1 Manifest Destiny, Westward expansion has political, economic, and social effects on the development of the United States. Stephen Fuller Austin, 19thcentury American frontiersman and founder of Texas settlements. Engraving.
2 Manifest Destiny, SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Trails West The Texas Revolution The War with Mexico The California Gold Rush
3 Section 1 Trails West Thousands of settlers follow trails through the West to gain land and a chance to make a fortune.
4 Trails West Mountain Men and the Rendezvous Mountain men trap small animals between the Mississippi, Pacific Ocean Mountain men like Jim Beckwourth become famous as rugged loners William Henry Ashley creates trading method called rendezvous system Mountain men trade furs for supplies at prearranged site Rendezvous occurs every summer from , then fur trade dies out
5 1 Mountain Men Open the West Mountain men explore West while searching for beaver Provide knowledge of West, helps later pioneers move west Jedediah Smith finds South Pass, later used by pioneers as wagon trail
6 1 The Lure of the West Many use West to make money, take land from Native Americans Land speculators buy huge areas of land, hope value will increase If value goes up, speculators divide land into smaller sections Make great profits selling sections to thousands of settlers Manufacturers, merchants soon follow the settlers west Hope to earn money, making, selling items farmers need
7 1 The Trail to Santa Fe Mexico gains independence (1821), opens borders to American traders William Becknell goes to Santa Fe, New Mexico, opens Santa Fe Trail Makes profit trading, news spreads, traders can get rich in New Mexico Becknell makes another trip to Santa Fe, uses a shortcut Soon hundreds of traders use same route from Missouri to New Mexico
9 1 Oregon Fever Hundreds of settlers begin migrating west on the Oregon Trail First whites to cross to Oregon are missionaries U.S., Britain argue over ownership of Oregon Missionaries report about Oregon s rich land, attract many settlers In 1843, nearly 1,000 people travel from Missouri to Oregon
10 1 One Family Heads West In 1844, Henry Sager, wife, 6 children leave Missouri for Oregon Join wagon train, survival depends on cooperation Wagon train sets up rules, elects leaders to enforce them Life on the trail has hardships, Sager, wife die, orphans adopted
11 1 The Mormon Trail Mormons members of Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints Many people do not like Mormons because: - practice of polygamy - object to their holding of property in common Mob kills Mormon leader Joseph Smith, Mormons decide to leave U.S. Next leader, Brigham Young, leads 1,600 Mormons to Utah (1847) Build settlement by the Great Salt Lake
13 Section 2 The Texas Revolution American and Tejano citizens lead Texas to independence from Mexico.
14 2 The Texas Revolution Spanish Texas Spanish land called Tejas borders the U.S. territory, Louisiana Rich land, home to Plain, Pueblo Native Americans, few Spanish Tejanos people of Spanish heritage who consider Texas their home Comanche, Apache fight against Spanish settlement of Texas Spanish officials fail to attract Spanish settlers Give permission for American Moses Austin to start colony in Texas
15 2 Mexican Independence Changes Texas Mexico gains independence from Spain (1821) Makes Spanish land grant to Moses Austin worthless Austin s son, Stephen Austin, gets another land grant New settlers must become Mexican citizens, members of Catholic Church 297 American families move to Texas, known as the Old Three Hundred Colony attracts more Americans, outnumber Tejanos 6 to 1 (1830)
16 2 Rising Tensions in Texas Americans resent following Mexican laws Mexico outlaws slavery, allows slave owners in Texas to keep slaves Tejanos think Americans view themselves as superior Mexican government afraid tensions could lead to revolt Closes Texas to further immigration, requires Texans to pay taxes Sends more troops to enforce the new laws
17 2 Texans Revolt Against Mexico Some Texans want to break from Mexico, Stephen Austin loyal to Mexico Goes to Mexico City with a petition listing reforms (1833) Mexican president, General Antonio López de Santa Anna meets Austin Santa Anna, afraid that Austin supports rebellion, jails him for year Texans furious, drive Mexican troops out of old mission, the Alamo Santa Anna and 6,000 troops head for Mexico
18 2 The Fight for the Alamo Texans declare Texas a free and independent state (1836) Sam Houston placed in command of small Texan army William Travis heads 183 Texan volunteers at the Alamo, includes: - Davy Crockett - Jim Bowie - Juan Seguín, leader of 25 Tejanos Continued...
19 2 Continued The Fight for the Alamo Santa Anna s troops attack Alamo, Texans hold off attack for 12 days Mexicans kill 183 Texan defenders, win the Battle of the Alamo A few women, children survive, tell story of Alamo, shock other Texans
20 2 Victory of San Jacinto Mexican troops capture Texan army at Goliad, execute over 300 Texan army increases to 800 angry men, includes: - American settlers - Tejanos - volunteers from the United States - free and enslaved African Americans Texan army defeats Mexican troops at San Jacinto Santa Anna forced to sign treaty giving Texas its freedom
21 2 Lone Star Republic Texas becomes independent nation called the Lone Star Republic Sam Houston elected president, Texas asks to be annexed to the U.S. Many Northerners object, argue Texas would be a slave state If Texas joins Union, slave states would outnumber free states Others fear annexing Texas would lead to war with Mexico Congress votes against annexation
23 Section 3 The War with Mexico The United States expands its territory westward to stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast.
24 3 The War with Mexico Americans Support Manifest Destiny West occupied by Native Americans, Mexicans Americans view West as unoccupied, many want to settle in region Manifest Destiny U.S. expansion from Atlantic, Pacific sure to happen Manifest destiny becomes U.S. policy under President James K. Polk U.S., Britain divide Oregon territory at 49th parallel (1846)
25 3 Troubles with Mexico U.S. Congress admits Texas as slave state (1846), angers Mexico Texas, Mexico do not agree on official border, U.S. diplomacy fails General Zachary Taylor stations U.S. troops in disputed region Action viewed by Mexico as an act of war, Mexico attacks U.S. patrol Congress declares war on Mexico, some Americans are against war Southerners want to extend slavery into Texas, Northerners do not
26 3 Capturing New Mexico and California U.S. General Stephen Kearny, troops enter New Mexico Using persuasion, Kearny occupies New Mexico without firing a shot Kearny, small force head to California, remaining troops go to Mexico In California, Americans led by John C. Fremont rebel against Mexico Rebellion known as Bear Flag Revolt, California declares independence U.S. troops help rebels gain control of California
27 3 The Invasion of Mexico General Zachary Taylor leads U.S. troops into Mexico from Texas Fights Santa Anna, Mexican troops at Buena Vista, Mexican troops retreat General Winfield Scott, U.S. troops land in Veracruz, Mexico Head inland to Mexico City, fight Mexican troops, capture Mexico City
28 3 The Mexican Cession War ends with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) Mexico recognizes Texas as U.S., Rio Grande as Mexican/U.S. border Mexico gives up vast region known as the Mexican Cession: - amounts to almost one-half of Mexico - U.S. pays Mexico $15 million for region Mexicans in U.S. become a minority, contribute to American culture
29 3 From Sea to Shining Sea Mexico sells land to U.S., the Gadsden Purchase (1853): - costs U.S. $10 million - includes southern New Mexico, Arizona In 1848, the U.S. extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific President Polk learns gold found in California
31 Section 4 The California Gold Rush Gold is found in California, and thousands rush to that territory. California quickly becomes a state.
32 4 The California Gold Rush California Before the Rush Before gold rush, California populated, Native Americans, Californios Californios California settlers of Spanish or Mexican descent Most live on huge cattle ranches Californio Mariano Vallejo leader of California when owned by Mexico Swiss man John Sutter granted land by Mexico in Sacramento Valley Sutter s carpenter, James Marshall, finds gold on Sutter s land (1848)
33 4 Rush for Gold News of gold discovery spreads rapidly, starts California gold rush Gold rush occurs when many people move to where gold has been found Thousands of gold seekers set out to California using one of 3 routes: - sail around South America, up Pacific coast - sail to Isthmus of Panama, crossover, then sail to California - travel overland across North America
34 4 Life in the Mining Camps Forty-niners people who go to California to find gold, starting 1849 Often live in camps with colorful names like Coyote Diggings, Hangtown Camp life dangerous, mining hard work, few find much gold Miners pay high prices for supplies, con artists swindle miners
35 4 Miners from Around the World Two-thirds of miners are Americans, mostly white men Also include Native Americans, free blacks, enslaved African Americans Many miners come from Mexico, Europe, South America, Australia, China Chinese miners, mostly peasant farmers who flee region when crops fail Chinese are patient miners, make played-out sites yield profits American miners resent successful Chinese miners
36 4 Conflicts Among Miners Some miners cheat others Some American miners force Native American, foreign miners to leave California becomes U.S. state, passes Foreign Miners Tax (1850): - imposes $20 monthly tax on foreign miners - causes miners from other countries leave to their mines Chinese open shops, restaurants, laundries, settle in San Francisco
37 4 The Impact of the Gold Rush During gold rush 250,000 people flood California, over by 1852 San Francisco becomes center for banking, shipping, trade Gold rush ruins many Californios, Americans seize their property Thousands of Native Americans die from diseases brought by miners Anglo-Americans kill thousands of Native Americans Continued...
38 4 Continued The Impact of the Gold Rush Due to gold rush, California has enough people to apply for statehood California is admitted as free state in 1850 Outlaws slavery, does not grant African Americans right to vote Southerners fear California upsets balance between slave, free states Conflict over issue threatens survival of the Union
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