Position Strategies / Structure Presenting the Issue

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1 Position Strategies / Structure Presenting the Issue If it is well known, you may simply mention the topic If it is less familiar, you may need to explain it and define key terms

2 Asserting a clear, unequivocal position Take a side on the issue Assert your view (position) Thesis statement: arguable, clear, and qualified forecast the stages (points) of the argument. To qualify a thesis, one may identify the main reason or reasons to accept the parts of the position. The reasons must be supported in the body of the essay. The thesis may follow an anecdote (narrative hook) or other attention grabber; nevertheless, it should be found near the start of the essay (perhaps after one presents or explains terms). The thesis should be repeated throughout the essay and supported by the paragraphs within the body. Then, it should be restated in the conclusion (summary).

3 Supporting the position (offer reasons to accept it). Facts: statements that can objectively be proven true make sure that these are from trustworthy sources Statistics: these are sometimes mistaken for facts; however, they are not facts. Stats are numerical data based on interpretations. Who interprets the numbers and how the interpretations are conducted will affect reliability (not all stats are found logically or scientifically).

4 Examples and anecdotes illustrations must be representative in order to support your claim. Anecdotes are brief narratives. Often, examples and anecdotes are added for emotional appeal (pathos). They tend to make truth claims, but are more like vivid images than logical appeals (add other support to reinforce your illustrations).

5 Quotes from experts (expert testimony): these strengthen your viewpoint if the sources are credible. Try to find unbiased sources; do not assume that your audience is ignorant they know that some sources are influenced by money or politics. Even if your source clearly takes one side, he should show knowledge of the entire issue. Doctors from major universities trump unnamed online sources. Make sure the source is truly an expert in the area of study.

6 Analogies: these are comparisons; they claim two unlike things have one or more common characteristic. They can be clever and emotionally persuasive; however, no two things are exactly alike the opposition may point this out. Still, use analogies to complement other support.

7 Counter arguing: address objections and alternatives Concede: admit to be true your opposition has a valid argument Accommodate: rather than concede, you should modify your position show how the opposition s point fits your argument. You may use the following types of transitions: I understand that... what I think... ; It has been argued that... nevertheless... ; We have been told that... my belief is (evidence shows)... etc. Refute: use logical reasons and evidence to poke holes in the opposition s argument. Point out inductive, deductive, or logical flaws to show they are wrong.

8 Establishing credibility Present the issue (grab attention), argue for the position, and counter argue opposing views concerning the controversial issue. Support your reasons with trustworthy sources (experts) Use an appropriate (usually conversational) tone Be knowledgeable of the topic (research well) Express your concern for the issue attack issues not people Find common ground (bridge both sides)

9 Position Structure (outline) Grab Attention: Anecdote / narrative hook / example Fact, stat, unusual position or perspective Quotation Present issue / explain terms - - background info. Introduction (Thesis/ forecast) I am for / against X because

10 Body Reasons and support Every reason must have logical support Support = facts, stats, examples, and quotes Counterargument Refute objections to your view I understand that X..., but my point is...

11 Conclusion Summary / restate thesis Leave an impression Final idea or example (perhaps a key quote) Comment on the topic / thoughtful observation Call on your readers for action Refer to your introduction i.e., finish your anecdote

12 Position Paper Instructions Three to six pages in length Double spaced 12 point font in Times New Roman MLA format (at least 6 critical sources) Topic Lottery: Topics from the SIRS (AEA) page (with pro vs. con articles) will be drawn, and you will compose your essay on your selection. You must use the sources from SIRS, but you may use supplemental sources beyond those if you like. SIRS study / research guide will be completed. You will upload your final draft to the turnitin.com page.

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