"Geschffene Menschen": The Necessity Literry Self Nietzsche, Musil Proust', Neohelicon, 17/2 (1990), Cf. Lloyd, pp Cf. Doubrovsky, L Plce de l mdelelne, p. 131; Bowie, 'Proust's Nrrtive Selves', Noy qul me voy: The Vrlter Self from Montigne Leirls, ed. George Crig Mrgret McGown (Oxford: Clrendon Press, 1989), pp ; Klossowski, p. 183; Lg, pp I dcuss th question t greter 86. Cf. Kmn, Explosion I, p. 105f. length my 'Double Whm! Srh Kmn on Ecce Homo', forthcomg GLL, 48/4 (September 1995). 87. Rorty, p Ibid., p. xi. 89. Cf. especilly Conwy, 'Thus Spoke Rorty: The Perils Nrrtive SelfCretion', Philosophy Literture, 15 (1991), , 'Dembodied Perspectives: Nietzsche contr Rorty'.

293 Ansell-Person, 'Towrd ubernenscb: Hietzsche's Dybrek 1 (JVS, 23 (1994), ), Nietzsche s Politicl Thker, pp Reflections on Yer 145. Cf, lso An Introduction 91. Ricoeur, p. 285., 1962). 92. Cf, Umber Eco, L'oper pert (Miln: Bompini who rgues tht Proust 93. Cf. Brs CUne idee de recherche', p. 38), concomitnte' render substitutes for 'l syntxe clssique 1 new 'syntxe 'nouvelie syntxe, qu'il 'l logique d'version qui structure le monde': e, contrirement ce que fudrit ppeler metphorique, prce que l metphor de lngge prive de ute l rherique longtemps pense, est un trvilutre que circulirement et vecr i st ion: elle ne v d'un terme & un fiment'. Nietzsche et l netphore, 94. Cf. MA, II, 200; FV 58; GM, I, 2; Kmn, p. 123f. p. 76: 'M 1'experience Interieure, 95. Cf. Btille, L'experience terieure est conqu&te et comme telle pour utrul!' s Politicl Thker, pp. 96. Cf. Ansell-Person, An Introduction Nietzsche , 'Towrd ubermensch', 144. Chpter 4. Logics Future Perfect 1. Cited Derrid, 'L differnce' ( p. 22. Mrges de l philosophic, pp. 1-29), st does use phrse 2. As Georges Poulet shows, epodes where Prou frught with bsences (cf. 'presence reelle' (CS, I, 13; CG, II, 432) re L'espce proustlen, p. 63f.). rn moment vol3. Poulet deed stresses tht th futurity rebo es sur le temps humln IV. untry memory itself (cf. 'Mrcel Proust', Etud He emphses 335). Kesure de 1'Instnt (Pr: Plon, 1968), pp. 299d hopes drems (p. 'orienttion prospective 1 nrrr's childhoo ries: ' Le temps perdu et 305), so tht when it comes voluntry memoe dit Proust, l cpcity retrouve n'est done ps seulement le psse, m comm longtemps perdue d'voir fol en un futur' (p. 326). Schriften reden nur von 4. In MA, II, 'Vorrede', 1, Nietzsche writes: 'Mee e Schriften, mit eer me en uberwdungen [...]. Insern sd lle me dtleren - sie reden ezigen, llerdgs wesentlichen Ausnnme, zuriick zu only be Zrthustr, The exception cn immer von eem "Hter-mir 1". e-zrthustr's odyssey precely becuse it work which depicts Hietzsch h desty. s he works h wy up h present level becomes

294 Cf. vrious lts (lwys thirteen) projected titles which he drew up over period (KSA 7, , 744f., 755; KSA 8, 9-10, 289). 6. Alber Berett Angusol borrows portryg Proust, o, s 'untimely ), p. 15. term directly from Nietzsche Cf. Proust Inttule (Rome: Bulzoni, 7. Cf. JGB, VI CVir Gelehrten'); EH, III, ' UB', 3: ' Ich mvbte ee Zeitlng uch Gelehrter se'; Kmn, Explosion II, pp A sentiment echoed by Heidegger prticulrly Nietzschen pssge erly Introduction Metphysics, Cf. Heidegger, Elnfuhrung In die Metphysik, 5th edn (Tubgen: Niemeyer, 1987), p Johnn Peter Eckermnn, Gesprche mit Goe den letzten Jhren Lebens , ed. Ernst Merin-Genst, 2 vols (Bsel: Birkhuser, II, 590 (3 My 1827). Surprgly, Nietzsche omits reference Greeks becuse th context for chnge he ludg French Germns' expense rr thn h orwe most fvoured ntion. sees 1945), t 10. Cf. Deleuze, Nietzsche, pp , Derrid's celebrted conclusion 'Les fs de I'homme' ( Mrges de l philosophic, pp ), pp For n even more poclyptic ccount, cf. Nick L, 'Abortg humn rce' ( Ansell-Person Cygill, pp ). 11. Cf. Ansell-Person, 'Towrd comedy extence: On Nietzsche's new justice' ( Ansell-Person Cygill, pp ), especilly section '"Livg beyond1" (pp ), which Nietzsche's junction 'grow ccusmed "livg beyond (u&er) 1" (p. 273) ssimilted Ferenc Feher Agnes Heller's defition 'postmodernity 1. I shll return question postmodern ( Lyotrd's sense) t end th chpter. 12. For 'monstrousness 1 future, cf. Derrid's 'Exergue' De l grjmlogie (Pr: Muit ('Critique'), 1967), pp : 'L'venir ne peut s'nticiper que dns l forme du dnger bsolu. II est ce qui rompt bsolument vec l normlite constitute et ne peut done s'nnoncer, se presenter, que sous 1'espece de l monstruosite. Pour ce monde venir et pour ce qui en lui ur fit trembler les vleurs de signe, de prole et d'ecriture, pour ce qui conduit ici notre futur nterieur, il n'est ps encore d 1 exergue 1 (p. 14). 13. Here I m greement with Eorty, who rgues tht 'wht [Nietzsche] itches for hricl sublime, future which hs broken ll reltions with pst, refore cn be lked philosopher's redescriptions pst only by negtion' (p. 105f.). 14. Cf. e.g. GT, 'Versuch eer Selbstkritik', 1; UB, II, 7; MA, II, Yorrede', 3; JGB 215, 224 Cwir modernen Menschen, wir Hlbbrbren 1 ), 247; FV 372, 375; GM, II, 6, 19, 24; GD, IX, Also sprch Zrthustr ws hve concluded with Zrthustr's deth ny cse, fter repet cycle 'Untergng' prechg (cf. KSA 11, 341, 541).

295 Uncnnily presgg dte h own 'gog-under', Nietzsche hs no doubts tht h own personl 'ubermorgen' will dwn fter turn new century (JOB 214, FV 371), which prllels portends turn new, 'Zrthustrn' millennium. 17. Cf. Ansell-Person, 'Towrd vbermensch', 124. Crl Pletsch compres Ecce Homo with Kierkegrd's The Pot View for my Work s n Author on ccount 'ir peculir even obsessive concern with reder' ('The Self-Sufficient Text Nietzsche Kierkegrd' (.Yle French Studies, 66 ('The Anxiety Anticiption 1 ), 1984, ), 164), but lthough he rgues tht u-terprettive 'self-sufficiency' Ecce Homo nrcstic fntsy <187f.), he ignores possibility tht Nietzsche might hve nor Cfuture) 'idel reder' md. 18. Cf. lso EH, III, 1, where Nietzsche describes 'die Origlnlitt meer Erfhrung 1. He comes closest se pssges Rorty's Wittgenste!n chrctertion poet: 'H new vocbulry mkes possible, for first time, formultion its own purpose. It ol for dog somethg which could not hve been envged prior development prticulr set descriptions, those which it itself helps provide' (p. 13). 19. Cf. Kmn, Explosion I, pp CDes vendnges l Clude Lorr'). 20. Cf. ibid., 'Introduction', p. 13f. 21. Cf. Nncy, 'Introduction: The Birth Presence 1, tr. Brin Holmes, The Birth Presence (Stnford: Stnford University Press ('Meridin: Crossg Aestics'), 1993), pp Deleuze, Proust et les signes, p Genette, 'Dcours du recit', p Tdie, Proust et le rown, p Ibid., p Ibid., p Georg Lukcs, The Kenlng Contemporry Relm, Mer (London: Merl Press, 1963), p. 25. tr. John Necke 28. In Lyotrd, Le postmoderne explique ux enfnts: Correspondnce (Pr: Glilee CDebts'), 1988), pp Deleuze, Proust et les signes, p Proust's use logic future perfect th context desire bers out oreticl sight Jcques Lcn, for whom, s Mlcolm Bowle notes, '[tjhe future perfect [...I emerges s tense pr excellence desire prospective humn imgtion' (.Lcn (London: Fontn ('Modern Msters'), 1991), p. 185).

296 Lter, nrrr ctches himself tryg crry out sme deception on himself; 'Si done on prouve s preference pr 1'ction qu'on ccomplit plus que pr I 1 idee qu'on forme, J'ur im6 Alberte' <P, III, 658). Ag, though, he not tken - even by himself - refuses derive illusory cuses from observed effects. 32. Derrid, perons, p Derrid, 'L differnce', p As Ricoeur notes (p. 282), nrrr's descriptions 'livre terieur de signes connus' re permeted by th 'problemtique de l trce': 'De quelque idee lsee en nous pr l vie qu'il s'gse, s figure mterielle, trce de 1'impression qu'elle nous fite, est encore le gge de s verite necessire. [,..] Le livre ux crcteres figures, non trces pr nous, est notre seul livre. C... ] Seule 1'impression, si chetive qu'en semble l mtiere, si ssble l trce, est un criterium de l verite 1 (TR, IV, 458). 35. Derrid, 'L differnce', p. 10. I m full greement with Vood (p. 31f.), who rgues for Nietzschen 'deconstruction time' by pplyg temporlity 'differnce 1 Nietzsche's 'Augenblick' - similr mnner Derrid 1 s own nlys term Husserl (cf. L voix et le phenomene: Introduction u problems du slgne dns l phenom&nologie de Husserl (Pr: Presses Universitires de Frnce CQudrige', 156), 1993), pp ('Le signe et le cl d'oeil')). The most exhustive ccount Nietzsche's deconstruction sign rems Rey's L'enjeu des signes. 36. Cf. especilly Doubrovsky, L Plce de 87, 89. l ndelelne, pp. 33, 43, 49, 77, 37. Cf. Ellon's penetrtg nlys th pssge s demonstrtg ' prefigurtive pttern Proustin "love" s such' (pp ). 38. Derrid, 'L differnce', p Cf. Shttuck, Proust, p. 67: 'At crucil moment, he literlly loses h senses. She vnhes. Consciousness cnnot trck experience its lir. It must wit outside while nor beg, bld but ctive, performs deed tht consciousness n reconstructs ex pos fc from flimsy evidence. ' 40. 'Dcours du recit', p Jnkelevitch uses term L 1 Irreversible et l nostlgie (Pr: Flmmrion, 1974), where Chpter 1, 7 (pp ) he dels with 'L 1 irreversibilite de 1'stnt: primultimite'. It lso lluded by Tdi6 (Proust et le romn, p. 294). 41. Cf. Snford S. Ames, 'The Ruse Condemned Mn: First Writg A l Recherche' ( Cws Nicole, pp ): 'The unsettlg "first time", when strngeness new, unred, ctches unprepred ttention, begng tht prdoxiclly cn only be climed second "tke", reredg' (p. 53). 42. Derrid, 'Hors Livre: Prefces' ( L dsemtion, pp. 7-67), p. 14n.

297 I would dgree here with Splitter Cp. 5), who terprets th pssge s dictg tht 'he substitutes plesurble nticiption for nxiety Deleuze, Proust et 2es slgnes, p Cf. ibid., p Ibid., pp Ibid., p Cf. equivlent structure t AD, IV, 221: '1'oublieux ne s'ttrte ps de son mnque de memoire, precement prce qu'il oublie Tdie, Proust et le rown, p Th whole procedure, effort imgtion which it represents, mirrored by those products twentieth-century scientts' imgtions, hypoticl 'tchyon' prticles, which, lthough y cnnot be ccelerted through speed light ( ccordnce with Este), hve been posited s never decelertg below speed light order ccount for Cf. Pul Dvies, God reversed time cuslity quntum physics. New Physics (Hrmondsworth: Pengu, 1984), p Poulet, 'Proust', p. 370f. 52. Cogez, p It for th reson tht I would dgree with those who compre recursive structure A l recherche Joyce's Fegns Wke (cf. Moss, p. 121f.; Mcfcsey, p. 115). 54. The evoction Bo de Boulogne 'ujourd 1 hui' t end Du cot6 de chez Swnn (CS, I, ) closest th movement comes (cf. Genette, 'Dcours du recit 1, p. 107). Mrcel Muller (p. 50) grees tht 'si le Heros rejot le Nrrteur, c'est l f$on d'une sympte: l dtnce qui les sepre tend vers zero; elle ne s'nnuler jm' ; Genette tkes n lger less problemtic le plces emphs simply on hitus rr thn movement: 'il y simplement rret du recit' CDcours du recit 1, p. 237). 55. Tdie, Proust et le rown, p On role re-redg, cf. Poulet, I'espce proustlen, p. 162f.; Genette, 'Proust plimpseste', p. 62f. ; Shttuck, Proust, p. 133f.; de Mn, p The nrrr res question prdoxicl nture conventionl prefces reltion Michelet (P, III, 666), but it Derrid our time who hs undoubtedly explored prdox gretest effect, especilly 'Hors Livre', where he highlights problem from outset: 'Ceci (done)

298 -293n'ur ps et6 un livre' (p. 9). Derrid's tctic usg future perfect th context extremely widespred: cf., for exmple, 'Exergue' De l grwlogie (cited bove); 'Qul Quelle: Les sources de Vlery' ( Mrges de l philosophic, pp ), p. 327; Gls, 2 vols (Pr: Denoel/ Gonthier ('Biblioque Meditions', ), 1981), I, 1; Zperons, p Cf. Genette, 'Dcours du recit*, pp ; Poulet, L'espce proustien, p. 159; Sicoeur, p. 256f. Putrt rgues tht 'quelques pots certs et percus' Nietzsche's text hve similr (fter-)effect: 'C'est uur d'eux que se construit le texte venir, uur de leur me u jour qui occupe une certe hire; lors, et lors seulement, dns 1'prescoup, ils pourront ppritre comme des "germes" dej souterrement u trvil, porteurs d'un sens ou s'ure une seconde lecture, retrdee et comme en reserve, comme des "nticiptions'" (p. 45). 59. Cf. Gry, Nietzsche s Postmodernt: Essys Pro Contr, ed. Clyn Koelb (Albny: Stte University New York Press ('Contemporry Contentl Philosophy'), Two restnt ccounts Proust's reltion postmodern re given by Descombes (p. 153f.) Compgnon (Les cq prdoxes de l modernit& (Pr: Seuil, 1990), pp ). I m more greement with Brin McHle's rgument h Postmodemt Fiction (London New York: Routledge, 1989), tht A l recherche trnsitionl text which mkes 'crossover from modernt postmodernt writg 1 (p. 18), h terms shift from n eptemologicl n onlogicl 'domnt' (p. 9f.) which, retrospectively, cn be seen hve been reflected my own shift between chpters 2 3. The question Nietzsche's reltion postmodern hs received good del more ttention recent criticm: prt from essys Koelb, cf. lso Dniel Chrles, 'Nietzsche et l post-modernite', Jfouvelles lectures de Nietzsche, ed. Domique Jnicud (Lusnne: L'Age d*homme CChiers L'Age d'homme', 1), 1985), pp ; Vilfried vn der Will, 'Nietzsche Postmodernm' ( Ansell-Person Cygill, pp ); Ansell-Person, 'Towrd ubernensch*, 126: 'I would go so fr s clim tht key understg "post-modern" Nietzsche lies grspg significnce " u'ber" notion ubermensch' (which I hve ttempted do th chpter). 60. Lyotrd, 'Reponse l question: Qu'est-ce que le postmoderne?', p. 31. For dcussion lk between future perfect postmodern!ty Lyotrd Derrid, cf. Andrew J. McKenn, 'Postmodernm: It's Future Perfect', Postmodernm Contentl Philosophy, ed. Hugh J. Silvermn Donn Veln (Albny: Stte University New York Press ('Selected Studies Phenomenology Extentil Philosophy', 13), 1988), pp McKenn dvnces mny sme rguments ( dduces mny sme quottions) h essy 'Proust's Apoclypse Now' ( Cws Nicole, pp ), which concludes by rgug (now contr Derrid's 'il n'est plus temps de dire l verite sur 1'poclypse 1 ) tht future perfect lso temporlity Such n rgument would brg A l Proustin 'lst Judgement'. recherche even closer Nietzsche's explosive 'f de 1'homme', lthough I m not persuded tht Proust's cse such n poclyptic ne wrrnted. 61. Cf. TR, IV, 569 (with pologies Mme de Guermntes).

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