1 Mountain Men and the Rendezvous Chapter 13.1 Trails West Mountain men like JedediahSmith and Jim Beckworth survived by being tough and resourceful. To obtain furs, mountain men roamed the Great Plains to the far west, and between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean. The rendezvous system allowed individual trappers to come to a prearranged site for a rendezvous with traders from the east who in turn sold supplies to the trappers. Jedediah Smith
3 Mountain Men Open the West Chapter 13.1 Trails West Smith, Beckworth, and other daring fur trappers and explorers opened up routes West by discovering the best trails through the Rocky Mountains. Mountain men worked some streams so heavily, they killed off the animals forcing them to search for other streams These explorations provided Americans with firsthand knowledge of the Far West Thousands of pioneers used South Pass, the wide valley through the Rockies that JedediahSmith had publicized South Pass was wide and less steep, wagon trails could run through it Jim Beckwourth
4 The Lure of the West Chapter 13.1 Trails West People called land speculators bought huge areas of land They made great profits by selling those sections to the thousands of settlers who dreamed of owning their own farms They earned money by making and selling items that farmers needed
5 The Trail to Santa Fe Chapter 13.1 Trails West Missouri trader William Becknell set out with hardware, cloth, and china along the Santa Fe Trail, that went from Missouri to Santa Fe One of Becknell s bags, was cut, and spilled gold and silver on the street The next spring, Becknell headed to Santa Fe by loading his trade goods into covered wagons he discovered a shortcut and allowing him to avoid steep slopes Before long, hundreds of traders and prairie schooners braved the cutoff to make the 800-mile journey from Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico each year
6 Oregon Fever Chapter 13.1 Trails West The Oregon Trail ran from Independence, Missouri to the Oregon Territory Marcus and NarcissaWhitman s glowing reports of Oregon s rich land began to attract other American settlers In 1843, nearly 1,000 people traveled from Missouri to Oregon Oregon Trail
7 One Family Heads West Chapter 13.1 Trails West Henry Sager, his wife, and six children left Missouri to find fertile land in Oregon The Oregon Trail was dangerous, so pioneers joined wagon trains Life on the trail was full of hardship and, later camp fever killed both of the Sager parents Conestoga Wagon on the Oregon Trail
8 The Mormon Trail Chapter 13.1 Trails West The Mormons were members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints Joseph Smith had founded this church in upstate New York in 1830 Brigham Young moved his people out of the United States to Utah They built a new settlement by the Great Salt Lake, and through teamwork, they made their new desert homeland bloom
10 Chapter 13, Section 2 The Texas Revolution
11 Spanish Texas Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution The Spanish land called Tejaswas rich and desirable, and had forests in the east, rich soil for growing corn and cotton, and great grassy plains for grazing animals The Spanish officials wanted settlers to move to Texas to defend against Native Americans and illegal Americans The Spanish government offered huge tracts of land to empresarios Moses Austin asked for permission to start a colony in Texas, Spain agreed, and the settlers on his land had to follow Spanish laws
12 Mexican Independence Changes Texas Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution In 1821, Mexico successfully gained its independence from Spain Stephen Austin s land grant became worthless, so he had to persuade the new government to let him start his colony The original Texas settler families, Old Three Hundred, agreed to become Mexican citizens and members of the Roman Catholic Church The success of Austin s colony attracted more land speculators and settlers moved to Texas, and by 1830 the population had swelled to about 30,000
13 Rising Tensions in Texas Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution As more Americans settled in Texas, tensions with Tejanos increased The Tejanosfound the Americans difficult to live with, because Americans seemed unwilling to adapt to Mexican laws Responding to warnings, Mexico closed the state to further American immigration, required Texans to pay taxes for the first time, and the government sent more Mexican troops to Texas
14 Texans Revolts Against Mexico Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution Some Texans talked about breaking away from Mexico In 1833, Austin set off for Mexico City with a petition to request that Texas become a self governing state within Mexico Austin met with General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, but was jailed after Santa Anna learned of a letter Austin had written that supported Texas becoming its own state In late September 1835, Mexican soldiers marched to Gonzales to seize a cannon, and Texans had hung a flag that said, Come and Take It Two months later, Texans drove Mexicans out of San Antonio; angered by these insults, Santa Anna and 6,000 troops headed to Texas
15 The Fight for the Alamo Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution March 1-2, 1836, Texans met at a settlement called Washington-on-the-Brazos They declared independence with Sam Houston in command of the army 420 men, led by James Fannin, were stationed at Goliad, and 183 volunteers were at the Alamo, headed by William Travis, and this included Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, and Juan Seguin The Alamo s defenders held of the Mexican attack for 12 days, but on the 13 th day, Santa Anna ordered more than 1,800 men to storm the fortress All but 5 Texans were dead and the Battle of the Alamo was over, 183 died, and Susanna Dickenson was ordered to tell others the story of what she saw
16 The Victory at San Jacinto Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution With Santa Anna on the attack, Texans, both soldiers and settlers, fled eastward Over 300 soldiers were captured by Mexicans and executed at Goliad, but even in retreat and defeat, Houston s army doubled to 800 angry men On April 21, 1836, the Texans advanced on the Mexican army at the San Jacinto River screaming Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad! In 18 minutes, the battle was over, and Texas was now independent
17 Lone Star Republic Chapter 13.2 The Texas Revolution Sam Houston was elected president of the Lone Star Republic by a landslide In 1836, Texas asked Congress for annexation, but it was rejected on the issue of slavery, so they remained an independent nation for almost ten years
18 Chapter 13, Section 3 The War with Mexico
19 Americans Support Manifest Chapter 13.3 The War with Mexico Although populated with Native Americans and Mexicans, those lands were viewed by white settlers as unoccupied. Many Americans believed that the US was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Manifest destiny suggested that expansion was not only good but bound to happen, even if it meant pushing Native Americans and Mexicans out of the way. Since 1818, Oregon had been occupied jointly by the United States and Britain, but in 1846, the United States and Britain agreed to divide Oregon at the 49 th parallel.
20 Troubles with Mexico Chapter 13.3 The War with Mexico In 1845, Congress admitted Texas as a slave state, but Mexico still claimed Texas. Texas and Mexico could not agree on the official border, Texas claimed the Rio Grande, Mexico claimed the Nueces River as the border of Texas. James K. Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico and offered $25 million for Texas, California, and New Mexico, but it failed. Zachary Taylor was stationed on the northern bank of the Rio Grande, but on April 25, a Mexican cavalry unit crossed the Rio Grande, and they ambushed an American patrol and killed or wounded 16 soldiers. Congress declared war and The War with Mexico had begun, but Illinois representative Abraham Lincoln questioned the need to declare war. Southerners saw expansion into Texas as an opportunity to expand slavery and increase their power in Congress, and in May 1846, Gen Taylor led troops into Mexico.
21 Capturing New Mexico and California Chapter 13.3 The War with Mexico General Stephen Kearney and his men left Fort Leavenworth, Kansas for New Mexico. Using persuasion instead of force, he convinced the Mexican troops that he meant to withdraw, then they marched with a small force to California. John C. Fremont rebelled against Mexican rule in the Bear Flag Revolt. They arrested the Mexican commander of Northern California and the rebels declared California independent of Mexico and named it the Republic of California.
22 The Invasion of Mexico Chapter 13.3 The War with Mexico American forces invaded Mexico from two directions. General Taylor battled his way south from Texas toward the city of Monterey, but it was Santa Anna who retreated after the Battle of Buena Vista. The war in northern Mexico was over, but in southern Mexico, a second force led by General Winfield Scott landed at Veracruz. Scott met fierce resistance at the Battle of Chapultepec, but Mexico City fell to Scott in September 1847.
23 The Mexican Cession Chapter 13.3 The War with Mexico On Feb. 2, 1848, the war officially ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico recognized that Texas was part of the United States, and the Rio Grande was the border; Mexico ceded California, Nevada, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming. The United States paid $15 million and promised to protect the 80,000 Mexicans who were living on US soil.
24 From Sea to Shining Sea Chapter 13.3 The War with Mexico In 1853, Mexico sold the land in southern New Mexico and Arizona for a transcontinental railroad, called the Gadsden Purchase, to the United States for $10 million. In 1848, the United States stretched from sea to shining sea.
25 Chapter 13.3 The War with Mexico From Sea to Shining Sea
26 Chapter 13, Section 4 The California Gold Rush
27 California Before the Rush Chapter 13.4 The California Gold Rush California was populated by 150,000 Native Americans and 8,000 to 12,000 Californios. Mariano Vallejo, commander of Northern California, owned 250,000 acres of land. John Sutter persuaded the governor to grant him 50,000 acres in the unsettled Sacramento Valley. James Marshall inspected the canal that brought water to Sutter s Mill. Marshall stated, I reached my hand down and picked it up; it made my heart thump for I felt certain it was gold.
28 Rush for Gold Chapter 13.4 The California Gold Rush All over California, people raced to the American River starting the California gold rush. People have valued gold because it is scarce, beautiful, easy to shape, and resistant to tarnish, and miners soon found gold in other streams flowing out of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. A 49er who wished to reach California from the East had a choice of three routes: 1. Sail 18,000 miles around South America and up the Pacific coast, 2. Sail to the Isthmus of Panama, cross overland, and then sail to California, or 3. Travel the trails across North America, braving the hardships. Most gold seekers were single men because the adventure was so difficult.
29 Life in the Mining Camps Chapter 13.4 The California Gold Rush Mining camps began as rows of tents along the streams flowing out of the Sierra Nevada and they could be dangerous. Miners spent their days standing knee-deep in icy streams, where they sifted through tons of mud and sand to find small amounts of gold. Miners had to pay outrageously high prices for basic supplies.
30 Life in the Mining Camps Chapter 13.4 The California Gold Rush Mining camps began as rows of tents along the streams flowing out of the Sierra Nevada and they could be dangerous. Miners spent their days standing knee-deep in icy streams, where they sifted through tons of mud and sand to find small amounts of gold. Miners had to pay outrageously high prices for basic supplies. Miners from Around the World About two-thirds of the forty-niners were Americans, many from New England. Thousands came from Sonora in Mexico, others from Europe, South America, Australia, and from China. By the end of 1851, one of every ten immigrants was Chinese, but the Chinese proved to be patient miners, and they made these sites yield profits.
31 Miner Conflicts Chapter 13.4 The California Gold Rush A mixture of greed, anger, and prejudice caused some miners to cheat others. American miners began to force Native Americans and foreigners such as Mexicans and Chinese out of the gold fields to reduce competition. The Foreign Miners Tax imposed a tax of $20 per month on foreign miners. Driven from the mines, the Chinese opened shops, restaurants, laundries.
32 The Impact of the Gold Rush Chapter 13.4 The California Gold Rush By 1852, the gold rush was over, and over 250,000 people flooded California. San Francisco became a center of banking, manufacturing, shipping, and trade, and the population rose from 400 in 1835 to 35,000 in The newcomers did not respect the Californios, their customs, or rights. Mariano Vallejo lost all but 300 acres of his huge estate and thousands of Native Americans died from diseases from the newcomers. California applied for statehood in 1849, and was admitted as a free state in Southerners feared that because the statehood of California made free states outnumber slave states, Northerners might abolish slavery.
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