CHAPTER 13: UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE. What is persuasion: process of influencing people s belief, attitude, values or behavior.

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1 Logos Ethos Pathos Chapter 13 CHAPTER 13: UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE What is persuasion: process of influencing people s belief, attitude, values or behavior. Persuasive speaking: process of doing so in public. The Nature of Persuasion Persuasion: Greek & Romans define as logical & well supported argument developed through rhetorical appeal to logos, ethos and pathos logical argument to support your points use your competence, credibility & good character to persuade others to accept your points appeal to emotion of others as they accept your point of view How People process persuasive messages. Central route: intense and time consuming (logos) Peripheral route: short cuts that relies on simple cues, competence, credibility and character (ethos) gut check about what the listener feels (pathos) What determines whether we use central / peripheral route is how important we perceive the issue to be for us? When we feel involved- central route. When we feel the issue is less important we take peripheral route. Eg: serious chronic illness that is expensive to treat I am sick You are likely to pay attention if you are unhealthy and evaluate for yourself any proposal to change your health care benefits.

2 I am healthy The Rhetorical Strategy of logos You quickly to agree with whatever someone you perceive as credible or go along with a proposal that seems more compassionate Two types of reasoning Inductive: general conclusion based on several pieces of specific evidence to reach a general conclusion When we reason inductively, how much of our audience agrees with our conclusion depends on the number, quality and typicality of each piece of evidence you offer Eg: Evidence: Jim s car is missing at slow speed : Jim s car is stalling at stoplights Logical conclusion: Jim s car needs a tune up. Deductive: if something is true for everything that belongs to certain class (major premise) and specific instances is part of that class (minor premise) then we must conclude that what is true for all members of the class must be true in the specific instances (logical conclusion) Eg: Major Premises: Cars needs a tune up when the engine misses consistently at slow speeds. Minor premises: Jim s car is missing at slow speeds. Conclusion: Jim s car needs a tune up. How these types of reasoning is used to form arguments? Forming arguments 1. Claim The conclusion the speaker wants the audience to believe. Claim in both inductive & deductive arguments is Jim s car needs a tune up A claim may ask the audience to accept what the speaker is saying as a fact or as best policy

3 2. Support Reason of evidence the speaker offers as the ground for accepting the conclusion. You can support the claim with facts, opinion, experience and observation Inductive: missing at slow speed Reasons Stalling at stoplight Specific goal I want Jim to believe that his car needs a tune-up because it fits the criteria for cars that need tune-ups. (claim) I. The car misses at slow speeds. (reason and claim) A. On Tuesday, it was missing when driven below 20 mph. (evidence) B. On Wednesday, it did the same thing. (evidence) II. The car stalls at stoplights. (reason and claim) A. It stalled three times at lights on Monday. (evidence) B. It stalled each time I stopped at a light yesterday. (evidence) 3. Warrant Logical statement that connects the support to the claim. Sometimes, the warrant of an argument is verbalized, but other times, it is simply implied. C I want Jim to believe that the car needs a tune-up. S I. The engine misses at slow speeds. S II. The car stalls at stoplights. W (I believe this reasoning is sound because missing and stalling are major indicators signs of the need for a tune-up.) (The warrant is written in parentheses because it may not be verbalized when the speech is given.) Types and test of Arguments 4 types 1. Arguing from a sign: supports a claim by providing evidence that events that signal the claim have occurred C: You have had an allergic reaction. S: A. You have hives.

4 B. You have a slight fever. W: (Hives and a slight fever are signs of an allergic reaction. Signs may actually be the effects of the phenomenon. A rash and fever don t cause an allergic reaction; they are indications, or effects, of a reaction. When arguing from sign, you can make sure that your argument is valid by answering the following questions. a) Do the signs cited always or usually indicate the conclusion drawn? b) Are a sufficient number of signs present? Are campaign workers and buttons enough to indicate a victory? c) Are contradictory signs in evidence? 2. Arguing from examples Argue from example when the support statements you use are examples of the claim you are making. C Juanita Martinez is electable. S Juanita has won previous elections. A. Juanita won the election for treasurer of her high school junior class. B. Juanita won the election for chairperson of her church youth group. C. Juanita won the election for president of her sorority. W (Because Juanita Martinez was elected to previous offices, she is electable for this office.) When arguing from example, you can make sure your argument is valid by answering the following questions: a) Are enough examples cited? b) Are the examples typical? c) Are negative examples accounted for? 3. Arguing from analogy. You argue from analogy when you support a claim with a single comparable example that is so significantly similar to the subject of the claim as to be strong proof. The general statement of a warrant for an argument from analogy is, What is true for situation A will also be true in situation B, which is similar to situation A or What is true for situation A will be true in all similar situations. When arguing from analogy, you can make sure that your argument is valid by answering the following questions. a) Are the subjects being compared similar in every important way?

5 b) Are any of the ways in which the subjects are dissimilar important to the outcome? 4. Arguing from causation. Chapter 13 You argue from causation when you support a claim by citing events that have occurred that result in the claim. Reasoning from causation says that one or more of the events cited always (or almost always) brings about, leads to, or creates or prevents a predictable effect or set of effects. Let s look at this type of argument in outline form: C Home sales will increase. S Mortgage interest rates have dropped. W (Lower interest rates generally lead to higher home sales.) When arguing from causation, you can make sure that your argument is valid by answering the following questions. a) Are the events alone sufficient to cause the stated effect? b) Do other events accompanying the cited events actually cause the effect? c) Is the relationship between the causal events and the effect consistent? COMBINING ARGUMENTS IN A SPEECH Speech with the goal I want my audience to believe that Juanita is electable, you might choose to present three of the reasons we ve been working with. Suppose you selected the following: I. Juanita has run successful campaigns in the past. (argued by example) A. Juanita was successful in her campaign for treasurer of her high school class. B. Juanita was successful in her campaign for chairperson of her church youth group. C. Juanita was successful in her campaign for president of her sorority. II. Juanita has engaged in procedures that result in campaign victory. (argued by cause) A. Juanita has campaigned intelligently. B. Juanita has key endorsements. III. Juanita is a strong leader. (argued by sign) A. Juanita has more campaign workers than all other candidates combined. B. Juanita has a greater number of community members wearing her campaign buttons. Reasoning fallacies to avoid (avoiding errors in reasoning) 5 common fallacies to avoid:

6 1. Hasty generalization. Generalization that is either not supported with evidence or is supported with one weak example For example, someone who argued, All Akitas are vicious dogs, whose sole piece of evidence was, My neighbor had an Akita and it bit my best friend s sister, would be guilty of a hasty generalization. It is hasty to generalize about the temperament of a whole breed of dogs based on a single action of one dog. 2. False Cause The alleged cause fails to be related to, or to produce, the effect. Just because two things happen one after the other does not mean that the first necessarily caused the second. An example of a false cause fallacy is when a speaker claims that school violence is caused by television violence, the Internet, a certain song or musical group, or lack of parental involvement. When one event follows another, there may be no connection at all, or the first event might be just one of many causes that contribute to the second. 3. Either or The argument that there are only two alternatives when, in fact, others exist. Many such cases are an oversimplification of a complex issue. For example, when Robert argued that we ll either have to raise taxes or close the library, he committed an either-or fallacy. He reduced a complex issue to one oversimplified solution when there were many other possible solutions. 4. A straw man When a speaker weakens the opposing position by misrepresenting it in some way and then attacks that weaker (straw man) position. For example, in her speech advocating a seven-day waiting period to purchase handguns, Colleen favored regulation, not prohibition, of gun ownership. Bob argued against that by claiming it is our constitutional right to bear arms. However, Colleen did not advocate abolishing the right to bear arms. Hence, Bob distorted Colleen s position, making it easier for him to refute. 5. Ad hominem Attacks or praises the person making the argument rather than addressing the argument itself. For example, if Jamal s support for his claim that his audience should buy an Apple computer is that Steve Jobs, the founder and current president of Apple Computer, is a genius, he is making an ad hominem argument. Jobs s intelligence isn t really a reason to buy a particular brand of computer.

7 The Rhetorical Strategy of Ethos Some may choose peripheral route for argument because they pay minimal attention to arguments. Conveying Good Character Greek Philosopher Aristotle: Speakers credibility is dependent on the audience perception of the speakers goodwill Goodwill Perception that audience form of the speaker who they believe understands. them and empathizes them and is responsive. Empathy Ability to see the world through the eyes of someone else by putting aside our feeling and ideas and try to experience from others point of view. Responsive Acknowledging feedback especially subtle negative cues. May occur prior or during the speech. Conveying Competence & Credibility Explain your competence Inform your audience about your expertise to achieve credibility Can be interweaved in your introductory speech or appropriately in the body of the speech Establish common ground Identify with audience by talking about shared beliefs and values related to your speech Establish common ground by showing empathy for your audience position before convincing them to change Increase your credibilityaudience respected and understood Use evidence from respected sources Supporting materials from well- organized, unbiased & respected sources who are experts. Use non-verbal elements of delivery to enhance your image How you look and what you do in few minutes before you speak are important

8 The Rhetorical strategy of Pathos Evoking negative emotions Motivated to listen to you to see if you could give them a solution to their discomfort Fear Guilt Shame Anger Fear is reduced when the threat is eliminated or when we escape. As a speaker, you can use examples, stories, and statistics that create fear in your audience Will be more involved in hearing how your proposal can eliminate the source of their fear or allow them to escape. We experience guilt as a gnawing sensation that we have done something wrong. When we feel guilty, we are energized or motivated to make things right or to atone for our transgression. As a speaker, you can evoke feelings of guilt in your audience so that they pay attention to your arguments. To be effective, your proposal must provide a way for the audience to repair or atone for the damage they have caused or to avoid future violations. When we feel shame, we are motivated to redeem ourselves in the eyes of that person and be convinced to refrain from doing something to avoid feelings of shame. As a speaker, you can evoke feelings of shame and then demonstrate how your proposal can either redeem someone after a violation has occurred or prevent feelings of shame, then you can motivate the audience to carefully consider your arguments. When we feel anger, we want to strike back at the person or overcome the situation that is thwarting our goals or demeaning us. As a speaker, you can rouse your audience s anger and then show how your proposal will enable them to achieve their goals or stop or prevent the demeaning that has occurred, you can motivate them to listen to you and think about what you have said.

9 Evoking negative emotions. With positive emotions, our goal is to help the audience sustain or develop the feeling. Happiness & Joy Pride Hope Compassion Happiness or joy is the buildup of positive energy we experience when we accomplish something, when we have a satisfying interaction or relationship, or when we see or possess objects that appeal to us. As a speaker, if you can show how your proposal will lead your audience members to be happy or joyful, then they are likely to listen and to think about your proposal. When you experience selfsatisfaction and an increase to your self-esteem as the result of something that you have accomplished or that someone you identify with has accomplished As a speaker, you can demonstrate how your proposal will help your audience members to feel good about themselves, they will be more involved in hearing what you have to say. The emotional energy that stems from believing something desirable is likely to happen is called hope. When you yearn for better things, you are feeling hope So you can get audience members to listen to you by showing them how your proposal provides a plan for overcoming a difficult situation. When we feel selfless concern for the suffering of another person and that concern energizes us to try to relieve that suffering, we feel compassion. Speakers can evoke audience members feelings of compassion by vividly describing the suffering endured by someone. The audience will then be motivated to listen to see how the speaker s proposal plans to end that suffering.

10 Guideline to appeal to emotions Tell vivid stories. Use startling statistics Incorporate listener relevance links Choose striking presentational aids Use descriptive and provocative language. Use nonverbal elements of delivery to reinforce your emotional appeal. Use gestures and facial expressions that highlight the emotions you are conveying.

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